كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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 كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition

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كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition   كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition Emptyالخميس 01 ديسمبر 2022, 5:45 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition in SI Units
R. C. Hibbeler
SI Conversion by
Kai Beng Yap
With Additional SI Contributions by
Farid Abed

كتاب Structural Analysis - Tenth Edition R_c_h_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Internal Loadings Developed
in Structural Members
. Internal Loadings at a Specified Point
. Shear and Moment Functions
. Shear and Moment Diagrams for a
Beam
. Shear and Moment Diagrams for a
Frame
. Moment Diagrams Constructed by the
Method of Superposition
Preliminary Problems
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Project Problems
Chapter Review
Types of Structures
and Loads
. Introduction
. Classification of Structures
. Loads
. Structural Design
Problems
Chapter Review

Analysis of Statically
Determinate Structures
. Idealized Structure
. Load Path
. Principle of Superposition
. Equations of Equilibrium
. Determinacy and Stability
. Application of the Equations
of Equilibrium
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Project Problem
Chapter Review
Analysis of Statically
Determinate Trusses
. Common Types of Trusses
. Classification of Coplanar Trusses
. The Method of Joints
. Zero-Force Members
. The Method of Sections
. Compound Trusses
. Complex Trusses
. Space Trusses
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Project Problem
Chapter Review
Cables and Arches
. Cables
. Cable Subjected to Concentrated
Loads
. Cable Subjected to a Uniform Distributed
Load
. Cable Subjected to Its Own Weight
. Arches
. Three-Hinged Arch
Problems
Chapter Review
Deflections Using
Energy Methods
. External Work and Strain Energy
. Principle of Work and Energy
. Principle of Virtual Work
. Method of Virtual Work: Trusses
. Castigliano’s Theorem
. Castigliano’s Theorem for Trusses
. Method of Virtual Work: Beams
and Frames
. Virtual Strain Energy Caused by Axial Load,
Shear, Torsion, and Temperature
. Castigliano’s Theorem for Beams and
Frames
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Chapter Review
Deflections
. Deflection Diagrams and the Elastic
Curve
. Elastic-Beam Theory
. The Double Integration Method
. Moment-Area Theorems
. Conjugate-Beam Method
Preliminary Problems
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Chapter Review
Influence Lines for Statically
Determinate Structures
. Influence Lines
. Influence Lines for Beams
. Qualitative Influence Lines
. Influence Lines for Floor Girders
. Influence Lines for Trusses
. Maximum Influence at a Point due to a
Series of Concentrated Loads
. Absolute Maximum Shear and
Moment
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Project Problems
Chapter Review
Analysis of Statically
Indeterminate Structures
by the Force Method
. Statically Indeterminate Structures
. Force Method of Analysis: General
Procedure
. Maxwell’s Theorem of Reciprocal
Displacements
. Force Method of Analysis: Beams
. Force Method of Analysis: Frames
. Force Method of Analysis: Trusses
. Composite Structures
. Symmetric Structures
. Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate
Beams
. Qualitative Influence Lines for Frames
Fundamental Problems
Problems
Chapter Review

contents contents
Displacement Method of
Analysis: Slope-Deflection
Equations
. Displacement Method of Analysis: General
Procedures
. Slope-Deflection Equations
. Analysis of Beams
. Analysis of Frames: No Sidesway
. Analysis of Frames: Sidesway
Problems
Project Problem
Chapter Review
Beams and Frames
Having Nonprismatic
Members
. Introduction
. Loading Properties of Nonprismatic
Members
. Moment Distribution for Structures Having
Nonprismatic Members
. Slope-Deflection Equations for
Nonprismatic Members
Problems
Chapter Review
Truss Analysis Using the
Stiffness Method
. Fundamentals of the Stiffness
Method
. Member Stiffness Matrix
. Displacement and Force Transformation
Matrices
. Member Global Stiffness Matrix
. Truss Stiffness Matrix
. Application of the Stiffness Method for
Truss Analysis
. Nodal Coordinates
. Trusses Having Thermal Changes and
Fabrication Errors
. Space-Truss Analysis
Problems
Chapter Review

Approximate Analysis of
Statically Indeterminate
Structures
. Use of Approximate Methods
. Trusses
. Vertical Loads on Building Frames
. Portal Frames and Trusses
. Lateral Loads on Building Frames: Portal
Method
. Lateral Loads on Building Frames:
Cantilever Method
Problems
Chapter Review
Displacement Method
of Analysis: Moment
Distribution
. General Principles and Definitions
. Moment Distribution for Beams
. Stiffness-Factor Modifications
. Moment Distribution for Frames:
No Sidesway
. Moment Distribution for Frames:
Sidesway
Problems
Chapter Review
Beam Analysis Using the
Stiffness Method
. Preliminary Remarks
. Beam-Member Stiffness Matrix
. Beam-Structure Stiffness Matrix
. Application of the Stiffness Method for
Beam Analysis
Problems
Appendix
A Matrix Algebra for Structural Analysis
Preliminary and Fundamental Problem
Solutions
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
Plane Frame Analysis Using
the Stiffness Method
. Frame-Member Stiffness Matrix
. Displacement and Force Transformation
Matrices
. Frame-Member Global Stiffness
Matrix
. Application of the Stiffness Method for
Frame Analysis
Problems
contents
Structural Modeling and
Computer Analysis
. General Structural Modeling
. Modeling a Structure and its
Members
. General Application of a Structural
Analysis Computer Program
Computer Problems
Project Problems
Index
Absolute maximum shear and moment,
– ,
Acceleration response spectrum,
Adjoint matrix,
Allowable-stress design (ASD) methods,
American Association of State and
Highway Transportation Officials
(AASHTO),
American Concrete Institute (ACI),
American Forest and Paper Association
(AFPA),
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC),
American Railroad Engineers Association
(AREMA),
American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE),
Angular displacements (a),
– ,
Angular flexibility coefficient,
Antisymmetric loads,
Approximate analysis, –
assumptions for, – ,
– ,
building frames, – ,

cantilever method for,
lateral loads,
models used for,
portal frames,
portal method for,
trusses,
vertical loads,
Arches,
compressive forces and,
– ,
fixed,
funicular,
parabolic shape of,
structural systems of,
three-hinged,
tied,
two-hinged,
uniform distributed loads and,
,
Atmospheric corrosion,
Automatic model assembly for computer
analysis,
Axial force, –
deflection and,
external loading,
external work and,
frame displacements and, –
strain energy and,
truss member displacement and,
,
virtual strain energy and,
Ball-and-socket connections, –
Baltimore truss, –
Bay,
Beam columns,
Beams, – ,
– ,
– ,
– ,
– ,
absolute maximum shear and moment
of,
angular displacements (u),
– ,
antisymmetric loadings of,
axial loads on,
bending moment variations along
(functions), –
bending moments, – ,
– ,
cantilevered, –
carry-over factor (COF),

Castigliano’s theorem for,
code numbers for, –
concentrated forces on, –
concentrated series of loads on,
– ,
concrete,
conjugate-beam method for,
– ,
deflection diagrams for, –
deflections, – ,
– ,
displacement methods for, – ,

distributed loads along, –
distribution factor (DF), –
double integration method for,
– ,
elastic-beam theory for, –
elastic curve for, –
energy methods for displacement of,
– ,
fixed-connected,
fixed-end moments (FEM), – ,
, – ,

fixed support,
flanges,
force method for, –
framing plans using, –
free,
girders,
global (structure) coordinate system
for,
haunched,
hinged,
idealized structure members, – ,
– ,
inflection point,
influence lines for, – ,
– ,
intermediate loadings on,
internal bending moment (M),
– ,
internal loadings, –
joint connections, –
kinematic indeterminacy of,
laminated,
linear displacements (∆),
linear elastic response and, –
live loads and, – ,

maximum influence at a point,
– ,
member (local) coordinate system
for,
member stiffness (k),
member stiffness factor (K),
member stiffness matrix (k), –
modeling of, –
moment-area theorems for,
– ,
moment diagrams for, – ,

moment distribution for, – ,

moments at points, – ,
– ,
Müller-Breslau principle for, – ,
,
node displacements,
nonprismatic members, –
overhang,
pin-supported,
,
Portland Cement Association data for,

principle of work and energy applied
to,
procedures for analysis of,
,
,
reactions at points, –
reinforcing rods in,
relationships between loading, shear,
and moment in, –
relative joint translation of,
roller guides for, –
roller or rocker supported,
rotational displacement of, – ,
– ,
shear and moment diagrams for,

Index
Beams (continued)
shear force (V) and, – ,
– ,
shear force variations along
(functions), –
sign conventions for,
,
simply supported, –
sliding device in,
slope-deflection equations for,
– ,
statically determinate, – ,
– ,
statically equivalent loads, –
statically indeterminate, – ,
– ,
stiffness factor (K), – ,

stiffness matrix (K) for, –
stiffness method for, –
strain energy in,
structural elements of,
structure stiffness matrix (K),
superposition, method of for design of,

support connections, – ,
– ,
symmetric, –
symmetric loadings of,
tapered,
temperature effects on, –
torsion effects on,
uniform loads on, –
unit displacement,
virtual displacement, –
virtual strain energy and, –
virtual work, method of for,
web,
Bending, – ,
. See also Deflection
approximate analysis,
beams,
building frames,
curvature (r), radius of, –
deflection diagrams and, – ,

double integration method for,
– ,
elastic-beam theory and, –
elastic curve for,
inflection point, –
moment-area theorems for,
– ,
portal frames and trusses, –
portal method for,
strain energy and,
Bending moment (M), – ,
, – ,
– ,
– , . See also
Internal bending moments
absolute maximum,
beams, – ,
– ,
concentrated loads and, – ,
– ,
deflections and,
determination of,
elastic-beam theory, –
elastic curve and, –
frame-member stiffness matrix for,

functions,
influence lines for,
internal loads and,
maximum influence at a point,
– ,
method of sections for,
Muller-Breslau principle for, –
procedures for analysis of,
relationships with loading and shear,

sign convention for,
stiffness matrix and, –
structural members,
variations along beams, –
Bent (columns),
Boundary conditions for double integration
method,
Bowstring truss, –
Bracing,
Bridges, – .
See also Portal frames; Trusses
bracing,
cantilevered, –
deck,
floor beams,
highway,
impact factor,
influence lines for, –
joint loadings, –
live loads, –
load transmission in,
primary member,
railroad,
secondary member,
static determinacy of, –
stringers,
trusses, –
Building and design codes,
Building frames, – .
See also Frames
approximate analysis of, – ,
– ,
cantilever method for,
– ,
exact analysis for,
lateral loads,
portal method for,
vertical loads,
Building loads, –
design wind pressure for, –
influence area,
minimum for occupancy, –
racking,
reduction of for floors, –
wind load effects, –
By inspection process,
Cables,
concentrated loads and,
flexibility of,
inextensible property,
parabolic shape of,
structural systems of,
support connections,
uniform distributed loads and,
– ,
weight of,
Camber,
Cantilever method of analysis,
– ,
Cantilevered beams,
– ,
Cantilevered bridge analysis, –
Carry-over factor (COF), –
Castigliano’s theorem (second), – ,
– ,
beams,
deflection analysis using, – ,
– ,
external work and, –
force displacement (∆) and, –
frames,
linear elastic response and, –
procedures for analysis using,
strain energy and, –
trusses,
Catenary curve,
Center of curvature (O’),
Code numbers, –
Collars,
Column matrix,
Columns,
floor systems,
modeling of,
structural members as,
Compatibility equations, – ,
– ,
degree of indeterminacy and,
determinacy from, –
force method using,
statically indeterminate analysis
requirements,
structural stability and,
Complex truss, –
classification as,
method of substitute members for,
– ,
procedure for analysis of, –
stability of,
superposition of loadings,
Composite structures, force analysis of,

Compound truss,
analysis of,
classification as,
stability of,
Compression members,
Compressive force (C), – ,
– ,
arches,
trusses, – Index
Computer analysis, –
automatic assembly,
building safety and, –
data results,
global (structure) coordinates for,

load data input, –
local (member) coordinates for,

member data input,
modeling considerations, –
node data input,
node identification for, –
preliminary steps,
program operation for, –
programs for,
scaled drawing(s) for,
structural modeling for, –
structure members and materials for,

support data input,
Concentrated force (F), –
Concentrated loads, – ,
– ,
absolute maximum moment and shear
from,
beams,
cables,
influence lines and,
live building loads, –
maximum at a point, –
moment and,
series of,
shear and,
Concrete,
beams,
frames,
reinforced,
reinforcing rods,
Concurrent forces, –
Conjugate-beam method,
beam deflection analysis,
equilibrium equations for, –
procedure for analysis using,
supports for, –
theorems for,
zero displacement of,
Connections, see Joint connections; Support
connections
Conservation of energy principle,
– ,
Constrained degrees of freedom,
Constraints, structural stability and,
Continuity conditions for double integration
method,
Coordinates, – ,

beams,
computer analysis need for, –
global (structure) system, – ,
, –
member (local) system, – ,
, –
model data input, –
nodal, –
scaled drawing(s) with,
stiffness method use of, –
support reactions and, –
transformation matrices and, –
trusses, –
Coplanar truss, –
complex,
compound,
determinacy of,
simple,
stability of,
Cord of a cable,
Cord rotation (c),
Couple moments, –
Cross-diagonal bracing,
Curvature (r), radius of, –
Curve reactions, influence lines and,

Data input, – . See also Computer
analysis
Dead loads,
densities for,
design standards,
load factors for modeling,
Deck,
Deflections, – .
See also Displacements
axial force,
beams, – ,
– ,
bending,
Castigliano’s theorem (second) for,
– ,
conjugate-beam method for,
– ,
conservation of energy principle,
– ,
curvature, –
diagrams,
double integration method for,
– ,
elastic-beam theory for, –
elastic curve for, –
energy methods for, –
external work and, –
flexural rigidity (M>EI),
force displacement (∆), – ,
– ,
frames,
inflection point,
influence lines for,
internal bending moment (M) and,
– ,
linear elastic response and,
– ,
moment-area theorems for,
– ,
Müller-Breslau principle for,
– ,
procedures for analysis of,
,
radius of curvature, –
reinforcing rods for prevention of,
roller guides for, –
rotational (displacement), – ,
, –
shear force (V) and, –
strain energy and,
– ,
supports and, –
trusses, –
virtual, –
virtual work, method of, – ,
– ,
Degree of indeterminacy,
Degrees of freedom,
beams,
constrained,
displacement method and,
kinematic indeterminacy and,
,
node displacement and,
stiffness method and,
trusses,
unconstrained,
Design codes,
Determinacy, – ,
– ,
cantilever bridge determination,

comparison of structures, –
compatibility equations for, –
degree of indeterminacy,
degrees of freedom and,
equilibrium equations for, – ,
,
free-body diagrams for, –
kinematic indeterminacy,
structural determination of,
trusses,
Determinants of matrices, –
Diagonal matrix,
Displacement method, – ,
– , . See also Stiffness
method
beam analysis, –
carry-over factor (CO),

degrees of freedom for,
equilibrium equations for, –
fixed-end moments (FEM), – ,
, –
force method compared to,
frame analysis, –
moment distribution for, –
nodes,
nonprismatic member analysis,

procedure for, –
procedures for analysis using,
relative joint translation,
sidesway effects and, –
slope-deflection equations for,

statically indeterminate structures,
– , Index
Displacement method (continued)
stiffness factor (K), – ,
– ,
symmetric beam analysis, – ,

Displacement transformation (T) matrix,
– ,
Displacements, – ,
– ,
– , . See also
Deflections; Rotation
angular (a or u),
beams, – ,

Castigliano’s theorem (second) for,
– ,
code numbers for, –
compatibility equations for,
deflection per unit force,
degrees of freedom,
energy methods for deflections,

equilibrium equations for,
external work and, –
flexibility coefficients, – ,

force (∆), –
force-displacement requirements,
force method for analysis of, –
frames, – ,

internal bending moment (magnitude),
, –
joints, –
linear (∆),
load-displacement relationships,
– ,
matrices for, –
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal,
– ,
methods of analysis for, –
moment distribution for, –
nodal,
plane-frame analysis, –
rotational (u), – ,
– ,
sidesway, –
slope-deflection equations for, – ,

statically determinate structures, – ,

statically indeterminate structures,
– ,
– ,
stiffness factor (K), – ,
– ,
stiffness matrix for, – ,
– ,
stiffness method for analysis of,
– ,
strain energy and, – ,

trusses, – ,

unconstrained,
unit,
unknowns for,
virtual work method for analysis of,
– ,

Distributed loads, –
beams, –
cables,
uniform, –
Distribution factor (DF),
Double integration method,
beam deflection analysis,
boundary conditions for,
continuity conditions for,
elastic curve for, –
internal bending moments and,

procedures for analysis using,
sign convention for,
Earthquake loads, –
Elastic-beam theory, –
Elastic curve, –
center of curvature (O’),
deflection diagram representation of,
– ,
deflections and,
double integration method for,
– ,
elastic-beam theory and, –
flexural rigidity (EI),
inflection point,
internal moments and, – ,
– ,
moment-area theorems for,
– ,
radius of curvature (r), –
slope and, –
Elastic strain energy, . See also Strain
energy
Elements of a matrix,
End spans, pin-supported,
Energy methods, –
beam analysis, – ,
– ,
Castigliano’s theorem (second),
– ,
conservation of energy principle,
– ,
displacements (deflections), –
external work,
force displacements (∆), – ,
– ,

frame analysis,
internal bending (virtual) moment of,

linear elastic response and,
– ,
moment displacements, – ,
– ,
procedures for analysis using,
,
rotational displacements (u), – ,
, –
strain energy and,
– ,
truss analysis, – ,

virtual displacements,
method of,
virtual forces, method of,
virtual strain energy and, –
virtual work, method of, – ,
– ,
virtual work, principle of, – ,
,
work and energy, principle of,
Envelope for maximum influence line
values,
Equilibrium, – ,
, – ,
– ,
carry-over factor (CO) for,
compatibility equations and,
conjugate beam method using,

determinacy and, – ,
,
displacement method using, –
displacements and,
distribution factor (DF) for,
equations of,
fixed-end moments (FEM) and,

force analysis method equations, – ,
,
free-body diagrams and, –
joints,
moment distribution and,
– ,
procedure for analysis using,
reactions determined using, –
requirements for,
stability and,
statically determinate structures,
– ,
statically indeterminate analysis
requirements,
statically indeterminate structures,
,
– ,
structural stability and, –
trusses,
Exact analysis,
External loading,
External stability,
External work,
Castigliano’s theorem and, –
conservation of energy principle,
,
deflection (rotational displacement)
and,
force and, –
moment of,
principle of work and energy,
strain energy and, Index
Fabrication errors, –
Fan truss,
Finite elements,
Fink trusses, –
Fixed arch,
Fixed-end moments (FEM), – ,
– ,

beams, – ,

equilibrium and, –
frames, –
haunch properties, –
moment distribution and, – ,
– ,
nonprismatic members, – ,

relative joint translation of
beams,
slope-deflection equations and,
– ,
Fixed-support connections, – ,
,
conjugate beams,
deflection and,
idealized structures,
portal frames and trusses,
zero displacement from,
Flanges,
Flexibility coefficients, –
angular,
force method of analysis using,
– ,
linear elastic materials, –
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements and, –
Flexibility of cables,
Flexural rigidity (EI),
Floor beams,
Floors,
beams,
columns,
concentrated live loads for, –
framing plans for, –
girders,
idealized structures,
influence lines for,
joists,
load transmission,
one-way (slab) system,
panel points,
panel shear,
reduction of live loads for, –
span ratio,
tributary loadings, –
two-way (slab) system,
uniform live loads for, –
Force, – ,
– ,
– ,
– , . See also
Loads
arches subjected to, –
axial,
bending member stiffness method
and,
Castigliano’s theorem for, – ,
– ,
compressive (C), – ,
– ,
concentrated,
concurrent, –
displacements (∆), – ,
– ,
energy methods of analysis and,
– ,
equilibrium of,
external work (P) as,
idealized structures,
influence lines for reactions,
by inspection,
internal loadings,
line of action,
magnitude of,
method of joints for,
method of sections for, – ,
– ,
normal (N),
principle of work and energy for,
procedures for analysis of,
– ,
resultant force coefficients,
resultant (F) reactions, –
rotational displacement (u) from,
– ,
shear (V),
strain energy and,
structural member, – ,
,
support connections, –
tensile (T), –
truss members, – ,

unknown, determination of, – ,
– ,
virtual work and, – ,

x, y, z components,
zero-force members, –
Force-displacement equations, statically
indeterminate analysis
requirements,
Force method, –
angular flexibility coefficient,
antisymmetric loads,
beam analysis, – ,

compatibility of displacements for,
– ,
composite structures, –
deflection per unit force,
displacement method compared to,
equilibrium equations for, – ,
,
flexibility coefficients, – ,

force-displacement requirements,
– ,
frame analysis, –
free-body diagrams for, –
influence lines,
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements for, – ,
– ,
procedure for,
procedure for analysis using,
statically determinate structures, –
statically indeterminate structures,

superposition for, –
symmetric structures,
truss analysis, –
unit load and, –
Force transformation (Q) matrix,
– ,
Frames, – ,
– ,
– , .
See also Nonprismatic members;
Plane frames
approximate analysis of, – ,

axial loads on,
bending,
building, –
cantilever method for,
Castigliano’s theorem for,
deflection diagram for,
deflections of,
displacement method for, – ,

fixed-end moments (FEM), –
fixed supported,
force method for, –
inflection point, – ,
– ,
influence lines for, –
internal bending moment of, – ,

internal loads in, –
joint displacement, –
lateral loads on,
linear elastic response and, –
moment distribution for, –
multistory, –
pin supported,
portal method for,
portals,
procedures for analysis of,

reinforced concrete,
restrained to prevent sidesway,
– ,
rotational displacement (u) of,
– ,
shear and moment diagrams for,

shear force and,
sidesway of, –
sign convention for internal loads,
,
slope-deflection equations for, – Index
Frames (continued)
statically determinate,
statically indeterminate, – ,
– ,
stiffness factor (K) for, –
structural systems as,
supports and,
tables for integration of,
temperature effects on, –
torsion effects on,
vertical loads on,
virtual strain energy and, –
virtual work, method of for,
– ,
Framing plans, –
floor systems, –
idealized structures, –
line drawings for,
one-way (slab) system,
span ratio,
tributary loadings, –
two-way (slab) system,
Free-body diagrams, –
equilibrium equations and, –
force analysis using, –
importance of,
method of sections for,
procedure for analysis using,
statically determinate structures, –
Funicular arch,
Girders, –
framing plans using,
idealized structure members,
influence lines for,
modeling of, –
panel points,
panel shear,
panels, –
structural loads and,
support connections,
Global (structure) coordinate system,
– ,
Global stiffness matrix,
Gusset plate,
Handbook of Frame Constants,
Haunched beams,
Haunches, – . See also Nonprismatic
members
Highway bridge loads, . See also Bridges
Hinge connections,
Howe trusses, –
Hurricanes, effects of wind loads from,
Hydrostatic pressure (loads),
Idealized structures,
beams,
floor systems, –
framing plans, –
girders,
joint connections for, –
line drawings for, –
models of, –
support connections for,
tributary loadings of,
Identity matrix,
Impact factor (loads),
Inextensible property of cables,
Inflection point, – ,
– ,
Influence area,
Influence lines,
absolute maximum shear and moment,
– ,
beams, – ,
– ,
bending moments (M) and, – ,
– ,
concentrated forces (F),
concentrated loads,
connection devices used for, –
construction of,
curve reactions and, –
deflection and, –
envelope of maximum values,
floor girders,
force reactions and,
force systems,
frames, –
live or moving loads and,
maximum at a point, –
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements and, –
moment (M) distribution and, – ,
– ,
moments at a point, –
Müller-Breslau principle for, – ,
,
procedures for analysis of,
qualitative, –
reactions at points, –
series of concentrated loads and,
– ,
shear (V) and, – ,
– ,
statically determinate structures,

statically indeterminate structures,
– ,
trusses,
uniform loads,
unit load for,
Internal bending moments (M), – ,
– ,
– ,
beams, – ,
– ,
Castigliano’s theorem and,
– ,
conjugate-beam method for, –
deflection diagrams of,
deflections and, –
double integration method and,
– ,
elastic-beam theory for, –
elastic curve and, – ,
– ,
frames, – ,

M/EI diagrams,
moment-area theorems and,
– ,
shear force (V) and, –
sign convention for,
strain energy and,
virtual work and, –
Internal end moments, slope-deflection
equations for, –
Internal loads, –
beams,
bending moment (M),
frames, –
method of sections for,
moment diagrams for,
normal force (N) and,
procedures for analysis of,
shear and moment diagrams for,
– ,
shear and moment functions of,
– ,
shear force (V) and,
sign convention for,
specific points, at,
superposition, method of for,
– ,
Internal stability,
Inverse of a matrix, –
Joint connections, – ,
, .
See also Method of Joints
approximate analysis for,
beams,
carry-over factor (CO),
deflection and,
distribution factor (DF),
– ,
equilibrium of, –
fixed,
fixed-end moments (FEM),
– ,
frames,
gusset plate,
idealized structures, –
moment distribution method for,

nonprismatic members,
pinned,
procedure for analysis of,
relative joint translation,
statically determinate structures,
,
statically indeterminate structures,

trusses, –
Joint displacement, – ,

Castigliano’s theorem for, –
displacement method for, –
frames, –
multistory frames, – Index
sidesway and, –
slope-deflection equations for, –
statically determinate structures,

statically indeterminate structures,

Joint loadings, trusses,
Joint reactions, procedure for analysis of,
Joint stiffness factor,
Joists,
K-truss, –
Kinematic indeterminacy,
Knee braces,
Laminated beams,
Laplace expansion,
Lateral loads,
bending from,
building frames,
cantilever method,
portal method,
tipping from,
Line drawings,
Line of action,
Linear displacements (∆),
Linear elastic response, – ,
– ,
Castigliano’s theorem and, –
deflections and, – ,

flexibility coefficient for, –
internal bending moment and,
shear effects and,
strain energy and, – ,

torsion effects and,
Live loads, –
absolute maximum shear and moment
caused by,
beams, –
bridges, –
buildings, –
concentrated,
earthquake, –
floor girders,
frames, –
impact factor,
influence area,
influence lines for, –
load factors for modeling,
maximum at a point,
minimum, –
procedure for analysis of,
reduction of, –
series of concentrated,
snow, –
structures and,
trusses,
uniform, –
wind,
Load and resistance design factor
(LRFD),
Load-displacement relationships, – ,
– ,
beams, –
bending moments,
combined axial, bending, and shear,

force method for, –
intermediate loadings,
member stiffness matrix and, – ,
– ,
member stiffness method for, –
plane frames, –
rotation and,
shear forces,
trusses, –
Load path,
Loads, – ,
– ,
, – ,
– ,
– , . See also Force;
Influence lines
absolute maximum shear and moment
caused by,
antisymmetric,
arches,
assumption analysis for, –
axial,
beams, – ,
– ,
– ,
bridges, –
building and design codes for,
buildings, –
cable structures,
carry-over factor (CO) for, –
concentrated, – ,
– ,
data input for computer analysis,

dead,
design pressure, –
distributed,
earthquake, –
external,
fixed-end moments (FEM) for,

floor girders,
force method and,
frames, –
haunches, –
highway bridges,
hydrostatic,
idealized structures,
impact,
influence lines and, – ,
– ,
intermediate,
internal, –
lateral,
live, – ,
– ,
load factors for modeling,
moment diagrams for, –
Muller-Breslau principle for, –
natural, –
nonprismatic members, – ,
– ,
Portland Cement Association data for,

railroad bridges,
series of,
shear and moment diagrams for,

snow, –
soil pressure,
statically equivalent, –
stiffness factor (K) for, – ,

stiffness method and,
structural members, in, –
structural modeling considerations,

structures and,
symmetric,
tributary,
truss joints,
trusses, – ,
– ,
uniform, – ,

unit,
vertical,
virtual work and,
wind,
Magnitude,
Material properties for structural
modeling,
Matrices, – ,
– , . See also
Stiffness matrix
addition and subtraction of,
adjoint,
algebra for structural analysis use of,

beams, –
column,
determinants of, –
diagonal,
displacement transformation (T),
– ,
elements,
equality of,
force transformation (Q),
– ,
identity,
inverse of, –
member stiffness (k), – ,
,
multiplication of, –
node identification for,
order of,
partitioning, –
plane frames, –
row,
scalars multiplication with,
square, Index
Matrices (continued)
structural analysis use of, –
structure stiffness (K), – ,
, –
symmetric,
transformation, –
transposed, –
trusses, –
unit,
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements, – ,
– ,
M/EI diagrams,
Member (local) coordinate system,
,
Member data input, –
Member identification, see Nodes
Member-relative stiffness factor,
Member stiffness factor,
Member stiffness influence coefficients,

Member stiffness matrix, see Stiffness matrix
Method of joints,
equilibrium conditions for,
planar truss analysis,
procedures for analysis using,
space truss analysis,
unknown force determination for,
– ,
Method of least work, see Castigliano’s
theorem
Method of sections, – ,
– ,
free-body diagrams for,
internal loads determined from,
– ,
planar truss analysis,
procedures of analysis using,
,
space truss analysis,
unknown force determination for,
– ,
Method of substitute members,
Method of virtual displacements,
Method of virtual forces,
Method of virtual work, see Virtual work
Modeling, see Structural modeling
Moment-area theorems,
beam deflection analysis,
first theorem,
M/EI diagrams, –
procedures for analysis using,
second theorem,
Moment diagrams,
beams, –
cantilevered beams,
frames, –
overhang beams,
procedure for construction of,
simply supported beams,
slope of,
statically equivalent loads, –
superposition, method of for
construction of,
Moment distribution, –
antisymmetric loading,
beams, –
carry-over factor (CO),
displacement method of analysis using,

distribution factor (DF),
fixed-end moments (FEM),
– ,
frames, –
joint connections and, –
nonprismatic members, –
pin-supported beams,
principles of, –
procedure for analysis using,
relative joint translation,
sidesway effects on, –
sign convention for,
statically indeterminate structures,

stiffness factor (K), – ,
– ,
symmetric beams, –
symmetric loading,
Moments (M), – ,
, – ,
– ,
, – ,
, – ,
– .See also Bending moment;
Fixed-end moments (FEM)
absolute maximum,
beam-member stiffness matrix,

beam points,
bending, – ,
– ,

Castigliano’s theorem and,
concentrated loads and, –
couple, –
deflection and, – ,
, –
displacements and, – ,
– ,
energy methods of analysis, – ,
, –
external work and,
fixed-end (FEM), – ,

frame-member stiffness matrix,

influence lines and, – ,
– ,
internal bending, – ,
, –
internal end, –
internal loads as,
maximum at a point, – ,
– ,
method of sections for,
relationships with loading and shear,

resultant,
sign convention for,
slope-deflection equations, –
stiffness method and, –
strain energy and,
superposition and, –
virtual work and,
work (magnitude),
Müller-Breslau principle, – ,
– ,
deflection and,
hinge or pin displacement,
influence lines and, – ,
– ,
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements and, –
procedure for analysis using,
qualitative influence lines and,
– ,
reactions at points from, –
roller guide displacement, –
sliding devices,
statically determinate beams,
– ,
statically indeterminate beams,
– ,
virtual displacement and, –
Multistory frame analysis, –
Nodal coordinates, –
Nodal loadings,
Nodes, – ,

beams,
computer analysis and, –
coordinates for, –
data input,
degrees of freedom and,
displacement method of analysis and,
– ,
global (structure) coordinate system
for,
identification of,
local (member) coordinate system
for,
slope-deflection equations and,

stiffness method of analysis and,

structure stiffness matrix use of,
support reactions and, –
trusses, –
Nonprismatic members, –
beams, –
carry-over factor (COF), –
deflections, equations for,
fixed-end moments (FEM), – ,
, –
haunches, –
loading properties of,
moment distribution for, –
parabolic haunches,
pin-supported,
Portland Cement Association data for,
– Index
relative joint translation of,
rotation of, –
slope-deflection equations for, –
stepped haunches,
stiffness factor (K), –
symmetric, –
tapered haunches,
Normal force (N),
One-way (slab) system,
Overhang beams,
Panel points,
Panel shear,
Panels, –
Parabolic haunches,
Parabolic shapes,
Parker truss, –
Partial fixity of portal frames,
Partitioning of a matrix, –
Pin-supported connections, – ,
,
,
beams,
conjugate beams,
deflection and,
end spans,
idealized structures,
influence lines and,
joints,
moment distribution for,
nonprismatic members,
portal frames,
slope-deflection equation for,
stiffness factor (K) modifications
for,
truss joints,
Planar trusses, – ,

bridges, –
design assumptions for,
determinacy of,
member composition,
method of joints for,
method of sections for,
procedures for analysis of,
roofs, –
stability of, –
zero-force members, –
Plane frames, – . See also Frames
axial force and, –
bending moments and, –
displacement transformation (T)
matrix for,
force transformation (Q) matrix for,

global stiffness matrix (k) for,
load-displacement relationships,

member stiffness matrix (k) for,
– ,
procedures for analysis of, –
shear force and, –
stiffness method for, –
structure stiffness matrix (K) for,

Plate girder, . See also Girders
Portal frames,
approximate analysis of,
fixed supported,
partial fixity,
pin supported,
trusses used in, –
Portal method of analysis,
Pratt truss, –
Pressure,
design, –
enclosed buildings, –
hydrostatic,
resultant force,
signs,
snow,
soil,
velocity,
wind, –
Primary member,
Primary stress,
Primary structure,
Principle of work and energy,
Program operation for computer analysis,

Purlins,
Qualitative influence lines, . See
also Müller-Breslau principle
Racking effects of wind,
Radius of curvature, –
Railroad bridge loads, . See also Bridges
Reciprocal displacements, –
Reciprocal rotation,
Reinforced concrete frames,
Reinforcing rods,
Resultant force coefficients,
Resultant force reactions,
Rocker supports,
Roller guides, –
Roller supports, – ,
,
Roofs, – ,

bay,
bent (columns),
framing plan,
idealized structure of, –
purlins,
snow loads on, –
tributary loadings, –
trusses, –
wind loads on,
Rotation, –
building frames,
cantilever method for,
fixed-end moments for, –
inflection points and,
lateral loads and tipping from,
nonprismatic members, –
portal frame supports,
Rotational displacements (u),
– ,
– ,
beams,
deflection and, – ,
– ,
external work and, –
force (∆) and, – ,

frames, –
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements,
member-stiffness matrix for,
moments (magnitude) and,
– ,
statically determinate structures,
– ,
strain energy and, –
support connection prevention of,
,
support reactions,
thermal gradient acting on beams,

virtual energy strain and, –
virtual work and, –
Row matrix,
Sag of a cable,
Sawtooth truss, –
Scissors truss, –
Secondary member,
Secondary stress,
Shear and moment diagrams,
beams, –
distributed loads and, –
frames, –
internal loadings and, –
procedure for construction of,
relationships between loading,
moments, and shear, –
sign convention for,
slope of,
Shear force (V), – ,
– ,
– ,

absolute maximum,
beam deflections and,
beam ends,
beam points,
beams, variations along, –
concentrated series of loads and,

determination of,
floor girders,
frame-member stiffness matrix,
– ,
frames, effects on,
functions,
influence lines for, – ,
,
internal loads as,
maximum influence at a point, – ,
– Index
Shear force (V) (continued)
method of sections for,
Muller-Breslau principle for, –
panel,
procedures for analysis of,
relationships with loading and
moments, –
resultants,
sign convention for,
stiffness method and, –
structural members,
virtual strain energy caused by,
Shells,
Short link, –
Sidesway, –
moment distribution for, –
multistory frames, –
restraining force for, –
slope-deflection equations for, –
Sign convention,
,
beam-member stiffness matrix,
bending moments,
,
deflection and,
double integration method,
influence lines,
internal bending moments,
internal loads,
moment distribution,
shear and moment diagrams,
shear forces,
slope-deflection equations,
Signs, design wind pressure for,
Simple truss,
Simply supported beam,
Slabs, see Floors
Sliding devices,
Slope-deflection equations, – ,

angular displacements (u), –
beam analysis using, –
cord rotation (c),
displacement method of analysis using,

fixed-end moments (FEM), – ,

frame analysis using, –
general form of, –
internal end moments for, –
joint displacement and, –
joint rotation and, –
linear displacements (∆),
member stiffness (k),
nonprismatic members, –
pin-supported end spans,
procedure for analysis using,
relative joint translation,
sidesway and, –
sign convention for,
Slope of deflection diagrams, – ,
– ,
Snow loads, –
Soil pressure (loads),
Space truss, –
design assumptions for,
determinacy of,
member composition,
member stiffness matrix (k) for,

procedure for analysis of,
stability of,
stiffness method for, –
supports and connections for, –
x, y, z force components of,
zero-force members in, –
Span of a cable,
Span ratio,
Span stiffness (k),
Spring constant (k),
Square matrix,
Stability of structures, – ,
,
classification of, –
compatibility equations for,
concurrent forces and, –
equilibrium equations and, –
external,
improper constraints for,
by inspection,
internal,
partial constraints for,
reactions and,
trusses,
Statically determinate structures, – ,
– ,
analysis of, –
beams, – ,
– ,
Castigliano’s theorem for, – ,
– ,
conjugate-beam method for,
– ,
deflections in, –
determinacy of,
double integration method for,
– ,
energy methods of analysis, –
equilibrium requirements for,
,
floors,
force analysis method of, –
frames,
idealized structures,
influence lines for, –
method of joints for,
method of sections for,
method of substitute members for,
– ,
procedures for analysis of,
– ,
,
stability of,
trusses, – ,
– ,
virtual work and, – ,

Statically equivalent loads, –
Statically indeterminate structures, – ,
, – ,
– ,
advantages and disadvantages of,

approximate analysis of, –
beams, – ,
– ,
building frames, – ,

cantilever method of analysis,
– ,
compatibility requirements for,
composite structures, –
determinacy of,
displacement (stiffness) method for,
, –
equilibrium requirements for,
exact analysis,
force-displacement requirements
for,
force (compatibility) method for,

frames, – ,

influence lines for,
lateral loads,
Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements for,
model uses,
moment distribution for, –
nonprismatic members, –
portal frames and trusses,
portal method for,
procedures for analysis of,
,
sidesway effects on, –
slope-deflection equations for,

stiffness factor (K) for, – ,
– ,
symmetric structures,
trusses, – ,
– ,
vertical loads,
Stepped haunches,
Stiffness factor (K), – ,
– ,
beams, –
displacement method and, – ,
– ,
frames, –
joint,
member,
member relative,
modifications of, –
moment distribution and, – ,
– ,
nonprismatic members, –
pin-supported members,
Portland Cement Association data for,

symmetric beams, –
total, Index
Stiffness matrix, – ,
– ,

angular displacements and,
beam member, –
beam structure,
code numbers for, –
frame-member,
global,
linear displacements and,
member (k), – ,
– ,
member global,
member stiffness influence coefficients,
– ,
plane frame structure, –
rotational displacement and,
space trusses, –
structure (K), – ,

truss member, –
truss structure, –
use of for stiffness method,
Stiffness method, –
applications of, –
axial loads and, –
beam analysis, –
bending moments and, –
code numbers for, –
degrees of freedom,
displacement transformation (T)
matrix,
displacements and, –
fabrication errors and, –
force transformation (Q) matrix,
,
global (structure) coordinate system
for,
intermediate loadings and,
kinematic indeterminacy and,
load-displacement relationships,
– ,
matrix analysis for, –
member (local) coordinate system for,
,
member stiffness matrix (k) for, – ,
– ,
nodal coordinates for, –
node identification for,
plane frame analysis, –
procedures for analysis using,

shear force and, –
space truss analysis, –
structural stiffness matrix (K) for,
– ,
structure stiffness equation for,

support reactions and, –
temperature change effects and,

truss analysis, –
unit displacement,
Strain energy, – ,
– ,
axial force of,
axial loads and,
Castigliano’s theorem and, –
conservation of energy principle,
,
deflection and,
– ,
elastic,
external work and,
internal bending moment of,
linear elastic response and,

principle of work and energy,
shear and,
temperature changes and, –
torsion and,
virtual, –
Strength design,
Stresses in truss members,
Stringers,
Structural modeling, –
beams, –
building safety and design from,

columns,
computer analysis using, –
coordinates for, –
data input, –
general structure specifications,

girders, –
idealized structures, –
loading considerations, –
material properties considerations,
members for, –
scaled drawing(s) for,
support connections for,
tie rods,
Structural system,
Structure, defined,
Structure stiffness matrix, see Stiffness
matrix
Structures, – ,
– ,
analysis of, –
approximate analysis of, –
arches,
beams, –
bracing struts,
building and design codes for,
cables for,
classification of, –
columns,
compatibility equations for,
design of,
determinacy of,
elements for, –
equilibrium, equations of, – ,
– ,
flanges,
floor systems,
force analysis method, –
frames, –
free-body diagrams for, –
girders,
idealized,
improper constraints for,
influence lines for, –
internal loadings in members, –
load path, –
loads and,
partial constraints for,
procedures for analysis of,
slabs,
stability of,
statically determinate, – ,

statically indeterminate, – ,

superposition, principle of,
support connections for,
surface,
systems, types of, –
tie rods,
tributary loadings,
trusses, – ,
– ,
Struts,
Subdivided trusses,
Superposition, – ,
– ,
beams design and, –
complex truss analysis,
force method using, –
moment diagrams constructed by
method of,
principle of,
Support connections, – ,
– ,
,
ball-and-socket, –
beams, – ,
– ,
cable,
collars,
conjugate-beam, –
data input for computer analysis,
deflection and, –
end spans,
fixed,
free,
girders,
hinge,
idealized models,
influence lines using, –
joints, – ,
– ,
nodal coordinates for reactions,

nonprismatic members,
partial fixity,
pin, – ,
,
portal frames and trusses, Index
Support connections (continued)
rocker,
roller,
rotation and,
short link, –
sliding devices,
slope-deflection equation for,
slope and displacement determination
and,
space trusses, –
spring constant (k) for,
stiffness factor (K) modifications for,
stiffness method for, –
translation and,
trusses, –
zero displacement from,
Surface structures,
Symmetric beams, –
antisymmetric loading of,
moment distribution of, – ,

nonprismatic members, –
stiffness-factor (K) modifications for,
– ,
symmetric loading of,
Symmetric matrix,
Symmetric structures, force analysis of,
– ,
Tapered haunches (beams),
Temperature effects, – ,

deformation from,
stiffness method for, –
trusses, –
virtual strain energy and, –
Tensile force (T), –
Tension members,
Tetrahedron, . See also Space truss
Thin plates,
Three-hinged arch,
Tie rods,
Tied arch,
Tornadoes, effects of wind loads from,
Torsion effects on virtual strain energy,
Transformation matrices, – . See also
Force transformation (Q) matrix
Translation,
joints, relative displacement and,
nonprismatic members,
support connection prevention of,
Transposed matrix, –
Tributary loadings,
floors,
framing plans for, –
one-way (slab) system,
roofs, –
trapezoidal,
triangular,
two-way (slab) system,
Trusses, – ,
– ,
– ,
approximate analysis of, – ,
– ,
axial force members,
bridge, –
camber of,
Castigliano’s theorem for,
code numbers for,
complex,
compound,
compression members,
compressive (C) forces, – ,

coordinate systems for, – ,

coplanar, –
cross-diagonal bracing,
deflections of, – ,

degrees of freedom,
design assumptions,
determinacy of,
displacement transformation (T)
matrix for, –
energy methods of analysis, – ,
– ,
external loading and,
fabrication errors,

finite elements,
force displacements (∆), – ,
– ,
force method of analysis, –
force transformation (Q) matrix for,
, –
frames for,
global (structure) coordinate system
for, –
gusset plate,
influence lines for,
joint connections,
joint loadings,
kinematic indeterminacy of,
matrix analysis of, –
member stiffness matrix (k) for,
– ,
method of joints for,
method of sections for,
method of substitute members for,
– ,
nodal coordinates, –
node identification,
pin connections,
planar,
portal frames and, –
procedures for analysis of,
– ,
roof, –
sign convention for,
simple,
space, –
stability of,
statically determinate, – ,
, –
statically indeterminate, – ,
– ,
stiffness method of analysis, –
stresses in,
structural systems as,
structure stiffness equation for, –
structure stiffness matrix (K) for,

subdivided,
supports and connections for,

temperature effects on, –
tensile (T) forces, – ,

tension members,
unit displacement,
unknown forces, determination of,
– ,
vertical loads, –
virtual work method of analysis,
– ,
x, y, z force components of,
zero-force members, –
Two-hinged arch,
Two-way (slab) system,
Unconstrained degrees of freedom,
Uniform loads, – ,

arches,
beams, –
cables,
distributed,
influence area,
influence lines and, –
live building loads, –
parabolic shape from,
Unit displacement,
Unit load,
deflection per unit force,
force method using, –
influence lines for reactions,
,
Unit matrix,
Unknown forces, –
equilibrium equations for,
by inspection,
method of joints, –
method of sections, –
support reactions, –
Velocity pressure, wind loads,
Vertical loads,
building frames,
truss cross-diagonal bracing, –
Virtual displacement,
Virtual forces, method of,
Virtual strain energy, –
axial loads,
deformation effects from, –
shear and,
temperature effects, –
torsion and, Index
Virtual work, – ,
– ,
beams, method of for,
conservation of energy for,
couple moments of,
deflection and, – ,
– ,
external,
force displacement (∆),
frames, method of for,
influence lines and, –
internal bending moments and,

Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal
displacements using, –
method of analysis,
Müller-Breslau principle using,

principle of,
procedures for analysis using,
rotational displacement,
– ,
tables for integration of,
trusses, method of for,
– ,
Warren trusses, –
Web,
Weight, cables subjected to,
Wide-flange beams,
Wind loads,
buildings, effects on, –
design wind pressure, –
dynamic approach for,
enclosed buildings, –
hurricanes,
modeling for,
pressure, –
racking effects of,
resultant force coefficients,
signs,
static approach for, –
tornadoes,
velocity pressure,
Work, – ,

conservation of energy and,
deflection (rotational displacement)
and, – ,

external,
force and, –
internal bending moments and,

magnitude, –
principle of work and energy,
rotational displacement and,
– ,
virtual, – ,

x, y, z force components,
Zero displacement from supports,
Zero-force members


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