كتاب Design of Machine Tools
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 كتاب Design of Machine Tools

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Design of Machine Tools
S.K. BASU
FIFTH EDITION
Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Production Engineering Govt. College of Engineering, Pune;
Formerly, Director, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute. Durgapur.
Professor, Production Engineering Department Jadavpur University;
Head, Mechanical Engineering Department; R.E. College, Durgapur.
D. K. PAL
Formerly, Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department Regional Engineering College, Durgapur.

كتاب Design of Machine Tools D_o_m_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION vii
INTRODUCTION 1
General Classification; Trends in the design of machine tools; Establishing and expansion of machine tools industry; Conclusion
2. DETERMINATION OF THE FORCES ACTING ON THE TOOL IN
CERTAIN MACHINING OPERATIONS AND HORSE-POWER
REQUIREMENT 19
Determination of the tool forces in a lathe operation; Calculation of
force acting on milling cutter and determination of the power consumption of the machine; Power consumption in cylindrical grinding
operation; Thrust on a drill and the power consumption; Forces
acting on a shaping tool and the power calculation in shaping
machine
3. KINEMATICS OF MACHINE TOOLS 38
Classification and choice of. driving system; Basic consideration in the
design of drives; Variable speed range in machine tools; Graphical
representation of speed and structure diagram; Various types of structure diagram; Selection of optimum ray diagram; Difference betWeen
number of teeth of successive gears in a change gear box; Analysis of
a twelve-speed gear box; Standardisation of 4; Compound ray diagraM; Feed gear boxes
4. FURTHER STUDIES OF KINEMATICS 65
Transmission in the .system of stepped regulation; Design of intermediate shafts of all geared headstock; Method of designing bevel
transmission
5. STEPLESS REGULATION IN MACHINE TOOLS 18
Classification; Mechanical friction drive; Methods of increasing the
range of regulation in modern machine tools; Considerations in variator calculation; Friction loss in friction variators due to loss in sliding
velocity; Principles-of self-locking in variatOr; Further analysis of ball'
variatorsx CONTENTS
6. MACHINE TOOL GUIDES 94
Classification of guides used in machine tool; Wearing of guides;
Guide materials; Temperature deformation of guides; Liquid friction
in guides; Kinetic friction and stick-slip vibration; Specimen calculation for guides having lubrication wedge; Methods of calculating
pressure on guides; Guides having rolling friction; Behaviour of the
machine tool guide friction under the effect of lubrication; Fundamental types of circular guides; Accuracy and wear of machine tool
guides; Hardness of the different guide materials; Design of guides
under hydrostatic lubrication; Type of hydrostatic slides; Hydraulic
load relief; Oil pocket shape and dimensions; Gas film ltibrication;
Design procedure for aerostatic slideways; Influence of hardness of
material on guidewear; Effect of surface preparation; Effect of microstructure and. chemical composition; Effect of surface; Seizure and
tearing guides; Error contribution to the job due to longitudinal wear
on lathe guides; Contact deformation of guides; Contact deformations
in guides with clearance; Clcaranee adjustments in guides; Fabricated guides; Error estimation in guide design
7.. DESIGN OF BEDS, TABLES AND COLUMNS 142
Various types of beds used in machine tools—their construction and
design feature; Determination of the forces acting on the horizontal
table or a vertical boring machine; Column design of a milling
machine; and maximum deflection error in a milling machine; Column
design of drilling machine; Stiffness and natural frequency of machine
bends
8. DESIGN OF POWER SCREWS OF MACHINE TOOLS 159
Types and classification; Design calculations; Strength of lead-screw;
Ball recirculating power screw assemblies; Calculation for maximum
static load; Efficiency of the ball recirculating power screw; Compensation of 'backlash' in ordinary sliding screw assemblies; Vertical roller
feed screw; Distribution of load between the threads of nut in the
power screw with sliding friction; Distribution of load and rigidity
analysis; Analysis of axial load and contact rigidity of.a recirculating
ball screw; Evaluation of the rigidity; Sensitivity analysis; A critical
analysis; Analysis of preload; Standard dimensions of recirculating
ball screw assembly; Calculation for dynamic loading
9. SPINDLE UNITS IN MACHINE TOOLS 195
Spindles and their supports—special features, material and construction; Typical spindle ends; Spindle supports; Calculation on sleeve
bearing; Ball bearings; Adjustments cf ball bearings; Roller bearings;
Rigidity of spindle units; Rigidity of the rolling friction supports;
Magnitude of Deflection at the free end of the Spindle
10. LUBRICATION AND RIGIDITY IN MACHINE TOOLS 210
Introduction; Steps in selecting proper lubricating oil; Frictional conCONTENTS xi
dition of working; Specification of lubrication oils; RigitlitN of
machine tool units; Some errors affecting rigidity; Overall static rigidity of machine took; Dynamic rigidity of a machine tool; Rigidity of
grinding wheel-workplace system in an internal grinder
11. CONTROLLING SYSTEMS IN A MACHINE TOOL 24o
Classificatioa— Decentralised corn rol and centralises] control; Singledisc selective speed h.utging system
12. ELECTRICAL. EQUIPINIVNTS IN NI/WHINE 100LS 252
Basic ideas; Selection of motor for any executive organ of a machine
tool; Regulation of speed in electrical commis; Circuit diagram for
starting the driving motor of a machine tool; Electrical brakes;
Electromagnets used in macho: tools control; Electromagnetic
clutch; Ferromagnetic powder clutch: Res ersing mechanism of a lignt
duty planing machine; Thermal ?clay in
.
machine tools; Electrical
automation in hori/ontal drilling machine; Automatic lifting of tool
during the return stroke of a' planing machine: Basic ideas into regime
of working of motors: Classification of automatic and semi-automatic controls
13. HYDRAULIC' CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MACHINE TOOLS
Introduction: Typical systems; Systems for tracer control; Elements of
hydraulic systems in machine tools; Resistance encountered in flow
through pipe; Evaluation of basic parameters for design; Energy
losses; CoMpressibility factor; Efficiency of hydraulic pump considering losses
14. PROGRAMME CONTROL IN MACHINE TOOLS 293
Introduction; Automation in machine tools; Magnetic tape controlled
machine tool; Photoelectric tracing system; Principles of numerical
control; Method of disposition of punched holes in cases of binary
and decimal; Principle of operation of NC systems
IS. BUILT-IN-INSPECTION UNITS IN MACHINE TOOLS 307
Introduction; Systems of automatic inspections; Some typical builtin-inspection equipments; Characteristic features in designing;
Conclusion
16. VIBRATION IN MACHINE TOOLS 314
Introduction; Forced Vibration; Self-excited vibration in machine
tools; Other types of forced and damped vibration; Stick-slip vibration
in machine tools; Minimization or stick-slip vibration in machine
tools; Vibration isolated tool holders
17. MICRODISPLACEMENTS IN MACHINE TOOLS 344
Introduction; Magnetostrictive Drive; Thermodynamic drive; Minixii
CONTENTS
irrigation of positional error by the use of oscillating normal
force; Recirculating ball screws; Surface topography and contact stiffness; Error due to stick slip motion
18. NEW CONCEPTS IN MACHINE TOOLS DESIGN 337
Introduction; Probability concept in design; Unified systems
approach to machine tools problems; Input-output and subsystem analysis; Dynamic data systems—its analysis and
methodology
19. INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS AND.THE1R APPLICATIONS 368
Introduction; Basic Functions; Mobility of robots; Reliability
in operations; Control; Hierarchial computer control configuration; Sensing; Assembly and megassernbly robots
20. NC--CNC--DNC—MACHINES 383
Introduction; Principles of CNC machines; Classification;
Open loop and closed loop; Working of NC machine; Transducers and monitoring of displacement; Velocity feedback and
positional feedback; Encoder; Moire Fringe pattern. Synchro.
synchro resolvers and inductosyn; control in CNC; Electronic
revolution & Computer growth; Direct Numerical Control
(DNC); Retrofitting; Part programming; Various part
programming languages; CNC Machining Centres & CNC
Machines—Salient features and specifications
II. ROBOT LANGUAGES—STATE OF THE ART 421
Introduction; Robot language outline; General description
of programming language; Geometric modelling; Tool and
Object sets of coordinate axes; Movements; Tools; ' Some
Commercial languages;
22. FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (FMS) 434
Introduction; FMS—meaning and objectives; Classification of
FMS; Building block concept; CNC Michine Centre; CADCAM-FMS; Precision movement
23. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A FEW SUBSYSTEMS IN MACHINE
TOOLS: 446
System Analysis for dynamic compliance; Spindle Supports; Spindle
End Calculations; Tribological Considerations & Frictional Analysis of
various slideway materials; Calculation of Rigidity Considering Finite
ElementCONTENTS
24. NON-UNIFORM MICRODISPLACEMENT 466
Calculationt fos Non-Uniform microdisplacement; Non-dimensional
Parameters; Minimisation of Positional displacement error; Distribution
of Hydrodynamic force in Specific Lubrication pocket; Dynamic Load
Rating of Spindle Supports; Rigidity of Spindle unit and Optimum
overhang of the Spindle end; Accuracy of the Spindle Units.
25. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME MACHINE TOOL ELEMENTS 476
Introduction, Collet Chucking Analysis; Variable Method (K-statistics);
Sufficiency of Readings, Reliability Analysis for Bearing; Analysis of
Spindle with linear elastic supports; Viscous Damping; Analytical
Methodology.
26. (A) Questions 490
(B) Answers
Glossary 526
References 528
Index 535
X
ALARP; APT; APT II; Autospot
409-410
AL, AML 431; An, 430
Antistick-slip oil, 118, 468
ATC 419
Automatic inspection of in-process
parts, 307-313
Automatic operation of a horizontal
drilling machine, 268
Automatic controls, 278-281
Automation in machine tools, 278
Ball guides, 114, 117
Ball recirculating power screws, 165
Classification and types, 168-169
Dynamic load, 193
efficiency of, 170-172
pre-loading methods, 173-174,
187-190
rigidity of, 183, 184
standard sizes, 191
strength calculations, 137-140
Bearings in Machine Tools, 197
Ball-load calculations, 201-203
Methods of adjustment for back
lash, 203, 205
Selection of, 199-203
Sleeve-adjustment, design
calculations, 198
Beds, Classification and types, 142-146
Design considerations, 146
Materials, 145, 149
Methods of heat treatment, 146
Natural frequency, 154
Sections (typical), 150
Braking, electrical, 260
Self, 91
Building block concept, 437
Built-in inspection units, 307-313
CAD-CAM, 406
Centralised system of controls, 242
Change gear drive, 66
Character, 419
Chatter in machine tools, 318
Classification of NC, CNC, 386-388
Closed loop, 388
Clutch, Electromagnetic, 262
ferromagnetic, 265
Clutches, gear box with, 67
CNC, 384
CNC control, 399
CNC machining centre, 412-415
CNC slideways, 416
Collet chucking — analysis, 477-480
mechanism, 479
Columns, design .for drilling machine,
152
design for milling machine, 150
Compensation of errors in power
Screws, 173-174
Cone pully drive, 65
Compliance — dynamic analysis, 447
—joints, 474
Composites, 456, 458
Controls, electrical, 252-278
hydraulic, 282-292
Control of shifts in gear box, 241-251
individual system, 241
pre-selective system, 245-246
selective system, 244
simple system, 241-242
mechanical, 240-251
programme, 293-306536
Coordinate setting in numerical control,
298-304
Copying machine
Hydrocopying, 286
Photoelectric copying, 297
Critical velocity evaluation, 467
duration of slip. stick period, 467
Deviation diagram, 50
Deformation, thermal, 99-100
Disc, floppy, 419
DNC, 406
Drives, basic classification, 65
Change gear 66
Cone pully and line shaft, 66
Design considerations, 66
electrical, 252
electromechanical, 44
hydraulic, 282-285
Stepless, 78-93
variable speed, 66-68
with epicyclic gear, 87
with variators, 86-93
Dynamic data system, 365-367
Dynamic load Rating, Spindle 471
power screws, 193
of spindle supports, 471
Efficiency, of belt drive, 24
of driving motor, 27
of gear train, 24
of power screw with rolling friction,
166,170-172
of power screw with sliding friction,
164
Electrical automation, 268
Electrical equipments in machine tools,
252-281
Electromagnetic clutch, 262
Electromagnets, 261-262
Electromechanical regulation, 44
Encoders, 392
End effectors, 375
Errors in coordinate settings, 301
Ordinary lead screw, 159-162
pitch, 162-163
INDEX
recirculating ball screws, 165-172,
182-194
Errors, stick slip, 353
Ex APT. 409-410
Fabrication of plastic guides, 106
Feedback-positional, velocity, 392
Ferromagnetic powder clutch, 264-265
Finite element analysis of elastic support
with damping, 485
rigidity, 461-63
transformation matrix, 463, 464
Floppy disk, 419
FMS, 434-437
Forced and damped vibration, 320-324
Forced vibration, 315
Forces, determination in Broaching,
32-34
drilling, 31
grinding, 29
milling, 26
shaping, 34
turning, 19-21
Forces, hydrodynamic on guides,
102-105
hydrostatic on guides, 123-132
Forces on single point cutting tool,
19-36
Frictional behaviour of guides and
lubrication, 117, 211
Gain, 420
Gear box design, 66-77
Gear design, bevel, 72
spur, 69
Graphical representation of speeds, 46
Gratings, 391
Grippers, 375
GT, 435
Guides, Aerostatic, 133
ball, 120, 121
boundary lubrication in, 212
calculations in, 99, 102423, 125
circular, 94, 99, 101, 146
classification of, 94
combination, 116
fabrication of, 106INDEX 537
frictional behaviour of, 117-119
fundamental types of circular guides. '
120
hydrodynamic lubrication of, 102,
107
hydrostatic lubrication of, 123
lubrication of, 216-217
materials, 98, 122
merits and demerits of plastic guides,
98
preloading of, 336
pressure distribution in, 102, 125
regime of working, 214
roller guides, 114
specifications, 114, 116
straight flat, 94, 96
temperature deformation, 99
Language-Robot, 430-431
Loop-Closed and open, 388
Lubrication, boundary; 212
classification of oils, 212, 216
hydrodynamic, 102.107
hydrostatic, 123
of machine tools, 216-217
quantity consumption of, :18
specifications, 212, 216
systems of, 210-218
temperature, 99-100
Lubrication pocket, linear recess, 470
Machine tools, classification, 7
developments, 2-7
Machining,
power consumption in, 23, 27, 29, 31
vibrations, 228-231, 318-336
Magnetic box, 381
Magnetic tape, 420
Magnetostrictive drive, 344
Magnet, electro, 261-262
Magnetic clutch, 262
tape control, 295
Material, for ball screws, 167
for beds, 143 -
for columns 154
for tables, 154
MCL, 432
MCU, 384
Mechanical, friction drives, 79-84
regulation of speed, 40, 41, 45
Methods of increasing range of
regulation, 84
of eliminating back lash, 173, 174
of compensation of errors, 174
of eliminating stick slip motion,
331-336
Micro-displacement, 344-356
Micro-displacement — non-uniform, 466
Positional displacement evaluation
of error, 467-469
Microprocessor, minicomputer control,
376-77,419
Minimization of stick slip sliding,
331, 336
Hardware, 419
Hierarchial Configuration, 379
Horizontal table, 146
design calculation for strength, 146
Hunting 420
Hydrodynamic lubrication,
102,107
Introduction, 1
Individual drive, 39
Individual system of control, 241
Inductosyn, 397
In-process inspection of parts, 307
IRL, 431
Isolators, 317
Journal bearings, Calculations, 197-199
design consideration, 199
methods of adjustment, 197
preloading 203
Kinematics of machine tools, 38
classification, basic considerations,
38, 39
deviation diagram, 50
ray diagram, 46-57
structure diagram, 50538 INDEX
Moire fringe pattern, 395
Motor-Stepper, 373
Motor tape relay, 270
NC Machine, 383
NC Retrofitting, 401
NEAPT, 409-410
Numerical control in machine tools,
298-306
Part programming, 409412
Photoelectric tracing, 297
Positional feedback, 392
Power in machining 23, 27, 29, 31
of driving motor, 23, 27, 29, 31
Preloading of circular guides, 336
Programme control, 293
Probability in design, 357
Quantity of, lubrication, 218
oil flow in circular guides, 336
oil flow in hydrodynamic lubrication
wedge pockets, 108
Range of speed, 42
Regulation obtained in different
machines, 45
Regulation of speed electrical, 255
electromechanical, 44
mechanical, 40
Relays in machine tools, 267, 270
Reliability analysis
collet chucking, 477
bearings, 483
failure rate of bearing, 483
by variable method (K-statistics),
479
by load-strength Interaction, 483
Relubrication of bearing, 482, 483
Resolver transducer, 396-398
Rigidity, concept, 218
dynamic, 225
static, 218-225
Rigidity of recirculating ball screw
assembly, 183-186, 222
Robot, 368-382
Robot-teach. 378
Robot-Reliability, 373
Screws, 159
Self-tightening, 83
Self-excited vibrations 318
Sensor, 380, 428
Servo system, 388-89, 420
Shock absorbers, 317, 341-343
Sigla, 432
Signal, 420
Specification of lubrication oil, 216, 212
of motor, 29
of power screw, 159
Speeds, control, 240
graphical representation, 46
selection, 22, 25
Variable, stepped, 65
stepless, 78
calculation, 42
Spindle — bearing distance, overhang,
473
rigidity, dynamic characteristics,
474
Spindle units, accuracy, 475
deformations, 473
equivalent load, 472
Spindle units, adjustment of bearings,
195-197
Stick slip vibration, 324-340, 350-356
Surface topography and contact
stiffness, 352
types, 195
typical units, 196
Software, 419
Stepper, 373
Synchro position transducer, 396-398
Synchro resolver position transducer,
396-398
Tables, design, 146
Specifications, 150, 154
Temperature, of lubrication oil, 99
deformation of circular tables,
99-100
Thermal relay, 267
Thermodynamic drive, 348INDEX 539
Time for starting and stopping the
motor, 253
Time relays, 270
Time series analysis, 365
Tool, lifting arrangement, 272
Transducer, 390
Turcite B, 442-43
Typical bed section, 144, 145
Typical hydraulic circuits, 284, 285, 287
Ultrasonic vibratory force, 334, 469
Unified system approach, 360
VAL, 431
Variators, design considerations, 88
types, 79-85
Velocity, critical for guides, 123
critical for stick slip accurance, 327
Velocity Feedback, 392
Vibration of machine tools, 314
forced, 315
forced and damped, 321
isolation, 317, 341, 342, 343
minimisation, 331
self induced or chatter, 331
stick slip, 324-340, 350-356
Vision SyStem, 441
Wearing of guides, 95, 120
amount wear fate on conventional
guides, 120
consideration in designing,107-117


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