كتاب Applied Machining Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Applied Machining Technology

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Applied Machining Technology Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Applied Machining Technology   كتاب Applied Machining Technology Emptyالأحد 27 مارس 2011, 9:15 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Applied Machining Technology
Heinz Tschatsch  

كتاب Applied Machining Technology A_m_t10
ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

1 Introduction . 1
1.1 The methods of metal cutting 1
1.2 Characteristics of metal cutting 1
1.2.1 Crystalline alteration of the material . 1
1.2.2 Changes in strength 1
1.2.3 Stress relief 1
1.2.4 Reduction of strength due to the cutting through of fibres 1
1.2.5 Substantial material loss 1
1.3 Formation of the cutting edges . 2
1.3.1 Tools with defined cutting edge geometry 2
1.3.2 Tools with undefined cutting edge geometry 2
1.4 Cutting conditions (depth of cut a
p,
feed f and cutting speed ve) . 2
1.5 Cutting force . 2
1.6 Chips . 3
1.7 Chip shapes 3
1.8 Cutting edge materials . 3
2 Fundamentals of machining explained for turning . 5
2.1 Surfaces, cutting edges, and corners on wedges according to DIN 6581 5
2.1.1 Flank faces 5
2.1.2 Rake faces . 5
2.1.3 Cutting edges 6
2.1.4 Corners . 6
2.2 Reference planes 6
2.2.1 Tool reference plane 1 7
2.2.2 Cutting edge plane 2 . 7
2.2.3 Wedge measuring plane 3 . 7
2.2.4 Working plane 4 7
2.3 Angles for the wedge 7
2.3.1 Angles measured in the tool reference plane (Figure 2.3) 7
2.3.2 Angle measured in the cutting edge plane
Tool cutting edge inclination ? (Figure 2.4) . 7
2.3.3 Angles measured in the wedge measuring plane (Figure 2.5) . 8
Contentsx
2.4 Angle types and their influence on the cutting procedure . 9
2.4.1 Tool orthogonal clearance ? . 9
2.4.2 Rake a ngle ? 12
2.4.3 Wedge a ngle ? 13
2.4.4 Tool cutting edge angles  . 13
2.4.5 Tool included angle ? (Figure 2.14) 14
2.4.6 Tool cutting edge inclination ? 15
2.4.7 Working reference plane . 15
2.5 Cutting parameters . 16
2.5.1 Width of cut b . 16
2.5.2 Thickness of cut h 17
2.5.3 Sectional area of chip A . 17
2.6 Cutting forces and their origin 17
2.6.1 Generation of forces 17
2.6.2 Specific cutting force kc and its influencing variables 18
2.6.3 Major cutting force Fc . 21
2.7 Calculation of power 22
2.7.1 Cutting pow er Pc . 22
2.7.2 Machine input power P 23
3 Tool life T 25
3.1 Definition 25
3.2 Characteristics of dulling 25
3.2.1 Cutting materials for which dulling is mainly caused
by temperature 25
3.2.2 Cutting materials for which dulling is mainly caused by
abrasion 25
3.2.3 Wear types 25
3.3 Influence on tool life 27
3.3.1 Workpiece material . 27
3.3.2 Cutting material . 27
3.3.3 Cutting edge shape . 28
3.3.4 Surface 28
3.3.5 Stiffness 28
3.3.6 Sectional area of chip . 28
3.3.7 Coolants and lubricants 28
3.3.8 Cutting speed . 28
3.4 Calculation and representation of tool life . 28
3.5 Length of tool life and allocation of the cutting speed 30
3.6 Cost-optimal tool life . 31
4 Tool- and machine curves . 33
4.1 Tool curve . 33
4.2 Machine curve . 34
4.3 Optimum cutting range 36
ContentsContents xi
5 Metal removal rate and chip volume ratio . 39
5.1 Metal removal rate . 39
5.2 Chip shapes . 39
5.2.1 Transportability 40
5.2.2 Danger for the machine operator 40
5.3 Chip volume ratios . 40
6 Cutting materials 43
6.1 Unalloyed tool steels 43
6.2 High speed steels . 43
6.3 Cemented carbides . 45
6.4 Ceramics . 46
6.5 Diamond tools 47
7 Turning 51
7.1 Definition 51
7.2 Turning technology . 51
7.2.1 Cylindrical turning . 51
7.2.2 Facing . 51
7.2.3 Parting . 52
7.2.4 Form turning 53
7.2.5 Taper turning 53
7.2.6 Copy turning 54
7.2.7 Turning with numerical control (NC, CNC) 56
7.2.8 Thread turning . 57
7.2.9 Application of turning methods . 58
7.3 Achievable accuracy values using turning . 58
7.3.1 Dimensional accuracy values . 58
7.3.2 Surface roughness 58
7.4 Chucking devices 60
7.4.1 to chuck the workpieces . 60
7.4.2 Clamping devices to fix the tools 66
7.5 Calculation of power and forces . 68
7.5.1 Width of cut b (Figure 2.15) 68
7.5.2 Thickness of cut h 68
7.5.3 Sectional area of chip A . 68
7.5.4 Specific cutting force Kc . 69
7.5.5 Major cutting force Fc . 69
7.5.6 Cutting speed vc 69
7.5.7 Machine input power P 69
7.6 Determination of machining time th . 70
7.6.1 Cylindrical turning . 70
7.6.2 Facing . 71
7.6.3 Thread turning . 72
7.7 Determination of the cycle time . 72xii
7.8 Turning tools 73
7.8.1 Tool design types 73
7.8.2 Chip-breaking shoulders . 80
7.8.3 Chamfers on the turning tool . 83
7.9 Failures in turning 84
7.9.1 Tool failures 84
7.9.2 Workpiece failures . 84
7.10 Reference tables . 85
7.11 Examples of calculation: . 92
8 Planing and slotting 97
8.1 Definition 97
8.2 Planing- and slotting methods . 97
8.2.1 Shaping 97
8.2.2 Slotting 97
8.3 Application of the techniques . 98
8.3.1 Shaping 98
8.3.2 Slotting (vertical planing) 98
8.4 Accuracy values achievable with planing 98
8.5 Determination of force- and power 99
8.5.1 Calculation of force . 99
8.5.2 Machine input power for shaping machines 99
8.5.3 Machine input power for parallel planing machines . 100
8.6 Calculation of the machining time 100
8.6.1 Speeds in planing . 100
8.6.2 Number of strokes per unit of time 101
8.6.3 Length- and width values that are considered in
time calculations 101
8.6.4 Machining time for planing . 102
8.7 Reference table . 103
8.8 Example of calculation . 103
9 Drilling . 105
9.1 Definition . 105
9.2 Drilling methods 105
9.2.1 Centre drilling 105
9.2.2 Drilling out – boring (Figure 9.2) . 105
9.2.3 Counterboring 107
9.2.4 Reaming 107
9.2.5 Thread cutting with taps 107
9.3 Generation and purpose of holes 107
9.3.1 Blind holes (Figure 9.4) 107
9.3.2 Through hole (Figure 9.5) . 107
9.3.3 Tapered holes (Figure 9.6) 108
ContentsContents xiii
9.3.4 Counterbores (Figure 9.7) . 108
9.3.5 Tapped hole (Figure 9.8) 108
9.4 Accuracies feasible with drilling 109
9.5 Calculation of forces, torque and power 109
9.5.1 Centre drilling (Figure 9.9) 110
9.5.2 Drilling out (Figure 9.11) . 112
9.5.3 Counterboring (Figure 9.12) . 113
9.5.4 Reaming 115
9.5.5 Thread cutting with taps 115
9.6 Calculation of machining time (machine time) 115
9.6.1 Centre drilling 116
9.6.2 Drilling out with twist drill 117
9.6.3 Spot facing 117
9.6.4 Thread cutting 118
9.7 Drilling tools . 119
9.7.1 Twist drill . 119
9.7.2 Helical counterbore 127
9.7.3 Spot facers, countersinks and special-shape countersinkers . 129
9.7.4 Centre drills 130
9.7.5 Boring tools 132
9.7.6 Reaming tools 133
9.7.7 Taps 136
9.8 Failures in drilling 139
9.8.1 Tool failures . 139
9.8.2 Workpiece failures 139
9.9 Reference values for drilling methods . 140
9.10 Examples 143
10 Sawing 147
10.1 Definition . 147
10.2 Sawing methods 147
10.2.1 Sawing with saw blade 147
10.2.2 Sawing with endless belt-saw blades . 147
10.2.3 Sawing with circular saw blades . 147
10.3 Sawing methods - tasks and ranges of application 148
10.4 Accuracy values achievable with sawing . 149
10.5 Calculation of forces and power 149
10.5.1 Laws valid for all sawing methods . 149
10.5.2 Calculations for sawing with saw blade or saw band . 151
10.5.3 Calculations for sawing with circular saw blade 152
10.6 Calculation of machining time . 153
10.6.1 Sawing with circular saw blade of rectangular section
(Figure 10.8) 154
10.6.2 Sawing with saw blade or saw band . 155
10.7 Sawing tools . 155xiv
10.7.1 Angles and pitch for saw tooth . 155
10.7.2 Sawing tools - tooth forms and design types 156
10.7.3 Saw blade materials . 164
10.8 Failures in sawing 165
10.9 Reference tables . 167
10.10 Examples . 170
11 Milling 173
11.1 Definition 173
11.2 Milling techniques 173
11.2.1 Peripheral milling . 173
11.2.2 Face milling 174
11.2.3 Form milling . 175
11.2.4 Groove milling . 176
11.3 Application of the milling techniques . 178
11.3.1 Peripheral milling . 178
11.3.2 Face milling 178
11.3.3 Form milling . 179
11.3.4 Groove milling . 179
11.4 Accuracies achievable with milling 179
11.5 Calculation of force and power 179
11.5.1 Peripheral milling . 179
11.5.2 Face milling 183
11.5.3 Simplified calculation of the volume removal rate for
peripheral and face milling 187
11.6 Machining times during milling . 188
11.6.1 Peripheral milling . 188
11.6.2 Face milling 189
11.6.3 Groove milling . 190
11.6.4 Short-thread milling . 191
11.6.5 Long-thread milling . 191
11.7 Milling cutters . 191
11.7.1 Cutting edge forms and teeth number on the milling cutter 191
11.7.2 Flute direction, helix angle and cutting direction of the
milling cutter . 192
11.7.3 Cutting edge geometry on milling cutters . 193
11.7.4 Plain milling cutters – design variants and ranges of
application 196
11.7.5 Cutter heads 204
11.7.6 Tool holders for plain milling cutters 207
11.7.7 Mounting and fastening of cutter heads 211
11.7.8 Cutting materials 212
11.8 Failures during milling 213
11.9 Reference tables . 214
11.10 Examples . 217
11.11 Gear machining techniques . 222
ContentsContents xv
12 Broaching . 225
12.1 Definition 225
12.2 Broaching methods . 225
12.2.1 Internal broaching . 225
12.2.2 External broaching 225
12.3 Application of the broaching techniques . 226
12.3.1 Internal broaching . 226
12.3.2 External broaching 227
12.4 Achievable accuracy values 227
12.4.1 Accuracy to size 227
12.4.2 Surface quality . 228
12.5 Calculation of force and power 228
12.5.1 Width of cut b (Figure 12.5) . 229
12.5.2 Thickness of cut h . 229
12.5.3 Specific cutting force 229
12.5.4 Major cutting force per cutting edge . 230
12.5.5 Number of teeth in contact 230
12.5.6 Toothing pitch 230
12.5.7 Major cutting force 232
12.5.8 Machine input power 232
12.6 Calculation of the machining time . 232
12.6.1 Work cycle during internal broaching (Figure 12.7) . 233
12.6.2 Working stroke during external broaching (Figure 12.8) . 233
12.6.3 Length of the cutting portion (Figure 12.7) . 234
12.7 Broaching tools 234
12.7.1 Broach – blade geometry . 234
12.7.2 Broach teeth design 235
12.7.3 Materials for broaching tools 241
12.8 Failures during broaching 243
12.8.1 Tool failure 243
12.8.2 Workpiece failures 244
12.9 Reference tables . 244
12.10 Calculation example 244
13 Grinding 249
13.1 Definition 249
13.2 Grinding techniques 249
13.2.1 Flat grinding . 249
13.2.2 Cylindrical grinding . 252
13.2.3 Cutting data for flat grinding and cylindrical grinding with
clamped workpiece 256
13.2.4 Centreless grinding 257
13.3 Application of grinding techniques . 261
13.3.1 Flat grinding . 261
13.3.2 Cylindrical grinding . 262
13.4 Achievable accuracy values and allowances during grinding . 264xvi
13.5 Calculation of force and power 264
13.6 Calculation of the machining time . 268
13.6.1 Flat grinding . 268
13.6.2 External- and internal cylindrical grinding 270
13.6.3 Centreless grinding 271
13.7 Grinding wheels . 272
13.7.1 Tool materials 272
13.7.2 Design types and denomination of grinding wheels . 276
13.7.3 Wheel mounting 280
13.7.4 Grinding wheel selection for special ranges of application . 281
13.8 Failures during grinding . 282
13.8.1 Parameters influencing the grinding procedure 282
13.8.2 Table of failures 283
13.9 Reference tables . 283
13.10 Calculation examples . 289
14 Abrasive cutting 295
15 Abrasive belt grinding . 297
15.1 Application of the abrasive belt grinding method 298
16 Honing . 301
16.1 Application of the honing procedure 306
16.2 Achievable accuracies and allowances 307
17 Superfinishing (shortstroke honing) . 309
17.1 Application of superfinishing . 309
18 Lapping 311
18.1 Application of the lapping technique . 312
18.2 Dicing (wire cutting with slurry) 312
19 Further refinement of the cutting materials . 317
19.1 High-speed steels 317
19.2 Cemented carbides . 317
19.2.1 Uncoated cemented carbides . 317
19.2.2 Cermets . 318
19.2.3 Coated cemented carbides . 318
19.3 Ceramic 322
19.3.1 Oxide ceramic, white (clean ceramic) . 322
19.3.2 Oxide ceramic, black (mixed ceramic) . 322
19.3.3 Nitride ceramic . 322
19.3.4 Whisker ceramic 322
19.3.5 Coated ceramic . 322
ContentsContents xvii
19.4 Polycrystalline cutting materials . 323
19.4.1 Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) 323
19.4.2 Cubic boron nitride (CBN) 323
19.5 Marking of (hard) cutting materials 323
20 High speed cutting (HSC) 325
20.1 Definition 325
20.2 Introduction to high speed cutting (HSC) 325
20.3 Application of high speed cutting 327
20.3.1 High speed cutting techniques . 327
20.3.2 HSC machines 328
20.3.3 Tools for high speed milling . 336
20.3.4 Reference cutting parameters for high speed-milling- and -
turning 341
21 Cutting fluids (coolants and lubricants) 349
21.1 Introduction . 349
21.2 Wet cutting . 349
21.3 Minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQL) 350
21.4 Dry cutting . 352
22 Cutting force measurement in machining . 353
22.1 Introduction . 353
22.2 Force measurement during turning . 354
22.3 Force measurement during drilling and milling . 355
22.4 Force measurement during broaching . 358
23 Tables for general use . 361
24 Appendix . 373
24.1 Test questions . 373
24.2 Comparison of old (German standard DIN) and new (European
standard) material names 377
24.3 Firm addresses 382
References . 387
Glossary . 395


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