كتاب An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering
Fourth Edition
Jonathan Wickert and Kemper Lewis

كتاب An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering  A_i_t_20
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CHAPTER 1 The Mechanical Engineering Profession 1
Student’s Preface xi
Instructor’s Preface xiii
About the Authors xxi
Contents
1.1 Overview 1
The Elements of Mechanical Engineering 2
1.2 What Is Engineering? 4
1.3 Who Are Mechanical Engineers? 10
Mechanical Engineering’s Top Ten Achievements 11
The Future of Mechanical Engineering 18
1.4 Career Paths 20
1.5 Typical Program of Study 22
Summary 26
Self-Study and Review 26
Problems 27
References 30
CHAPTER 2 Mechanical Design 31
2.1 Overview 31
2.2 The Design Process 35
Requirements Development 39
Conceptual Design 40
Detailed Design 41
Production 46
2.3 Manufacturing Processes 49
Summary 56
Self-Study and Review 57
Problems 57
References 62vi Contents
3.1 Overview 63
3.2 General Technical Problem-Solving Approach 68
3.3 Unit Systems and Conversions 69
Base and Derived Units 70
International System of Units 70
United States Customary System of Units 73
Converting Between the SI and USCS 77
3.4 Significant Digits 82
3.5 Dimensional Consistency 83
3.6 Estimation in Engineering 94
3.7 Communication Skills in Engineering 98
Written Communication 99
Graphical Communication 101
Technical Presentations 102
Summary 107
Self-Study and Review 107
Problems 108
References 115
CHAPTER 3 Technical Problem-Solving
and Communication Skills 63
CHAPTER 4 Forces in Structures and Machines 116
4.1 Overview 116
4.2 Forces in Rectangular and Polar Forms 118
Rectangular Components 119
Polar Components 120
4.3 Resultant of Several Forces 121
Vector Algebra Method 122
Vector Polygon Method 123
4.4 Moment of a Force 127
Perpendicular Lever Arm Method 128
Moment Components Method 129
4.5 Equilibrium of Forces and Moments 135
Particles and Rigid Bodies 135
Free Body Diagrams 137
4.6 Design Application: Rolling-Element Bearings 145
Summary 153
Self-Study and Review 154Contents vii
CHAPTER 5 Materials and Stresses 171
CHAPTER 7 Thermal and Energy Systems 282
5.1 Overview 171
5.2 Tension and Compression 173
5.3 Material Response 182
5.4 Shear 193
5.5 Engineering Materials 198
Metals and Their Alloys 199
Ceramics 200
Polymers 201
Composite Materials 202
5.6 Factor of Safety 207
Summary 211
Self-Study and Review 213
Problems 214
References 226
CHAPTER 6 Fluids Engineering 227
6.1 Overview 227
6.2 Properties of Fluids 230
6.3 Pressure and Buoyancy Force 237
6.4 Laminar and Turbulent Fluid Flows 244
6.5 Fluid Flow in Pipes 248
6.6 Drag Force 254
6.7 Lift Force 264
Summary 270
Self-Study and Review 272
Problems 272
References 281
7.1 Overview 282
7.2 Mechanical Energy, Work, and Power 284
Gravitational Potential Energy 284
Elastic Potential Energy 285
Problems 155
References 170viii Contents
Kinetic Energy 285
Work of a Force 286
Power 286
7.3 Heat as Energy in Transit 291
Heating Value 292
Specific Heat 294
Transfer of Heat 295
7.4 Energy Conservation and Conversion 304
7.5 Heat Engines and Efficiency 308
7.6 Internal-Combustion Engines 313
Four-Stroke Engine Cycle 314
Two-Stroke Engine Cycle 317
7.7 Electrical Power Generation 319
Summary 329
Self-Study and Review 330
Problems 331
References 338
CHAPTER 8 Motion and Power Transmission 339
8.1 Overview 339
8.2 Rotational Motion 341
Angular Velocity 341
Rotational Work and Power 343
8.3 Design Application: Gears 348
Spur Gears 348
Rack and Pinion 352
Bevel Gears 353
Helical Gears 354
Worm Gearsets 355
8.4 Speed, Torque, and Power in Gearsets 357
Speed 357
Torque 359
Power 360
8.5 Simple and Compound Geartrains 360
Simple Geartrain 360
Compound Geartrain 362
8.6 Design Application: Belt and Chain Drives 368
8.7 Planetary Geartrains 374
Summary 382Contents ix
Self-Study and Review 383
Problems 384
References 395
APPEnDIx A Greek Alphabet 396
APPEnDIx B Trigonometry Review 397
B.1 Degrees and Radians 397
B.2 Right Triangles 397
B.3 Identities 398
B.4 Oblique Triangles 399
InDEx 400
400
Index
A
ABET. See U.S. Department of
Labor engineering
description, 4–5, 9
Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
(ABET), 24
Adjustable wrench moment of a
force example, 132–135
Aerial refueling dimensional
consistency example,
84–86
Aerodynamics, 265, 269
Agricultural mechanization,
engineering achievement
of, 14
Air Canada Flight 143, 66–67,
70
Air conditioning and refrigeration, engineering achievement of, 15–16
Aircraft cabin door estimation
example, 96–97
Aircraft fuel capacity pressure of
fluids example, 239–240
Airfoil, 266
Airplane, engineering achievement of, 14–15
Air resistance, bicycle rider’s
drag force example,
259–261
Alloying, 199
Amazon, 9
Angle of attack, 266
Angular velocity, 341–343
Angular velocity conversions
example, 344
Apollo program, engineering
achievement of, 13
Apple, Inc., 9
Approximation, 64
Assumptions, 68–69
Automobile, engineering
achievement of, 12
Automobile wheel bearings
rolling-element bearings design application
example, 151–152
Automotive disk brakes conservation and conversion of
energy example, 307–308
Automotive engine power
example, 347–348
Automotive fuel line fluid flow
example, 252–254
B
Back-of-an-envelope estimates,
94
Balanced geartrain, 376
Ball bearings, 146
Band saw, 53
Base units, USCS, 74
Belt and chain drives, design
application, 368–374
chain drives, 369
computer scanner example,
370–372
sheave, 368
synchronous rotation, 369
timing belt, 369
treadmill belt drive example,
372–374
V-belt, 368
Bernoulli’s equation, 267
Bevel gears, 353
Bioengineering, engineering
achievement of, 17–18
Blood flow and pressure, 252
Blowdown, 316
Bolt clamp tension and compression example, 178–180
Bottom dead center, 316
British thermal unit (Btu), 285,
292
Btu. See British thermal unit
(Btu)
Buoyancy force of fluids,
237–243
deep submergence rescue
vehicle example, 240–241
great white shark attack
example, 242–243
C
Cable tie-down resultant
example, 123–126
Cage, 146
Cam, 314–315
Carnot efficiency, ideal, 312
Carrier, 374
Casting, 50
Ceramics, 200–201
Chain drives, 369
Clerk engine cycle, 318
Clevis joint shear example,
196–198
Codes and standards,
engineering achievement
of, 18
Coefficient of drag, 254
Coefficient of lift, 268
Communication skills in
engineering, 98–106
effective communication,
104
graphical communication,
101–102
ineffective communication,
102–103
technical presentations, 102
written communication,
99–101, 104–106Index 401
Composite materials, 202–203
Compound geartrains, 362–364,
366–367
money changer geartrain
example, 366–367
vehicle design advancements,
364
Compression ratio, 316
Computer-aided engineering
technology, engineering
achievement of, 16–17
Computer scanner belt and
chain drive example,
370–372
Conceptual design, 40
Condenser, 321
Conduction, 295
Conservation and conversion of
energy, 304–308
automotive disk brakes
example, 307–308
first law of thermodynamics,
304–305
hydroelectric power plant
example, 305–306
system, 304
Control lever resultant example,
126–127
Convection, 297–298
Convergent thinking, 40
Conversion between SI and
USCS units, 77–79
engine power rating example,
79
fire sprinkler example,
79–80
helium-neon lasers example,
80–81
Conversion of energy. See
Conservation and
conversion of energy
Cooling fan for electronics
example, 345–346
Crossed helical gears, 354
Crowdsourcing innovative
energy solutions, 328
Customized production, 55
D
Deep submergence rescue
vehicle buoyancy force of
fluids example, 240–241
Derived units, USCS, 76
Design, 31–62
detailed design, 41–47
innovation, 36–38
manufacturing processes,
50–55
National Academy of
Engineering (NAE) Grand
Challenges, 31–33
overview, 31–33
process, 35–49
product archeology, 34–35
production, 47
Design notebook, 100
Design patents, 42–43
Design process, 35–49
conceptual design, 40
detailed design, 41–47
global design teams, 48–49
requirements development,
39–40
Detailed design, 41–47
design patents, 42–43
documentation, 42
iteration, 41
patents, 42–45
rapid prototyping, 45–47
simplicity, 41
usability, 41
Diametrical pitch, 351
Differential, 377–378
Dimensional consistency, 83–93
aerial refueling example,
84–86
drill bit bending example,
89–91
elevator acceleration example, 91–93
orbital debris collision
example, 86–88
Dimensionless numbers, 247
Direction, 120
Divergent thinking, 40
Documentation, 42
Double shear, 195
Drag force, 254–264
air resistance, bicycle rider’s
example, 259–261
coefficient of drag, 254
engine oil viscosity example,
261–264
frontal area of fluid flow, 255
golf ball in flight example,
257–259
relative velocity, 256
Drill bit bending dimensional
consistency example,
89–91
Drill press, 52
Drill rod quenching energy in
transit example,
301–302
Ductility, 199–200
E
Efficiency and heat engines,
308–313
Elastic behavior, 174
Elastic limit, 185
Elastic modulus, 184
Elastic potential energy, 285
Elastic regions, 182
Elastomers, 201
Electrical power generation,
319–328
condenser, 321
crowdsourcing innovative
energy solutions, 328
power plant emission
example, 326–327
primary loop, 320
pump, 321
Rankine cycle, 321
secondary loop, 320
solar-power generator design
example, 323–325
steam generator, 321
thermal pollution, 320
turbine, 321
Elevator acceleration dimensional consistency
example, 91–93402 Index
Elevator power requirement
example, 290–291
Elongation, 176
Energy systems, 282–338
conservation and conversion
of energy, 304–308
electrical power generation,
319–328
heat as energy in transit,
291–303
heat engines and efficiency,
308–313
internal-combustion engines,
313–319
mechanical energy, work, and
power, 284–291
overview, 282–284
Engineering achievements, 11–18
agricultural mechanization, 14
air conditioning and
refrigeration, 15–16
airplane, 14–15
Apollo program, 13
automobile, 12
bioengineering, 17–18
codes and standards, 18
computer-aided engineering
technology, 16–17
integrated-circuit mass
production, 15
power generation, 13
Engineering failure analysis, 138
Engineering materials, 198–206
ceramics, 200–201
composite materials,
202–203
metals and alloys, 199–200
new material design,
203–204
polymers, 201–202
minimization of weight,
selecting materials
example, 204–206
Engineering reports, 100–101
Engine fuel consumption
example, 299–300
Engine oil viscosity drag force
example, 261–264
Engine power rating conversion
example, 79
Engine value, 314
Equilibrium of forces and
moments, 135–145
engineering failure analysis,
138
force balance, 136
forklift load capacity
example, 143–145
free body diagrams, 137
independent equations, 137
moment balance, 136
particle, 135
rigid body, 135–136
seat belt buckle example,
139–141
wire cutters example, 141–143
Estimation, 94–98
aircraft’s cabin door example,
96–97
back-of-an-envelope
estimates, 94
human power generation
example, 97–98
importance of, 95
order-of-magnitude
estimates, 94
External gear, 349
Extreme environments,
tension and compression
in, 180–181
Extrusion, 51
F
Factor of safety, 207–210
gear-to-shaft connection
design example, 208–210
Fire sprinkler conversion
example, 79–80
First law of thermodynamics,
304–305
Flow, fluids, 231
Fluids engineering, 227–281
buoyancy force of fluids,
237–243
design of micro and macro
systems, 233–234
dimensionless numbers, 247
drag force, 254–264
flow, fluids, 231
laminar fluid flow, 244–247
lift force, 264–269
machine tool guideways
example, 235–237
microfluidics, 228
Newtonian fluid, 233
no-slip condition, 232
overview, 227–230
pipes, fluid flow in, 248–254
poise, 233
pressure of fluids, 237–243
properties, 230–237
Reynolds number, 245–247
turbulent fluid flow, 244–247
viscosity, 232–233
Foot-pound, 75
Foot-pound-second system, 73
Force, 193
Force balance, 136
Forced convection, 298
Forces, 116–170
equilibrium of forces and
moments, 135–145
moment of a force, 127–135
overview, 116–118
polar components, 120–121
rectangular components,
119–120
resultant of several forces,
121–127
rolling-element bearings
design application,
145–152
Force, shear, 193
Force system, 121
Forging, 51
Forklift load capacity equilibrium
of forces and moments
example, 143–145
Form factor, 377
Fourier’s law, 296
Four-stroke engine cycle, 314–317
blowdown, 316
bottom dead center, 316
cam, 314–315Index 403
compression ratio, 316
engine value, 314
Otto cycle, 316
top dead center, 316
Free body diagrams, 137
Frontal area of fluid flow, 255
Fuel cells, 311
Fundamental property of
gearsets, 351
G
Gears, design application,
348–357
bevel gears, 353
helical gears, 354–355
nanomachines, 356–357
rack and pinion, 352–353
self-locking gearsets, 356
spur gears, 348–352
worm gearsets, 355–356
Gearset, 349
Gear-to-shaft connection factor
of safety design example,
208–210
Geothermal energy, 311
Global design teams, 48–49
Global energy consumption,
296–297
Golf ball in flight drag force
example, 257–259
Google/Skybox imaging, 8
Grand Challenges, NAE, 31–33
Graphical communication,
101–102
Gravitational acceleration, 284
Gravitational potential energy,
284–285
Great white shark attack buoyancy example, 242–243
H
Hanger rod tension and
compression example,
177–178
Head-to-tail rule, 123
Heat as energy in transit,
291–303
drill rod quenching energy in
transit example, 301–302
engine fuel consumption
example, 299–300
heating value, 291–293
heat loss through a window
example, 302–303
household energy consumption example, 298–299
latent heat, 295
quenching, 294
specific heat, 293–295
tempering, 294
transfer of heat, 295–298
Heat engines and efficiency,
308–313
heat engine, 308
heat reservoir, 309
ideal Carnot efficiency, 312
Kelvin (K), 312
Rankine (°R), 312
real efficiency, 309
renewable energy, 310–311
second law of thermodynamics,
312
Heating value, 291–293
Heat loss through a window
example, 302–303
Heat reservoir, 309
Helical gears, 354–355
crossed helical gears, 354
helix angle, 354
Helium-neon lasers conversion
example, 80–81
Helix angle, 354
Hooke’s law, 182
Horsepower, 75
Household energy consumption
example, 298–299
Human power generation
estimation example, 97–98
Hydroelectric power plant
conservation and conversion of energy example,
305–306
Hydropower, 311
I
Ideal Carnot efficiency, 312
Idler gear, 362
Independent equations, 137
Inner races, 146
Instantaneous power, 343
Integrated-circuit mass production, engineering achievement of, 15
Internal-combustion engines,
313–319
four-stroke engine cycle,
314–317
power curve, 314
two-stroke engine cycle,
317–319
Internal force, 174
International system of units
(SI), 70–72
prefix, 72
prototype meter, 71
second law of motion, 71
SI conventions, 72–73
standard kilogram, 71
Involute profile, 351
Iteration, 41
J
Jet aircraft kinetic energy
example, 289–290
Journal bearing, 145–146
K
K. See Kelvin (K)
Kelvin (K), 312
Kilowatt-hour (kW·h), 285, 320
Kinetic energy, 285–286
kW·h. See Kilowatt-hour (kW·h)
L
Laminar fluid flow, 244–247
Latent heat, 295
Lathe, 53–54
Lift force, 264–269
aerodynamics, 265, 269
airfoil, 266
angle of attack, 266
Bernoulli’s equation, 267
coefficient of lift, 268
shock wave, 266
wind tunnel, 265
Line of action, 128–129404 Index
M
Machine tool guideways fluids
example, 235–237
Machining, 52
Magnitude, 120
Manufacturing processes, 50–55
band saw, 53
casting, 50
customized production, 55
drill press, 52
extrusion, 51
forging, 51
lathe, 53–54
machining, 52
milling machine, 53
numerical control, 55
rolling, 50–51
Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO),
64–66, 70, 98–99
Mass and weight, 76
Mass production, 47
Material response to stress,
182–193
elastic limit, 185
elastic modulus, 184
elastic regions, 182
Hooke’s law, 182
materials testing machine,
185–187
offset (0.2%) method,
187–188
plastic regions, 182
Poisson’s ratio, 184
proportional limit, 182
rod stretching example,
191–193
stiffness, 182
stress-strain curve, 182
U-bolt dimensional changes
example, 189–190
ultimate strength, 185
yielding, 185
yield strength, 185
Young’s modulus, 184
Materials, 171–173, 182–193,
198–213
engineering materials,
198–206
factor of safety, 207–210
overview, 171–173
response to stress, 182–193
Materials testing machine,
185–187
MCO. See Mars Climate Orbiter
(MCO)
Mechanical energy, work, and
power, 284–291
elastic potential energy, 285
elevator power requirement
example, 290–291
gravitational acceleration,
284
gravitational potential
energy, 284–285
jet aircraft kinetic energy
example, 289–290
kinetic energy, 285–286
power, 286–287
power conversion factor
example, 287
U-bolt, potential energy
stored in, example, 288
work of a force, 286
Mechanical engineering, 1–30
career opportunities, 21
career paths, 20–22
communication skills, role of,
21–22
elements, 2–3
employment, 5–7, 9–10
engineering achievements,
11–18
future, 18–19
jobs, 8–9
overview, 1–3
profession, 4–11, 20–23
program of study, 22–23
skills required, 23–25
specialties, 7
U.S. Department of Labor
description, 4–5, 9
Metals and alloys, 199–200
alloying, 199
ductility, 199–200
Micro and macro systems
design, 233–234
Microfluidics, 228
Milling machine, 53
Minimization of weight, selecting engineering materials
example, 204–206
Module, 351
Moment balance, 136
Moment components method,
129–130
moment sign convention,
129
Moment of a force, 127–135
adjustable wrench example,
132–135
moment components
method, 129–130
moment sign convention,
129
open-ended wrench example,
130–132
perpendicular lever arm
method, 128–129
Moment sign convention, 129
Money changer geartrain
example, 366–367
Motion and power transmission.
See Power transmission
N
NAE. See National Academy of
Engineering (NAE)
Nanomachines, 356–357
National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 31–33
Natural convection, 298
New material design, 203–204
Newtonian fluid, 233
No-slip condition, 232
Numerical control, 55
O
Offset (0.2%) method, 187–188
Open-ended wrench moment of
a force example, 130–132
Orbital debris collision
dimensional consistency
example, 86–88
Order-of-magnitude approximation, 64Index 405
Order-of-magnitude estimates,
94
Otto cycle, 316
Outer races, 146
P
Particle, 135
Pascal unit of pressure, 238
Patents, 42–45
claims, 43
design patents, 42–43
drawings, 43
specification, 43
utility patents, 43
Perpendicular lever arm
method, 128–129
line of action, 128–129
torque, 128
Pinion, 349
Pipes, fluid flow in, 248–254
automotive fuel line example,
252–254
blood flow, 252
Poiseuille’s law, 251
pressure drop, 248
volumetric flow rate, 250
Pitch circle, 350
Pitch radius, 350
Plane, shear, 193
Planetary geartrains, 374–381
balanced geartrain, 376
carrier, 374
differential, 377–378
form factor, 377
planetary geartrain speeds
example, 378–380
planet gear, 374
ring gear, 375
sign convention, 377
spider, 376
sun gear, 374
torque in planetary geartrain
example, 380–381
Planetary geartrain speeds
example, 378–380
Planet gear, 374
Plastic behavior, 174
Plastic regions, 182
Plastics, 201
Poise, 233
Poiseuille’s law, 251
Poisson’s contraction, 174
Poisson’s ratio, 184
Polar components, 120–121
direction, 120
magnitude, 120
principal value, 120
Polymers, 201–202
elastomers, 201
plastics, 201
Pound-mass, 74
Power
consumption, 3
generation, engineering
achievement of, 13
in thermal and energy
systems, 286–287
Power conversion factor
example, 287
Power curve, 314
Power in gearsets, 360
idler gear, 362
speed, torque, and power in
simple geartrain example,
365–366
Power plant emission example,
326–327
Power transmission, 339–387
belt and chai drives, design
application, 368–374
compound geartrains,
362–364, 366–367
gears, design application,
348–357
overview, 339–341
planetary geartrains,
374–381
power in gearsets, 360
rotational motion, 341–348
simple geartrains, 360–362,
365–366
speed in gearsets, 357–359
torque in gearsets, 359–360
Precision, 82
Prefix, meaning of, 72
Pressure drop, 248
Pressure of fluids, 237–243
aircraft fuel capacity example, 239–240
Pascal unit of pressure, 238
Primary loop, 320
Principal value, 120
Problem-solving skills, 63–98
approach, 68–69
assumptions, 68–69
dimensional consistency,
83–93
estimation, 94–98
overview, 63–67
process, 68
significant digits, 82–83
unit systems and conversions, 69–81
Product archeology, 34–35
Production, 47
Professional engineering, 4–11,
20–23
career paths, 20–22
career opportunities, 21
communication skills, role of,
21–22
employment, 5–7, 9–10
specialties, 7
jobs, 8–9
future, 18–19
program of study, 22–23
skills required, 23–25
Professional practice, 64
Proportional limit, 182
Prototype meter, 71
Pump, 321
Q
Quenching, 294
R
°R. See Rankine (°R)
Rack and pinion, 352–353
Radial force, 146
Radian, 342
Rankine (°R), 312
Rankine cycle, 321
Rapid prototyping, 45–47
Real efficiency, 309406 Index
Rectangular components,
119–120
unit vectors, 119
vector notation, 119
Relative velocity, 256
Renewable energy, 310–311
fuel cells, 311
geothermal energy, 311
hydropower, 311
wind energy, 311
Requirements development,
39–40
Resultant of several forces,
121–127
cable tie-down example,
123–126
control lever example, 126–127
force system, 121
vector algebra system,
122–123
vector polygon method, 123
Retainer, 146
Reynolds number, 245–247
Rigid body, 135–136
Ring gear, 375
Rod stretching material
response to stress
example, 191–193
Rolling, 50–51
Rolling-element bearings design
application, 145–152
automobile wheel bearings
example, 151–152
ball bearings, 146
cage, 146
inner races, 146
journal bearing, 145–146
outer races, 146
radial force, 146
retainer, 146
seals, 146
separator, 146
straight roller bearings, 147
tapered roller bearings, 147
thrust force, 146
thrust roller bearings, 147
treadmill belt drive example,
148–150
Rotational motion, 341–348
angular velocity, 341–343
radian, 342
rotational work and power,
343–348
Rotational work and power,
343–348
angular velocity conversions
example, 344
automotive engine power
example, 347–348
cooling fan for electronics
example, 345–346
instantaneous power, 343
work of a torque, 343
S
Scale drawings, 123
Seals, 146
Seat belt buckle equilibrium
of forces and moments
example, 139–141
Secondary loop, 320
Second law of motion, 71
Second law of thermodynamics,
312
Self-locking gearsets, 356
Separator, 146
Shear, 193–198
clevis joint example,
196–198
double shear, 195
force, 193
plane, 193
single shear, 195
wire cutter example,
195–196
Sheave, 368
Shock wave, 266
SI. See International System of
Units (SI)
SI conventions, 72–73
Sign convention, 377
Significant digits, 82–83
precision, 82
Simple geartrains, 360–362,
365–366
idler gear, 362
speed, torque, and power in
simple geartrain example,
365–366
Simplicity, 41
Single shear, 195
Slug, 74
Solar-power generator design
example, 323–325
Specific heat, 293–295
Speed in gearsets, 357–359
velocity ratio, 358
Speed, torque, and power in
simple geartrain example,
365–366
Spider, 376
Spur gears, 348–352
diametrical pitch, 351
external gear, 349
fundamental property of
gearsets, 351
gearset, 349
involute profile, 351
module, 351
pinion, 349
pitch circle, 350
pitch radius, 350
Standard kilogram, 71
Steam generator, 321
Stiffness, 182
Straight roller bearings, 147
Strain, 176
Stress, 175
Stresses, 171–198, 211–213
overview, 171–173
material response to stress,
182–193
shear, 193–198
strength of stress, 172
tension and compression,
173–181
Stress-strain curve, 182
Sun gear, 374
Synchronous rotation, 369
System, 304
T
Tapered roller bearings, 147
Technical presentations, 102Index 407
Tempering, 294
Tension and compression,
173–181
bolt clamp example, 178–180
elastic behavior, 174
elongation, 176
in extreme environments,
180–181
hanger rod example,
177–178
internal force, 174
plastic behavior, 174
Poisson’s contraction, 174
strain, 176
stress, 175
tension compression, 175
Tension compression, 175
Thermal conductivity, 296
Thermal pollution, 320
Thermal systems. See Energy
systems
Thrust force, 146
Thrust roller bearings, 147
Timing belt, 369
Top dead center, 316
Torque, 128
Torque in gearsets, 359–360
Torque in planetary geartrain
example, 380–381
Torque ratio, 360
Transfer of heat, 295–298
conduction, 295
convection, 297–298
forced convection, 298
Fourier’s law, 296
global energy consumption,
296–297
natural convection, 298
radiation, 298
thermal conductivity, 296
Transfer port, 317
Treadmill belt drive example,
372–374
Treadmill belt drive rollingelement bearings design
application example,
148–150
Turbine, 321
Turbulent fluid flow, 244–247
Two-stroke engine cycle, 317–319
Clerk engine cycle, 318
transfer port, 317
U
U-bolt dimensional changes
material response to
stress example, 189–190
U-bolt, potential energy stored
in, example, 288
Ultimate strength, 185
United States Customary
System (USCS), 69, 73–76
derived units, 76
foot-pound-second system, 73
pound-mass, 74
slug, 74
Unit systems and conversions,
69–81
base units, SI, 70
base units, USCS, 74
conversion between SI and
USCS units, 77–79
derived units, SI, 70
derived units, USCS, 76
foot-pound, 75
foot-pound-second system, 73
horsepower, 75
International System of
Units (SI), 69, 70–72
mass and weight, 76
pound-mass, 74
prefix, meaning of, 72
second law of motion, 71
SI conventions, 72–73
slug, 74
standard kilogram, 71
United States Customary
System (USCS), 69, 73–76
Unit vectors, 119
Usability, 41
USCS. See United States Customary System (USCS)
U.S. Department of Labor
engineering description,
4–5, 9
Utility patents, 43
V
V-belt, 368
Vector algebra system,
122–123
Vector notation, 119
Vector polygon method, 123
head-to-tail rule, 123
scale drawings, 123
Vehicle design advancements,
364
Velocity ratio, 358
Viscosity, 232–233
Volumetric flow rate, 250
W
Wind energy, 311
Wind tunnel, 265
WIPO. See World Intellectual
Property Organization
(WIPO)
Wire cutters equilibrium of
forces and moments
example, 141–143
Wire cutter shear example,
195–196
Work of a force, 286
Work of a torque, 343
World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO), 45
Worm gearsets, 355–356
Written communication,
99–101
design notebook, 100
engineering reports,
100–101
example, 104–106
Y
Yielding, 185
Yield strength, 185
Young’s modulus, 184
Z
0.2% offset method, 187–188


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