كتاب Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings Eleventh Edition
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 كتاب Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings Eleventh Edition

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 2042
التقييم : 3382
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 40
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings Eleventh Edition    الخميس 15 نوفمبر 2012, 6:44 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings Eleventh Edition
FOR BUILDINGS
Walter T. Grondzik
Architectural Engineer
Ball State University
Alison G. Kwok
Professor of Architecture
University of Oregon
Benjamin Stein
Consulting Architectural Engineer
John S. Reynolds
Professor of Architecture
University of Oregon


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
CHAPTER 1
DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Design Intent 7
1.3 Design Criteria 8
1.4 Methods and Tools 8
1.5 Validation and Evaluation 9
1.6 Influences on the Design Process 10
1.7 A Philosophy of Design 16
1.8 Lessons from the Field 21
1.9 Case Study—Design Process 22
CHAPTER 2
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 Energy 29
2.3 Water 32
2.4 Materials 34
2.5 Design Challenges 39
2.6 How Are We Doing? 42
2.7 Case Study—Design Process and
Environmental Resources 44
CHAPTER 3
SITES AND RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1 Climates 49
3.2 Climates within Climates 51
3.3 Buildings and Sites 54
3.4 Analyzing the Site 55
3.5 Site Design Strategies 55
3.6 Direct Sun and Daylight 57
3.7 Sound and Airflow 65
3.8 Rain and Groundwater 76
3.9 Plants 80
3.10 Case Study—Site and Resource Design 83
CHAPTER 4
COMFORT AND DESIGN STRATEGIES . . . . . . . 89
4.1 The Body 89
4.2 Thermal Comfort 91
4.3 Design Strategies for Cooling 104
4.4 Design Strategies for Heating 108
4.5 Combining Strategies 111
4.6 Visual and Acoustical Comfort 111
CHAPTER 5
INDOOR AIR QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.1 Indoor Air Quality and Building Design 116
5.2 Pollutant Sources and Impacts 117
5.3 Predicting Indoor Air Quality 120
5.4 Zoning for IAQ 122
5.5 Passive and Low-Energy Approaches for
Control of IAQ 125
5.6 Active Approaches for Control of IAQ 133
5.7 IAQ, Materials, and Health 149
P r e f a c e x v i i
A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s x i x
PA RT I D E S I G N C O N T E X T 1
PA RT I I T H E R M A L C O N T R O L 1 5 1
CHAPTER 6
SOLAR GEOMETRY AND
SHADING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
6.1 The Sun and Its Position 153
6.2 Solar versus Clock Time 156
6.3 True South and Magnetic Deviation 157
6.4 Sunpath Projections 157
6.5 Shading 164
6.6 Shadow Angles and Shading Masks 167
CHAPTER 7
HEAT FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
7.1 The Building Envelope 175
7.2 Building Envelope Design Intentions 176
v7.3 Sensible Heat Flow through Opaque Walls
and Roofs 180
7.4 Latent Heat Flow through the Opaque
Envelope 197
7.5 Heat Flow through Transparent/Translucent
Elements 199
7.6 Trends in Envelope Thermal
Performance 204
7.7 Heat Flow via Air Movement 206
7.8 Calculating Envelope Heat Flows 207
7.9 Envelope Thermal Design Standards 211
CHAPTER 8
DESIGNING FOR HEATING AND COOLING . . .215
8.1 Organizing the Problem 216
8.2 Zoning 218
8.3 Daylighting Considerations 219
8.4 Passive Solar Heating Guidelines 225
8.5 Summer Heat Gain Guidelines 238
8.6 Passive Cooling Guidelines 240
8.7 Reintegrating Daylighting, Passive Solar
Heating, and Cooling 256
8.8 Calculating Worst Hourly Heat Loss 258
8.9 Calculations for Heating-Season Fuel
Consumption (Conventional Buildings) 260
8.10 Passive Solar Heating Performance 263
8.11 Approximate Method for Calculating Heat
Gain (Cooling Load) 281
8.12 Psychrometry 286
8.13 Detailed Hourly Heat Gain (Cooling Load)
Calculations 289
vi CONTENTS
8.14 Passive Cooling Calculation
Procedures 291
8.15 Case Study—Designing for Heating and
Cooling 319
CHAPTER 9
HVAC FOR SMALLER BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . 325
9.1 Review of the Need for Mechanical
Equipment 325
9.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
(HVAC): Typical Design Processes 326
9.3 Equipment Location and Service
Distribution 327
9.4 Controls for Smaller Building Systems 329
9.5 Refrigeration Cycles 329
9.6 Cooling-Only Systems 331
9.7 Heating-Only Systems 338
9.8 Heating/Cooling Systems 363
9.9 Psychrometrics and Refrigeration 374
CHAPTER 10
LARGE-BUILDING HVAC SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . 377
10.1 HVAC and Building Organization 377
10.2 HVAC System Types 393
10.3 Central Equipment 401
10.4 Air Distribution within Spaces 429
10.5 All-Air HVAC Systems 436
10.6 Air and Water HVAC Systems 442
10.7 All-Water HVAC Systems 452
10.8 District Heating and Cooling 454
10.9 Cogeneration 456
PA RT I I I I L L U M I N AT I O N 4 6 5
CHAPTER 11
LIGHTING FUNDAMENTALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
11.1 Introductory Remarks 467
PHYSICS OF LIGHT 468
11.2 Light as Radiant Energy 468
11.3 Transmittance and Reflectance 469
11.4 Terminology and Definitions 469
11.5 Luminous Intensity 471
11.6 Luminous Flux 471
11.7 Illuminance 472
11.8 Luminance, Exitance, and Brightness 473
11.9 Illuminance Measurement 476
11.10 Luminance Measurement 477
11.11 Reflectance Measurements 478
11.12 Inverse Square Law 478
11.13 Luminous Intensity: Candela
Measurements 480
11.14 Intensity Distribution Curves 480
LIGHT AND SIGHT 481
11.15 The Eye 481
11.16 Factors in Visual Acuity 482
11.17 Size of the Visual Object 484
11.18 Subjective Brightness 484
11.19 Contrast and Adaptation 485CONTENTS vii
11.20 Exposure Time 488
11.21 Secondary Task-Related Factors 488
11.22 Observer-Related Visibility Factors 489
11.23 The Aging Eye 490
QUANTITY OF LIGHT 491
11.24 Illuminance Levels 491
11.25 Illuminance Category 492
11.26 Illuminance Recommendations 493
QUALITY OF LIGHTING 497
11.27 Considerations of Lighting Quality 497
11.28 Direct (Discomfort) Glare 497
11.29 Veiling Reflections and Reflected
Glare 500
11.30 Equivalent Spherical Illumination and
Relative Visual Performance 506
11.31 Control of Reflected Glare 508
11.32 Luminance Ratios 512
11.33 Patterns of Luminance: Subjective Reactions
to Lighting 512
FUNDAMENTALS OF COLOR 514
11.34 Color Temperature 514
11.35 Object Color 515
11.36 Reactions to Color 518
11.37 Chromaticity 518
11.38 Spectral Distribution of Light Sources 519
11.39 Color Rendering Index 522
CHAPTER 12
LIGHT SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
12.1 Basic Characteristics of Light Sources 525
12.2 Selecting an Appropriate Light Source 526
DAYLIGHT SOURCES 526
12.3 Characteristics of Daylight 526
12.4 Standard Overcast Sky 527
12.5 Clear Sky 529
12.6 Partly Cloudy Sky 530
ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES 531
INCANDESCENT LAMPS 531
12.7 The Incandescent Filament Lamp 531
12.8 Special Incandescent Lamps 535
12.9 Tungsten-Halogen (Quartz–Iodine)
Lamps 536
12.10 Tungsten-Halogen Lamp Types 537
GASEOUS DISCHARGE LAMPS 540
12.11 Ballasts 540
FLUORESCENT LAMPS 543
12.12 Fluorescent Lamp Construction 543
12.13 Fluorescent Lamp Labels 546
12.14 Fluorescent Lamp Types 546
12.15 Characteristics of Fluorescent Lamp
Operation 547
12.16 Federal Standards for Fluorescent
Lamps 550
12.17 Special Fluorescent Lamps 550
12.18 Compact Fluorescent Lamps 551
HIGH-INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMPS 552
12.19 Mercury Vapor Lamps 552
12.20 Metal-Halide Lamps 555
12.21 Sodium-Vapor Lamps 557
12.22 Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps 559
OTHER ELECTRIC LAMPS 559
12.23 Induction Lamps 559
12.24 Light-Emitting Diodes 560
12.25 Sulfur Lamps 561
12.26 Fiber Optics 561
CHAPTER 13
LIGHTING DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
13.1 General Information 563
13.2 Goals of Lighting Design 563
13.3 Lighting Design Procedure 564
13.4 Cost Factors 566
13.5 Power Budgets 566
13.6 Task Analysis 567
13.7 Energy Considerations 569
13.8 Preliminary Design 572
13.9 Illumination Methods 573
13.10 Types of Lighting Systems 573
13.11 Indirect Lighting 573
13.12 Semi-Indirect Lighting 575
13.13 Direct-Indirect and General Diffuse
Lighting 576
13.14 Semi-Direct Lighting 576
13.15 Direct Lighting 576
13.16 Size and Pattern of Luminaires 580
13.17 Other Design Considerations 585viii CONTENTS
CHAPTER 14
DAYLIGHTING DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
14.1 The Daylighting Opportunity 588
14.2 Human Factors in Daylighting Design 589
14.3 Site Strategies for Daylighting
Buildings 589
14.4 Aperture Strategies: Sidelighting 590
14.5 Aperture Strategies: Toplighting 594
14.6 Specialized Daylighting Strategies 594
14.7 Daylight Factor 598
14.8 Components of Daylight 598
14.9 Guidelines for Preliminary Daylighting
Design 601
14.10 Design Analysis Methods 602
14.11 Daylighting Simulation Programs 617
14.12 Physical Modeling 621
14.13 Recapping Daylighting 623
14.14 Case Study—Daylighting Design 624
CHAPTER 15
ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . 629
LUMINAIRES 629
15.1 Design Considerations 629
15.2 Lighting Fixture Distribution
Characteristics 630
15.3 Luminaire Light Control 632
15.4 Luminaire Diffusers 635
15.5 Uniformity of Illumination 638
15.6 Luminaire Mounting Height 645
15.7 Lighting Fixtures 646
15.8 Lighting Fixture Construction 646
15.9 Lighting Fixture Structural Support 647
15.10 Lighting Fixture Appraisal 647
15.11 Luminaire-Room System Efficiency:
Coefficient of Utilization 648
15.12 Luminaire Efficacy Rating 648
LIGHTING CONTROL 649
15.13 Requirement for Lighting Control 649
15.14 Lighting Control: Switching 650
15.15 Lighting Control: Dimming 651
15.16 Lighting Control: Control Initiation 651
15.17 Lighting Control Strategy 654
DETAILED DESIGN PROCEDURES 660
15.18 Calculation of Average Illuminance 660
15.19 Calculation of Horizontal Illuminance by the
Lumen (Flux) Method 661
15.20 Calculation of Light Loss Factor 661
15.21 Determination of the Coefficient of
Utilization by the Zonal Cavity Method 663
15.22 Zonal Cavity Calculations:
Illustrative Examples 665
15.23 Zonal Cavity Calculation by
Approximation 670
15.24 Effect of Cavity Reflectances on
Illuminance 672
15.25 Modular Lighting Design 673
15.26 Calculating Illuminance at a Point 673
15.27 Design Aids 674
15.28 Calculating Illuminance from a Point
Source 676
15.29 Calculating Illuminance from Linear and
Area Sources 678
15.30 Computer-Aided Lighting Design 678
15.31 Computer-Aided Lighting Design:
Illustrative Example 678
15.32 Average Luminance Calculations 681
EVALUATION 688
15.33 Lighting Design Evaluation 688
CHAPTER 16
ELECTRIC LIGHTING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . 689
16.1 Introduction 689
RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 689
16.2 Residential Lighting: General
Information 689
16.3 Residential Lighting: Energy Issues 689
16.4 Residential Lighting Sources 690
16.5 Residential Lighting: Design
Suggestions 690
16.6 Residential Lighting: Luminaires and
Architectural Lighting Elements 691
16.7 Residential Lighting: Control 692
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES 695
16.8 Institutional and Educational
Buildings 695
16.9 General Classrooms 696
16.10 Special-Purpose Classrooms 698
16.11 Assembly Rooms, Auditoriums, and
Multipurpose Spaces 698
16.12 Gymnasium Lighting 700CONTENTS ix
16.13 Lecture Hall Lighting 700
16.14 Laboratory Lighting 700
16.15 Library Lighting 701
16.16 Special Areas 702
16.17 Other Considerations in School
Lighting 703
COMMERCIAL INTERIORS 703
16.18 Office Lighting: General Information 703
16.19 Lighting for Areas with Visual Display
Terminals 704
16.20 Office Lighting Guidelines 709
16.21 Task-Ambient Office Lighting Design Using
Ceiling-Mounted Units 712
16.22 Task-Ambient Office Lighting Using
Furniture-Integrated Luminaires 712
16.23 Integrated and Modular Ceilings 713
16.24 Lighting and Air Conditioning 713
INDUSTRIAL LIGHTING 714
16.25 General Information 714
16.26 Levels and Sources 714
16.27 Industrial Luminance Ratios 715
16.28 Industrial Lighting Glare 715
16.29 Industrial Lighting Equipment 715
16.30 Vertical-Surface Illumination 716
SPECIAL LIGHTING APPLICATION
TOPICS 716
16.31 Emergency Lighting 716
16.32 Floodlighting 721
16.33 Street Lighting 721
16.34 Light Pollution 721
16.35 Remote Source Lighting 723
16.36 Fiber-Optic Lighting 724
16.37 Fiber-Optic Terminology 725
16.38 Fiber-Optic Lighting—Arrangements and
Applications 726
16.39 Hollow Light Guides 728
16.40 Prismatic Light Guides 729
16.41 Prismatic Film Light Guide 730
16.42 Remote-Source Standards and
Nomenclature 734
PA RT I V A C O U S T I C S 7 3 7
CHAPTER 17
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARCHITECTURAL
ACOUSTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
17.1 Architectural Acoustics 739
17.2 Sound 740
17.3 Hearing 743
17.4 Sound Sources 748
17.5 Expressing Sound Magnitude 749
17.6 Noise 758
17.7 Vibration 765
CHAPTER 18
SOUND IN ENCLOSED SPACES . . . . . . . . . . . 767
18.1 Sound in Enclosures 767
ABSORPTION 767
18.2 Sound Absorption 767
18.3 Mechanics of Absorption 768
18.4 Absorptive Materials 770
18.5 Installation of Absorptive Materials 772
ROOM ACOUSTICS 773
18.6 Reverberation 773
18.7 Sound Fields in an Enclosed Space 775
18.8 Sound Power Level and Sound Pressure
Level 775
18.9 Noise Reduction by Absorption 777
18.10 Noise Reduction Coefficient 780
ROOM DESIGN 782
18.11 Reverberation Criteria for Speech
Rooms 782
18.12 Criteria for Music Performance 784
18.13 Sound Paths 785
18.14 Ray Diagrams 788
18.15 Auditorium Design 789
SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS 792
18.16 Objectives and Criteria 792
18.17 Components and Specifications 793
18.18 Loudspeaker Considerations 795x CONTENTS
CHAPTER 19
BUILDING NOISE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797
NOISE REDUCTION 797
ABSORPTION 797
19.1 The Role of Absorption 797
19.2 Panel and Cavity Resonators 798
19.3 Acoustically Transparent Surfaces 800
19.4 Absorption Recommendations 801
19.5 Characteristics of Absorptive Materials 801
SOUND ISOLATION 804
19.6 Airborne and Structure-Borne Sound 804
AIRBORNE SOUND 807
19.7 Transmission Loss and Noise
Reduction 807
19.8 Barrier Mass 808
19.9 Stiffness and Resonance 808
19.10 Compound Barriers (Cavity Walls) 810
19.11 Sound Transmission Class 814
19.12 Composite Walls and Leaks 815
19.13 Doors and Windows 819
19.14 Diffraction: Barriers 822
19.15 Flanking 824
SPEECH PRIVACY 825
19.16 Principles of Speech Privacy between
Enclosed Spaces 825
19.17 Sound Isolation Descriptors 827
19.18 Speech Privacy Design for Enclosed
Spaces 829
19.19 Principles of Speech Privacy in Open-Area
Offices 832
19.20 Open-Office Speech Privacy Levels and
Descriptors 836
19.21 Design Recommendations for Speech Privacy
in Open Offices 838
STRUCTURE-BORNE NOISE 841
19.22 Structure-Borne Impact
Noise 841
19.23 Control of Impact Noise 842
19.24 Impact Insulation Class 843
MECHANICAL SYSTEM NOISE
CONTROL 843
19.25 Mechanical Noise Sources 843
19.26 Quieting of Machines 844
19.27 Duct System Noise Reduction 845
19.28 Active Noise Cancellation 848
19.29 Piping System Noise
Reduction 850
19.30 Electrical Equipment Noise 850
19.31 Noise Problems Due to Equipment
Location 852
19.32 Sound Isolation Enclosures, Barriers, and
Damping 852
STC AND IIC RECOMMENDATIONS AND
CRITERIA 853
19.33 Multiple-Occupancy Residential STC/IIC
Criteria 853
19.34 Specific Occupancies 854
OUTDOOR ACOUSTIC CONSIDERATIONS 857
19.35 Sound Power and Pressure Levels in Free
Space (Outdoors) 857
19.36 Building Siting 857
REFERENCE MATERIAL 859
19.37 Glossary 859
19.38 Reference Standards 861
19.39 Units and Conversions 861
19.40 Symbols 862
PA RT V W AT E R A N D W A S T E 8 6 3
CHAPTER 20
Water and Basic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
20.1 Water in Architecture 865
20.2 The Hydrologic Cycle 868
20.3 Basic Planning 870
20.4 Rainwater 876
20.5 Collection and Storage 878
20.6 Rainwater and Site Planning 883
20.7 Components 893
20.8 Case Study—Water and Basic
Design 902
CHAPTER 21
Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909
21.1 Water Quality 909
21.2 Filtration 913CONTENTS xi
21.3 Disinfection 915
21.4 Other Water Treatments 918
21.5 Water Sources 921
21.6 Hot Water Systems and Equipment 932
21.7 Fixtures and Water Conservation 959
21.8 Fixture Accessibility and Privacy 970
21.9 Water Distribution 974
21.10 Piping, Tubing, Fittings, and Controls 982
21.11 Sizing of Water Pipes 986
21.12 Irrigation 994
CHAPTER 22
LIQUID WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
22.1 Waterless Toilets and Urinals 999
22.2 Principles of Drainage 1005
22.3 Piping, Fittings, and Accessories 1008
22.4 Design of Residential Waste Piping 1015
22.5 Design of Larger-Building Waste
Piping 1018
22.6 On-Site Individual Building Sewage
Treatment 1029
22.7 On-Site Multiple-Building Sewage
Treatment 1037
22.8 Larger-Scale Sewage Treatment
Systems 1047
22.9 Recycling and Graywater 1055
22.10 Storm Water Treatment 1060
CHAPTER 23
SOLID WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
23.1 Waste and Resources 1065
23.2 Resource Recovery: Central or
Local? 1070
23.3 Solid Waste in Small Buildings 1072
23.4 Solid Waste in Large Buildings 1074
23.5 Equipment for the Handling of Solid
Waste 1077
23.6 The Service Core 1080
PA RT V I F I R E P R OT E C T I O N 1 0 8 3
CHAPTER 24
FIRE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085
FIRE RESISTANCE, EGRESS, AND
EXTINGUISHMENT 1085
24.1 Design for Fire Resistance 1085
24.2 Smoke Control 1097
24.3 Water for Fire Suppression 1102
24.4 Other Fire-Mitigating Methods 1123
24.5 Lightning Protection 1129
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS 1133
24.6 General Considerations 1133
24.7 Fire Codes, Authorities, and
Standards 1134
24.8 Fire Alarm Definitions and Terms 1136
24.9 Types of Fire Alarm Systems 1137
24.10 Circuit Supervision 1139
24.11 Conventional Systems 1139
24.12 System Coding 1140
24.13 Signal Processing 1142
24.14 Addressable Fire Alarm Systems 1142
24.15 Addressable Analog (Intelligent)
Systems 1143
24.16 Automatic Fire Detection:
Incipient Stage 1143
24.17 Automatic Fire Detection:
Smoldering Stage 1145
24.18 Automatic Fire Detection:
Flame Stage 1149
24.19 Automatic Fire Detection:
Heat Stage 1150
24.20 Special Types of Fire Detectors 1153
24.21 False Alarm Mitigation 1153
24.22 Manual Stations 1155
24.23 Sprinkler Alarms 1156
24.24 Audible and Visual Alarm
Devices 1156
24.25 General Recommendations 1157
24.26 Residential Fire Alarm Basics 1157
24.27 Multiple-Dwelling Alarm Systems 1158
24.28 Commercial and Institutional Building
Alarm Systems 1158
24.29 High-Rise Office Building Fire Alarm
Systems 1159
24.30 Industrial Facilities 1161xii CONTENTS
PA RT V I I E L E C T R I C I T Y 1163
CHAPTER 25
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . 1165
25.1 Electric Energy 1165
25.2 Unit of Electric Current—the Ampere 1165
25.3 Unit of Electric Potential—the Volt 1166
25.4 Unit of Electric Resistance—the
Ohm 1166
25.5 Ohm’s Law 1167
25.6 Circuit Arrangements 1167
25.7 Direct Current and Alternating
Current 1170
25.8 Electric Power Generation—DC 1170
25.9 Electric Power Generation—AC 1171
25.10 Power and Energy 1171
25.11 Power in Electric Circuits 1172
25.12 Energy in Electric Circuits 1174
25.13 Electric Demand Charges 1175
25.14 Electric Demand Control 1177
25.15 Electrical Measurements 1180
CHAPTER 26
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS:
SERVICE AND UTILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
26.1 Electric Service 1185
26.2 Overhead Service 1186
26.3 Underground Service 1186
26.4 Underground Wiring 1186
26.5 Service Equipment 1189
26.6 Transformers 1189
26.7 Transformers Outdoors 1192
26.8 Transformers Indoors: Heat Loss 1193
26.9 Transformers Indoors: Selection 1193
26.10 Transformer Vaults 1194
26.11 Service Equipment Arrangements
and Metering 1195
26.12 Service Switches 1195
26.13 Switches 1197
26.14 Contactors 1199
26.15 Special Switches 1199
26.16 Solid-State Switches, Programmable
Switches, Microprocessors, and
Programmable Controllers 1201
26.17 Equipment Enclosures 1203
26.18 Circuit-Protective Devices 1204
26.19 Switchboards and Switchgear 1206
26.20 Unit Substations (Transformer Load
Centers) 1207
26.21 Panelboards 1210
26.22 Principles of Electric Load Control 1211
26.23 Intelligent Panelboards 1212
26.24 Electric Motors 1215
26.25 Motor Control Standards 1216
26.26 Motor Control 1216
26.27 Motor Control Equipment 1218
26.28 Wiring Devices: General Description 1219
26.29 Wiring Devices: Receptacles 1221
26.30 Wiring Devices: Switches 1223
26.31 Wiring Devices: Specialties 1224
26.32 Low-Voltage Switching 1224
26.33 Wireless Switching and Control 1228
26.34 Power Line Carrier Systems 1228
26.35 Power Conditioning 1231
26.36 Power-Conditioning Equipment 1232
26.37 Surge Suppression 1233
26.38 Uninterruptible Power Supply 1239
26.39 Emergency/Standby Power
Equipment 1242
26.40 System Inspection 1244
CHAPTER 27
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS:
WIRING AND RACEWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
27.1 System Components 1245
27.2 National Electrical Code 1245
27.3 Economic and Environmental
Considerations 1246
27.4 Electrical Equipment Ratings 1248
27.5 Interior Wiring Systems 1248
27.6 Conductors 1249
27.7 Conductor Ampacity 1249
27.8 Conductor Insulation and Jackets 1250
27.9 Copper and Aluminum Conductors 1250
27.10 Flexible Armored Cable 1252
27.11 Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable (Romex) 1252
27.12 Conductors for General Wiring 1253
27.13 Special Cable Types 1253
27.14 Busway/Busduct/Cablebus 1253
27.15 Light-Duty Busway, Flat-Cable Assemblies,
and Lighting Track 1256CONTENTS xiii
27.16 Cable Tray 1258
27.17 Design Considerations for Raceway
Systems 1258
27.18 Steel Conduit 1259
27.19 Aluminum Conduit 1262
27.20 Flexible Metal Conduit 1262
27.21 Nonmetallic Conduit 1262
27.22 Surface Metal Raceways (Metallic and
Nonmetallic) 1263
27.23 Outlet and Device Boxes 1263
27.24 Floor Raceways 1265
27.25 Underfloor Duct 1266
27.26 Cellular Metal Floor Raceway 1270
27.27 Precast Cellular Concrete Floor
Raceways 1270
27.28 Full-Access Floor 1271
27.29 Under-Carpet Wiring System 1272
27.30 Ceiling Raceways and Manufactured Wiring
Systems 1275
CHAPTER 28
ELECTRIC WIRING DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
28.1 General Considerations 1281
28.2 Load Estimating 1283
28.3 System Voltage 1286
28.4 Grounding and Ground-Fault
Protection 1291
28.5 Energy Conservation Considerations 1294
28.6 Electrical Wiring Design Procedure 1295
28.7 Electrical Equipment Spaces 1296
28.8 Electrical Closets 1299
28.9 Equipment Layout 1300
28.10 Application of Overcurrent
Equipment 1300
28.11 Branch Circuit Design 1304
28.12 Branch Circuit Design Guidelines:
Residential 1307
28.13 Branch Circuit Design Guidelines:
Nonresidential 1309
28.14 Load Tabulation 1315
28.15 Spare Capacity 1317
28.16 Feeder Capacity 1317
28.17 Panel Feeder Load Calculation 1320
28.18 Harmonic Currents 1322
28.19 Riser Diagrams 1323
28.20 Service Equipment and Switchboard
Design 1324
28.21 Emergency Systems 1325
CHAPTER 29
PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329
29.1 A Context for Photovoltaics 1329
29.2 Terminology and Definitions 1331
29.3 PV Cells 1331
29.4 PV Arrays 1333
29.5 PV System Types and Applications 1334
29.6 PV System Batteries 1338
29.7 Balance of System 1339
29.8 Design of a Stand-Alone PV System 1340
29.9 Design of a Grid-Connected PV
System 1343
29.10 Codes and Standards 1346
29.11 PV Installations 1347
29.12 Case Study—PV 1349
PA RT V I I I S I G N A L S YS T E M S 1 3 5 3
CHAPTER 30
Signal Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1355
30.1 Introduction 1355
30.2 Principles of Intrusion Detection 1355
PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS 1358
30.3 General Information 1358
30.4 Residential Intrusion Alarm Systems 1361
30.5 Residential Intercom Systems 1361
30.6 Residential Telecommunication and Data
Systems 1361
30.7 Premise Wiring 1362
MULTIPLE-DWELLING SYSTEMS 1363
30.8 Multiple-Dwelling Entry and Security
Systems 1363
30.9 Multiple-Dwelling Television
Systems 1364
30.10 Multiple-Dwelling Telephone Systems 1364
30.11 Hotels and Motels 1365
SCHOOL SYSTEMS 1366
30.12 General Information 1366
30.13 School Security Systems 1366xiv CONTENTS
30.14 School Clock and Program
Systems 1367
30.15 School Intercom Systems 1368
30.16 School Sound Systems 1369
30.17 School Electronic Teaching
Equipment 1370
OFFICE BUILDING SYSTEMS 1371
30.18 General Information 1371
30.19 Office Building Security
Systems 1371
30.20 Office Building Communications
Systems 1372
30.21 Office Building Communications
Planning 1373
30.22 Office Building Control and Automation
Systems 1375
INDUSTRIAL BUILDING SYSTEMS 1375
30.23 General Information 1375
30.24 Industrial Building Personnel Access
Control 1376
30.25 Industrial Building Sound and Paging
Systems 1378
AUTOMATION 1380
30.26 General Information 1380
30.27 Stand-Alone Lighting Control
Systems 1381
30.28 Building Automation Systems 1382
30.29 Glossary of Computer and Control
Terminology 1383
30.30 BAS Arrangement 1384
30.31 Intelligent Buildings 1388
30.32 Intelligent Residences 1389
PA RT I X T R A N S P O RTAT I O N 1 3 9 1
CHAPTER 31
VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION:
PASSENGER ELEVATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1393
GENERAL INFORMATION 1393
31.1 Introduction 1393
31.2 Passenger Elevators 1393
31.3 Codes and Standards 1394
TRACTION ELEVATOR EQUIPMENT 1394
31.4 Principal Components 1394
31.5 Gearless Traction Machines 1396
31.6 Geared Traction Machines 1397
31.7 Arrangement of Elevator Machines, Sheaves,
and Ropes 1397
31.8 Safety Devices 1398
HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS 1398
31.9 Conventional Plunger-Type Hydraulic
Elevators 1398
31.10 Hole-Less Hydraulic Elevators 1401
31.11 Roped Hydraulic Elevators 1401
PASSENGER INTERACTION ISSUES 1403
31.12 Elevator Doors 1403
31.13 Cars and Signals 1407
31.14 Requirements for the Disabled 1408
ELEVATOR CAR CONTROL 1408
31.15 Drive Control 1408
31.16 Thyristor Control, AC and DC 1412
31.17 Variable-Voltage DC Motor Control 1414
31.18 Variable-Voltage, Variable-Frequency AC
Motor Control 1414
31.19 Elevator Operating Control 1415
31.20 System Control Requirements 1415
31.21 Single Automatic Pushbutton Control 1415
31.22 Collective Control 1415
31.23 Selective Collective Operation 1416
31.24 Computerized System Control 1416
31.25 Rehabilitation Work: Performance
Prediction 1417
31.26 Lobby Elevator Panel 1418
31.27 Car Operating Panel 1419
ELEVATOR SELECTION 1420
31.28 General Considerations 1420
31.29 Definitions 1420
31.30 Interval or Lobby Dispatch Time and Average
Lobby Waiting Time 1421CONTENTS xv
31.31 Handling Capacity 1421
31.32 Travel Time or Average Trip Time 1422
31.33 Round-Trip Time 1423
31.34 System Relationships 1431
31.35 Car Speed 1431
31.36 Single-Zone Systems 1432
31.37 Multizone Systems 1434
31.38 Elevator Selection for Specific
Occupancies 1435
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SPATIAL
REQUIREMENTS OF ELEVATORS 1437
31.39 Shafts and Lobbies 1437
31.40 Dimensions and Weights 1437
31.41 Structural Stresses 1440
POWER AND ENERGY 1443
31.42 Power Requirements 1443
31.43 Energy Requirements 1444
31.44 Energy Conservation 1445
31.45 Emergency Power 1446
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 1446
31.46 Fire Safety 1446
31.47 Elevator Security 1447
31.48 Elevator Noise 1447
31.49 Elevator Specifications 1448
31.50 Innovative Equipment 1451
CHAPTER 32
VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION:
SPECIAL TOPICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1453
SPECIAL SHAFT ARRANGEMENTS 1453
32.1 Sky Lobby Elevator System 1453
32.2 Double-Deck Elevators 1454
FREIGHT ELEVATORS 1454
32.3 General Information 1454
32.4 Freight Car Capacity 1455
32.5 Freight Elevator Description 1456
32.6 Freight Elevator Cars, Gates, and
Doors 1456
32.7 Freight Elevator Cost Data 1456
SPECIAL ELEVATOR DESIGNS 1458
32.8 Observation Cars 1458
32.9 Inclined Elevators 1460
32.10 Rack and Pinion Elevators 1462
32.11 Residential Elevators and Chair Lifts 1463
32.12 Innovative Motor Drives 1467
MATERIAL HANDLING 1467
32.13 General Information 1467
32.14 Manual Load/Unload
Dumbwaiters 1468
32.15 Automated Dumbwaiters 1468
32.16 Horizontal Conveyors 1468
32.17 Selective Vertical Conveyors 1468
32.18 Pneumatic Tubes 1468
32.19 Pneumatic Trash and Linen Systems 1473
32.20 Automated Container Delivery
Systems 1473
32.21 Automated Self-Propelled Vehicles 1474
32.22 Materials Handling Summary 1474
CHAPTER 33
MOVING STAIRWAYS AND WALKS . . . . . . . 1477
MOVING ELECTRIC STAIRWAYS 1477
33.1 General Information 1477
33.2 Parallel and Crisscross
Arrangements 1477
33.3 Location 1480
33.4 Size, Speed, Capacity, and Rise 1483
33.5 Components 1484
33.6 Safety Features 1485
33.7 Fire Protection 1486
33.8 Lighting 1489
33.9 Escalator Applications 1489
33.10 Elevators and Escalators 1490
33.11 Electric Power Requirements 1490
33.12 Special-Design Escalators 1491
33.13 Preliminary Design Data and Installation
Drawings 1491
33.14 Budget Estimating for
Escalators 1492
MOVING WALKS AND RAMPS 1492
33.15 General Information 1492
33.16 Application of Moving Walks 1492
33.17 Application of Moving Ramps 1493
33.18 Size, Capacity, and Speed 1493
33.19 Components 1494xvi CONTENTS
PA RT X A P P E N D I C E S 1 4 9 7
APPENDIX A
Metrication, SI Units, and Conversions 1499
APPENDIX B
Climatic Conditions for the United States,
Canada, and Mexico 1505
APPENDIX C
Solar and Daylighting Design Data 1531
APPENDIX D
Solar Geometry 1577
APPENDIX E
Thermal Properties of Materials and
Assemblies 1591
APPENDIX F
Heating and Cooling Design Guidelines and
Information 1645
APPENDIX G
Standards/Guidelines for Energy- and
Resource-Efficient Building Design 1665
APPENDIX H
Annual Solar Performance 1669
APPENDIX I
Economic Analysis 1701
APPENDIX J
Lamp Data 1707
APPENDIX K
Sound Transmission Data for Walls 1711
APPENDIX L
Sound Transmission and Impact Insulation
Data for Floor/Ceiling Constructions 1723
APPENDIX M
Design Analysis Software 1733
I n d e x 1 7 3 7


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