كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering

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كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering    كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering  Emptyالثلاثاء 10 يناير 2023, 2:02 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering
In SI Units
For
Engineering Students of Various Disciplines
and Competitive Examinations (GATE, UPSC, etc.)
By
Er. R.K. RAJPUT
M.E. (Hons.), Gold Medallist; Grad. (Mech. Engg. & Elect. Engg.) ;
M.I.E. (India) ; M.S.E.S.I. ; M.I.S.T.E. ; C.E. (India)
Recipient of :
‘‘Best Teacher (Academic) Award’’
‘‘Distinguished Author Award’’
‘‘Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Gold Medal’’
for an outstanding research paper
(Institution of Engineers–India)
Principal (Formerly):
Thapar Polytechnic College
Punjab College of Information Technology

كتاب A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering  P_p_e_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


PATIALA
INTRODUCTION TO SI UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS (xix)–(xxiv)
1. INTRODUCTION ... 1–19
1.1. Energy and Power ... 1
1.2. Sources of Energy ... 1
1.2.1. Fuels ... 2
1.2.2. Energy stored in water ... 5
1.2.3. Nuclear energy ... 5
1.2.4. Wind power ... 5
1.2.5. Solar energy ... 6
1.2.6. Tidal power ... 6
1.2.7. Geothermal energy ... 7
1.2.8. Thermoelectric power ... 7
1.3. Principal Types of Power Plants ... 7
1.4. Combustion of Fuels ... 8
1.4.1. Combustion chemistry ... 8
1.4.2. How to convert volumetric analysis to weight analysis ? ... 9
1.4.3. How to convert weight analysis to volumetric analysis ? ... 9
1.4.4. Weight of air required for complete combustion of fuel ... 9
1.4.5. Excess air ... 9
1.4.6. Weight of carbon in flue gases ... 10
1.4.7. Weight of flue gas per kg of fuel burnt ... 10
Worked Examples ... 10
Highlights ... 17
Theoretical Questions ... 18
Unsolved Examples ... 18
2. POWER PLANT CYCLES ... 20–57
2.1. Introduction ... 20
2.2. Classification of Power Plant Cycles ... 20
2.3. Carnot Cycle ... 20
2.4. Rankine Cycle ... 21
2.5. Modified Rankine Cycle ... 28
2.6. Reheat Cycle ... 31
2.7. Regenerative Cycle ... 35
2.8. Binary Vapour Cycle ... 40
2.9. Otto Cycle ... 44
2.10. Diesel Cycle ... 48
2.11. Dual Combustion Cycle ... 50
2.12. Gas Turbine Cycles ... 55
Highlights ... 55
Theoretical Questions ... 55
Unsolved Examples ... 56
Contents
Chapter Pages
( v )Chapter Pages
3. STEAM POWER PLANT ... 58–217
3.1. Introduction ... 58
3.2 Classification of Steam Power Plants ... 59
3.3. Layout of a Modern Steam Power Plant ... 59
3.4 Essential Requirements of Steam Power Station Design ... 60
3.5. Selection of Site for Steam Power Station ... 60
3.6. Capacity of Steam Power Plant ... 62
3.7. Choice of Steam Conditions ... 62
3.8. Fuel Handling ... 63
3.8.1. Introduction ... 63
3.8.2. Requirements of good coal handling plant ... 63
3.8.3. Coal handling systems ... 64
3.8.4. Coal handling ... 64
3.8.5. Layout of a fuel handling equipment ... 68
3.9. Combustion Equipment for Steam Boilers ... 68
3.9.1. General aspects ... 68
3.9.2. Combustion equipment for solid fuels—selection considerations ... 69
3.9.3. Burning of coal ... 69
3.9.4. Burners ... 76
3.10. Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) ... 81
3.11. Ash Handling ... 82
3.11.1. Ash handling equipment ... 82
3.11.2. Ash handling systems ... 83
3.12. Dust Collection ... 85
3.12.1. Introduction ... 85
3.12.2. Removal of smoke ... 85
3.12.3. Removal of dust and dust collectors ... 86
3.12.4. Efficiency of dust collectors ... 88
3.12.5. Installation of dust collectors ... 88
3.12.6. Uses of ash and dust ... 88
3.12.7. General layout of ash handling and dust collection system ... 88
3.12.8. Flyash—Its composition, disposal and applications ... 89
3.13. Chimney Draught ... 90
3.13.1. Definition and classification of draught ... 90
3.13.2. Natural draught ... 90
3.13.3. Chimney height and diameter ... 91
3.13.4. Condition for maximum discharge through a chimney ... 92
3.13.5. Efficiency of a chimney ... 93
3.13.6. Draught losses ... 93
3.13.7. Artificial draught ... 93
3.13.8. Forced draught ... 93
3.13.9. Induced draught ... 94
3.13.10. Balanced draught ... 94
3.13.11. Advantages of mechanical draught ... 94
3.13.12. Steam jet draught ... 94
Worked Examples ... 94
3.14. Boilers ... 97
3.14.1. Introduction ... 97
3.14.2. Classification of boilers ... 97
3.14.3. Comparison between ‘fire-tube and water-tube’ boilers ... 98
3.14.4. Selection of a boiler ... 98
3.14.5. Essentials of a good steam boiler ... 98
( vi )3.14.6. Boiler terms ... 99
3.14.7. Fire tube boilers ... 99
3.14.8. Water tube boilers ... 103
3.14.9. High pressure boilers ... 105
3.15. Accessories ... 111
3.15.1. Feed pumps ... 111
3.15.2. Injector ... 111
3.15.3. Economiser ... 112
3.15.4. Air preheater ... 113
3.15.5. Superheater ... 114
3.15.6. Steam separator ... 115
3.16. Feed Water Heaters and Evaporators ... 115
3.16.1. Feed water heaters ... 115
3.16.2. Miscellaneous heaters ... 117
3.16.3. Evaporators ... 117
3.16.4. Typical utility cycle layout ... 117
3.17. Performance of Boilers ... 118
3.17.1. Evaporative capacity ... 118
3.17.2. Equivalent evaporation ... 118
3.17.3. Factor of evaporation ... 119
3.17.4. Boiler efficiency ... 119
3.17.5. Heat losses in a boiler plant ... 119
3.18. Steam Nozzles ... 123
3.18.1. Introduction ... 123
3.18.2. Steam flow through nozzles ... 124
3.18.3. Discharge through the nozzle and conditions for its
maximum value ... 124
3.18.4. Nozzle efficiency ... 126
3.18.5. Supersaturated or metastable expansion of steam in a nozzle ... 127
3.19. Steam Turbines ... 130
3.19.1. Introduction ... 130
3.19.2. Classification of steam turbines ... 131
3.19.3. Advantages of steam turbine over the steam engines ... 132
3.19.4. Description of common types of turbines ... 132
3.19.5. Methods of reducing wheel or rotor speed ... 133
3.19.6. Difference between impulse and reaction turbines ... 135
3.19.7. Impulse turbines ... 135
3.19.8. Reaction turbines ... 140
3.19.9. Turbine efficiencies ... 142
3.19.10. Types of power in steam turbine practice ... 143
3.19.11. Energy losses in steam turbines ... 143
3.19.12. Steam turbine governing and control ... 144
3.19.13. Special forms of turbines ... 146
3.20. Steam Condensers ... 157
3.20.1. Introduction ... 157
3.20.2. Vacuum ... 157
3.20.3. Organs of a steam condensing plant ... 157
3.20.4. Classification of condensers ... 157
3.20.5. Jet condensers ... 157
3.20.6. Surface condensers ... 159
3.20.7. Reasons for inefficiency in surface condensers ... 160
3.20.8. Comparison between jet and surface condensers ... 161
3.20.9. Selection of condenser ... 161
Chapter Pages
( vii )3.20.10. Sources of air in condensers ... 161
3.20.11. Effects of air leakage in condenser ... 161
3.20.12. Method for obtaining maximum vacuum in condensers ... 161
3.20.13. Vacuum measurement ... 162
3.20.14. Vacuum efficiency ... 162
3.20.15. Condenser efficiency ... 162
3.20.16. Determination of mass of cooling water ... 162
3.20.17. Heat transmission through walls of tubes of a surface
condenser ... 163
3.20.18. Methods of cleaning condenser tubes ... 163
3.21. Cooling Ponds and Cooling Towers ... 164
3.21.1. Introduction ... 164
3.21.2. River or sea ... 164
3.21.3. Cooling ponds ... 164
3.21.4. Spray ponds ... 165
3.21.5. Cooling towers ... 165
3.21.6. Dry cooling towers ... 167
3.21.7. Maintenance of cooling towers ... 168
3.22. Feed Water Treatment ... 176
3.22.1. Classification of impurities in water ... 176
3.22.2. Troubles caused by the impurities in water ... 177
3.22.3. Methods of feed water treatment ... 178
3.22.4. pH value of water ... 181
3.23. Piping System ... 181
3.23.1. Requirements of steam piping system ... 181
3.23.2. Materials used for pipes ... 182
3.23.3. Insulation of steam piping ... 182
3.23.4. Steam pipe fittings ... 182
3.23.5. Pipe expansion bends ... 183
3.24. Advantages and Disadvantages of Steam Power Plants ... 183
3.25. Miscellaneous ... 184
3.25.1. Plant arrangement ... 184
3.25.2. Useful life of steam power plant components ... 185
3.25.3. Steam power plant pumps ... 185
3.25.4. Cost of steam power plant ... 185
3.25.5. Comparison of various types of power plants ... 186
3.25.6. Thermal power stations in India ... 187
3.25.7. Indian boilers act ... 187
Additional/Typical Examples ... 191
Highlights ... 206
Theoretical Questions ... 207
Unsolved Examples ... 208
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 212
4. DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT ... 218–264
4.1. Introduction ... 218
4.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Diesel Power Plants ... 218
4.3. Applications of Diesel Power Plant ... 219
4.4. Site Selection ... 219
4.5. Heat Engines ... 219
4.6. Classification of I.C. Engines ... 219
Chapter Pages
( viii )4.7. Different Parts of I.C. Engines ... 220
4.8. Terms Connected with I.C. Engines ... 220
4.9. Four Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines ... 221
4.10. Two Stroke Cycle Diesel Engines ... 222
4.11. Comparison of Four Stroke and Two Stroke Cycle Engines ... 223
4.12. Comparison Between a Petrol Engine and a Diesel Engine ... 223
4.13. Essential Components of a Diesel Power Plant ... 224
4.13.1. Engine ... 224
4.13.2. Air intake system ... 224
4.13.3. Exhaust system ... 225
4.13.4. Fuel system ... 225
4.13.5. Cooling systems ... 228
4.13.6. Lubrication systems ... 232
4.13.7. Engine starting system ... 234
4.13.8. Governing system ... 235
4.14. Combustion Phenomenon in C.I. Engines ... 235
4.15. Delay Period (or Ignition Lag) in C.I. Engines ... 237
4.16. Diesel Knock ... 237
4.17. Cetane Number ... 237
4.18. Basic Designs of C.I. Engine Combustion Chambers ... 238
4.19. Supercharging ... 239
4.20. Operation of a Diesel Power Plant ... 241
4.21. Types of Diesel Engine used for Diesel Power Plants ... 241
4.22. Layout of a Diesel Engine Power Plant ... 242
4.23. Performance of I.C. Engines ... 242
Worked Examples ... 248
Highlights ... 260
Theoretical Questions ... 261
Unsolved Examples ... 261
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 263
5. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS ... 265–322
5.1. Gas Turbines—General Aspects ... 265
5.2. Applications of Gas Turbine Plants ... 265
5.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gas Turbine
Power Plants Over Diesel and Thermal Power Plants ... 266
5.4. Site Selection ... 266
5.5. The Simple Gas Turbine Plant ... 267
5.6. Energy Cycle for a Simple-Cycle Gas Turbine ... 267
5.7. Performance Terms ... 268
5.8. Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plants ... 268
5.9. Classification of Gas Turbines ... 268
5.10. Merits of Gas Turbines ... 268
5.11. Constant Pressure Combustion Gas Turbines ... 269
5.11.1. Open cycle gas turbines ... 269
5.11.2. Methods for improvement of thermal efficiency of open
cycle gas turbine plant ... 270
5.11.3. Closed cycle gas turbine (constant pressure or joule cycle) ... 273
5.11.4. Merits and demerits of closed cycle turbine over open cycle turbine ... 277
5.12. Constant Volume Combustion Turbines ... 277
5.13. Gas Turbine Fuels ... 278
Chapter Pages
( ix )5.14. Effect of Operating Variables on Thermal Efficiency ... 278
5.15 Combination Gas Turbine Cycles ... 280
5.15.1. Combined gas turbine and steam power plants ... 280
5.15.2. Combined gas turbine and diesel power plants ... 281
5.15.3. Advantages of combined cycle ... 282
5.16. Operation of a Gas Turbine ... 282
5.17. Gas Turbine Power Plant Layout ... 283
5.18. Components of a Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 283
5.19. Various Arrangements of Gas Turbine Power Plants ... 285
5.20. Effect of Thermodynamic Variables on Air Rate ... 288
5.21. Free-Piston Engine Plant ... 289
5.22. Relative Thermal Efficiencies of Different Cycles ... 290
Worked Examples ... 291
Additional/Typical Examples ... 304
Highlights ... 319
Theoretical Questions ... 319
Unsolved Examples ... 319
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 321
6. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT ... 323–394
6.1. Introduction ... 323
6.2. Application of Hydro-electric Plants ... 324
6.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydro-electric Plants ... 324
6.4. Selection of Site for a Hydro-electric Plant ... 324
6.5. Essential Features/Elements of Hydro-electric Power Plant ... 325
6.5.1. Catchment area ... 325
6.5.2. Reservoir ... 325
6.5.3. Dam ... 325
6.5.4. Spillways ... 328
6.5.5. Conduits ... 330
6.5.6. Surge tanks ... 331
6.5.7. Prime movers ... 333
6.5.8. Draft tubes ... 333
6.5.9. Powerhouse and equipment ... 334
6.6. Classification of Hydro-electric Power Plants ... 334
6.6.1. High head power plants ... 334
6.6.2. Medium head power plants ... 335
6.6.3. Low head power plants ... 335
6.6.4. Base load plants ... 336
6.6.5. Peak load plants ... 336
6.6.6. Run-of-river plants without pondage ... 336
6.6.7. Run-of-river plant with pondage ... 336
6.6.8. Storage type plants ... 336
6.6.9. Pumped storage plants ... 336
6.6.10. Mini and microhydel plants ... 337
6.7. Hydraulic Turbines ... 337
6.7.1. Classification of hydraulic turbines ... 337
6.7.2. Description of various types of turbines ... 338
6.7.3. Specific speed of a turbine ... 348
6.7.4. Efficiencies of a turbine ... 350
6.7.5. Cavitation ... 351
6.7.6. Performance of hydraulic turbines ... 352
Chapter Pages
( x )6.7.7. Governing of hydraulic turbines ... 354
6.7.8. Selection of turbines ... 356
6.8. Plant Layout ... 357
6.9. Hydro-plant Auxiliaries ... 357
6.10. Cost of Hydro-plant ... 357
6.11. Average Life of Hydro-plant Components ... 358
6.12. Hydro-plant Controls ... 358
6.13. Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in a Hydro-plant ... 358
6.14. Combined Hydro and Steam Power Plants ... 359
6.15. Comparison of Hydro-power Station with Thermal Power Stations ... 359
6.16. Underground Hydro-plants ... 360
6.17. Automatic and Remote Control of Hydro-station ... 361
6.18. Safety Measures in Hydro-electric Power Plants ... 361
6.19. Preventive Maintenance of Hydro-plant ... 362
6.20. Calculation of Available Hydro-power ... 362
6.21. Cost of Hydro-power ... 362
6.22. Hydrology ... 362
6.22.1. Introduction ... 362
6.22.2. The hydrologic cycle ... 363
6.22.3. Measurement of run-off ... 363
6.22.4. Hydrograph ... 364
6.22.5. Flow duration curve ... 365
6.22.6. Mass curve ... 366
6.23. Hydro-Power Development in India ... 366
Worked Examples ... 367
Highlights ... 389
Theoretical Questions ... 390
Unsolved Examples ... 390
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 392
7. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ... 395–431
7.1. General Aspects of Nuclear Engineering ... 395
7.1.1. Atomic structure ... 395
7.1.2. Atomic mass unit ... 396
7.1.3. Isotopes ... 397
7.1.4. Radioactivity ... 397
7.1.5. Nuclear radiation ... 397
7.1.6. Binding energy ... 399
7.1.7. Radioactive decay ... 399
7.1.8. Nuclear reactions ... 400
7.1.9. Nuclear cross-sections ... 401
7.1.10. Fertile materials ... 402
7.1.11. Fission of nuclear fuel ... 402
7.1.12. Nuclear fusion ... 404
7.1.13. Comparison of fission and fusion processes ... 404
7.2. Nuclear Power Systems ... 405
7.3. Nuclear Reactors ... 406
7.3.1. Introduction ... 406
7.3.2. Classification of nuclear reactors ... 406
7.3.3. Essential components of a nuclear reactor ... 407
7.3.4. Power of a nuclear reactor ... 410
7.4. Main Components of a Nuclear Power Plant ... 410
Chapter Pages
( xi )7.5. Description of Reactors ... 410
7.5.1. Pressurised water reactor (PWR) ... 410
7.5.2. Boiling water reactor (BWR) ... 411
7.5.3. CANDU (Canadian-Deuterium-Uranium) reactor ... 412
7.5.4. Gas-cooled reactor ... 413
7.5.5. Liquid metal cooled reactors ... 414
7.5.6. Breeder reactor ... 415
7.6. Selection of Materials for Reactor Components ... 415
7.7. Metals for Nuclear Energy ... 417
7.8. Advantages of Nuclear Power Plants ... 419
7.9. Nuclear-Plant Site Selection ... 420
7.10. Application of Nuclear Power Plants ... 422
7.11. Economics of Nuclear Power Plants ... 422
7.12. Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants ... 424
7.13. Nuclear Power Plants in India ... 424
7.14. Future of Nuclear Power ... 425
7.15. Useful by-products of Nuclear Power Generation and Their Uses ... 425
Worked Examples ... 426
Highlights ... 429
Theoretical Questions ... 430
Unsolved Examples ... 431
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 431
8. COMBINED OPERATION OF DIFFERENT POWER PLANTS ... 432–441
8.1. General Aspects ... 432
8.2. Advantages of Combined Operation of Plants ... 432
8.3. Load Division Between Power Stations ... 432
8.4. Hydro-electric (storage type) Plant in Combination with Steam Plant ... 434
8.5. Run-of-river Plant in Combination with Steam Plant ... 435
8.6. Pump Storage Plant in Combination with Steam
or Nuclear Power Plant ... 435
8.7. Co-ordination of Hydro-electric and Gas Turbine Stations ... 436
8.8. Co-ordination of Different Types of Power Plants ... 436
Worked Examples ... 437
Theoretical Questions ... 440
Unsolved Examples ... 440
9. ECONOMICS OF POWER GENERATION ... 442–493
9.1. Introduction ... 442
9.2. Terms and Definitions ... 442
9.3. Principles of Power Plant Design ... 444
9.4. Location of Power Plant ... 444
9.5. Layout of Power Plant Building ... 445
9.6. Cost Analysis ... 445
9.7. Selection of Type of Generation ... 447
9.8. Selection of Power Plant Equipment ... 448
9.8.1. Selection of boilers ... 448
9.8.2. Selection of prime movers ... 448
9.8.3. Selection of size and number of generating units ... 449
9.9. Economics in Plant Selection ... 449
9.10. Factors Affecting Economics of Generation and Distribution of Power ... 451
9.11. How to Reduce Power Generation Cost ? ... 451
Chapter Pages
( xii )9.12. Power Plant—Useful Life ... 451
9.13. Economics of Hydro-electric Power Plants ... 452
9.14. Economics of Combined Hydro and Steam Power Plants ... 452
9.15. Performance and Operating Characteristics of Power Plants ... 453
9.16. Economic Load Sharing ... 454
9.17. Tariff for Electrical Energy ... 455
9.17.1. Introduction ... 455
9.17.2. Objectives and requirements of tariff ... 455
9.17.3. General tariff form ... 456
Worked Examples ... 458
Additional/Typical Examples ... 482
Highlights ... 484
Theoretical Questions ... 485
Unsolved Examples ... 485
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 491
10. NON-CONVENTIONAL POWER GENERATION AND DIRECT ENERGY
CONVERSION ... 494–535
10.1. Introduction to Energy and Energy Sources ... 494
10.1.1. Energy ... 494
10.1.2. Non-conventional energy sources ... 497
10.2. Wind Power Plants ... 497
10.2.1. Introduction ... 497
10.2.2. Characteristics of wind ... 497
10.2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy ... 497
10.2.4. Sources/Origins of wind ... 498
10.2.5. Wind availability and measurement ... 498
10.2.6. Wind power ... 499
10.2.7. Terms and definitions ... 500
10.2.8. Types of wind mills ... 501
10.2.9. Wind-electric generating power plant ... 502
10.2.10. Types of wind machines ... 503
10.2.11. Utilisation aspects of wind energy ... 503
10.2.12. Generating systems ... 504
10.2.13. Wind-powered battery chargers ... 505
10.2.14. Wind electricity in small independent grids ... 505
10.2.15. Wind electricity economics ... 505
10.2.16. Problems in operating large wind power generators ... 506
10.2.17. Considerations for selection of site for wind energy conversion systems ... 506
10.3. Tidal Power Plants—Ocean Energy Conversion ... 506
10.3.1. Ocean energy sources—General aspects ... 506
10.3.2. Tidal power plants ... 506
10.3.3. Wave energy ... 508
10.3.4. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant ... 509
10.4. Solar Power Plants ... 510
10.4.1. Solar energy—General terms and introduction ... 510
10.4.2. Collectors in various ranges and applications ... 511
10.4.3. Flat plate collectors ... 512
10.4.4. Focusing (or concentrating) collectors ... 513
10.4.5. Solar pond technology ... 513
10.4.6. Low temperature thermal power generation ... 514
10.4.7. Medium temperature systems using focusing collectors ... 516
10.4.8. High temperature systems—solar farm and solar power plant ... 516
Chapter Pages
( xiii )10.5. Geothermal Power Plants ... 516
10.5.1. Geothermal energy ... 516
10.5.2. Geothermal sources ... 517
10.5.3. Geothermal power estimates ... 518
10.5.4. Environmental problems ... 518
10.5.5. Applications of geothermal energy ... 518
10.5.6. Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy over
other energy forms ... 518
10.5.7. Geothermal energy in India and abroad ... 518
10.6. Biogas Plants-Biomass ... 519
10.6.1. Introduction to biomass ... 519
10.6.2 Biomass conversion processes ... 519
10.6.3. Biogas plants ... 520
10.7. Direct Energy Conversion Systems ... 525
10.7.1. Thermoelectric conversion system ... 525
10.7.2. Thermionic conversion system ... 526
10.7.3. Photovoltaic power system ... 527
10.7.4. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system ... 529
10.7.5. Electrostatic mechanical generators ... 531
10.7.6. Electro gas-dynamic generators (EGD) ... 531
10.7.7. Fuel cells ... 532
10.7.8. Nuclear batteries ... 533
Highlights ... 534
Theoretical Questions ... 534
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 535
11. PLANT INSTRUMENTATION ... 536–557
11.1. General Aspects ... 536
11.2. Classification of Instruments ... 536
11.3. Pressure Gauges ... 537
11.3.1. Pressure ... 537
11.3.2. Types of pressure measurement devices ... 537
11.3.3. Mechanical type instruments ... 537
11.3.4. Electrical transducers ... 540
11.4. Thermometers ... 541
11.4.1. Temperature ... 541
11.4.2. Temperature measuring instruments ... 541
11.5. Liquid Level Gauges ... 545
11.5.1. Gauge glass ... 545
11.5.2. Electrical level gauges ... 546
11.6. Flow Meters ... 547
11.7. pH Measuring Instruments ... 547
11.8. Gas Analysers ... 547
11.9. Humidity Measuring Instruments ... 550
11.10. Impurity Measuring Instruments ... 552
11.11. Speed Measuring Instruments ... 553
11.12. Steam Calorimeters and Fuel Calorimeters ... 553
11.12.1. Steam calorimeters ... 553
11.12.2. Fuel calorimeters ... 555
Highlights ... 557
Theoretical Questions ... 557
Chapter Pages
( xiv )12. MAJOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN POWER PLANTS ... 558–629
12.1. Introduction ... 558
12.2. Generating Equipment ... 558
12.2.1. Classification ... 558
12.2.2. Two-wire direct current generators ... 558
12.2.3. Alternator current generators ... 577
12.3. Transformers ... 590
12.3.1. General aspects ... 590
12.3.2. Basic definitions ... 591
12.3.3. Working principle of a transformer ... 591
12.3.4. Transformer ratings ... 591
12.3.5. Kinds of transformers ... 592
12.3.6. Transformer construction ... 592
12.3.7. Transformer windings, terminals, tappings and bushings ... 594
12.3.8. Transformer cooling ... 596
12.3.9. Three phase transformer ... 597
12.3.10. Instrument transformers ... 603
12.3.11. Constant current transformers ... 605
12.4. Switchgear ... 605
12.4.1. Functions of a switchgear ... 605
12.4.2. Switches ... 605
12.4.3. Fuses ... 606
12.4.4. Circuit breakers ... 607
12.4.5. Types of switchgear ... 609
12.5. Protection of Electrical Systems ... 609
12.5.1. General aspects ... 609
12.5.2. Different types of relays ... 610
12.5.3. Alternator protection ... 612
12.5.4. Transformer protection ... 613
12.5.5. Bus protection ... 613
12.5.6. Protection of transmission lines ... 614
12.6. Short-circuits in Electrical Installations and Limiting Methods ... 615
12.7. Control Room ... 616
12.8. Earthing of a Power System ... 617
12.9. Electrical Equipment-Layout ... 619
12.10. Voltage Regulation ... 620
12.11. Transmission of Electric Power ... 620
12.11.1. System of transmission ... 620
12.11.2. Line supports ... 621
12.11.3. Conductor material ... 622
12.11.4. Line insulators ... 622
12.11.5. Distribution systems ... 622
12.11.6. Underground cables ... 623
12.12. Substations ... 624
12.12.1. Classification of substations ... 624
12.13. Indian Electricity Act ... 625
Highlights ... 627
Theoretical Questions ... 628
Competitive Examinations Questions ... 629
Chapter Pages
( xv )13. POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL ... 630–636
13.1. Introduction ... 630
13.2. Pollution from Thermal Power Plants ... 630
13.2.1. Gaseous emission and its control ... 630
13.2.2. Particulate emission and its control ... 632
13.2.3. Solid waste disposal ... 634
13.2.4. Thermal pollution ... 634
13.3. Pollution from Nuclear Power Plants ... 635
13.4. Pollution from Hydro-electric Power Plants and Solar Power
Generating Stations ... 635
Highlights ... 636
Theoretical Questions ... 636
14. ‘GATE’ AND ‘UPSC’ EXAMINATIONS’ QUESTIONS (Latest-selected) WITH
ANSWERS/SOLUTIONS ... 637–661
A. Conventional Questions with Answers/Solutions ... 637
B. Multiple-Choice Questions with Answers and “Explanations” ... 652
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS BANK ... 663–688
INDEX ... 689–691
STEAM TABLES AND MOLLIER DIAGRAM (SI UNITS) ... 1–20
Chapter Pages
CONTENTS
Table No. Page No.
1. Saturated Water and Steam (Temperature) Tables I … (iv)
2. Saturated Water and Steam (Pressure) Tables II … (vi)
3. Superheated Steam at Various Pressures and Temperatures III … (xiv)
4. Supercritical Steam IV … (xviii)
5. Conversion Factors V … (xix)
SYMBOLS AND UNITS USED IN THE TABLES
t = Temperature, °C
t
s = Saturation temperature, °C
p = Pressure, bar
h
f = Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, kJ/kg
h
fg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation (latent heat), kJ/kg
h
g = Specific enthalpy of saturated vapour, kJ/kg
s
f = Specific entropy of saturated liquid, kJ/kg K
s
fg = Specific entropy of evaporation, kJ/kg K
s
g = Specific entropy of saturated vapour, kJ/kg K
v
f = Specific volume of saturated liquid, m3/kg
v
g = Specific volume of saturated steam, m3/kg
A
Air preheater, 113
Ash handling, 82
B
Binary vapour cycle, 40
Boilers, 97
Babcock and Wilcox, 103
boiler terms, 99
classification of, 97
Cochran, 100
essentials of a good steam, 98
high pressure, 97, 105
– Benson, 108
– LaMont, 106
– Loeffler, 107
– Velox, 109
Lancashire, 101
Locomotive, 102
performance of, 118
– boiler efficiency, 119
– equivalent evaporation, 118
– evaporative capacity, 118
selection of, 98
simple vertical, 99
Striling, 104
supercharged, 110
supercritical, 109
Boilers Act (Indian), 187
C
Cetane number, 237
Chimney draught, 90
artificial draught, 93
natural draught, 90
Chimney height, 91
Cinder catchers, 633
Coal, 2
analysis of, 2
properties of, 3
ranking of, 3
grading of, 3
Cooling ponds and cooling towers, 164
Cyclone burners, 77
D
Diesel cycle, 48
Diesel engine power plant, 218
advantages and disadvantages, 218
applications, 219
essential components, 224
introduction, 218
layout, 242
operation, 241
Diesel knock, 237
Draft tubes, 333
Dual combustion cycle, 50
Dulong’s formula, 5
Dust collection, 85
E
Economiser, 112
Economics of power generation, 442
cost analysis, 445
economic load sharing, 454
location of power plant, 444
selection of equipment, 448
terms and definitions, 442
Excess air, 9
F
Feed pumps, 111
Feed water heaters, 115
Feed water treatment, 176
Index
689690 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Fluidised bed combustion, 81
Fuels, 1
calorific values of, 4
classification of, 2
combustion of, 8
gaseous, 4
liquid, 3
solid, 3
Fuel cells, 532
G
Gas burners, 80
Geothermal energy, 7
Generating equipment, 558
alternator current generators, 577
– constructional details, 578
– voltage regulation, 620
classification, 558
direct current generators, 558
electrical equipment-layout, 619
– double busbar system, 619
– ring busbar system, 620
– single busbar system, 619
protection of electrical systems, 609
– types of relays, 610
reactors, 615
substations, 624
switchgear, 605
– circuit breakers, 607
– functions of, 605
– fuses, 606
– switches, 605
transformers, 590
– cooling methods, 596
– current, 604
– kinds of, 592
– potential, 603
– three phase, 597
– windings, 594
– working principle, 591
Geothermal power plants, 516
Geothermal sources, 517
H
Hydro-plant auxiliaries, 357
average life, 358
controls, 358
cost, 357
electrical and mechanical equipment, 358
underground hydro-plants, 360
Hydraulic turbines, 337
cavitation, 351
classification of, 337
governing of, 354
impulse turbines, 338
performance of, 352
reaction turbines, 341
selection of, 356
specific speed, 348
Hydrology, 362
flow duration curve, 365
hydrograph, 364
hydrologic cycle, 363
introduction, 362
mass curve, 366
I
I.C. engines, 219
classification, 219
different parts of, 220
terms connected with, 220
Injector, 111
M
MHD system, 529
N
Nuclear batteries, 533
Nuclear fuel, 402
Nuclear fusion, 404
Nuclear power systems, 405
Nuclear radiation, 397
Nuclear reactions, 400
Nuclear reactors, 406
boiling water reactor, 411
breeder reactor, 407, 415
CANDU reactor, 412
essential components, 407
gas-cooled reactor, 413
liquid metal cooled reactors, 414
pressurised water reactor, 410
O
Oil burners, 78
Otto cycle, 44
P
Plant instrumentation, 536
flow meters, 547
fuel calorimeters, 555
gas analysers, 547
humidity measuring instruments, 550
impurity measuring instruments, 552
liquid level gauges, 545INDEX 691
pH measuring instruments, 547
pressure gauges, 537
speed measuring instruments, 553
steam calorimeters, 553
thermometers, 541
– optical pyrometers, 545
– radiation pyrometer, 545
– thermocouple thermometers, 543
R
Rankine cycle, 21
Regenerative cycle, 35
Reheat cycle, 31
S
Solar energy, 6
Solar power plants, 510
flat plate collectors, 512
focusing collectors, 513
solar pond technology, 513
Sources of energy, 1
Steam power plant, 58
accessories, 111
ash handling, 82
boilers, 97
capacity of, 62
classification of, 59
fuel handling, 63
– coal handling, 64
– layout of, 59
governing of, 144
– by-pass governing, 145
– nozzle governing, 145
– throttle governing, 144
layout of a, 59
pulverised fuel burners, 76
– cyclone burners, 77
– long flame burners, 76
– tangential burners, 77
– turbulent burners, 77
pulverised fuel firing, 73
steam condensers, 157
– condenser efficiency, 162
– jet condensers, 157
– surface condensers, 157, 159
– vacuum efficiency, 162
steam nozzles, 123
steam turbines, 130
– compounding, 133
– Parson’s reaction turbine, 141
– reaction turbine, 133
– simple impulse turbine, 132
Supercharging, 239
Surge tanks, 331
T
Tangential burners, 77
Thermal discharge index (TDI), 634
Thermoelectric power, 7
Tidal power, 6
Tidal power plants, 506
classification of, 507
advantages and limitations of, 508
W
Wind power plants, 497
types of wind mills, 501
wind availability and measurement, 498
wind-powered battery chargers, 505


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