كتاب Die Casting Engineering
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 كتاب Die Casting Engineering

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Die Casting Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Die Casting Engineering    كتاب Die Casting Engineering  Emptyالسبت 31 ديسمبر 2022, 1:29 am

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Die Casting Engineering
A Hydraulic, Thermal, and Mechanical Process
Bill Andresen

كتاب Die Casting Engineering  D_c_e_10
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Contents
Preface iii
About the Author v
Introduction ix
1. Terms Used in Die Casting 1
2. Product Design . 21
3. The Die Casting Machine . 69
4. Casting Metallurgy 105
5. Metal Handling . 139
6. Concepts of Cavity Fill . 175
7. Metal Feed System . 185
8. Process Control . 209
vii9. A Thermal Process . 237
10. Designing the Value Stream . 263
11. Die Materials . 289
12. Mechanical Die Design . 305
13. Die Set Up Techniques . 339
14. Die and Plunger Lubrication 353
15. Safety . 365
References 375
Index 37
Index
APQP, advanced product
quality planning, 235
Air in the cavity, 203
core slides and
ejector pins, 203
Allowance for shrinkage, 325
shrink factor, 326
Angle pin, 329
core movement, 329
Atomized mist, 182
Base metal, 239
Basic linear tolerances, 50
Biscuit thickness
consistency, 210
Brinell system, 2
Cast shape, 180
Casting cycle, 4
Casting defects, 54
Casting quality, 54
Cavitation, 133
small pits, 133
Cavity fill, 6
Cavity fill time, 177, 202
fill pattern, 178
gate area, 202
gate speed, 202
Cavity insert size, 318
Cavity orientation, 318
Cavity prefill, 180
Center gating, 327
Chisel gate, 196
Cleanliness, 89
die casting operation, 89
Cold chamber process, 225
Cold shut defects, 177
poor fill, 270
porosity, defects, 186
Conductor, 242
copper, 243
Constant area sprue, 187
male post and female
bushing, 187
379Constant velocity mode, 212
Control charts, 266
Control lines, 266
lower control limit, 266
upper control limit, 266
Core pulls, 309, 329
Corundum, 157
dense form of aluminum
oxide, 157
Cost justification, 307
Creep or stress corrosion
cracking, 47
Critical design feature, 44
Critical temperatures, 107
Crystal or grain, 109
Cylinder intensifiers, 210
Degree of complexity, 23
Dendrite, 113
Dendrite fingers, 114
arms, 114
Design characteristics, 143
Die and plunger lubricants, 353
release agents, 353
Die blow, 26
degree of difficulty, 26
Die casting alloys, 239
Die casting defects, 263
Die casting engineer, 40
best casting design, 40
good die caster, 40
Die casting machines, 73
cold-chambered machines, 74
hot-chambered machines, 74
Die castings, 105, 108
aluminum, magnesium, zinc,
lead or tin, 105
dense structure, 108
fine grain size, 108
superior mechanical
properties, 108
Die casting suppliers, 235
Die checking, 290
die spray duration, 290
Die configuration, 309
Die design, 25
die halves, 25
Die height adjustment, 84
loosening tie bar nuts, 84
tightening tie bar nuts, 84
Die layout, 316
die half, 316
Die life, 300
ion nitriding, ball peening,
rocklinizing, solventing, 300
Die material costs, 186
Die materials, 289
air, oil, or water hardened, 289
mild steel alloys, 289
Die pitting, 201
Die preheating, 343
Draft allowance, 52
Draft angles, 327
Dross, 160
Economic dimensions, 63
Ejection systems, 95
bump bar system, 95
hydraulic system, 95
Electrical discharge
machining, 293
Electrodeposition, 8
Electroplating, 3
Emulsion, 357
European die caster, 5
Eutectic, 115
Eutectic or lowest melting
point, 239
Excessive flash, 210
Expansion, 131
Failure mechanism, 291
gross cracking, 291
heat checking, 291
Fast shot plunger velocity, 309
Fill strategy, 318
First shot success, 32
Fit tolerances, 218
380 Index
5935-4 Andresen Ch00 R3 101504Flow control valve, 87
velocity of movement, 87
Fluidity of the casting alloy, 39
designing wall thickness, 39
Furnace charts, 300
Galvanic corrosion, 48
electromotive scale, 48
Gate design, 193
Gate speed, 182
serious erosion, 182
turbulence, 182
Gating and venting, 306
Geometric tolerances, 24
Geometrical shape, 55
boomerang shape, 56
box shape, 55
flat plate, 55
hat shape, 55
Gravity feed, 186
Gross distortion, 47
Hard spots, 269
Heat checking, 289
dimensional expansion, 290
Heat depressions, sinks, 272
Heat exchanger, 240
Heat of fusion, 107
Heat transfer, 155
radiation, convection,
conduction, 155
Heat transfer medium, 241
oil, 241
water, 241
Heavy walls, 60
thin ribs, 60
High pressure die castings, 109
Hot chamber machines, 96
casting zinc and magnesium, 96
low temperature alloys,
lead, 96
Hot chamber process, 225
Hydraulic pumps, 87
high pressure=low volume
configuration, 87
low pressure=high volume
configuration, 87
Hydrogen in liquid aluminum
alloys, 157
density, reduced pressure
hydrogen probes, 157
testing, vacuum fusion,
Hypereutectic aluminium–
silicon alloy, 122, 390
Ideal runner system, 192
IGES (international graphics
exchange system), 62
Immersion tube burners, 148
melting zinc, 148
Implosion, 134, 200
die pitting, 134
Insert, 58
Interlocking cores, 57
broken die component, 58
heroic die maintenance, 57
Interlocking core arrangement, 58
Internal defects, 268
foreign inclusions, 268
Latent heat of fusion, 115, 137
Lean technology, 264
value, value steam,
flow, pull, perfection, 264
Leidenfrost phenomenon, 359
Lettering or any form of artwork, 61
raised lettering, 61
a mating component, 61
Limit switches, 91
activation and=or
deactivation of solenoid
valves, 91, 92
position of machine
component, 91
Index 381
5935-4 Andresen Ch00 R3 102604Liquid metal containers,
liquid metal treatments,
heat sources, thermal
controls, 141
Liquid specific heat, 137
Locking force, 209
Machine base, 77
stationary and moving
parts, 77
Machine clamping force, 318
die retainers, 319
ejector rails, 319
Machine locking force, 310
Machining, 292
drilling, 292
milling, 292
Machining stock, 52
Maintenance and interior
cleaning, 154
Maintenance of automated
equipment, 366
Manufacture of die castings, 140
Martinsite, 297
heat energy, 140
labor, 140
metal, 140
Massive chill plug, 203
Master shot profile, 236
Maximum fill time, 227
net shape of the cavity, 227
Maximum material condition, 46
Metal feed system, 187
Metal fill pattern, 333
Metal handling, 366
Melting loss, 133
Mid area, 194
Minimum process control, 235
Motorized die height
adjustment, 86
Movement between planes, 112
twinning mechanism, 112
Natural air venting, 175
Near net shape, 42
North American die casters, 5
Occupational safety and health
administration (OSHA), 366
Operating window (WIN), 229
dry shot capability, 229
machine line, 229
restriction lines, 229
Overflows, 201
ejector pin marks, 201
false ejector, 201
Pareto chart, 268
Parting line flash, 60
flash plane, 60
hydraulic or mechanical
trim, 60
trim cutters, 61
Parting line geometry, 316, 333
parting line step, 316
trim die, 333
trim operation, 333
Physical performance, 359
Platens, 79
adjustable platen, 79
ejector platen, 79
movable platen, 79
stationary platen, 79
traveling platen, 79
Plunger velocity, 213
Porosity, 276
PPAP, production parts approval
process, 30
PQ Squared concept, 219
Precision draft tolerance, 53
Preheating methods, 344
cold shut, 137
lamination, 137
poor fill, 137
porosity, 137
propane torch, electric infrared
heater, hot oil, 344
Preventive maintenance,
99, 347
382 Index
5935-4 Andresen Ch00 R3 101404Process monitoring, 219, 232
shot system
repeatability, 232
Process variables, 267
Product design, 54, 64
Production and assembly, 45
Quality of die casting production,
257
heat, 257
temperature, 257
Quenching, 299
Rapid solidification rate, 107, 108
Resmelted, 2
Retainer size, 318
Reverberatory furnace, 144
die casting aluminum, 144
Ribs are structural features, 59
controlling warpage, 59
Runners and step, 316
Runners and gates, 185
Safeguarding devices, 368
audible alarm, hard spot,
infrared sensor, interlock
switch, light curtain, motion
detector, physical barrier,
safety mat, safety mirror,
ultrasonic sensor, video
monitor, visual alarm, 368,
369
Scale buildup, 256
Set up techniques, 340
Shoe horning, 306
Shot sleeve, 223
Shot sleeve temperature, 191
Shrinkage, 130
Shrinkage porosity, 132, 278
centerline porosity, 279
leaker, 279
rough and irregular inside
surface, 132
volumetric shrinkage, 132
Shut off allowance, 318
Shut off distance, 318
Six sigma defect , 265
Six sigma exercise, 180
Six sigma opportunity, 265
Solderage, 274
Soldering, 49, 302
Soldering stages, 303
Solenoid valve, 87
direction of movement, 87
Solid specific heat, 137
Solidification, 2, 317
Solvent carriers, 356
Sophisticated process control, 234
Sources of heat, 141
natural gas, electricity, 141
Special gaging, 315
casting details and tolerances,
315
Specific heat, 245
Specular reflectance, 10
Spreader pin, 188
Standard die components, 306
Sub-assembly supplier, 50
Submarine cores, 58
Support pillars, 320
ejector pins, 320
inserted cores, 320
Surface tension, 358
Swirling effect, 196
T-slots or tapped holes, 80
Temperature drop, 135
Thermal conductivity, 359
Thermal crowning, 321
Thermal decomposition, 359
Thermal extreme, 290
chemical content, grain
structure, alignment,
internal integrity,
cleanliness, heat
treatability, 290
Thermal properties, 358
Index 383
5935-4 Andresen Ch00 R3 101404Throughput or yield of salable
high quality castings, 219
Tiebars, 81
Time, temperature,
transformation curve, 298
Toggle linkage system, 84
Tool economy, 66
Tooling cost, additional, 56
Tool tolerance, 315
angularity tolerances, 315
parting line (die blow), 315
shrinkage, 315
Tooling and equipment, 347
Tooling cost, 63
critical economic ingredient, 64
secondary machining, 65
Trim press, 13
Variable factors, 235
dynamic factors, 235
manual factors, 235
[Variable factors]
static factors, 235
Vena contracta, 189
air entrapment, 190
Vent area, 201
Vent path, 202
cavity insert and the die
retainer, 202
Venting of the die cavity, 201
Venting, 13
Wall thickness, 27
surface area to volume
ratio, 28
Water diluent, 356
Young’s modulus, 125
Zinc die castings, 134


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