كتاب Power Plant Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Power Plant Engineering

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كتاب Power Plant Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Power Plant Engineering    كتاب Power Plant Engineering  Emptyالثلاثاء 17 يناير 2023, 12:28 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Power Plant Engineering
by
BLACK & VEATCH
Lawrence F. Drbal
Managing Editor
Patricia 0. Boston
Associate Editor
Kayla L. Westra
Associate Editor
R. Bruce Erickson
Art Editor

كتاب Power Plant Engineering  P_p_e_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CoNTENTS
Foreword
Preface
Authors
Contributors
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Lawrence F. Drbal
Chapter 2 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS
John M. Wynne
Chapter 3 THERMODYNAMICS AND POWER PLANT CYCLE ANALYSIS
Mark F. McClernon
Chapter 4 FOSSIL FUELS
Kenneth E. Carlson
Chapter 5 COAL AND LIMESTONE HANDLING
Richard H. McCartney
Chapter 6 COMBUSTION PROCESSES
G. Scott Stallard and Todd S. Jonas
Chapter 7 STEAM GENERATORS
Benjamin W Jackson
Chapter 8 STEAM TURBINE GENERATORS
Stanley A. Armbruster
Chapter 9 STEAM CYCLE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Jay F. Nagori and Samuel Tarson
Chapter 10 FANS
Kris A. Gamble
Chapter 11 PUMPS
Lawrence J. Seibolt
Chapter 12 CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEMS 353
David J. Brill
Chapter 13 CYCLE PERFORMANCE IMPACTS 385
Michael J. Eddington
Chapter 14 POWER PLANT ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS CONTROL 418
Lloyd L. Lavely and Alan W Ferguson
Chapter 15 WATER TREATMENT 464
Richard G. Chapman
Chapter 16 LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 521
Kenneth R. Weiss
Chapter 17 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 551
Lloyd Wade Sherrill
Chapter 18 PLANT CONTROL SYSTEMS 599
Augustine H. Chen
Chapter 19 SITE/PLANT ARRANGEMENTS 642
Roger M. Prewitt
Chapter 20 GAS TURBINES 659
Jeffrey M. Smith
Chapter 21 FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION 689
Kenneth E. Habiger
Chapter 22 RESOURCE RECOVERY 710
Mitchell N. Bjeldanes and Gordon V. Z. Beard
Chapter 23 NUCLEAR POWER 733
Lawrence F. Drbal
Chapter 24 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 781
Larry E. Stoddard
Chapter 25 POWER PLANT PLANNING AND DESIGN 809
Stephen M. Garrett
Chapter 26 PERMITTING AND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS 829
Anne F. Harris, Amy L. Carlson, Douglas C. Timpe, and Lesley A. Wallingford
APPENDIX CONVERSION TABLE
Permitting and Environmental Review Requirements 853
Law/Regulations Citations
Clean Air Act Amendments
(CAAA) of 1990
CAAA, Title IV
CAAA, Title V
Clean Water Act (CWA) of
1978, sec. 11
Clean Water Act (CWA), sec.
404
Clean Water Act (NPDES
program), sec. 402
Endangered Species Act of
1973 (ESA)
Energy Policy Act of 1992,
sec. 711 (Amended the
Public Utility Holding
Company Act of 1932
(PUHCA))
Federal Aviation Act of 1958,
sec. 1101
Federal Water Pollution
Control Act Amendments
(CWA) of 1972
Fish and Wildlife
Coordination Act of 1958
(FWCA)
National Environmental
Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969
National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966
New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS) (for
wastewater discharges from
steam electric power
generating stations): CWA,
sec. 306
Powerplant & Industrial Fuel
Use Act (FUA) of 1978
Prevention of Significant
Deterioration (PSD) under
CAA
Public Utility Holding
Company Act (PUHCA)
Law/Regulations
Pub. Law 101-549, 104 Stat.
2399
42 USC 7651 et seq.;
40 CFR 72, 40 CFR 73, 40
CFR 74, 40 CFR 75, 40
CFR 76, 40 CFR 77, 40
CFR 78
42 USC 7661 et seq.
33 USC 1251 et seq.;
40 CFR 112
42 USC 1344;
40 CFR 230, 40 CFR 231, 40
CFR 233, 33 CFR 330
40 CFR 70
42 USC 1342 et seq.;
40 CFR 122, 40 CFR 123, 40
CFR 125
16 USC 1531 et seq.;
33 CFR 322
42 USC 13201 et seq.
42 USC 1101;
14 CFR 77
33 USC 1251;
40 CFR 112
16 USC 742 et seq.;
40 CFR 1500-1508
42 USC 4371 et seq.; 42
USC 7609
16 USC 470
33 USC 1311 etseq., 33
USC 1361;
40 CFR 423.15
42 USC 8301 et seq.;
10 CFR 500 through 516
33 USC 1326;
40 CFR 52.21
16 USC 79 et seq.
Section 32—40 CFR 365
Citations
Public Utility Regulatory
Policies Act of 1978
(PURPA)
PURPA (Federal Register
[FR]) Resource
Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA)
Rivers and Harbors Act of
1899, sec. 10
Superfund Amendments &
Reauthorization Act of
1987
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
16 USC 791, 16 USC 2601 et
seq., 42 USC 7101, 31
USC 9701;
18 CFR 292
57 FR 55176 (11/24/92)
42 USC 6901 et seq.
42 USC 403;
33 CFR 322
26 USC 4611 etseq;
42 USC 9601 et seq.; Pub.
Law 99-499
16 USC 1278 et seq.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code. Standard Industrial
Classification Manual. National Technical Information Service.
Executive Office of the President. Office of Management and
Budget.
APPENDIX 26A: SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
ASSESSMENT (DETAILED ANALYSIS OF
PREFERRED AND ALTERNATE SITES)
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 NEED FOR THE PROJECT
3.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
3.1 Site Description
3.1.1 Preferred Site
3.1.2 Alternative Site
3.2 Description of Proposed Facility
3.2.1 Site Layout
3.2.1.1 Site Arrangement
3.2.1.2 Water Supply Pipeline Corridor
3.2.2 Power Generation Equipment
3.2.2.1 Combustion Turbine Generator
3.2.2.2 Heat Recovery Steam
Generator
3.2.2.3 Steam Turbine Generator
3.2.3 Air Quality Control
3.2.4 Heat Rejection System
3.2.5 Fuel Supply and Storage
3.2.5.1 Fuel Types and Quantities
3.2.5.2 Fuel Supply Sources
3.2.5.3 Fuel Storage Facilities854 Power Plant Engineering
3.2.6 Water Supply and Treatment
3.2.6.1 Facility Water Uses and
Quantities
3.2.6.2 Water Supply Pipeline and
Intake Structure
3.2.6.3 Water Treatment
3.2.7 Chemical Supply and Storage
3.2.7.1 Chemical Types and Uses
3.2.7.2 Chemical Storage and Handling
3.2.8 Wastewater Treatment and Discharge
3.2.8.1 Wastewater Sources and
Quantities
3.2.8.2 Wastewater Treatment and
Disposal
3.2.9 Solid Waste Management
3.2.9.1 Solid Waste Sources and Types
3.2.9.2 Solid Waste Disposal
3.2.10 Electric Transmission Facilities
3.2.11 Transportation Facilities
3.2.12 Cost of Facility
3.3 Analysis of Alternatives
3.4 Regulatory Requirements
4.0 EXISTING ENVIRONMENT OF PREFERRED
SITE
4.1 Air Quality
4.1.1 Existing Climatological Conditions
4.1.2 Existing Air Quality Conditions
4.2 Geology and Soils
4.3 Water Resources
4.3.1 Existing Water Supplies and Uses
4.3.1.1 Ground Water
4.3.1.2 Surface Water
4.3.2 Existing Water Quality
4.3.2.1 Ground Water
4.3.2.2 Surface Water
4.4 Terrestrial Resources
4.4.1 Botanical Resources
4.4.1.1 Species Composition and
Community Types
4.4.1.2 Wetlands
4.4.1.3 Species of Special Concern
4.4.2 Wildlife Resources
4.4.2.1 Habitat Types
4.4.2.2 Species Composition
4.4.2.3 Species of Special Concern
4.5 Aquatic Resources
4.5.1 Aquatic Habitat
4.5.2 Fish Communities
4.5.3 Invertebrate Communities
4.5.4 Species of Special Concern
4.6 Transportation
4.6.1 Existing Traffic ways
4.6.2 Existing Traffic Volumes and Patterns
4.7 Land Use
4.7.1 Existing Land Uses and Land Use
Plans
4.7.2 Existing Zoning Restrictions
4.8 Recreation
4.8.1 Existing Facilities
4.8.2 Existing Usages
4.9 Socioeconomics
4.9.1 Demographics
4.9.2 Housing
4.9.3 Wages and Employment
4.9.4 Existing Public Facilities and Services
4.10 Cultural Resources
4.10.1 Archaeological Resources
4.10.2 Historic Resources
4.11 Aesthetics
4.12 Noise
4.13 Hazardous Wastes
5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
5.1 Air Quality
5.1.1 Construction
5.1.2 Operation
5.2 Geology and Soils
5.2.1 Construction
5.2.2 Operation
5.3 Water Resources
5.3.1 Construction
5.3.2 Operation
5.4 Terrestrial Resources
5.4.1 Botanical Resources
5.4.1.1 Construction
5.4.1.2 Operation
5.4.2 Wildlife Resources5.4.2.1 Construction
5.4.2.2 Operation
5.5 Aquatic Resources
5.5.1 Construction
5.5.2 Operation
5.6 Transportation
5.6.1 Construction
5.6.2 Operation
5.7 Land Use
5.7.1 Construction
5.7.2 Operation
5.8 Recreation
5.8.1 Construction
5.8.2 Operation
5.9 Socieconomics
5.9.1 Construction
5.9.2 Operation
5.10 Cultural Resources
5.10.1 Construction
5.10.2 Operation
5.11 Aesthetics
5.11.1 Construction
5.11.2 Operation
5.12 Noise
Permitting and Environmental Review Requirements
5.12.1 Construction
5.12.2 Operation
5.13 Hazardous Wastes
6.0 MITIGATION
6.1 Air Quality
6.2 Geology and Soils
6.3 Water Resources
6.4 Terrestrial Resources
6.5 Aquatic Resources
6.6 Transportation
6.7 Land Use
6.8 Recreation
6.9 Socioeconomics
6.10 Cultural Resources
6.11 Aesthetics
6.12 Noise
6.13 Hazardous Wastes
7.0 UNAVOIDABLE ADVERSE IMPACTS
8.0 AGENCY CONSULTATION PROCESS
9.0 LITERATURE CITEDAPPENDIX: CONVERSION TABLE
To convert from
CLASSIFIED LIST OF UNITS1
to Multiply by
Acceleration
ft/s2
Angle
degree
Area
acre
ft2
mi2 (U.S. statute)»'
Bending moment or torque
dyne-cm
lbf-in»)
lbf-ft
Electricity and magnetism
ampere hour
faraday (chemical)
gauss
maxwell
ohm centimeter
Energy (Includes Work)
British thermal unit (mean)
calorie (mean)
electronvolt
erg
ft-lbf
kilocalorie (mean)
kW-h
therm (U.S.)
Energy per unit area time
Btu (International Table)/(ft2-s)
Force
dyne
kilogram-force
pound-force (lbf)
Heat
Btu (International Table)-ft/(h-ft2-
Btu (International Table)-in/(h-ft2'
Btu (International Table)-in/(s-ft2-
Btu (International Table)/ft2
Btu (International Table)/(h-ft2-°F) (thermal conductance)
Btu (International Table)/(s-ft2-°F)
Btu (International Table)/lb
Btu (International Table)/(lb-° F) (heat capacity)
Btu (International Table)/ft3
°F-h-ft2/Btu (International Table) (thermal resistance)
° F-h-ft2/[Btu (International table>in] (thermal resistivity)
Length
angstrom
foot
inch
micron (micrometer)
5
F)
0
F) (thermal conductivity)
°F)
meter per second squared (m/s2) 3.048 000*E—01
radian (rad) 1.745 329 E-02
square meter (m2) 4.046 873 E+03
square meter (m2) 9.290 304*E-02
square meter (m2) 2.589 998 E+06
newton meter (N-m) 1.000 000*E-07
newton meter (N-m) 1.129 848 E-01
newton meter (N-m) 1.355 818 E+00
coulomb (C) 3.600 000*E+03
coulomb (C) 9.649 57 E+04
tesla (T) 1.000 000*E-04
weber (Wb) 1.000 000*E-08
ohm meter (Q-m) 1.000 000*E-02
joule (J) 1.055
joule (J) 4.190
joule (J) 1.602
joule (J) 1.000
joule (J) 1.355
joule (J) 4.190
joule (J) 3.600
joule (J) 1.054
watt per square meter (W/m2) 1.135 653 E+04
newton (N) 1.000 000*E-05
newton (N) 9.806 650*E+00
newton (N) 4.448 222 E+00
watt per meter kelvin [W/(m-K)] 1.730 735 E+00
watt per meter kelvin [W/(m-K)j 1.442 279 E-01
watt per meter kelvin [W/(m-K)] 5.192 204 E+02
joule per square meter (J/m2) 1.135 653 E+04
watt per square meter kelvin [W/(m2-K)] 5.678 263 E+00
watt per square meter kelvin [W/(m2-K)] 2.044 175 E+04
joule per kilogram (J/kg) 2.326 000*E+03
joule per kilogram kelvin [J/(kg-K)j 4.186 800*E+03
joule per cubic meter (J/m3) 3.725 895 E+04
kelvin square meter per watt (K-m2/W) 1.761 102 E-01
kelvin meter per watt (K-m/W) 6.933 471 E+00
meter (m) 1.000 000*E-10
meter (m) 3.048 000*E-01
meter (m) 2.540 000*E-02
meter (m) 1.000 000*E-06
87 E+03
02 E+00
19 E-19
000*E-07
818 E+00
02 E+03
000*E+06
804*E+08
856Conversion Table 857
To convert from to Multiply by
Length {continued)
mile (international nautical)
mile (U.S. nautical)
mile (international)
mile (U.S. statute2)
yard
Light
footcandle
Mass
grain
gram
kgf-s2/m (mass)
ounce (avoirdupois)
pound (lb avoirdupois)
ton (long, 2240 lb)
ton (short, 2000 lb)
tonne
Mass per unit area
lb/ft2
Mass per unit time
lb/h
lb/s
ton (short)/h
Mass per unit volume
lb/ft3
lb/gal (U.S. liquid)
ton (long)/yd3
ton (short/yd3)
Power
Btu (International Table)/h
Btu (International Table)/s
ft lbf/min
horsepower (electric)
foot of refrigeration (= 12000 Btu/h)
Pressure or stress (Force per unit area)
atmosphere, standard
foot of water (39.2° F)
inch of mercury (60° F)
inch of water (60° F)
kip/in2 (ksi)
lbf/ft2
lbf/in2 (psi)
Radiation units
curie
rad
rem
roentgen
Temperature
degree Celsius
degree Fahrenheit
degree Fahrenheit
degree Rankine
kelvin
Time
day
hour
minute
year (365 days)
Velocity
ft/h
ft/min
ft/s
knot (international)
mi/h (international)
meter (m)
meter (m)
meter (m)
meter (m)
meter (m)
lux (lx)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram per square meter (kg/m2)
kilogram per second (kg/s)
kilogram per second (kg/s)
kilogram per second (kg/s)
kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)
kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)
kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)
kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3)
watt (W)
watt (W)
watt (W)
watt (W)
watt (W)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
pascal (Pa)
becquerel (Bq)
gray (Gy)
sievert (Sv)
coulomb per kilogram (C/kg)
kelvin (K)
degree Celsius (° C)
kelvin (K)
kelvin (K)
degree Celsius (° C)
second (s)
second (s)
second (s)
second (s)
meter per second (m/s)
meter per second (m/s)
meter per second (m/s)
meter per second (m/s)
meter per second (m/s)
1.852 000*E+03
1.852 000*E+03
1.609 344*E+03
1.609 347 E+03
9.144 000*E-01
1.076 391 E+01
6.479 891*E-05
1.000 000*E-03
9.806 650*E+00
2.834 952 E-02
4.535 924 E-01
1.016 047 E+03
9.071 847 E+02
1.000 000*E+03
4.882 428 E+00
1.259 979 E-04
4.535 924 E - 0 1
2.519 958 E-01
1.601 846 E+01
1.198 264 E+02
1.328 939 E+03
1.186 553 E+03
2.930 711 E-01
1.055 056 E+03
2.259 697 E-02
7.460 000*E+02
3.517 E+03
1.013 250*E+05
2.988 98 E+03
3.376 85 E+03
2.488 4 E+02
6.894 757 E+06
4.788 026 E+01
6.894 757 E+03
3.700 000*E+10
1.000 000*E-02
1.000 000*E-02
2.580 000*E-04
TK = tc + 273.15
tc = (tf - 32)/1.8
Tk = (tf + 459.67)/l
TK = TR/1.8
tc = T K - 2 7 3 . 1 5
8.640 000*E+04
3.600 000*E+03
6.000 000*E+01
3.153 600*E+07
8.466 667 E-05
5.080 000*E-03
3.048 000*E-01
5.144 444 E-01
4.470 400*E-01858 Power Plant Engineering
To convert from to
pascal second (Pa-s)
square meter per second (m2/s)
square meter per second (m2/s)
pascal second (Pa-s)
pascal second (Pa-s)
pascal second (Pa-s)
cubic meter (m3)
cubic meter (m3)
cubic meter (m3)
cubic meter (m3)
cubic meter (m3)
cubic meter per second (m3/s)
cubic meter per second (rn3/s)
Multiply by
1.000 000*E-03
1.000 000*E-06
9.290 304*E-02
4.133 789 E - 0 4
1.488 164 E+00
6.894 757 E+03
1.233 489 E+03
1.589 873 E - 0 1
2.831 685 E-02
3.785 412 E - 03
2.957 353 E-05
4.719 474 E-04
6.309 020 E-05
Viscosity
centipoise (dynamic viscosity)
centistokes (kinematic viscosity)
ft2/s
lb/(ft-h)
lb/(ft-s)
lbf-s/in2
Volume
acre foot
barrel (oil, 42 gal)
ft3
gallon (U.S. liquid)
ounce (U.S. fluid)
Volume per unit time
ft3/min
gallon (U.S. liquid) per minute
WASTM Standard, E-380-93, "Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (SI) (the Modernized Metric System)," ASTM, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania (1994).
2<>1
statute mile = 5,280 feet.
3<
>lbf = pound force, lb = pound mass.INDEX
Above-grade reclaim systems, 141
Absolute pressure, 41, 315
Absolute zero, 40
Absorbers, for wet limestone FGD systems, 442-44
Absorption spectroscopy, 454
Accelerated depreciation, 16
Access ways, and plant arrangement, 658
Accumulator tank (AT), 769
Acid gases, 682, 730
Acid rain, 181, 842^3. See also Emissions control
Acid waste, 524
Acoustical soot removal systems, 207-208
Activated carbon pressure filters, 479
Activated coke emissions control process, 452-53
Active coal storage, 143^14
Adjustable speed motor, 307, 395
Administrative costs, 16
Advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), 759-60
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), 737
Advanced light water reactor (ALWR), 758, 759
Advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), 774-78
Advanced passive pressurized water reactor, 766-70
Advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR), 760-62
Advanced Reactor Corporation, 759
Advanced Reactor Policy (DOE-NRC), 770
Aeolian Vibration, 593
Aeration, of water, 475
Aeroderivative gas turbines, 685-86
Aesthetics, and environmental review, 850-51
Affinity Laws, 316-17
Africa, oil production and consumption in, 88
Agricultural waste, as alternate fuel, 85. See also Biomass
Ahlstrom Co., 698
Air. See also Air quality; Emissions control
combustion and composition of, 166
combustion and excess of, 172
as perfect gas, 49
specific heats of, 70
steam generator design and excess of, 192
Air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio, 423
Air-cooled condensers, 267
Air-door bottom dump railcars, 126, 127-28
Air-drying, of fuels, 85, 105
Air extraction, of condensers, 261, 265
Air flow, control of, 612-13
Air/gas flows, calculation of for combustion, 177-78
Air gasification, 712
Air heaters
air motor drive of, 203
cold end temperature control of, 620
fiuidized bed combustion and, 695, 702
leakage of, 173, 305-306
plant arrangements and, 653
preheat coils of, 203-206, 216
soot blowers and, 207
steam generators and, 201-203, 216, 437
Air inlet louvers, 375
Air permits, state government, 840-43
Air pollution. See Emissions control
Air preheat, and cycle performance, 390-91
Air pulse type fabric filter, 157-58
Air quality. See also Emissions control
control systems and design of power plants, 823
environmental reviews for, 850
Air separation unit (ASU), 783
Air-side control, of cooling tower airflow, 380-81
Air-side seal oil system, 247
Air staging, 430
Air-standard Brayton cycle, 660-62
Air-ventilated dry-type transformers, 560
Alabama, coal deposits in, 86
Alabama Electric Cooperative, Inc., 802
Alarm displays, 636-37
Alkali metals, 435
Alkaline precipitation, 540
Alkalinity, of water, 466, 499-500
All-aluminum conductors (AAC), 593
Allochthonous (drift) theory, of coal formation, 76-78
Allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC), 16-17, 32, 36,
372-73
Alstrom (Finland), 705
Alternate fuels
capability certification of, 835
fossil fuels and, 81-86
renewable energy and, 789-801
Alternating current (ac), 222
Alternative depreciation system (ADS), 15-16
Alum, 474
Aluminum, as fan blade material, 288-89
Aluminum conductor, alloy-reinforced (ACAR), 593
Aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR), 592-93
Aluminum lagging, 216
Ambient monitoring, 841
American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), 155
American Boiler Manufacturers' Association (ABMA), 176
American Concrete Institute (ACI), 375
American Electric Power, 705, 707
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 284, 590, 593
American Petroleum Institute (API), gravity of oils, 86,108
American Railway Engineering Association (AREA), 156
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 48, 284, 618, 679
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 102, 108, 113, 123,
153, 683, 720, 829
American Water Works Association (AWWA), 517, 518
Ammonia, and emissions control, 432, 433, 434
Ammonia injection grid (AIG), 434
8 5 9860 Index
Ammonia injection systems, for fluidized bed combustion, 702
Ammonia wet scrubber, 447-48
Ammonium bisulfate, 432
Ammonium salts, 431-32
Anaerobic digestion, of biomass, 712, 797
Analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, 622
Angular displacement, of transformers, 561-62
Anhydrous ammonia, 432-33, 434
Anion resins, 480-89
Annapolis Royal tidal energy plant (Canada), 798
Annual input data report, pro forma, 30-31
Annual price nomination, 122
Annuities. See Uniform series
Anthracite coal, 79, 80
Apparent power, 552
Aquatic resources
environmental reviews, 850
seawater scrubbing and, 447
Aqueous ammonia, 434
Aquifers, ground water, 464
ARCO Solar, 792
Area surface mining, 93
Argonne National Laboratory, 77, 78, 776
Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), 621
Army Corps of Engineers, 86, 469, 831, 835, 844
Arrhenius equation, for chemical reaction rates, 78
Arsenic, 435
Artificial intelligence, 634
ASEA (Sweden), 705
As-fired costs, prediction of, 181-84
As-fired sampling system, 152
Ash, coal. See also Emissions control; Fly ash
fluidized bed combustion and, 694, 700
fusion temperatures for, 107
mineral analysis of, 106-107, 114-15
properties of, 105
Ash hoppers, for steam generators, 215, 216, 653-54
Ash ponds, 524, 527, 537
Ash sluice pumps, 653-54
Ash transport water, 526
Asia-Pacific region, production and consumption of oil in, 88
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 275
Aspect ratio, of ESP, 420
Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), 691-704
Atmospheric pressure, 41, 315
Atomic bombs, 733
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), 737, 759, 762
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 734
Atoms for Peace program, 734
Australia
coal deposits in, 75, 76, 77
international market for coal and, 91
oil and gas deposits in, 78
Autochthonous (swamp) theory, of coal formation, 76, 77-78
Automated sampling and analysis systems, 113-14
Automatic depressurization system (ADS), 753, 769
Automatic on-off, for pump recirculating control systems, 324
Automatic shutoff valves, for feedwater heaters, 284-85
Auxiliary systems
control loops and, 618-20
cooling water and, 472, 502
electrical systems and, 570-76
gas turbines and, 670-72
nuclear reactors and, 746-47, 752
plant arrangements and, 654
steam turbine generators and, 243-48
Availability analysis, 45, 46, 821
Average cold end temperature (ACET), 203-204
Axial fans, 286-89, 299-301
Axial flow pump, 310, 313
Babbitt metal, 235
Babcock & Wilcox Company, 439, 691, 697, 734, 743, 746
Backward curved blades, 286
Backwashing
of condensers, 265-66
of water, 478, 479
Bacteria, in coal pile wastewater runoff, 528
Bagasse, 85
Baghouse filters, 731
Ball-and-race pulverizers, 210, 213, 612
Ball-and-tube pulverizers, 612-13
Ballast resistors, 570, 571
Bar charts, 635, 825
Barges, coal transportation by, 100, 125, 131-33, 645-46
Barns, for coal storage, 144
Barometric pressure, 70, 315, 676
Base option, 21
Basic insulation level (BIL), 558-59
Batteries
recycling of, 730-31
sizing of for electrical systems, 578-79
storage of energy, 801-802
Bearings
for motors and generators, 566-67
for steam turbines, 234-35
Beer-Lambert law, 454
Belgium, nuclear power in, 740
Below-grade conveyors, 152
Below-grade reclaim systems, 141
Belt conveyors, 150-52
Belt Conveyors for Bulk Material (СЕМА, 1988), 150
Belt feeder, 142-43
Belt scales, 152-53, 154-55
Beneficiation, of coal, 114-16
Bentonite, 78
Best available technology economically achievable (BAT), 522-23, 679-
80, 842, 844
Best management practices plan, 845
Biased firing, of burners, 194
Bid analyses, 7, 24
Binary cycle systems, 800-801
Biochemical conversion processes, for biomass, 797
Biological control, of cooling water, 499
Biomass fuels
advantages of, 85
development of new technologies for, 796-97
Bisector design, of air heaters, 202-203
Bituminous coal, 79, 80
Black Hills Power and Light Company, 449
Black & Veatch, 4, 24, 445, 715
Black Warrior Basin (Alabama), 86
Blade pitch, 299-301
Blade rings, 233
Blast cleaning, of water storage tanks, 519
Blowdown control, of cooling water systems, 500, 526
Blowers, for fluidized bed combustion, 695, 702
Boiler blowdown tank, 654
Boiler circulating pumps, 200, 216
Boiler control systems, 608-609
Boiler efficiency, methods of calculating, 173-77
Boiler feed pumps
cavitation protection, 285
cycle performance and, 393-97Index 861
design of power plants and, 822
materials for construction of, 318
plant arrangements and, 654-55
recirculation control, 619-20
selection of, 341-47
turbines and, 395-97
Boiler follow, 609
Boiler pressure, and Rankine cycle, 57
Boiler soot blowing control, 606
Boiler trip, 607-608
Boiling water nuclear reactors (BWR), 507, 735-36, 748-54
Booster pump, 246
Bottom ash, 524, 653-54, 730
Bottom dump railcars, 126-28, 130
Boucherot, Paul, 797-98
Bowl-and-roller pulverizer, 209-10, 612
Box trusses, 152
Brayton cycle, 65-70, 660-62
Breakeven analysis, 22
Breeder reactors, 735, 738, 774-78
Brine concentrators, 542, 543
British Coal, 708
British Gas Lurgi (BGL) process, 784
British Sea Clam, 798
British Thermal Units (Btu), 41
Bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion, 689-91, 706, 725-26
Bucket wheel stacker-reclaimer, 136-37, 141
Buffer zones, 645
Building permits, 848
Building support column rows, 656-57
Burner control systems, 605-606
Burners, for steam generators, 210-12, 216
Busbar costs, 14
Bus duct, 567-68
Bushings, transformer, 560
Bypass regulation, of pumps, 323
Bypass switch, 588
Bypass valves, 229
Cables, for underground transmission lines, 597-98
Calandria reactor, 736-37
Calcium carbonate, conversion factors, 470
Canada
nuclear reactors in, 736, 737, 759, 762, 764
tar sands in, 86
tidal energy sites in, 798
Candidate sites, selection of for power plants, 814
CANDU reactors (Canada deuterium uranium), 737, 762, 764
Capacity control, of pumps, 322-23
Capesize class, 100, 101
Capital, weighted cost of, 10, 15, 33
Capital equivalent cost method, 20-21, 24
Capital recovery period method, 22
Capping, of coal piles, 161
Carbon dioxide neutralization system, for wastewater, 537
Carboniferous period, 76
Carbon monoxide, 172, 681-82
Carnot cycle, 53-54, ,56, 60, 61, 353, 354, 385
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD),
624-25
Cartridge filtration, 479, 534
Cascade control, 602-603
Cash flow report, pro forma, 26-29, 817-18
Casing, of cooling tower, 375
Catalyst management plan (CMP), 435
Catalytic oxidation, 681-82
Cathode ray tubes (CRT), 595
Cation resins, 480-89
Caustic soda softening, 476
Caustic waste, 524
Cavitation, of pumps, 317-18
Celsius measurement system, 40
Central Electricity Generating Board (United Kingdom), 705
Central processing unit (CPU), 621
Central receiver, solar thermal, 793-94
Centrifugal fans, 286, 287, 292, 298-99, 303
Centrifugal pumps, 323
Centrifuge-type oil conditioner, 247
Ceramic linings, for coal pipes, 210
Certificate of Occupancy, 848
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity laws, 6, 840
Chadwick, Sir James, 733
Chemical balance, of power plant, 522
Chemical cleaning wastewater, 529
Chemical dust suppressants, 160
Chemical Engineer's Handbook (Perry and Chilton, 1973), 179
Chemical stabilization, of coal storage piles, 160
Chemical wetting agents, 160
Chemiluminescence, 455-56
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, accident at, 738, 779
Chicago pile, 733
Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, 728
Chlorine, in coals, 106
Circuit breakers, 588
Circulating dry scrubber (CDS), 449-50
Circulating fluidized bed (BFB) combustors, 689-91, 697-98, 706
Circulating water piping, 357
Circulating water pumps, 326-35
Circulating water systems
basic principles of, 353
components and arrangements of, 355-61
cooling ponds and, 355
cooling towers and, 361-84
once-through cooling and, 353-55
recirculating cooling systems, 355
water treatment and, 498-500
Clamshell bucket unloader, 130, 132
Clarification, and water treatment, 474-75
Class I analyses, PSD program, 842
Claude, George, 797-98
Clean Air Act (1955, amended 1990), 121, 181, 418, 453, 459, 521, 704,
835, 842, 843
Clean Coal Technology Program (DOE), 698, 786
Clean Water Act (CWA), 642, 831, 843. See also Federal Water Pollution
Control Act
Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), 774, 775
Closed cooling water heat exchangers, 656
Closed cycle cooling water system, 618
Closed feedwater heaters, 60-61, 271-78, 284, 388, 389
Closed loop cooling system (CLCS), 752
Closure, of landfills, 549-50
Coagulation, of water, 474-75
Coal. See also Coal piles; Fossil fuels; Pulverizer systems
beneficiation of, 114-16
classification of, 103
coalification, 75, 78
combustion of, 168-69, 180-81
ESP size variance for types of, 422-23
geological formation of, 74-78
handling systems for, 124-64
international markets for, 91-92
international production of, 91
long-term supply agreements for, 121-22
markets for in U.S., 918 6 2 Index
mining technologies for, 92-96
as percentage of U.S. energy needs, 73
power plants fueled by compared to gas-turbine plants, 665
production and consumption patterns of, 87, 88
production of in U.S., 89, 90
properties of, 102, 104-108
reserves of in U.S., 79-80
sampling and reporting of laboratory results on, 111-14
transportation systems for, 98-101
Coalbed methane, 86
Coal burners, for steam generators, 210-12
Coalescer-type heat exchanger, 247
Coalescing-type oil separators, 536
Coal feeders, for steam generators, 208-209, 216, 649, 653
Coal Fired Flow Facility, 787-88
Coal jig, 115, 116
Coal piles. See also Storage
management and arrangement of, 144-45
site arrangement and, 645-46
wastewater runoff from, 527-28
Coal piping, for steam generators, 210-12, 216
Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM), 182-84
Coal slurry pipelines, 101
Coastal Zone Management Act, 852
Coast Guard marine transportation-related facility response plan, 839-40
Coating, of water storage tanks, 518
Cofiring, of solid waste with other fuels, 711-12, 727, 729, 730
Cogeneration, and gas turbines, 664-65
Coke, manufacture of from coal, 78. See also Petroleum coke
Cold fusion, 806
Cold tests, of pumps, 347
Colorado, coalbed methane deposits in, 86
Colorado-Ute Electric Association, 698
Column row spacing, for building support, 656
Combined cycle, 70, 663-664, 782-786
Combined cycle gas turbines, 664, 672
Combustion
calculations for, 170-78
complexities of, 178-84
constants for hydrocarbon-based fuels, 167
definition of, 165
fundamentals of, 165-70
gas turbines and, 668-69
nitrogen oxide emissions from, 428-31
product quantities for, 190
Combustion Engineering, Inc., 691, 694, 696, 697, 698, 743, 746, 759,
760-61
Combustion Fossil Power Systems (Singer, 1991), 187
Combustion gas turbine (CGT), 65
Combustion reactions, chemical principles of, 165-66
Combustion turbines (CTs), 65, 70
Combustion wastes, disposal of, 524-25, 646
Common systems operation, 638-39
Commonwealth of Indepedent States (CIS), 83
Communication, relaying methods, 586-87
Competition, public utilities and economic, 6-7
Component Development and Integration Facility, 787
Compounding, of interest, 9, 32, 33, 34
Compressed air energy storage (CAES), 802-803
Compressors, for gas turbines, 668, 671-72
Computer models, for prediction of as-fired costs, 181-84
Computers, and plant control functions, 604, 620-40
Conceptual design engineering, 819-23
Concrete, and cooling tower construction, 375
Condensate polishing, 508-11
Condensate pumps, 335-41, 655
Condensate subcooling, 391
Condensate system controls, 618-19
Condensers
circulating water systems and, 356
hotwell level control loop for, 618-19
Rankine cycle and, 56-57
steam cycle heat exchangers and, 250-67
Condensing heat exchangers, 454
Conditional use permit, 847
Conductors, spacing of in transmission lines, 593
Constant efficiency method, and turbine expansion line, 65
Constant percentage cost increases, 13-14
Constant pressure operation, of steam generators, 194
Construction, of power plants, 649, 823, 824-25
Consumers, and fuel prices, 118
Consumption, of capital by depreciation, 15
Containment systems, for nuclear reactors, 747, 752-53
Containment water cooling tank (CWCT), 769-70
Containments, Use of ponds and, 531
Continuous bucket ladder unloader, 130-31, 132
Continuous control, for pump recirculating control systems, 324
Continuous emissions monitoring (СЕМ) technologies, 454-62
Continuous mining, 95, 96
Contour mining, 93
Controlled air furnace, 711, 718-19, 721
Control mass, in thermodynamic analysis, 44
Control point, 192
Control rods, nuclear, 750
Control room, 638-40
Control systems, for power plants
basic functions of, 599-604
computer hardware and software for, 620-34
computers and operator interface, 634-40
for fluidized bed combustion, 697-98, 703
future of, 640
for gas turbines, 672-74
modulating control applications and, 608-20
on-off control applications and, 604-608
planning of power plants and systems for, 656, 827-28
Control valves, 229-30
Control volume, in thermodynamic analysis, 44-45, 46
Convection pass performance, fuel effects on, 190
Conveyor belt scale, 154-55
Conveyor systems, transportation of coal by, 100, 125, 133-34, 150-52
Cooling air systems, for gas turbines, 670-71
Cooling ponds, 355
Cooling systems, for transformers, 559
Cooling Tower Institute (CTI), 369, 374
Cooling towers
blowdown of, 526
circulating water systems and, 356, 361
crossflow, 365-66
counterflow, 366-67
dry and wet-dry types of, 381-84
fan-assisted natural draft, 365
intake structure of, 359
materials for, 375-78
mechanical draft, 361-63, 645
natural draft, 363-64
performance criteria and design features of, 378-81
sizing of, 367-73
spacing and orientation of, 373-74, 645
water treatment and, 471-73
Cooling water intake structures, 844-45
Cool Water IGCC Plant (California), 785
Coordinated control, 609-11
Copper, in cooling water systems, 500, 506
Core makeup tank (CMT), 769Index 863
Corner fired boiler, cross section of, 187
Corona, of electrical conductor, 596
Corrosion, protection of condensers from, 261
Cost
of coal mining, 92
computer models for prediction of as-fired, 181-84
cooling tower design and, 371-72, 383
design of power plants and, 812-13, 820-21, 826-27
of fuel transportation, 98
of fossil fuels, 71-73, 119-20
minimization of, 5
of ocean transportation, 101
pump selection and, 334
Cost accounting, methods of analysis, 14-18, 33-38
Cost-benefit analysis, 820-21
Counterflow cooling towers, 366-67, 380
Counterflow hyperbolic natural draft towers, 363-64
Coupled-in-motion scales, 156
Critical Path Method (CPM), 825-26
Critical pressure, for steam generators, 216
Cross-compound turbine, 224
Cross-country transmission lines, 592-98
Crossflow natural draft cooling tower, 363, 364, 365-66, 380
Crude oil, 118-119,683
Crashing, of coal, 146-50, 164
Crusting agents, for coal storage piles, 160
Crystallizer processes, for wastewater, 542-43
Cultural resources, and environmental review, 829, 850
Cumulative present worth method, 22, 23, 24, 32
Curtis stage, 218, 219
Curtiss-Wright, 704
Cutter stock, 110
Cycle chemistry, and water control, 502-16
Cycle conditioning, of feedwater, 505-507
Cycle heat balance, calculations for feedwater cycle, 279-83
Cycle heat rejection, 822-23
Cycle makeup water, 501, 517
Cycle performance impacts
air preheat and, 390-91
boiler feed pumps and, 393-97
condensate subcooling and, 391
cycle makeup and, 390
design steam conditions and, 388
extraction line pressure drop, 390
feedwater heaters and, 388-89, 392-93
heat balance and, 397
reheater system pressure drop and, 389, 390
steam power cycle efficiency and, 385-88
superheat and reheat spray flows, 391-92
turbine exhaust pressure and, 390
turbine thermal kit and, 397-407
wet-bulb temperature, 392
Cycle time, in unit train operation, 99-100
Cyclone collectors, 427
Cyclone furnace unit, 711, 726-27, 729
Cyclone reburn system, 430
Cyclone separators, 538
Cyclothems, 77-78
Dairyland Power Cooperative, 705
Dakota Gasification Company, 447, 785
Dalton's Law, 50, 269
Dampers, for steam generators, 215
Data Communication Equipment (DCE), 625
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), 625
Day bin fill system, 149-50
Deaerators
open heater construction and, 269-71
plant arrangement and, 283-84, 655
pressure control of, 673
storage tanks for, 618-19
Dechlorination, of wastewater, 538-40
Deep well injection, 532
Delayed coke, 83
DELSOL, computer program, 793
Delta-delta windings, 561, 562
Demand-side management, 811
Demineralization, of water, 480-98
Demineralizer operation, control of, 606-607
Demonstration-scale plants, 781
Density, and specific volume, 40
Department of Energy (DOE), 691, 734, 741-42, 759, 765, 767, 770, 774,
781, 804, 806, 835
Department of State, 835
Department of Transportation, 524
Depositional basin, 74
Depreciation, 15-16, 32, 36-37
Desalination, of water, 494-98
Design, of power plants. See also Plant arrangements: Site arrangements
conceptual engineering and, 819-23
detailed engineering and, 823-24
fuel supply and, 809-11
Design coal, for steam generators, 189, 191
Desulfurization solid waste, 524
Detailed design engineering, 823-24
Detroit Edison, 774
Deutsche Babcock, 705
Dewatering, and flue gas desulfurization, 444
Diesel cycle, 65
Differential capital equivalent method, 21
Differential relays, 581, 582-83
Diffuser centrifugal pumps, 310, 313
Dilution extractive СЕМ systems, 457-58, 459
Dioxin, 728
Direct air-cooled condensers, 267
Direct combustion technologies, for biomass, 796-97
Direct current (dc), 564, 576-79
Direct gasifiers, 712
Direct normal insolation (DNI), 789
Discharge dampers, 298-99
Discharge throttling, of pumps, 322-23
Discount rate, 10, 32
Dissolved gases, in water, 466
Distance relay, 583
Distillate oils, 168
Distributed control and information system (DCIS), 672, 673
Distributed control system (DCS), 629-31
Divided convection pass, 193
Division valve system, for variable pressure operation, 195
Double bus, 588
Double-flow turbines, 224
Double reheat cycle turbine, 222, 223, 224
Double-suction pumps, 320
Double-width double-inlet (DWDI) fans, 286
Dow Syngas Project (Louisiana), 785
Draft environmental impact statement, 849
Draft systems, and emissions control, 437
Drain Cooler Approach (DCA), 61, 388-89
Drain system, turbine, 244-45
Dravo Lime Company, 445
Drift eliminators, for cooling towers, 377
Drift mine, 93, 94
Drift theory, of coal formation, 76-788 6 4 Index
Drive shafts, of fans, 377-78
Drums, for steam generators, 199, 216
Drum reclaimer, 141-42
Drum-type steam generator, 216, 503-504, 512
Dry-bulb temperature, and cooling towers, 370
Dry cooling towers, 381-82
Dry disposal systems, for solid wastes, 546-48
Dry dust collection system, 156-58
Dry extractive СЕМ systems, 456-59
Dry flue gas scrubbers, 731
Dry well containment systems, 752-53
Dual-flow screens, 359-60
Duct vibrations, fan-induced, 301-302
Ductwork, for steam generators, 215, 216
Dulong formula, 105
Dummy rings, 233
Dust control systems
for coal, 144-45, 156-60, 164
for landfills, 548
Eastern Europe, natural gas reserves in, 80, 89
Econometric load forecasting models, 811
Economics. See also Cost
analysis methods for, 19-24, 33-38
auxiliary electrical systems and, 572
of coal beneficiation, 116
evaluation of in power plant design and planning, 5-7, 817
of fossil fuels, 116-20
fuel cost savings from improving net plant heat rate, 71-73
least-cost options, 32
of longwall mining, 95
present value studies, 7-14
renewable energy sources and, 789
supply-side alternatives for fuel, 812
of synfuel production, 86
utility cost accounting methods, 14-18
of wood waste as fuel, 85
Economizers, for steam generators, 201, 216
Edison, Thomas, 73
Effective projected radiant surface (EPRS), 199
Efficiency, 66ff, 173-174, 219, 238
Einstein, Albert, 733
Electricity
coal consumption in U.S. for generation of, 91
fuel-related impacts on cost of, 181-84
generation of by turbines, 220, 222
sociological significance of, 1
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 182, 246, 344, 440, 511, 691,
758, 765, 781
Electric systems
auxiliary systems for, 570-76
basic principles of, 551-55
direct current systems, 576-79
grounding of, 568-70
motors and generators, 562-68
primary power supply system and, 587-92
protective relaying of, 579-87.
transformers and, 555-62
transmission lines and, 592-98
Electric utilities. See Public utilities
Electroanalytical techniques, for emissions monitoring, 456
Electrodialysis, for water treatment, 492-94
Electro-hydraulic control unit, 654
Electromagnetics, of transmission lines, 595-96
Electronically erasable PROM (EEPROM), 622
Electronics Industry Association (EIA), 625
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP), 419-23, 426, 437, 454, 731
Elevated conveyors, 152
Elevated reversing shuttle conveyor, 137-38
Elevation, and gas turbine performance, 676
Emergency backup oil pump (EBOP), 246
Emergency core cooling system (ECCS), 752, 764
Emergency feedwater storage tank (EFSRT), 761-62
Emergency governors, for turbines, 284
Emissions control. See also Nitrogen oxide; Sulfur dioxide
combination nitrogen oxide-sulfur dioxide removal processes, 451-53
design of power plants and, 823
fluidized bed combustion and, 708
future regulations and design of systems for, 418
gas turbines and, 679-82
hazardous materials and, 453-54
monitoring systems for, 454-62
paniculate control, 418-27
systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides, 427-38
systems for reduction of sulfur dioxide, 438-51
Enclosure systems, for conveyor supports, 152, 153
Endangered Species Act, 853, 851
End-use forecasting models, 811
Enelco precipitator, 422
Energy Information Administration (EIA), 117
Energy Policy Act of 1992, 6, 7, 32, 839
Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA), 734
Energy storage, 801-803
English Engineering system of units, 39
En masse chain conveyor, 149
Enthalpy, as property of thermodynamics, 41—42, 49
Entrained flow gasifiers, 785
Entropy, and second law of thermodynamics, 43-44
Environmental analysis, state government, 849-51
Environmental assessment (EA), 848, 853-55
Environmental impact statement (EIS), 848-49
Environmentally sensitive areas, 829
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 110, 419, 522, 560, 595, 642,
679, 682, 729, 731, 835-38, 840, 843, 846
Environmental review. See also Regulation
federal permits and, 831-40
local permits and approvals, 847-48
preliminary considerations in, 829-31
requirements for, 848-52
state permits and approvals, 840-46
suggested outline for, 853-55
Environment Canada, 731
Equipment procurement, 824-25
Equivalent uniform annual cost, See levelization
Erasable PROM (EPROM), 622
Erosiveness, of coal or ash, 107
Escalation rates, 9-10, 32, 33-34, 35, 38
Ethanol, 797
Ethernet, 624
Ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), 528
Ethylene glycol system, for air preheat coils, 204, 206
Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), 597
Europe, production and consumption of natural gas in, 89
Evaluation, economic for power plant design and planning, 5-7
Evaporation/distillation processes, for wastewater, 542
Evaporation ponds, 532
Evaporative cooling cycle, 685
Event log, 637
Evergreen contract, 122
Excess air
in combustion, 172
fan sizing requirements and, 304
nitrogen oxide emissions and reduced, 431
steam generator design and, 192Excitation systems, 564-65
Exciter response ratio, 1AX-M
Exempt wholesale generators (EWGs), 6-7, 839
Exhaust
gas turbines and, 669, 676-77, 679-82
steam power cycle efficiency and pressure of, 386-87, 390
steam turbine generator and loss of, 238-39, 404
steam turbines and conditions of, 224
Exhauster fans, 210
Expansion line end point (ELEP), 239, 251, 401
Expansion lines, of steam turbines, 238, 399-403
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I), 774
Exploration programs, for fossil fuels, 79, 87
External drain cooler, 279
Externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), 786
Extraction flows, in steam cycle, 241
Extraction line pressure drop, 390
Extraction stage shell pressure, 398
Extraction types, of turbines, 224
Extractive СЕМ systems, 456-59
Fabric filters, for emissions control systems, 157-58, 427, 454
Faceplates, of CRT displays, 637
Fahrenheit measurement system, 40
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), 821
Fan-assisted natural draft cooling towers, 365
Fans
boiler requirements for, 177-78
cooling towers and, 377-78
cylinders, 376
design considerations for, 301-303
drives of, 307-309
fluidized bed combustion and, 695, 702
operating characteristics of, 298-301
performance of, 291-97
plant arrangements and, 653
selection of, 303
sizing of, 304-306
system geometry change and, 291
system resistance and, 289-90
types of, 286-89
Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTE), 774
Fault tree analysis (FTA), 822
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 838
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 121, 835, 838-39
Federal Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHA), 375
Federal Register, 839
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA, 1972), 521, 522-23, 837
Feedback control loop, 602
Feedforward control, 602-603
Feedwater, quality of for steam generators, 195-96
Feedwater heaters
cycle performance impacts of, 388-89, 392-93
flow control for, 616-17
level control for, 618
plant arrangements and, 655
for steam cycle heat exchangers, 268-85
steam power cycle efficiency and, 387-88
Fermentation, and fuel production, 712
Fermi, Enrico, 733
Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans, 528
FGD Chemistry and Analytical Methods Handbook (Electric Power Research Institute), 440
Fiberoptic communications, 587
Field windings, 220
Fill, for cooling tower construction, 376-77
Index 865
Film fill design, for cooling towers, 366-67, 376
Filtration
emissions control systems and, 157-58, 427, 454
gas turbines and, 667-68
high-efficiency paniculate (HEPA) filters and, 753
of water and wastewater, 477-80, 534-36
Finance. See Cost; Cost accounting; Economics
Financial pro forma models, 817
Finding of insignificant impact (FONSI), 848
Fineness, of pulverizer product, 191-92
Fines, 108
Fire protection
for cooling towers, 372, 381
for gas turbines, 671
local approvals of, 848
storage of water for, 516-17
Firing rate control, 195, 611-12
First-of-a-Kind Engineering (FOAKE) program, 759, 767
First law of thermodynamics, 42, 43, 45
First-stage impellers, 337-38
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 851
Fish and Wildlife Service, 844
Fissioning, discovery of, 733
Fixed bed gasifiers, 712
Fixed boom conveyor, 135
Fixed carbon, in coal, 105
Fixed charge rate, 15-18, 32
Fixed costs, 15-18, 32, 35-36
Fixed roof tanks, 518
Fixed tripper conveyor, 147-48
Flame photometry, 456
Flame scanners, for steam generators, 216
Flash point, 110
Flash systems, geothermal, 800
Flexible membrane liners (FML), 549
Float/sink washability tests, 115
Floor heights, of buildings, 657-58
Florida Power Corporation, 161
Flow designation, turbine, 224
Flow margins, and fan sizing, 304-305
Floyd Myers Marsh Power Plant (California), 720, 723-24
Flue gas
combustion calculations for, 173
emissions for pulverized coal boilers, 195
resource recovery and, 728-31
velocity of, 420
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, 439-48, 526-27, 543
Fluid bed combustion scrubbing, 439
Fluid coke, 83, 98
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC)
atmospheric, 691-704
pressurized, 704-708
principles of operation, 689-91
resource recovery and, 711, 725-26, 727, 728
Fluidized bed gasifiers, 712, 784-85
Fly ash
ammonia content of, 432
disposal of, 524
electrostatic precipitators and, 423
resource recovery and, 730
Foam dust suppressants, 159
Fog dust suppressants, 159
Force majuere, 121
Forced-cooled transformer, 559
Forced draft cooling towers, 361-63
Forced draft (FD) fans, 215, 216, 302, 303, 304-305, 306
Forced oxidation wet limestone FGD, 441-44866 Index
Forest harvest residue, 85
Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Plant (Colorado), 755, 770
Fossil fuels. See also Coal; Fuels
alternate types of, 81-86
commercial considerations, 120-22
cost of, 71-73
definition of, 71
development of new technologies, 782-89
economics of, 116-20
formation of, 74-79
pipelines, 101-102
production and consumption of, 86-98
properties of, 102-11
quality and procurement of, 120
reserves of, 79-81,82, 83, 84
transportation systems for, 98-102
use of by fuel type, 73-74
Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, 691, 692, 697, 698, 700,
768
Fouling, and coal combustion, 180-81
Four flow low-pressure turbine cycle, 223
480-V auxiliary electrical systems, 575-76
Four-unit plant supply systems, 147
France
nuclear power in, 740, 774
tidal energy plant in, 798
Francis and Lloyd formula, 105
Free Swelling Index, 104
Friction head, 315
Friedman, Heller, and Boyd, 703
Frish, Otto, 733
Frozen coal, unloading systems for, 129-30
Fuel cells, new technologies for, 788-89
Fuel feed systems, for fluidized bed combustion, 692-93, 699
Fuel nitrogen oxide, 181
Fuel rods, nuclear, 750, 756-57
Fuels. See also Fossil fuels
cofiring of solid waste with, 711-12
design of power plants and evaluation of, 809-11
fluidized bed combustion and, 693, 699-700, 707
gas turbines and, 671, 677, 682-84
steam generators and characteristics of, 189-90
Fuel staging, for emissions control, 430
Fuel Use Act (1988), 119
Full startup systems, for steam generators, 198
Furnace
controlled air, 711,718-19, 721
cyclone unit, 711, 726-27, 729
draft control of, 614-15
refractory, 711,715-16, 717
rotary kiln, 711,716-17, 718
for steam generators, 199, 216
tangentially fired, 211-12
temperature of exit gas, 180, 199
typical mass balance of, 168
wall-fired, 211
water-cooled rotary combustor, 711, 717-18, 719, 720
waterwall, 710-11, 713-15, 716
Furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), 180
Furnace sorbent injection (FSI), 438-39, 440
Fusion energy systems, 803-806
Fusion temperatures, for coal ash, 107
Future value, 8-10, 32
Gantt charts, 825
Gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), 735, 737, 754
Gases. See also Gasification; Liquefied natural gas; Natural gas
byproducts of refinery operations as alternate fuel source, 85
monitoring of as emissions, 454-59
thermodynamic properties of, 48-50
velocity of and boiler efficiency, 178
Gas-filled transformers, 560
Gasification
biomass and, 797
development of new technologies for, 783-85
gas turbines and coal, 677
resource recovery and, 712
Gasification combined cycle (GCC), 782-85
Gas power cycle, 54
Gas recirculation (GR) fans, 303
Gassy seams, 86
Gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), 770-74
Gas turbines. See also Turbines
applications for, 659-60, 663-65
components and systems of, 666-74
cycle variations, 684-88
exhaust emissions of, 679-82
fuels for, 682-84
generator performance and, 674-79
manufacturers of, 666
thermodynamics of, 660-63
types of, 666
use of term, 65
Gas Turbine World Handbook , 666, 675
Gauge pressure, 315
General Electric Company, 397, 405, 447, 452, 734, 748, 752, 758, 764
General permits, 831, 845
Generation Building, 647, 648
Generators. See also Steam turbine generators
compressed gas equipment for, 247-48
cooling and purge, 247-48
differential relay, 582
electrical systems and, 562-68
frame for, 235-36
gas turbines and, 669, 674-79
motoring of, 608
plant arrangements and, 655
relays and protection of, 582-84
system grounding and, 569-70
transformers for, 556-58
trips of, 608
turbine efficiency losses, 240, 404
winding coils for, 552
Geology
environmental reviews and, 850
formation of fossil fuels, 74-79
Geopressurized conversion technology, 801
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL), 549
Geothermal energy, 800-801
Germany, coal mining in, 91
Geysers, the (California), 800, 801
Gibbs Equation, 43^14
Gilbert/Commonwealth, 708
Gland condenser, 654
Gland leakage, turbine, 398
Glen Cove Plant (New York), 716
Glycol system, and air preheat coils, 206
Governing control, 242
Government. See Environmental review; Regulation
Governor system, for turbines, 248
Governor valves, 229-30
Gradual in situ theory, of coal formation, 77
Granular media filtration, 477-79
Graphic displays, 635Graphite-moderated, light water-cooled reactors, 738-39
Gravimetric feeders, 208-209
Gravity-driven cooling pool (GDCS), 766
Gravity filters, for water and wastewater, 477-79, 535, 536
Gravity thickener, 539
Great Lakes, coal shipping on, 100
Great Lakes FBC Demonstration Plant, 696
Greenhouse gases, 781. See also Acid rain
Gross calorific value, 104-105
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (GNPIPD), 116, 117
Gross plant heat rate (GPHR), 170
Grounding
of electrical systems, 568-70, 575-76
of transmission lines, 596-97
Ground water, 469, 531-32, 846
Group permits, 845
Guarantees, and pump selection, 334-35, 340-41, 346-47, 351
Gulf Oil Company, 698
Gypsum, 444
Hague International, 786
Haldor-Topsoe/ABB SNOX Process, 451-52
Hand/Auto control station, 601
Handling systems, for coal and limestone
characteristic features of, 161
composite facility arrangements for, 160-64
control systems for, 607
conveyor sizing, design, and support systems, 150-52
crushing and plant supply systems, 146-50
dust control systems, 156-60
sampling and weighing systems, 152-56
stockout, reclaim, and storage systems, 134-46
transportation and unloading systems, 124-34
Handysize class, 100, 101
Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI), 107, 216
Hard iron, and pump construction, 349
Hardware, and cooling tower construction, 376
Harvesting, of peat, 86
Hawaii, and ocean thermal energy, 798
Hazardous materials. See also Health hazards
emissions control standards and technologies for, 453-54
regulation of waste disposal and, 524
selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and, 435
wastewater treatment and neutralization of, 536-37
Head pressure, 315
Health hazards, of electric and magnetic fields, 595-96. See also Hazardous materials
Heaped landfills, 547^48
Heat, as thermodynamic quantity, 41
Heat balance
calculation of, 408-17
cycle performance and, 397
thermodynamic analysis, 62-63, 64
turbine cycle, 188-89
Heat engine, 51-54
Heater drain disposal, and feedwater cycle design, 278-79
Heat Exchange Institute (HEI), 250, 254, 261, 275
Heat exchangers, for fluidized bed combustion, 701. See also Steam cycle
heat exchangers
Heating values
in
combustion calculations, 170-71
of fuel oils, 108, 110
Heat input per furnace plan area (HIPA), 180, 199
Heat load
condenser design and, 251
cooling tower design and, 368
Heat-loss method, of calculating boiler efficiency, 174-77
Heat rate comparisons, of steam cycle, 243
Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)
combined cycle of combustion turbine and, 70
deaerator pressure control and, 673-74
evaluation of alternative design concepts and, 823
gas turbines and combined cycle, 663, 664, 672
Heat transfer, in fluidized bed combustion, 689-90, 694, 701
Heavy media cyclone, 115, 117
Heavy metals, 540-41, 730. See also Metals; Trace metals
Heavy oils, 97-98
Heavy water reactors (HWRs), 735, 736
Helper tower cooling system, 355
Henry's law, 269
High-density crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), 597
High-efficiency electrostatic precipitators, 454
High-efficiency paniculate (HEPA) filters, 753
Higher heating value (HHV), 104-105, 170-71
High-fire-point liquid-filled transformers, 560
High-pressure feedwater heaters, 274, 276, 388-89, 655
High-pressure-intermediate-pressure turbine, 231-33
High-purity water, 472, 473, 501
High-speed attrition mill, 210, 214
High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), 737-38, 754-58
High-voltage auxiliary electric systems, 573-74
High-voltage cable transmission lines, 597-98
High-voltage switchgear, 656
Hogger capacities, for steam cycle heat exchangers, 265
Hollow fiber configuration, 491, 492
Horizon planning analysis, for transmission systems, 816
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Program (NASA), 795
Horizontal dry pit pumps, 328, 336
Horsepower
conveyor drive design and, 151-52
of fan brake, 292
Hot dry conversion technology, 801
Hot gas cleanup, and fluidized bed combustion, 707
Hot primary air (PA) fans, 210
Hot tests, of pumps, 347
Hot water air preheating coils, 205
Hot water distribution system, for cooling towers, 377
Humid air turbine cycle, 686
Humus, and formation of coal, 76
Hybrid variable pressure, of steam generators, 194, 242-43
Hydrated lime, 448
Hydraulic coupling, of boiler feed pumps, 394
Hydraulic Institute Standards, 310, 314, 318-20, 331, 333
Hydraulic oil system, in gas turbine, 670
Hydraulics, of boiler feed pump, 343
Hydroclones, 538
Hydroelectric power, 74
Hydrogasification, 712
Hydrogen fuel cell, 788
Hydrogen seal oil unit, 654
Hydrogen sulfide, 110
Hydrokinetic fluid coupling, 308
Hydrothermal conversion technologies, 800
Hydroviscous fluid coupling, 308-309, 394
Hyperbolic cooling towers, 363-64
Ice control, for cooling towers, 379-80, 381
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 774
Ideal gas, 48-50
Ignitors, for steam generators, 212-15, 216
Illinois Basin, coals deposits of, 76, 77, 91, 106
Illustrative analyses, for fuel oils, 109
Impedance and impedance relays, 553-54, 581, 585
Impellers, pump, 313-14868 Index
Impulse stage, turbine, 218-20
Income taxes, federal and local, 16
Incompressible liquids, 51
In-containment refueling water storage tank (IR-WST), 769
Independent power producers (IPPs), 6-7, 32
Indirect costs, 16, 32
Indirect fired combined cycle, 785-86
Individual permits, 831, 845
Indonesia, as producer of liquid natural gas, 82
Indoor transformers, 560
Induced draft cooling tower, 361-63
Induced draft (ID) fans, 216, 302, 303, 304-305, 306, 823
Induction machines, 565-66
Industrial process waste fuels, 85
Inertial confinement, of fusion energy, 805-806
Inflation, economic analyses and, 9, 116, 117
Initial deformation (ID) temperature. 107
Initial investment, fixed charges as j , rcent of, 17
Inlet air system, of gas turbine, 666-68
Inlet box vortex, 301-302
Inlet cone vortex, 301
Inlet dampers, 298-99, 302
Inlet ducts, of fans, 302
Inlet pressure loss, in gas turbine, 676-77
Inorganic constituents, in water, 465
Input-output method, of calculating boiler efficiency, 173-74
Input/output (I/O) unit, of computer, 621, 622
In situ СЕМ systems, 456, 458
In situ refining, of shale oil, 86
Insolation, solar, 789-90, 791
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 568, 590, 593,
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 779
Instrumentation, of steam turbine generator, 248
Insulation
for motors and generators, 566
steam generators and, 216
transformers and, 558-59
of underground transmission lines, 597-98
Insurance, as fixed cost, 16
Intake pumping structures, 358-61
Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle, 776, 778
Integration gasification combined cycle (IGCC), 783
Interactive steam tables, 56
Intercept valves, 230
Intercooled cycle, of gas turbine, 685, 686-87, 688
Intercooled reheat steam-injected gas turbine (IR-STIG), 687-88
Interest during construction (IDC), 36
Interference, cooling tower design and, 368-69
Interfuel competition, 119
Intermountain Power Agency (Utah), 161-64
Internal energy (u), as property of thermodynamics, AX-A2
Internal rate of return (IRR), 24, 818
Internal sealing systems, of turbines, 220
International business, economic opportunities for utility engineers and
firms, 7
International Conference of Clean Air Companies (ICAC), 420
International Energy Agency, 705
International Fuel Cell Company, 788
International Standards Organization (ISO), 102, 113, 675
International Thermonuclear Engineering Test Reactor (ITER), 805
Investor-owned utility (IOU), 35
Ion exchange process, 480-89
Ionic compounds, water as solvent for, 465
Iowa Power Co., 705
Ireland, peat-fueled power plants in, 85
Iron, coagulants in water, 474
Iron/manganese removal, from water, 480
Isentropic process, 50, 55, 64
Isolated phase bus duct, 567-68
Isolation valves, 515-16
Israel, compressed air energy storage facility in, 803
Italy, geothermal energy in, 801
Japan
compressed air energy storage facility in, 803
nuclear power in, 740, 759, 764, 775
tests of solid oxide fuel cells, 789
turbine designations, 225
Jar testing, of wastewaters, 532
Jersey Central Power and Light Company, 734
Jet condensers, 267
Joint European Tokamak, 805
Journal bearings, 234-35
Kelvin scale, 40
Kennebunk Test Facility (Pennsylvania), 786
Kerogens, in shale oil, 86
Kilovolt amperes (kVA), 222, 553
Kilovolt amps reactive (kVAR), 222
Kinetic energy (KE), 42
Kinetic pumps, 310-14
Kirchhoffs law, 551,581
Kvaerner wave-energy plant (Norway), 798
Ladder tracks, 645
Lagging, for steam generators, 216
Lake evaporation rates, 532
Lake vessels, 100. See also Barges; Shipping
Land disposal systems, onsite, 545-56
Landfills
closure of, 549-50
combustion waste disposal and, 524-25
dry disposal systems and, 546-48
EPA standards for sanitary, 524
gas recovery from, 712
leachate control for, 548-49
liner systems for, 549
methane from as fuel, 111
monitoring of, 550
for municipal waste, 84
permits for, 846
Land use permits, 847, 850
Lardello system (Italy), 801
Latent heat, 47
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent, 521
Leachate control, for landfills, 548-49
Lead Agency System, 848^9
Leak detection, in condensers, 265
Least-cost plan, and planning of power plants, 813
Levelization, economic, 32
Levelized annual cost method, 19-20, 24, 32, 38
Levelized annual fixed charges, 18
Levelized fixed charge rate, 18, 19, 32
Levelized values, 12-14, 34, 35
Lightning, and transmission lines, 597
Lignin, 77
Lignite coal, 79, 80
Lihue Plantation Co., 721
Lime-soda ash softening, 476
Lime softening, of water, 476
Lime spray dryer/absorber, 450-51
Limestone, handling systems for, 124-64
Limestone injection and dry scrubbing (LIDS) system, 439, 440
Limestone injection furnace activation of calcium (LIFAC), 439Index 8 6 9
Limestone injection multistage burners (LIMB), 438
Liner systems, for landfills, 549
Liquefaction, and resource recovery, 713
Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 81-83
Liquid-filled transformers, 559
Liquid fuel oil, 682-83
Liquid/gas fuel conversion technologies, 712-13, 727-28
Liquid immersed transformers, 559
Liquid transient analysis, of circulating water systems, 357-58
Liquid waste. See Wastewater
Lissajous Ellipse, 593
Lithuania, nuclear power in, 740
Ljungstrom air heater, 201-202
Load current duty requirements, 572
Load demand control, 609-10
Load flow studies, for transmission lines, 592, 815-16
Load forecasting, 811
Local distribution company (LDC), 121
Local permits, 847^t8
Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD), 382
Logs, control system, 637
Long-term coal supply agreements, 121-22
Longwall mining, 95
Loop design, for breeder reactor, 775
Loss-of-coolant (LOCA) events, 765, 766
Loss-of-field relay, 583
Loss of injection seal water test, 347
Lower heating value (LHV), 105, 170-71
Lowest achievable emission rate (LAER), 680
Low-nitrogen oxide burners, 428-29
Low Nitrogen Oxide Concentric Firing System (LNCFS), 429
Low-pressure exhaust pressure, 241
Low-pressure feedwater heaters, 274, 275, 388-89, 655
Low-pressure turbines, 224, 232, 233-34
Low-speed ball tube mill, 209, 210
Low-volume wastewater sources, 529
Lubrication
of gas turbines, 670
of motors and generators, 566-67
plant arrangements and, 654, 656
of steam turbines, 245-41
Luminescence spectroscopy, 455-56
Lurgi, CFB Technolgoy, 697
Luz Solar Electric Generation Systems (SEGS), 793
Lyell, Charles


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