كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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 كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics

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كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics   كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Emptyالخميس 10 نوفمبر 2022, 1:48 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء
Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics
Third Edition
Stan Gibilisco

كتاب علم نفسك الالكترونيات والكهرباء - Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics T_y_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xix
Part Direct current
Basic physical concepts
Atoms
Protons, neutrons, and the atomic number
Isotopes and atomic weights
Electrons
Ions
Compounds
Molecules
Conductors
Insulators
Resistors
Semiconductors
Current
Static electricity
Electromotive force
Nonelectrical energy
Quiz
Electrical units
The volt
Current flow
The ampere
Resistance and the ohm
Conductance and the siemens
viiPower and the watt
Energy and the watt hour
Other energy units
ac Waves and the hertz
Rectification and fluctuating direct current
Safety considerations in electrical work
Magnetism
Magnetic units
Quiz
Measuring devices
Electromagnetic deflection
Electrostatic deflection
Thermal heating
Ammeters
Voltmeters
Ohmmeters
Multimeters
FET and vacuum-tube voltmeters
Wattmeters
Watt-hour meters
Digital readout meters
Frequency counters
Other specialized meter types
Quiz
Basic dc circuits
Schematic symbols
Schematic diagrams
Wiring diagrams
Voltage/current/resistance circuit
Ohm’s Law
Current calculations
Voltage calculations
Resistance calculations
Power calculations
Resistances in series
Resistances in parallel
Division of power
Resistances in series-parallel
Resistive loads in general
Quiz
Direct-current circuit analysis
Current through series resistances
Voltages across series resistances
viii ContentsVoltage across parallel resistances
Currents through parallel resistances
Power distribution in series circuits
Power distribution in parallel circuits
Kirchhoff’s first law
Kirchhoff’s second law
Voltage divider networks
Quiz
Resistors
Purpose of the resistor
The carbon-composition resistor
The wirewound resistor
Film type resistors
Integrated-circuit resistors
The potentiometer
The decibel
The rheostat
Resistor values
Tolerance
Power rating
Temperature compensation
The color code
Quiz
Cells and batteries
Kinetic and potential energy
Electrochemical energy
Primary and secondary cells
The Weston standard cell
Storage capacity
Common dime-store cells and batteries
Miniature cells and batteries
Lead-acid cells and batteries
Nickel-cadmium cells and batteries
Photovoltaic cells and batteries
How large a battery?
Quiz
Magnetism
The geomagnetic field
Magnetic force
Electric charge in motion
Flux lines
Magnetic polarity
Dipoles and monopoles
Contents ixMagnetic field strength
Permeability
Retentivity
Permanent magnets
The solenoid
The dc motor
Magnetic data storage
Quiz
Test: Part
Part Alternating current
Alternating current basics
Definition of alternating current
Period and frequency
The sine wave
The square wave
Sawtooth waves
Complex and irregular waveforms
Frequency spectrum
Little bits of a cycle
Phase difference
Amplitude of alternating current
Superimposed direct current
The ac generator
Why ac?
Quiz
Inductance
The property of inductance
Practical inductors
The unit of inductance
Inductors in series
Inductors in parallel
Interaction among inductors
Effects of mutual inductance
Air-core coils
Powdered-iron and ferrite cores
Permeability tuning
Toroids
Pot cores
Filter chokes
Inductors at audio frequency
Inductors at radio frequency
Transmission-line inductors
x ContentsUnwanted inductances
Quiz
Capacitance
The property of capacitance
Practical capacitors
The unit of capacitance
Capacitors in series
Capacitors in parallel
Dielectric materials
Paper capacitors
Mica capacitors
Ceramic capacitors
Plastic-film capacitors
Electrolytic capcitors
Tantalum capacitors
Semiconductor capacitors
Variable capacitors
Tolerance
Temperature coefficient
Interelectrode capacitance
Quiz
Phase
Instantaneous voltage and current
Rate of change
Sine waves as circular motion
Degrees of phase
Radians of phase
Phase coincidence
Phase opposition
Leading phase
Lagging phase
Vector diagrams of phase relationships
Quiz
Inductive reactance
Coils and direct current
Coils and alternating current
Reactance and frequency
Points in the RL plane
Vectors in the RL plane
Current lags voltage
Inductance and resistance
How much lag?
Quiz
Contents xi Capacitive reactance
Capacitors and direct current
Capacitors and alternating current
Reactance and frequency
Points in the RC plane
Vectors in the RC plane
Current leads voltage
How much lead?
Quiz
Impedance and admittance
Imaginary numbers
Complex numbers
The complex number plane
The RX plane
Vector representation of impedance
Absolute-value impedance
Characteristic impedance
Conductance
Susceptance
Admittance
The GB plane
Vector representation of admittance
Why all these different expressions?
Quiz
RLC circuit analysis
Complex impedances in series
Series RLC circuits
Complex admittances in parallel
Parallel GLC circuits
Converting from admittance to impedance
Putting it all together
Reducing complicated RLC circuits
Ohm’s law for ac circuits
Quiz
Power and resonance in ac circuits
What is power?
True power doesn’t travel
Reactance does not consume power
True power, VA power and reactive power
Power factor
Calculation of power factor
How much of the power is true?
xii ContentsPower transmission
Series resonance
Parallel resonance
Calculating resonant frequency
Resonant devices
Quiz
Transformers and impedance matching
Principle of the transformer
Turns ratio
Transformer cores
Transformer geometry
The autotransformer
Power transformers
Audio-frequency transformers
Isolation transformers
Impedance-transfer ratio
Radio-frequency transformers
What about reactance?
Quiz
Test: Part
Part Basic electronics
Introduction to semiconductors
The semiconductor revolution
Semiconductor materials
Doping
Majority and minority charge carriers
Electron flow
Hole flow
Behavior of a P-N junction
How the junction works
Junction capacitance
Avalanche effect
Quiz
Some uses of diodes
Rectification
Detection
Frequency multiplication
Mixing
Switching
Voltage regulation
Amplitude limiting
Contents xiiiFrequency control
Oscillation and amplification
Energy emission
Photosensitive diodes
Quiz
Power supplies
Parts of a power supply
The power transformer
The diode
The half-wave rectifier
The full-wave, center-tap rectifier
The bridge rectifier
The voltage doubler
The filter
Voltage regulation
Surge current
Transient suppression
Fuses and breakers
Personal safety
Quiz
The bipolar transistor
NPN versus PNP
NPN biasing
PNP biasing
Biasing for current amplification
Static current amplification
Dynamic current amplification
Overdrive
Gain versus frequency
Common-emitter circuit
Common-base circuit
Common-collector circuit
Quiz
The field-effect transistor
Principle of the JFET
N-channel versus P-channel
Depletion and pinchoff
JFET biasing
Voltage amplification
Drain current versus drain voltage
Transconductance
The MOSFET
xiv ContentsDepletion mode versus enhancement mode
Common-source circuit
Common-gate circuit
Common-drain circuit
A note about notation
Quiz
Amplifiers
The decibel
Basic bipolar amplifier circuit
Basic FET amplifier circuit
The class-A amplifier
The class-AB amplifier
The class-B amplifier
The class-C amplifier
PA efficiency
Drive and overdrive
Audio amplification
Coupling methods
Radio-frequency amplification
Quiz
Oscillators
Uses of oscillators
Positive feedback
Concept of the oscillator
The Armstrong oscillator
The Hartley circuit
The Colpitts circuit
The Clapp circuit
Stability
Crystal-controlled oscillators
The voltage-controlled oscillator
The PLL frequency synthesizer
Diode oscillators
Audio waveforms
Audio oscillators
IC oscillators
Quiz
Data transmission
The carrier wave
The Morse code
Frequency-shift keying
Amplitude modulation for voice
Single sideband
Contents xvFrequency and phase modulation
Pulse modulation
Analog-to-digital conversion
Image transmission
The electromagnetic field
Transmission media
Quiz
Data reception
Radio wave propagation
Receiver specifications
Definition of detection
Detection of AM signals
Detection of CW signals
Detection of FSK signals
Detection of SSB signals
Detection of FM signals
Detection of PM signals
Digital-to-analog conversion
Digital signal processing
The principle of signal mixing
The product detector
The superheterodyne
A modulated-light receiver
Quiz
Integrated circuits and data storage media
Boxes and cans
Advantages of IC technology
Limitations of IC technology
Linear versus digital
Types of linear ICs
Bipolar digital ICs
MOS digital ICs
Component density
IC memory
Magnetic media
Compact disks
Quiz
Electron tubes
Vacuum versus gas-filled
The diode tube
The triode
Extra grids
Some tubes are obsolete
xvi ContentsRadio-frquency power amplifiers
Cathode-ray tubes
Video camera tubes
Traveling-wave tubes
Quiz
Basic digital principles
Numbering systems
Logic signals
Basic logic operations
Symbols for logic gates
Complex logic operators
Working with truth tables
Boolean algebra
The flip-flop
The counter
The register
The digital revolution
Quiz
Test: Part
Part Advanced electronics and related technology
Acoustics, audio, and high fidelity
Acoustics
Loudness and phase
Technical considerations
Basic components
Other components
Specialized systems
Recorded media
Electromagnetic interference
Quiz
Wireless and personal communications systems
Cellular communications
Satellite systems
Acoustic transducers
Radio-frequency transducers
Infrared transducers
Wireless local area networks
Wireless security systems
Hobby radio
Noise
Quiz
Contents xvii Computers and the Internet
The microprocessor and CPU
Bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes
The hard drive
Other forms of mass storage
Random-access memory
The display
The printer
The modem
The Internet
Quiz
Robotics and artificial intelligence
Asimov’s three laws
Robot generations
Independent or dependent?
Robot arms
Robotic hearing and vision
Robotic navigation
Telepresence
The mind of the machine
Quiz
Test: Part
Final exam
Appendices
A Answers to quiz, test, and exam questions
B Schematic symbols
Suggested additional reference
Index
Index
A
absolute value:
complex numbers and, –
impedance,
acceptor impurity,
acoustic emitter,
acoustic pickup,
acoustic transducers, –
acoustics, –
admittance, –
complex in parallel, –
converting to impedance,
GB plane, –
parallel circuits and,
air cores, – ,
air-variable capacitors,
alpha cutoff frequency,
alternating current (ac), –
advantages of using,
amplitude, –
capacitors and, –
coils and, –
cycles/phases,
definition,
generator, –
hertz and, –
period/frequency, –
amateur radio, –
ammeters, –
ampere,
ampere hours,
ampere-turn,
amplification,
bipolar transistors, –
voltage, –
amplification factor,
amplifiers, –
audio, –
bipolar, –
class-A, –
class-AB, –
class-B, –
class-C, –
coupling methods, –
drive/overdrive, –
FET, –
hi-fi audio,
operational, –
power, – , –
radio-frequency, –
amplitude, –
instantaneous,
peak,
peak-to-peak,
root-mean-square, –
amplitude limiting, –
amplitude modulation (AM),
bandwidth of voice signal,

demodulation, –
transmitter,
voice, –
analog magnetic tape, –
analog meter,
analog multiplexer,
analog-to-digital conversion,
– ,
AND gate, – ,
androids,
angle of lag, –
pictorial method of determining,

trigonometric method of determining,
angle of lead, –
pictorial method of determining,

trigonometric method of determining,
anodes, –
antennas, –
dipole, –
loopstick,
receiving, –
transmitting, –
apogee,
armature coil,
Armstrong oscillator,
articulated geometry, –
artificial intelligence (AI),

artificial life, –
ASCII,
Asimov’s three laws, –
aspect ratio,
atomic numbers, –
atomic weight, –
atoms, – Index
audio amplifiers, –
frequency response, –
volume control,
audio frequency (AF),
inductors at,
audio-frequency-shift keying
(AFSK),
audio-frequency transformers,
audio mixer, –
audio oscillators, –
audio potentiometer, –
audio tape, – , –
audio waveforms,
auroral propagation,
autonomous robots, –
autotransformers,
avalanche effect,
average forward current, –
B
balance control, –
bandwidth, voice signal, –
bar-graph meters,
base,
base current,
base station,
batteries, –
alkaline,
dry,
lantern, –
lead-acid,
lithium,
mercury, –
nickel-cadmium, –
silver-oxide,
size needed, –
storage capacity,
transistor,
zinc-carbon,
baud,
Baudot,
beat frequency,
beat-frequency oscillator (BFO),

beta,
bias, –
current amplification, –
forward/reverse,
JFET, –
NPN, –
PNP,
zero, –
binary number system, –
binaural hearing, –
binocular machine vision,
bipolar amplifier, –
bipolar transistors, –
amplification, –
gain vs. frequency, –
NPN biasing, –
NPN vs. PNP, –
overdrive, –
PNP biasing,
bits per second (bps),
bleeder resistors,
blocking capacitor,
Boolean algebra,
breakers, –
bridge rectifiers, –
British thermal unit (BTU),
broadband transformers,
Brooks, Rodney, –
brownout,
bubble memory, – , –
bytes,
C
cable,
candela,
capacitance, –
interelectrode, –
junction,
property of, –
pure,
resistance and, –
unit of,
capacitive reactance, –
current leads voltage, –
frequency and, –
RC plane points, –
RC plane vectors,
capacitive susceptance,
formula,
capacitors,
air-variable,
alternating current and, –
ceramic, –
chokes and, –
coaxial, –
coupling,
direct current and, –
disk-ceramic,
electrolytic,
filter, – ,
capacitors (Cont.)
mica,
paper, –
parallel, –
plastic-film,
practical,
semiconductor,
series, –
tantalum, –
temperature coefficient,
tolerance ratings, –
trimmers,
tubular,
variable, –
carbon-composition resistors,

carbon-film resistors,
carrier frequency,
carrier wave,
Cartesian coordinate geometry,

cathode-ray tube (CRT),

cathodes, –
grounded, –
cavities, – , –
CD-ROM,
CDMA,
cell, –
battery (see batteries)
in cellular communications,

electrochemical, –
miniature, –
photovoltaic,
primary, –
secondary,
solar,
storage capacity, –
Weston standard,
cell phone, –
cellular communications, –
central processing unit (CPU),
– ,
ceramic capacitors, –
channels,
N- vs. P-, –
television,
characteristic impedance, – ,

charge carriers,
chemical energy,
chips (see integrated circuits)Index
circuits:
analysis of dc, –
dc, –
GLC, –
integrated (see integrated circuits)
power distribution in parallel,

power distribution in series,
RC, –
RL,
RLC, –
transistors abbreviations for,
voltage/current/resistance,
Clapp oscillator, –
class-A amplifier, –
class-AB amplifier, –
class-B amplifier, –
class-C amplifier, –
clinometer,
coaxial capacitors, –
code-division multiple access,
coefficient of coupling,
coherent radiation,
coils, – , –
alternating current and, –
direct current and, –
collector,
collector current,
color codes, resistors, –
color resolution,
color sensing, –
Colpitts oscillator,
common base, –
common collector, –
common drain, –
common emitter, –
common gate, –
common source, –
communications:
data reception, –
data transmission, –
commutator,
compact disk, –
compact-disk, read-only memory
(CD-ROM),
compact hi-fi system,
comparators,
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), -
complex admittance:
adding vectors,
formula, –
parallel, –
complex impedance:
adding vectors,
formula,
series, –
complex numbers, –
absolute value, –
adding/subtracting, –
multiplying,
plane, –
vectors,
component hi-fi system,
compounds, –
conductance,
formula,
siemens and, –
conductivity,
conductors,
continuous-wave (CW),
demodulation, –
converters:
analog-to-digital, –
digital-to-analog, –
UHF/microwave,
up vs. down,
VLF/LF,
cores, –
air, – ,
E,
ferrite,
geometries of transformer,

pot, –
powdered-iron,
solenoidal, –
toroidal, – ,
cosine waveform,
cosmic radiation,
coulombs,
counter, –
coupling,
capacitive,
transformer, –
tuned-circuit,
cryotechnology,
crystal-controlled oscillators,

crystal set,
crystals,
quartz,
current,
ac (see alternating current)
calculating, –
dc (see direct current)
current (Cont.)
flow, –
gain,
limiting,
relative vs. relative voltage,
surge, –
through parallel resistance, –
through series resistance, –
current amplifier, –
dynamic,
static,
cylinder,
cylindrical coordinate geometry,

D
D’Arsonval movement, –
data reception, –
demodulation, –
digital-to-analog conversion,

modulated-light receiver,
product detector, –
radio wave propagation, –
receiver specifications, –
superheterodyne, –
data speed,
data transmission, –
analog-to-digital conversion,

electromagnetic fields, –
media, –
modulation, –
dc motors, –
decibel,
decibel meter,
calculating values,
current,
gain figures,
power,
sound power in terms of,
threshold of hearing, –
voltage,
decimal number system, –
declining discharge curve,
degrees of freedom, –
degrees of phase, –
degrees of rotation,
demodulation:
AM signals, –
continuous-wave, –
frequency modulation, – Index
demodulation (Cont.)
frequency-shift keying,
pulse modulation, –
single sideband,
depletion mode,
vs. enhancement mode,
destination computer,
detection (see demodulation)
detection diodes, –
diamagnetism,
dielectric,
diffusion,
digital audio tape,
digital logic, –
complex operations, –
symbols,
truth tables, –
digital meter,
digital principles, –
digital signal processing (DSP),

digital-to-analog conversion,
– ,
diodes, –
average forward current, –
cat whisker, –
detection, –
Esaki,
Gunn,
IMPATT,
infrared-emitting,
laser,
light-emitting,
photosensitive, –
PIN,
rectifier, –
tubes, –
tunnel,
uses, –
using as oscillators,
varactor,
Zener,
dipoles,
direct current:
capacitors and, –
circuit analysis, –
circuits, –
coils and, –
rectification and fluctuating,

superimposed, –
discriminator, –
disk media, –
disks and disk drives, – ,

display, –
division of power,
Dolby,
domain name,
domain type,
donor impurity,
doping,
dot-matrix printer,
dot pitch, –
dot size, –
drain,
drain current,
vs. drain voltage, –
drain voltage vs. drain current,

dual inline package (DIP),
ducting,
dynamic current amplifier,
dynamic mutual conductance (see
transconductance)
dynamic RAM (DRAM),
dynamic range, –
E
e-mail,
earth-moon-earth (EME),
eddy currents,
edge detection,
Edison, Thomas,
electric field,
electrical power (see power)
electrical units, –
electrically erasable programmable
read-only memory (EEPROM),

electricity:
prefix multipliers,
static, –
electrochemical energy, –
electrolytic capacitors,
electromagnetic deflection, – ,

electromagnetic fields, –
frequency vs. wavelength,
electromagnetic induction,
electromagnetic interference,

electromagnetic radiation,
electromagnetic spectrum,
electromagnetism,
electromagnets, –
ac,
dc, –
electromotive force (EMF), – ,

electron flow, –
electron tubes, –
electron volt,
electronic counters,
electronic mail,
electrons,
path of,
secondary,
electroscope, –
electrostatic deflection, – ,

electrostatic transducer, –
elements, –
atomic numbers/weight, –
embedded path,
emitter,
emitter-coupled logic (ECL),
energy:
chemical,
difference between power and,
electrochemical, –
emission, –
harmonic,
kinetic,
nonelectrical, –
nuclear,
potential,
units of, –
watt hour and, –
energy per unit time, –
enhancement mode vs. depletion
mode,
envelope detection,
epipolar navigation, –
erasable programmable ROM
(EPROM),
electrically,
erg,
Esaki diodes,
exabyte,
expert systems,
external modem,
extremely low frequency (ELF),
F
facsimile, –
farad, Index
fast-scan television (FSTV),

feedback,
ferrite cores,
ferromagnetism, –
FET amplifier, –
FET voltmeter (FETVM),
fiberoptics, –
field coil,
field-effect transistor (FET),

insulated-gate,
junction, –
metal-oxide, –
fifth-generation robot,
file-transfer protocol (FTP),
filter capacitors, –
filter choke,
filters, –
capacitor-input,
choke-input,
first-generation robot,
flash memory,
flat discharge curve,
flip-flops, –
J-K,
master/slave,
R-S,
synchronous,
flux:
electric lines of,
magnetic lines of, – , –
flux density,
foot pound,
formatting,
forward bias,
forward breakover voltage,
fourth-generation robot,
frequency:
alpha cutoff,
angular,
audio,
beat,
capacitive reactance and, –
carrier,
constancy of in oscillators,

deviation,
gain vs., –
inductive reactance and, –
intermediate, –
radio, –
radio signal classifications,
frequency (Cont.)
resonant, –
tripler,
vs. wavelength,
frequency control,
frequency counters,
frequency modulation (FM),
, –
demodulation, –
wideband,
frequency multipliers,
frequency-shift keying (FSK),

demodulation,
frequency spectrum, –
full duplex,
full-wave rectifiers,
full-wave voltage doubler,
fuser,
fuses, –
G
gain:
amplifier, –
current,
frequency vs., –
power,
voltage,
gain bandwidth product,
galena,
gallium arsenide, –
galvanism,
galvanometer,
gas-filled tubes, vs. vacuum,
gate,
gate voltage,
gauss,
GB plane, –
vectors,
generators, ac, –
geomagnetic field, –
magnetic compass,
poles/axis,
solar wind, –
geomagnetic storm,
geostationary satellite,
germanium,
gigabytes,
gigacycles,
gigahertz,
gilbert,
GLC circuits, –
Global Positioning System (GPS),

graphic equalizer, –
grid, –
Gunn diodes,
H
half-wave rectifiers, –
ham radio, – , –
hand-held operation,
handoff,
hard drive, – , –
harmonics,
Hartley oscillator, –
headset,
heatsinks,
henry,
heptode, –
hertz, ac and, –
heterodyning, –
hexadecimal number system,
hexaphonic sound,
hexode, –
hobby radio, –
hole flow,
hue, –
hydrogen,
heavy,
hypertext,
hysteresis loss,
I
IBM-compatible computer,
illumination meter, –
image orthicon,
image resolution, –
imaginary numbers, –
IMPATT diodes,
impedance, –
absolute-value,
bridge,
characteristic, – ,
complex in series, –
complex numbers, –
converting admittance to,
imaginary numbers, –
RX plane, –
impedance matching,
transformers and, –
impedance mismatch, –
impedance-transfer ratio, – Index
inductance, –
amount of lag, –
line, –
mutual, –
permeability tuning,
property of, –
pure,
resistance and, –
stray,
unit of,
unwanted,
induction, electromagnetic,
inductive reactance, –
current lags voltage,
frequency and, –
RL plane points, –
RL plane vectors, –
inductive susceptance,
formula,
inductors,
air cores, –
audio frequency,
ferrite cores,
interaction among, –
parallel, –
pot cores,
powdered-iron cores,
practical, –
radio frequency,
series, –
transmission-line, –
infrared, – ,
infrared-emitting diode (IRED),
,
infrared transducers, –
infrasound,
inkjet printer,
insect robots, –
instantaneous amplitude,
insulated-gate field-effect transistor
(IGFET),
insulators,
integrated circuits (ICs),

advantages, –
bipolar digital,
capacitors in,
component density, –
linear, –
linear vs. digital,
memory, –
MOS digital, –
op amp as an oscillator,
integrated circuits (ICs) (Cont.)
packaging,
resistors, –
technology limitations, –
interelectrode capacitance,

interlacing,
intermediate frequency (IF),

internal modem,
Internet, –
Internet relay chat,
Internet service provider (ISP),
ionosphere refraction,
ions, –
isolation transformers, –
isotopes, –
J
J-K flip-flops,
Jaz disks, –
joule, –
converting,
junction capacitance,
junction field-effect transistor
(JFET), –
biasing, –
depletion/pinchoff, –
drain current vs. drain voltage,

N-channel vs. P-channel, –
principles,
transconductance,
voltage amplification, –
K
kiloamperes,
kilobaud,
kilobits per second (kbps),
kilobytes,
kilocycles,
kilohertz,
kilohms,
kilosiemens,
kilovolt,
kilowatt hour,
kilowatt-hour meters, –
kilowatts,
kinetic energy,
Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert,
Kirchhoff’s First Law, –
Kirchhoff’s Second Law, –
klystron,
L
lagging phase,
large-scale integration (LSI),

laser diodes,
laser printer, – , –
leading phase, –
LED printer,
light meter, –
light-emitting diode (LED),
,
linear taper potentiometer,
linearity, –
liquid-crystal display (LCD),
,
loading control,
logarithm, –
logarithmic potentiometer, –
logic:
Boolean algebra,
counters, –
digital, –
flip-flops, –
parallel data transfer, –
positive vs. negative,
register,
serial data transfer,
signals, –
logic board,
loudness, –
low-earth-orbit satellite,
low frequency (LF),
lower sideband (LSB),
lumens,
M
machine hearing, –
machine language,
Macintosh computer,
magnetic compass,
magnetic data storage, – ,

audio tape, – , –
bubble memory, –
compact disks,
disks, – , –
videotape, –
magnetic diskettes, Index
magnetic field,
magnetic field strength, –
ampere-turn/gilbert units,
electromagnets, –
tesla/gauss units,
magnetic force, –
magnetic levitation,
magnetic polarity, –
magnetic tape, analog, –
magnetic units, –
magnetism, – , –
electric charge in motion,
geomagnetic field, –
lines of flux, – , –
permeability, –
retentivity, –
magnetomotive force,
magneto-optical storage,
magnetron, –
magnets, permanent, –
make-before-break,
mass storage, –
master/slave (M/S) flip-flops,
maximum usable frequency (MUF),

maxwell,
measuring devices, –
medium-earth-orbit satellite,

medium-scale integration (MSI),

megabits per second (Mbps),
megabytes,
megacycles,
megahertz,
megasiemens,
megavolt,
megawatt,
memory, – , –
bubble, – , –
capacity,
erasable programmable ROM,
IC storage capacity,
random-access, –
read-only,
volatility,
metal-can package,
metal-film resistors,
metal-oxide semiconductors
(MOS), –
complementary,
N-channel,
P-channel,
metal-oxide-semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (MOSFET),

depletion mode vs. enhancement
mode,
flexibility,
problems with,
super-high input impedance,
metal oxides,
meter shunt,
meters (see test equipment)
mica capacitors,
microammeter,
microamperes,
microfarad,
microhenry,
microprocessor, –
microsiemens,
microvolt,
microwatt,
microwave signals,
milliammeter,
milliampere,
millihenry,
millisiemens,
millivolt,
milliwatt,
mixing,
mobile operation,
mobile sound system,
modem, –
modulated-light receiver,
modulation:
amplitude, –
de-, –
frequency, –
phase, –
pulse, –
pulse amplitude, –
pulse code, –
pulse duration,
pulse frequency,
pulse interval,
pulse width,
reactance vs. phase,
molecules, –
monitor,
monopoles, –
moonbounce,
Morse code,
motherboard,
motors, dc, –
multimeters, –
multiplexers, analog,
multiplexing, time-division,
multivibrator, –
mutual inductance,
effects of, –
N
NAND gate,
nanoampere,
nanohenry,
neutrons,
newsgroups,
noise, – , –
noise blanker,
noise figure (NF), –
noise floor,
noise limiter,
NOR gate,
NOT gate,
nuclear energy,
nucleus,
numbering systems:
binary, –
decimal, –
hexadecimal,
octal,
numbers:
atomic, –
Boolean algebra,
complex, –
imaginary, –
real,
O
octal number system,
Ohm’s law, – , –
ohmmeter, –
ohms,
resistance and, –
operational amplifier (op amp),

as an oscillator,
optoisolator,
OR gate,
oscillation,
oscillators, –
Armstrong,
audio, –
beat-frequency,
Clapp, –
Colpitts, Index
oscillators (Cont.)
concept,
crystal-controlled, –
diode,
feedback,
Hartley, –
IC,
parasitic,
performance reliability,
Pierce,
PLL frequency synthesizer,
stability, –
uses,
variable-frequency, –
voltage-controlled, –
oscilloscope, – ,
overdrive, – , –
overwhelmingly large-scale integration (OLSI),
oxidation,
ozone,
P
P-N junction, –
packet radio,
packets,
paper capacitors, –
parallel data transfer, –
parallelogram,
parasitic oscillators,
peak amplitude,
peak inverse voltage (PIV),

peak reverse voltage (PRV),
peak-to-peak amplitude,
peer-to-peer wireless LAN,
pen recorders,
pentode, –
perigee,
permanent magnets, –
permeability, –
permeability tuning,
petabyte,
phase, – , –
degrees of, –
instantaneous voltage/current,

lagging,
leading, –
radians of,
rate of change, –
sound, –
phase (Cont.)
vector diagrams, –
phase angle,
cosine of,
phase coincidence, –
phase-locked loop (PLL),
phase modulation, –
vs. reactance modulation,
phase opposition,
phosphor,
photoconductivity,
photodiodes, silicon, –
photomultiplier,
photovoltaic cells,
photovoltaic effect,
picofarad,
Pierce oscillator,
piezoelectric transducer,
PIN diode,
pinchoff,
plastic-film capacitors,
plates,
platters,
PLL frequency synthesizer,
polarity,
polarization,
portable operation,
portable sound system, –
pot cores,
potential energy,
potentiometers, –
audio, –
linear taper,
logarithmic, –
powdered-iron cores,
power:
ac circuits and, –
calculating, –
definition, –
difference between energy and,
dissipation, –
distribution in parallel circuits,

distribution in series circuits,
division of,
energy per unit time, –
imaginary,
instantaneous,
rating of resistors, –
reactive, –
true, – , – , –
volt-amperes (VA), –
watt and, –
power amplifiers, –
broadband, –
definition of efficiency,
efficiency vs. class,
power input, –
power output,
radio-frequency, –
tuned, –
weak-signal vs.,
power factor, –
power gain,
power supplies, –
parts, –
power surges, –
power transformers, – ,

electronic device, –
generating plant,
ratings, –
step-up/step-down,
transmission lines,
power transmission, –
measuring, –
standing waves, –
printer, –
product detectors, –
propagation:
auroral,
radio-wave, –
sky-wave, –
surface-wave,
tropospheric,
protocol, –
protons,
proximity sensing,
pulse amplitude modulation (PAM),
– ,
pulse code modulation (PCM),
– ,
pulse duration modulation (PDM),
,
pulse frequency modulation (PFM),

pulse interval modulation (PIM),

pulse modulation (PM), –
demodulation, –
pulse width modulation (PWM),

Q
quadraphonic sound, Index
R
R-S flip-flops,
rack hi-fi system,
radians of phase,
radiation:
coherent,
cosmic,
electromagnetic,
radiation resistance,
radio frequency (RF):
classifications,
inductors at,
power amplifiers, –
radio-frequency amplifiers,

weak-signal vs. power,
radio-frequency transducers,

radio-frequency transformers,

coil types, –
transmission-line types,
radio spectrum,
radio signals, –
radio-wave propagation, –
line-of-sight waves, –
polarization,
radioteletype (RTTY),
random-access memory (RAM),
– , –
range plotting,
range sensing,
rate meters,
ratio detector,
RC circuit, –
RC plane:
angle of lead, –
points, –
vectors,
reactance, –
capacitive, –
frequency and, – , –
general information regarding,

inductive, –
power, –
pure,
reactance modulation, vs. phase
modulation,
read-only memory (ROM),
electrically erasable,
erasable,
real numbers,
receivers:
dynamic range,
noise figure, –
selectivity,
sensitivity,
specifications, –
receiving antenna, –
receptor electrode,
rectification, fluctuating dc and,

rectifier diodes, –
rectifiers,
bridge, –
full-wave,
half-wave, –
selenium,
silicon,
refresh rate,
register,
regulators, voltage,
relays,
repeater,
resistance,
calculating, –
capacitance and, –
current through parallel, –
current through series, –
loads in general,
ohms and, –
parallel, –
power distribution in parallel,

power distribution in series,
pure,
radiation,
series, –
series-parallel, –
voltage across parallel,
voltage across series, –
resistivity, electrical wire and,

resistors, – , –
bleeder,
carbon-composition, –
carbon-film,
color code, –
IC, –
metal-film,
power rating, –
purpose, –
temperature compensation,

resistors (Cont.)
tolerance,
values,
wirewound, –
resolution,
resonance:
parallel,
series, –
resonant devices, –
antennas, –
cavities, –
crystals,
transmission lines,
resonant frequency, calculating,

reverse bias,
reverse voltage,
revolute geometry, –
rheostat,
ripple,
RL circuit,
RL plane:
determining amount of lag,

phase angle,
points, –
vectors, –
RLC circuits, –
complex admittances in parallel,

complex impedances in series,

parallel, –
reducing complicated, –
series, – , –
robot arms, –
robot generations, –
robotic navigation, –
root-mean-square amplitude,

rule-based system,
RX plane, –
vectors, –
S
safety, –
power supplies and,
sampling rate,
satellite, –
geostationary,
low-earth-orbit,
medium-earth-orbit, – Index
saturation,
color, –
sawtooth wave, –
fast-rise/slow-decay,
slow-rise/fast-decay,
variable-rise/variable-decay,
schematic diagrams,
vs. wiring diagrams,
schematic symbols, –
scientific notation,
second-generation robot,
sectors,
selenium,
selenium rectifiers,
self-replicating robot,
semiconductor capacitors,
semiconductors, – , –
acceptor impurity,
avalanche effect,
charge carriers,
donor impurity,
doping,
electron flow, –
hole flow,
materials, –
metal-oxide, –
P-N junction, –
revolution, –
sensitivity,
serial data port,
serial data transfer,
shift register,
shortwave listening, –
shunt resistance,
sidebands, – ,
siemens, conductance and, –
signal logic, –
signal mixing, –
signals:
low-frequency (LF),
microwave,
product detector, –
radio, –
ultra-high-frequency (UHF),
very-low-frequency (VLF),
voice, –
silicon,
silicon rectifiers,
sine waves,
as circular motion, –
single inline package (SIP),
single sideband (SSB), –
demodulation,
single sideband (SSB) (Cont.)
transmitter, –
voice,
sky-wave EM propagation, –
slope detection,
slow-scan television (SSTV),
smart androids,
solar cell,
solar flare,
solar panel,
solar wind, –
solenoid, – , –
relay device,
ringer device, –
sound-level meter,
sound path effects, –
sound spectrum, –
sound waveforms,
source,
source current,
source computer,
speaker,
spectrum analyzer,
, –
spurious emissions,
square wave,
stability, –
standing waves, –
static current amplifier,
static electricity, –
static RAM (SRAM),
storage register,
substrate,
superconductivity,
superheterodyne, –
surface-wave propagation,
surge current, –
surge impedance, – ,
susceptance, –
formulas, –
pure,
switching,
symbols and notations, – ,

synchronization pulses,
synchronous flip-flops,
T
tantalum capacitors, –
tape drive,
tape media,
tape recorder, –
telechir, –
telepresence, –
television:
fast-scan, –
slow-scan,
temperature coefficient:
capacitors,
negative/positive,
temperature compensation, resistors, –
terabyte,
terahertz,
terminal emulation software,
terminal unit,
tesla,
test equipment, measuring devices,

tests:
alternating current, –
answers, –
direct current, –
tetrode,
thermal heating,
thermal printer, –
thermocouple principle,
third-generation robot, –
time-division multiplexing,
timers,
tolerance,
capacitor, –
tone control,
toroid, – ,
torque,
tracks,
transceiver,
transconductance,
transformers, –
air-core,
audio-frequency,
auto-,
balanced/unbalanced loads,

broadband,
core geometries, –
cores, –
coupling, –
ferrite cores,
impedance-transfer ratio, –
isolation, –
laminated iron,
powdered-iron cores,
power, – , –
principles, – Index
transformers (Cont.)
radio-frequency, –
reactance, –
step-up/step-down,
turns ratio, –
utility, –
Variac,
transient suppressors,
transistors:
bipolar, –
circuit abbreviations,
field-effect, –
NPN vs. PNP, –
transistor-transistor logic (TTL),

transmission lines, – ,

capacitors, –
inductors, –
measuring power, –
overheating,
power transformers and,
radio,
sections,
transformers,
types of,
transmitters:
amplitude modulation,
single sideband, –
transmitting antenna, –
traveling-wave tubes, –
treble control,
triangular wave,
trimmers,
triodes, –
tropospheric EM propagation,

truth tables, –
tubes:
cathode, – ,
cathode-ray, –
diode, –
electron, –
heptode, –
hexode, –
klystron,
magnetron, –
obsolete,
pentode, –
RF power amplifiers, –
tetrode,
traveling-wave, –
triode, –
tubes (Cont.)
vacuum vs. gas-filled,
video camera, –
tuner, –
tuning control,
tunnel diodes,
turns ratio, –
U
ultra-large-scale integration
(ULSI),
ultra-high frequency (UHF),
ultrasound,
ultraviolet,
upper sideband (USB),
username,
V
vacuum tubes, vs. gas-filled,
vacuum-tube voltmeter (VTVM),
varactors,
variable capacitors, –
variable-frequency oscillator
(VFO), –
Variac transformer,
vector diagrams, phase relationship, –
very large-scale integration (VLSI),

very low frequency (VLF),
vestigial sideband (VSB),
video camera tubes, –
videotape, –
vidicon,
vinyl disk,
visible wavelengths,
vision system, –
volt, –
volt-amperes (VA),
volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM),

voltage:
calculating,
forward breakover,
across parallel resistances,
reverse,
across series resistances, –
voltage amplification, –
voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO),
, –
voltage dividers, – ,
voltage doubler, –
voltage gain,
voltage multipliers,
voltage regulation,
voltage regulators, – ,

tubes, –
voltmeters, –
FET,
vacuum-tube,
volume control,
volume units (VU),
VU meter,
W
watt, power and, –
watt hour, energy and, –
watt-hour meters, –
watts rms,
waveforms,
amplitude, –
angular frequency,
audio,
carrier,
complex/irregular,
cosine,
cycles/phases,
frequency spectrum, –
out of phase,
period/frequency, –
phase difference,
ramp,
sawtooth, –
sine, – ,
square,
standing, –
triangular,
(See also phase)
waveguides,
waves:
direct,
line-of-sight,
reflected,
surface,
webers,
Web,
Web site,
Weston standard cell,
winding:
core method,
primary/secondary,
shell method, – Index
wire:
resistivity,
(See also transmission lines)
wireless local area networks,
wireless security systems,
wirewound resistors, –
wiring diagrams,
World Wide Web,
X
XNOR gate,
XOR gate,
Z
Zener diodes,
zero bias, –
Zip disks,


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