كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants

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عدد المساهمات : 17958
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants    كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants  Emptyالثلاثاء 08 نوفمبر 2022, 12:40 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Biodiesel from Flowering Plants
Samuel Paul Raj, Pravin Raj Solomon, Baskar Thangaraj

كتاب Biodiesel from Flowering Plants  B_d_f_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Introduction . 1
1.1 Uniqueness of This Book 4
References . 5
2 History of Biodiesel . 7
References . 13
3 Anacardiaceae . 15
3.1 Chinese Pistache (Pistacia chinensis) 15
3.1.1 Oil Extraction . 15
3.1.2 Biodiesel Production 17
3.1.3 Engine Performance . 20
References . 22
4 Apocynaceae 23
4.1 Milk Weed (Asclepias syriaca) 23
4.1.1 Oil Extraction . 24
4.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 25
4.2 Milk Bush (Thevetia peruviana) . 26
4.2.1 Oil Extraction . 27
4.2.2 Biodiesel Production 27
4.3 Sea Mango (Cerbera odollam) 29
4.3.1 Oil Extraction . 31
4.3.2 Properties of the Oil . 31
4.3.3 Preparation of Biodiesel 32
4.3.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 33
4.3.5 Engine Performance . 34
References . 34
5 Arecaceae . 37
5.1 Babassu (Attalea speciosa) . 37
5.1.1 The Oil Extraction 38
5.1.2 Preparation of Biodiesel 39
5.1.3 Engine Performance . 41
5.2 Coconut (Cocos nucifera) 41
ix5.2.1 Distribution . 41
5.2.2 Botanical Description 43
5.2.3 Propagation . 44
5.2.4 Pest Management 44
5.2.5 Fruit 45
5.2.6 Seed 46
5.2.7 Oil Extraction . 46
5.2.8 Oil . 48
5.2.9 Biodiesel . 50
5.3 Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) 53
5.3.1 Characteristics . 54
5.3.2 Habitat 55
5.3.3 Propagation and Planting . 56
5.3.4 Harvesting . 56
5.3.5 Characteristics of Palm Oil 57
5.3.6 Properties of Palm Kernel Oil 58
5.3.7 Biodiesel Production 59
5.3.8 Microemulsion Based Biodiesel 63
5.3.9 Winter Grade Palm Oil Biodiesel . 63
5.3.10 Use of Raw Palm Oil in Electrical Generators 64
5.3.11 Characteristics of Palm Kernel Oil Biodiesel . 65
5.3.12 Engine Performance of Palm Oil Biodiesel 65
5.3.13 Prospects of Biodiesel . 66
5.4 Queen Palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) . 68
5.4.1 Oil Production . 69
5.5 Tucuma (Astrocaryum huaimi) 70
5.5.1 Production of Oil . 72
5.5.2 Biodiesel Preparation 72
References . 72
6 Asteraceae 77
6.1 Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) 77
6.1.1 Oil Extraction . 79
6.1.2 Biodiesel Production 79
6.2 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) 80
6.2.1 Characteristics . 81
6.2.2 Cultivation . 81
6.2.3 Oil Extraction . 82
6.2.4 Oil Quality . 82
6.2.5 Biodiesel Preparation 83
6.2.6 Quality of the Biodiesel Produced . 84
6.2.7 Fuel Efficiency 84
References . 88
x Contents7 Betulaceae 91
7.1 Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) 91
7.1.1 Oil and Biodiesel Production 91
References . 94
8 Brassicaceae . 95
8.1 Mustard (Brassica juncea) . 95
8.1.1 Vernacular Names 96
8.1.2 Geographical Distribution 96
8.1.3 Botanical Description 97
8.1.4 Cultivation . 97
8.1.5 Pests and Diseases 98
8.1.6 Mustard Oil . 98
8.1.7 The Oil Cake 100
8.1.8 Preparation of Biodiesel 100
8.1.9 Physicochemical Characteristics of Biodiesel . 100
8.1.10 Fuel Efficiency 102
8.2 Canola (Brassica napus and B. rapa) 102
8.2.1 Different Names . 102
8.2.2 Distribution . 102
8.2.3 Botanical Features 103
8.2.4 Cultivation . 103
8.2.5 Pests and Diseases 105
8.2.6 Fruit and Seed . 105
8.2.7 Oil Extraction . 105
8.2.8 Degumming of Oil 106
8.2.9 The Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil 107
8.2.10 Biodiesel Production 108
8.2.11 Characteristics of Biodiesel . 109
8.3 Wild Flax (Camelina sativa) 116
8.3.1 Oil Extraction . 116
8.3.2 Biodiesel Preparation 118
8.4 Desert Mustard (Lesquerella fendleri) . 121
8.4.1 Oil and Biodiesel . 123
8.5 Turnip (Raphanus sativus) . 124
8.5.1 Biodiesel Preparation 125
References . 127
9 Caryocaraceae . 131
9.1 Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) 131
9.1.1 Oil and Biodiesel Preparation 131
References . 134
10 Chrysobalanaceae 135
10.1 Oiticica (Licania rigida) . 135
10.1.1 Oil Extraction . 135
Contents xi10.1.2 Properties of the Oil . 137
10.1.3 Preparation of Biodiesel 137
References . 139
11 Clusiaceae 141
11.1 Kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum) . 141
11.1.1 Geographical Distribution 142
11.1.2 Botanical Description 142
11.1.3 Propagation . 143
11.1.4 Fruit 144
11.1.5 Seed 144
11.1.6 Oil Yield . 144
11.1.7 Pests and Diseases 145
11.1.8 Vernacular Names 145
11.1.9 Extraction of Oil . 146
11.1.10 Biodiesel Preparation 149
11.1.11 The Characteristics of the Biodiesel . 152
11.1.12 Engine Performance . 153
11.2 Kokum (Garcinia indica) 154
11.2.1 Oil Extraction and Biodiesel Preparation 155
11.2.2 Engine Performance . 156
References . 156
12 Combretaceae . 159
12.1 Terminalia (Terminalia catappa and T. bellerica) . 159
12.1.1 Oil Extraction . 161
12.1.2 Composition of the Oil . 161
12.1.3 Biodiesel Preparation 162
12.1.4 Properties of T. catappa Biodiesel 162
12.1.5 Properties of T. bellerica Biodiesel 162
12.1.6 Engine Performance . 163
References . 164
13 Compositae . 165
13.1 Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) . 165
13.1.1 Oil Extraction . 166
13.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 167
13.1.3 Quality of Biodiesel . 168
13.2 Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) . 169
13.2.1 Oil Preparation 171
13.2.2 Biodiesel Preparation 171
13.2.3 Engine Performance . 172
References . 173
xii Contents14 Cornaceae 175
14.1 Cornelian Cherry (Swida wilsoniana) . 175
14.1.1 Oil Extraction . 175
14.1.2 Biodiesel Production 177
References . 178
15 Cucurbitaceae . 179
15.1 Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) 179
15.1.1 Extraction of Oil . 181
15.1.2 Preparation of Biodiesel 181
15.2 Musk Melon (Cucumis melo) . 183
15.2.1 Oil Production . 185
15.2.2 Biodiesel Production 185
15.2.3 Engine Performance . 185
15.3 Lard Seed (Hodgsonia macrocarpa) 187
15.3.1 Oil Extraction . 188
15.4 Biodiesel Preparation . 188
15.5 Loofah (Luffa cylindrica) 189
15.5.1 Oil Extraction . 190
15.5.2 Biodiesel Preparation 191
References . 192
16 Cyperaceae 195
16.1 Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) 195
16.1.1 Harvest and Processing of Tubers . 196
16.1.2 Oil Extraction . 197
16.1.3 Physicochemical Properties of the Oil 197
16.1.4 Production of Biodiesel 198
16.1.5 The Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel . 198
References . 199
17 Dipterocarpaceae . 201
17.1 Sal Tree (Shorea robusta) 201
17.1.1 Oil Preparation 202
17.1.2 Engine Performance . 205
References . 206
18 Euphorbiaceae . 207
18.1 Candle Nut (Aleurites moluccanus) . 207
18.1.1 Oil Extraction . 208
18.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 209
18.2 Croton (Croton megalocarpus) 211
18.2.1 Oil Extraction . 212
18.2.2 Biodiesel Preparation 213
18.3 Paper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyris) 215
18.3.1 Oil Extraction . 217
Contents xiii18.3.2 Biodiesel Production 217
18.4 Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) 219
18.4.1 Distribution . 220
18.4.2 Botanical Features 221
18.4.3 Propagation . 222
18.4.4 Pests and Control . 223
18.4.5 Seeds . 224
18.4.6 Oil Extraction . 226
18.4.7 Characteristics of the Oil . 227
18.4.8 Press Cake . 228
18.4.9 Biodiesel Production 229
18.4.10 Double Stage Transesterification 230
18.4.11 Deacidification of Oil 233
18.4.12 Deacidification at Laboratory Scale 234
18.4.13 Esterification (Direct) 234
18.4.14 Properties of Biodiesel . 236
18.4.15 Shelf Life of Biodiesel . 240
18.5 Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) . 242
18.5.1 Habitat 243
18.5.2 Botanical Features 245
18.5.3 Propagation . 247
18.5.4 Cultivation . 248
18.5.5 Pests and Control . 250
18.5.6 Fruits and Seeds . 250
18.5.7 Oil Extraction . 252
18.5.8 Solvent Extraction 252
18.5.9 Press 253
18.5.10 Aqueous Oil Extraction 254
18.5.11 Three Phase Partitioning . 255
18.5.12 Cake 255
18.5.13 Oil . 256
18.5.14 Biodiesel . 258
18.5.15 Quality of Biodiesel . 260
18.5.16 Engine Performance . 260
18.5.17 Economic Appraisal . 261
18.5.18 Global Warming Abatement Potential 265
18.6 Castor (Ricinus communis) . 267
18.6.1 Habitat 268
18.6.2 Distinguishing Features 269
18.6.3 Cultivation . 269
18.6.4 Oil Extraction . 270
18.6.5 Oil Quality . 271
18.6.6 Production of Biodiesel 272
18.7 Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera) . 277
xiv Contents18.7.1 Oil Production . 278
18.7.2 Biodiesel Production 279
18.8 Tung Tree (Vernicia montana and V. fordii) . 281
18.8.1 Oil Production . 282
18.8.2 Biodiesel Production 284
References . 285
19 Fabaceae . 291
19.1 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) 291
19.1.1 Habitat 293
19.1.2 Distinguishing Features 293
19.1.3 Oil Extraction . 293
19.1.4 Biodiesel Production 296
19.1.5 Properties of Groundnut Biodiesel 299
19.1.6 Engine Performance . 301
19.1.7 Emission Characteristics 304
19.2 Soybean (Glycine max) 305
19.2.1 Geographical Distribution 306
19.2.2 Colloquial Names 306
19.2.3 Cultivation and Dehulling 307
19.2.4 Oil Extraction . 307
19.2.5 Purification of Oil 309
19.2.6 Biodiesel Production 312
19.2.7 Biodiesel Property 317
19.2.8 Engine Performance . 321
19.3 Pongam (Pongamia pinnata) 324
19.3.1 Geographic Distribution 324
19.3.2 Fruits and Seeds . 327
19.3.3 Oil Extraction . 327
19.3.4 Biodiesel Production 329
19.3.5 Biodiesel Property 333
19.3.6 Pongam Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel 335
19.4 African Oak (Afzelia africana) 339
19.4.1 Oil Extraction . 340
19.4.2 Biodiesel Production 342
19.5 Babul (Acacia nilotica) 343
19.5.1 Oil Extraction . 344
19.5.2 Biodiesel Production 345
19.6 Diesel Tree (Copaifera langsdorffii) 347
19.6.1 Biodiesel . 348
19.7 Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) 348
19.7.1 Oil Extraction . 349
19.7.2 Biodiesel Production 350
19.8 Shikakai (Acacia concinna) . 351
19.8.1 Oil Extraction . 352
Contents xv19.8.2 Biodiesel Production 353
19.9 Shittim (Acacia raddiana) 354
19.9.1 Oil Extraction . 354
19.9.2 Biodiesel Preparation 355
19.10 Brebra (Millettia ferruginea) 356
19.10.1 Oil Extraction . 357
19.10.2 Properties of Oil . 358
19.10.3 Biodiesel Production 358
19.10.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 358
References . 359
20 Irvingiaceae . 365
20.1 Wild Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) . 365
20.1.1 Oil Production . 367
20.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 367
20.1.3 Engine Performance . 369
References . 369
21 Linaceae 371
21.1 Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) 371
21.1.1 Production of Linseed Oil 372
21.1.2 Properties of Linseed Oil . 373
21.1.3 Preparation of Biodiesel 374
21.1.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 374
21.1.5 Engine Performance . 376
References . 377
22 Magnoliaceae 379
22.1 Champaca (Michelia champaca) . 379
22.1.1 Oil Production . 380
22.1.2 Properties of Oil . 381
22.1.3 Biodiesel Production 382
22.1.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 382
Reference . 383
23 Malvaceae 385
23.1 Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) 385
23.1.1 Oil Extraction . 386
23.1.2 Characterization of Oil . 387
23.1.3 Biodiesel Preparation 388
23.1.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 389
23.1.5 Engine Performance . 390
23.2 Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) . 391
23.2.1 Characteristics of Gossypium hirsutum L 391
23.2.2 Distribution . 392
23.2.3 Vernacular Names 392
xvi Contents23.2.4 Habitat 392
23.2.5 Cultivation . 393
23.2.6 Oil Extraction . 393
23.2.7 Microwave Assisted Extraction . 393
23.2.8 Subcritical Water Extraction . 394
23.2.9 Properties of Cottonseed Oil . 394
23.2.10 Preparation of Biodiesel 395
23.2.11 Properties of Cottonseed Biodiesel 399
23.2.12 Engine Performance . 400
23.2.13 Brake Thermal Efficiency . 402
23.2.14 Emission Characteristics 402
References . 403
24 Meliaceae . 407
24.1 Neem (Azadirachta indica) . 407
24.1.1 Vernacular Names 408
24.1.2 Geographical Distribution 409
24.1.3 Botanical Features 409
24.1.4 Propagation . 410
24.1.5 Pests and Diseases 411
24.1.6 Fruits and Seeds . 411
24.1.7 Oil Extraction . 411
24.1.8 Properties of Oil . 411
24.1.9 Biodiesel Preparation 412
24.1.10 Characteristics of the Biodiesel . 415
24.1.11 Engine Performance . 415
24.2 Andiroba (Carapa guianensis) 416
24.2.1 Oil and Biodiesel Preparation 417
24.3 Syringa (Melia azedarach) . 419
24.3.1 Extraction of Oil . 421
24.3.2 Properties of Oil . 421
24.3.3 Preparation of Biodiesel 421
References . 422
25 Nyssaceae . 425
25.1 Happy Tree (Camptotheca acuminata) . 425
25.1.1 Oil and Biodiesel . 425
References . 427
26 Oleaceae 429
26.1 Olive (Olea europaea) 429
26.1.1 Extraction of Oil . 431
26.1.2 Biodiesel Production 431
References . 434
Contents xvii27 Papaveraceae 435
27.1 Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana) . 435
27.1.1 Oil Extraction . 436
27.1.2 Biodiesel Production 438
27.1.3 Engine Performance . 439
References . 440
28 Pedaliaceae 441
28.1 Sesame (Sesamum indicum) 441
28.1.1 Production of Oil . 442
28.1.2 Properties of Oil . 443
28.1.3 Biodiesel Production 443
28.1.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 444
28.1.5 Engine Performance . 444
References . 445
29 Poaceae 447
29.1 Rice (Oryza sativa) 447
29.1.1 Preparation of Rice Bran Oil 448
29.1.2 Properties of Rice Bran Oil . 449
29.1.3 Preparation of Biodiesel 450
29.1.4 Properties of Biodiesel . 451
29.1.5 Engine Performance . 451
29.2 Corn (Zea mays) 452
29.2.1 Cultivation . 453
29.2.2 Oil Extraction . 453
29.2.3 Properties of Corn Oil . 455
29.2.4 Biodiesel Production 456
29.2.5 Fuel Characteristics . 458
29.2.6 Preheating and Blending with Petroleum Diesel . 461
29.2.7 Engine Performance . 463
29.2.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Oil
Biodiesel . 464
References . 465
30 Putranjivaceae . 467
30.1 Lucky Bean (Putranjiva roxburghii) 467
30.1.1 Oil Production . 467
30.1.2 Biodiesel Production 469
References . 469
31 Rosaceae . 471
31.1 Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) 471
31.2 Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica) 474
31.2.1 Preparation of Oil and Biodiesel 474
31.3 Sweet Almond (Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis) . 476
31.3.1 Oil Extraction and Biodiesel Production 476
References . 478
xviii Contents32 Rutaceae . 479
32.1 Wood Apple (Aegle marmelos) 479
32.1.1 Oil Extraction . 480
32.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 481
32.1.3 Engine Performance . 482
32.2 Chinese Red Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) 483
32.2.1 Oil Production . 484
32.2.2 Biodiesel Production 484
32.2.3 Engine Performance . 489
References . 489
33 Salicaceae . 491
33.1 Wonder Tree (Idesia polycarpa) . 491
33.1.1 Oil Extraction . 492
33.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 493
References . 494
34 Salvadoraceae . 495
34.1 Jhal (Salvadora oleoides) 495
34.1.1 Oil and Biodiesel . 495
34.2 Miswak (Salvadora persica) 498
34.2.1 Oil Extraction . 499
34.2.2 Biodiesel Preparation 499
References . 500
35 Sapindaceae . 503
35.1 Triangle Tops (Blighia unijugata) 503
35.1.1 Oil Extraction . 503
35.2 Soap Nut (Sapindus mukorossi) 505
35.2.1 Oil Extraction . 506
35.2.2 Biodiesel Production 508
35.2.3 Engine Performance . 510
35.3 Kusum (Schleichera oleosa) 510
35.3.1 Habitat 510
35.3.2 Botanical Features 511
35.3.3 Distribution . 512
35.3.4 Propagation . 512
35.3.5 Pest Management 512
35.3.6 Seed 513
35.3.7 Oil . 513
35.3.8 Transesterification 516
35.4 Yellow Horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia) . 517
35.4.1 Oil Extraction . 518
35.4.2 Biodiesel Production 519
References . 521
Contents xix36 Sapotaceae 523
36.1 Mahua (Madhuca indica) 523
36.1.1 Mahua Oil 524
36.1.2 Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil . 525
36.1.3 Biodiesel Preparation 526
36.1.4 Physicochemical Characteristics of Biodiesel . 526
36.1.5 Engine Performance . 527
36.1.6 Emission Characteristics 528
References . 528
37 Schisandraceae . 529
37.1 Magnolia Berry (Fructus schisandra chinensis) 529
37.1.1 Oil Extraction . 529
37.1.2 Biodiesel Production 531
References . 532
38 Simaroubaceae . 533
38.1 Paradise Tree (Simarouba glauca) 533
38.1.1 Biodiesel Production 535
References . 536
39 Simmondsiaceae 537
39.1 Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) 537
39.1.1 Oil Extraction . 538
39.1.2 Biodiesel Production 540
39.1.3 Fuel Blends . 541
References . 541
40 Solanaceae 543
40.1 Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) . 543
40.1.1 Oil Production . 544
40.1.2 Biodiesel Production 546
References . 548
41 Sterculiaceae 551
41.1 Java Olive (Sterculia foetida) . 551
41.1.1 Preparation of Seed Oil 551
41.1.2 Biodiesel Preparation 553
41.1.3 Engine Performance . 555
References . 555
42 Theaceae . 557
42.1 Tea (Camellia Species) 557
42.1.1 Oil and Biodiesel . 557
References . 560
43 Zygophyllaceae . 561
43.1 Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) . 561
xx Contents43.1.1 Oil Production . 562
43.1.2 Biodiesel Production 563
43.1.3 Engine Performance . 564
References . 565
44 Catalysts for Transesterification 567
44.1 Types of Catalytic Reactions 567
44.1.1 Homogeneous Catalysts 568
44.1.2 Heterogeneous Catalyst 574
44.2 Preparation of Catalysts . 575
44.2.1 Thermal Treatment (Calcination) . 576
44.2.2 Hydrothermal Synthesis 576
44.2.3 Physical Mixing . 576
44.2.4 Impregnation 576
44.2.5 Precipitation and Co-precipitation . 577
44.2.6 Alumina . 577
44.2.7 Calcium Oxide 583
44.2.8 Magnesium Oxide 583
44.2.9 Strontium Oxide . 585
44.2.10 Zeolite 586
44.2.11 Zirconium Oxide . 587
44.2.12 Zinc Oxide . 587
44.3 Enzyme Catalysed Transesterification . 589
44.3.1 Microbial Lipases 591
44.3.2 Regiospecific Enzymes 592
44.3.3 Enzyme Stability . 593
44.3.4 Microorganisms 593
44.3.5 Enzyme Tuning 594
44.3.6 Enzyme Lid 594
44.3.7 Limitations of Enzymatic Transesterification . 595
44.3.8 Stability in Repeated Cycles . 596
44.3.9 Enzyme Concentration . 596
44.3.10 Thermal Impact 597
44.3.11 The Enzyme Specificity 598
44.3.12 Water Activity . 598
44.3.13 Alcohol 599
44.3.14 Solvents . 601
44.3.15 Agitation Speed 603
44.3.16 Lipase Treatment . 603
44.3.17 Enzyme Deactivation and Regeneration . 604
44.3.18 Methyl Acetate as Acyl Acceptor . 605
44.3.19 Dimethyl Carbonate as Acyl Acceptor 605
44.3.20 Immobilized Lipase in Biodiesel Production . 606
44.3.21 Whole-Cell Biocatalyst 616
44.3.22 Immobilized Lipase on Nanoparticles 619
References . 622
Contents xxi45 Standards for Biodiesel 633
45.1 FFA and Acid Value . 634
45.2 Density . 634
45.3 Flash Point and Fire Point 635
45.4 Calorific Value (CV) . 635
45.5 Water Content 636
45.6 Copper Strip Corrosion 637
45.7 Viscosity 637
45.8 Wear . 638
45.9 Cold Filter Plugging Point . 638
45.10 Conductivity . 639
45.11 Distillation Temperature . 639
45.12 Thermal Stability 639
45.13 Oxidation Stability . 639
45.14 Cetane Number . 641
45.15 Diesel Index . 642
45.16 Aniline Point . 642
45.17 Sulphated Ash Content 642
45.18 Alcohol Content . 643
45.19 Oxygen Content . 643
45.20 Total Contamination 644
45.21 Cloud and Pour Point . 644
45.22 Linolenic Acid Content 644
45.23 Iodine Number 645
45.24 Glycerides (Bound Glycerin) 646
45.25 MAG, DAG and TAG Content 647
45.26 Free Glycerin . 647
45.27 Unsaponifiable Matter 647
45.28 Antifoaming . 648
45.29 Sulphur . 648
45.30 Carbon Residue . 649
45.31 Ester Content . 649
45.32 Ester with 4 Double Bond 649
45.33 Group I Metals (Na and K) . 650
45.34 Group II Metals (Ca and Mg) . 650
45.35 Raw Material Quality . 650
45.36 Free Fatty Acid . 651
45.37 Phosphorus 651
45.38 Insoluble and Contaminants 651
45.39 Life Cycle Assessment 652
45.40 Toxicity . 653
45.41 International Standards 653
References . 663
Index 665
Index
B
Biodiesel plant species
Acacia concinna, 291, 351–353
Acacia nilotica, 291, 343–347, 354
Acacia raddiana, 291, 354–356
Aegle marmelos, 479–483
Afzelia africana, 291, 339–343
Aleurites moluccanus, 207–211
Arachis hypogaea, 291–305
Argemone mexicana, 435–440
Asclepias syriaca, 23–26
Astrocaryum huaimi, 70–72
Attalea speciosa, 37–41
Azadirachta indica, 407–416
Balanites aegyptiaca, 561–564
Blighia unijugata, 503–505
Brassica juncea, 95–102
Brassica napus and Brassica rapa, 102–115
Calophyllum inophyllum, 141–154
Camelina sativa, 116–121
Camellia reticulata, 557
Camptotheca acuminata, 425–427
Capaifera langsdorffii, 347
Carapa guianensis, 407, 416–418
Carthamus tinctorius, 165–169
Caryocar brasiliense, 131–133
Ceiba pentandra, 385–390
Cerbera odollam, 23, 29–34
Citrullus colocynthis, 179–183
Cocos nucifera, 41–53
Corylus avellana, 91–94
Croton megalocarpus, 207, 211–215
Cucumis melo, 179, 183–187
Cynara cardunculus, 77–80
Cyperus esculentus, 195–198
Elaeis guineensis, 53–67
Euphorbia lathyris, 207, 215–219
Fructus schisandrae, 529
Garcinia indica, 141, 154–156
Glycine max, 291, 305–324
Gossypium hirsutum, 385, 391–403
Guizotia abyssinica, 165, 169–173
Helianthus annuus, 77, 80–88, 596
Hevea brasiliensis, 207, 219–242
Hodgsonia macrocarpa, 179, 187–189
Idesia polycarpa, 491–493
Irvingia gabonensis, 365–369
Jatropha curcas, 207, 242–267, 596
Lesquerella fendleri, 121–123
Licania rigida, 135–138
Linum usitatissimum, 371–376
Luffa cylindrical, 192
Madhuca indica, 497, 523–528
Melia azedarach, 407, 419–422
Michelia champaca, 379–382
Millettia ferrugine, 291, 356–359
Nicotiana tabacum, 543–548
Olea europaea, 429–434
Oryza sativa, 255, 447–451
Pistacia chinensis, 15–21
Pongamia pinnata, 291, 324–339, 596
Prosopis juliflora, 291, 348–351
Prunus amygdalus, 471, 476–478
Prunus armeniaca, 471–474
Prunus sibirica, 471, 474–475
Putranjiva roxburghii, 467–469
Raphanus sativus, 124–127
Ricinus communis, 207, 267–276
Salvadora oleoides, 495–498
Salvadora persica, 495, 498–500
Sapindus mukorossi, 503, 505–510
Schleichera oleosa, 503, 510–517, 577
Sesamum indicum, 441–444
Shorea robusta, 201–206
Simarouba glauca, 533–536
Simmondsia chinensis, 537–541
Biodiesel plant species (cont.)
Sterculia foetida, 551–555
Swida wilsoniana, 175–177
Syagrus romanzoffiana, 68–70
Terminalia catappa and Terminalia
bellerica, 162
Thevetia peruviana, 23, 26–30
Triadica sebifera, 207, 277–281
Vernicia montana and Vernicia fordii, 281–
285
Xanthoceras sorbifolia, 503, 517–521
Zanthoxylum bungeanum, 479, 483–489
Zea mays, 447, 452–464
M
Microbial enzymes
Aspergillus flavus, 254, 598
Aspergillus niger, 254, 592, 593, 610, 617
Bacillus thermoleovorans, 593
Burkholderia cepacia, 593, 610
Candida Antarctica, 213, 259, 398, 592–
596, 602–604, 609, 610, 613, 620
Candida cylindracea, 592, 593, 598
Candida rugosa, 12, 259, 592, 593, 598,
607, 609, 610, 613
Chromobacterium viscosum, 593, 595, 604
Enterobacter aerogenes, 593, 613
Fusarium heterosporum, 593
Geotrichum candidum, 592, 593
Humicola lanuginosa, 593, 598
Oospora lactis, 593
Penicillium camemberti, 598
Penicillium cyclopium, 593, 598
Penicillium roqueforti, 593
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 345, 593, 609
Pseudomonas cepacia, 592–594, 598, 604,
607, 609, 610
Pseudomonas fluorescens, 592, 593, 602–
604, 607, 609, 610, 613
Pseudomonas putida, 593
Rhizomucor miehei, 592–594, 598, 602–
604, 609, 617
Rhizopus arrhizus, 593
Rhizopus chinensis, 592, 593, 616, 617
Rhizopus circinans, 593
Rhizopus delemar, 592, 593
Rhizopus fusiformis, 593
Rhizopus japonicus NR 400, 593
Rhizopus oryzae, 20, 83, 259, 592, 593, 598,
603, 604, 613, 616–618
Rhizopus stolonifer NRRL 1478, 593
Rhodotorula rubra, 593
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 592, 593, 609,
616
Staphylococcus hyicus, 593
Thermomyces lanuginosus, 592, 593, 598,
602–604, 609, 610, 613
P
Popular names of plants
African oak, 291, 339–343
Andiroba, 407, 416–418
Babassu, 37–41
Babul, 291, 343–348
Brebra, 291, 356–359
Candle nut, 207–211
Cardoons, 77–79
Castor, 10, 225, 226, 246, 267–276, 341,
595, 646
Champaca, 379–382
Chinese pistache, 15–21
Chinese red pepper, 479, 483–489
Chinese tallow, 277–281
Coconut, 12, 41–53, 57, 531, 577, 638, 646,
651, 659
Corn, 9, 57, 95, 389, 447, 452–464, 595,
652
Cornelian cherry, 175–177
Cotton, 10, 17, 19, 72, 385, 387, 391–403,
595, 635, 645, 646
Croton, 211–215
Desert dates, 561, 563
Desert mustard, 121–123
Diesel tree, 291, 347–348
Egusi, 179–182
Groundnut, 227, 291–305
Happy tree, 425–427
Hazelnut, 91–94
Jatropha, 225, 226, 242–267, 334, 581, 596,
604, 617
Java olive tree, 551
Jhal, 495–498
Jojoba, 537–541
Kamani, 141–154
Kapok, 385–390
Kokum, 141, 154–156
Kusum, 503, 510–517
Lard seed, 187–189
Linseed, 10, 116, 227, 228, 371–376
Loofah, 189–192
Lucky bean, 467–469
Magnolia berry, 529–532
Mahua, 523–528, 604
Mesquite, 291, 348–351
666 IndexMexican poppy, 435–440
Milk bush, 23, 26–30
Milk weed, 23–26
Miswak, 495, 498–500
Musk melon, 183–187
Mustard, 95–102
Neem, 145, 227, 407–416, 601
Niger, 165, 169–173, 254, 429
Oil palm, 37, 53–67, 102
Oiticica, 135–138
Olive, 345, 411, 429–434, 551–555, 584,
595, 613
Paper spurge, 215–218
Paradise tree, 533–536
Pequi, 131–133
Pongam, 291, 324–339
Queen palm, 68–70
Rice, 255, 447–452
Safflower, 10, 165–169
Sal tree, 201–206
Sea mango, 23, 29–34
Sesame, 116, 441–444, 595
Shikakai, 291, 351–353
Shittim, 291, 354–356
Siberian apricot, 471, 474–475
Soap nut, 503, 505–510
Soybeans, 9, 10, 12, 67, 95, 98, 120, 162,
227, 291, 305–324, 577, 578, 581–585,
587, 595, 603, 604, 607, 617, 619, 645,
646
Sunflower, 10, 12, 66, 77, 80–88, 581, 583,
595, 596, 602–604, 645, 646, 651
Sweet almond, 471, 476–478
Syringa, 407, 419–422
Tea, 557–560
Terminalia, 159–163
Tiger nut, 195–198
Tobacco, 543–548
Triangle-top, 503
Tucuma, 70–72
Tung, 281–285
Turnip, 98, 102, 124–127
Wild flax, 116–121
Wild mango, 365–369
Wonder tree, 491–493
Wood apple, 479–483
Yellow horn, 503, 517–521
T
Technical words
Accelerated oxidation test, 109
Acetonitrile, 32, 209, 231
Acid catalysed transesterification, 388, 572
Acid value, 17, 21, 28–30, 34, 39, 40, 58,
64, 70, 72, 82, 85, 93, 99–101, 107, 109,
118, 120, 123–125, 137, 138, 146, 147,
149, 153, 162, 163, 167, 168, 171–173,
177, 178, 181, 182, 186, 189, 191, 192,
197, 198, 203, 205, 210, 213, 215, 217,
218, 225, 227, 236, 240, 241, 257, 271,
276, 279–281, 283, 284, 295, 296, 318,
328, 334, 341–343, 345, 346, 349–351,
353, 356, 358, 359, 368, 374, 381, 395,
412, 421, 425, 427, 431–433, 436, 437,
439, 451, 455, 459–461, 469, 481, 482,
484–486, 493, 497, 499, 505, 507, 508,
516, 521, 525–527, 531, 534, 535, 539,
546, 547, 554, 559, 563, 634, 654, 657,
658, 660, 662, 663
Acrylic, 596, 609
Acyl migration, 592
Acyl moieties, 592
Adiabatic flame temperature (AFT), 416
Adsorption, 1, 20, 111, 112, 213, 310,
608–610, 613
Aflatoxin, 46, 308
Agglomerate, 163, 239
Aggregates, 403, 529
Alcoholysis, 10, 83, 233, 258, 298, 399,
456, 539
Aldehydes, 120, 215, 240, 294, 317, 334,
375, 460, 527
Alkali catalysed transesterification, 59, 70,
111, 152, 181, 212, 230, 297, 388, 413,
421, 456, 493, 499, 508, 516, 519, 540,
558, 589, 591
Al2O3, 235, 578, 581
Alpha-linolenic acid, 99, 167
Alumina, 52, 388, 438, 541, 575, 577–582
Aluminium tri propanolate (C9H21AlO3),
217
Amberlite IRA-900, 520, 521
Amberlite IRC-72, 520
Amberlite IRC-93, 520
Amberlyst BD 20, 413, 414
Amberlyst-15, 389, 520
Amidines, 312
Ammonium meta tungstate, 213
Aniline point, 318, 321, 469, 642
Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction (AEOE),
253, 254, 455
Arachidic acid, 28, 32, 58, 108, 118, 149,
197, 203, 205, 256, 297, 312, 319, 344,
388, 432, 450, 456, 459, 469, 475, 507,
519, 525, 535
Index 667Technical words (cont.)
Arachidonic acid, 99
Ash content, 34, 85, 198, 238, 295, 296,
300, 301, 400, 459, 525, 527, 642, 651,
657
Asphalt, 389
Atomization, 9, 20, 21, 57, 65, 126, 156,
163, 205, 237, 275, 374, 382, 390, 439,
444, 449, 450, 462, 483, 486, 638, 647
Attapulgus, 108
Automated Swift test, 109
Auto oxidation, 120, 191, 237, 240, 241,
421
Average droplet size, 63
Average molecular weight, 17, 32, 167, 352,
353, 381, 455, 456, 473, 477
Average pore diameter, 62
Ba–ZnO, 581
Behenic acid, 32, 108, 149, 161, 197, 297,
388, 450, 507, 519
Bentonite, 48
Beta-sitosterol, 411
BET surface area, 62, 218, 487, 582
Bielenberg ram press, 47, 254
Bis-allylic position, 120
Bleaching, 47, 48, 92, 101, 171, 270, 310
Blends, 3, 12, 13, 20, 21, 34, 41, 49, 65,
121, 153, 163, 182, 239, 261, 275, 301–
304, 318–320, 322–324, 342, 369, 376,
403, 415, 416, 434, 439, 462, 468, 469,
489, 496, 497, 509, 510, 514, 515, 517,
535, 541, 548, 639, 640, 656, 657
Bore, 172, 186, 482
Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC),
20, 34, 94, 115, 116, 169, 205, 211, 303,
304, 323, 339, 376, 390, 401, 432, 439,
444, 463, 464, 468, 469, 483, 517, 527,
535, 541, 548, 564
Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), 29, 41, 85,
86, 94, 153, 156, 169, 173, 182, 205,
261, 338, 339, 376, 390, 402, 416, 439,
464, 468, 469, 483, 510, 516, 517, 527,
535, 555, 564
Bronsted sites, 273
Butoxide, 526, 589
Butylated hydroxyl anisole, 547
Butylated hydroxytoluene, 547
Ca and Zn mixed oxide, 581
Calcinations, 61, 119, 214, 314, 576, 577,
582–586, 588
Calcined LDH (Li-Al), 581
Calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcites, 581
Calcium oxide (CaO), 19, 40, 51, 52, 119,
232, 233, 235, 280, 316, 317, 330–333,
342, 343, 438, 457, 540, 581, 583
Calorific.value, 30
Campesterol, 411
Canola, 9, 57, 95, 102–115, 120, 389, 574,
578, 587, 645, 652, 653
CaO/SBA–15, 581
CaO-ZrO2, 581
Capric acid, 39, 49, 58, 69, 368
Carbocation, 213
Carbon cloth, 609
Carbon dioxide (CO2), 2, 3, 41, 67, 197,
234, 308, 315, 316, 510, 565, 576, 578
Carbon monoxide (CO), 21, 29, 34, 41, 65,
87, 94, 115, 156, 169, 186, 205, 211,
305, 323, 324, 339, 376, 390, 402, 403,
415, 416, 439, 444, 451, 469, 483, 510,
517, 528, 535, 541, 548, 564
Carbon residue, 236, 239, 276, 334, 395,
400, 525, 527, 649, 654, 655, 657, 658,
660, 662
Carrageenan, 609, 610
Celite, 609, 610
Cellulose polypropylene, 609
Ceramics, 609
Cesium fluoride (CsF), 316
Cetane value, 28, 482
Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
(C19H42BrN), 213
Chiral isomer, 598
Chitosan, 607, 613, 619
Chlorophyllase, 108
Chlorophyllide, 108
C/H ratio, 400, 415
Cis (Linoleic acid), 31
Cis (Oleic acid), 31
Cloud point, 21, 25, 28–30, 34, 40, 51, 57,
58, 64, 65, 79, 80, 85, 93, 100, 101, 109,
120, 121, 123, 127, 148, 153, 155, 162,
163, 167, 168, 171, 173, 181, 182, 186,
197, 198, 210, 215, 216, 236, 239, 276,
280, 281, 296, 300, 311, 318, 333, 334,
346, 351–353, 359, 368, 373, 374, 376,
382, 389, 390, 400, 433, 437, 439, 443,
444, 449, 458, 459, 473, 478, 481, 482,
486, 493, 508, 525, 527, 535, 540, 547,
554, 564, 638, 644, 654–656, 658, 661,
662
Cold filter plugging point (CFPP), 21, 40,
72, 85, 99–101, 120, 121, 125–127, 148,
168, 169, 182, 186, 189, 204, 205, 215,
668 Index218, 280, 281, 314, 317–320, 333, 389,
390, 458, 459, 475, 486, 493, 508, 509,
539, 540, 547, 554, 564, 638, 650, 651,
654, 658, 661, 662
Cold Soak Filterabillity, 654, 658, 661, 662
Combustion cylinder, 237, 242, 399, 403,
648
Compression ratio, 20, 41, 186, 402, 439,
482, 527
Conjugation, 295
Conradson carbon residue (CCR), 153, 260,
328, 640, 641, 655
Copper strip corrosion, 29, 120, 127, 153,
168, 185, 186, 189, 218, 238, 239, 359,
389, 419, 433, 459, 508, 521, 547, 554,
564, 637
Corrosivity, 238
Coumarins, 418
Covalent attachment, 608, 611–613
Crank angle, 402
Crank shaft, 301, 303, 415
Cross linking, 608, 612–613
Crystalline manganese carbonate, 438
Crystallites, 649
Crystallization, 239, 310, 333, 638, 646
Cyclopropane, 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2, 3,
3-tetramethyl, 183
Deacidification, 16, 233–234
Degumming, 106, 146, 147, 270, 309, 357,
367, 454
Dehydrant, 232
Density, 4, 17, 21, 27–30, 32–34, 40, 48, 50,
51, 53, 57–59, 63–65, 70, 79, 80, 82, 84,
85, 87, 93, 94, 99, 101, 102, 104, 107,
109, 114, 120, 123, 124, 127, 132, 133,
137, 138, 146, 147, 152, 153, 155, 161–
163, 167, 168, 171, 173, 177, 178, 181,
182, 185, 186, 189, 192, 197, 203–205,
209, 210, 212, 215, 217, 218, 225, 239,
242, 250, 253, 257, 260, 271, 279–284,
296, 304, 311, 314, 316, 318, 334, 338,
339, 341, 345, 350–353, 356–359, 368,
373–376, 381, 382, 387, 389, 390, 395,
400, 407, 412, 415, 418, 419, 421, 422,
427, 432, 433, 437, 439, 443, 444, 449,
451, 453, 455, 459, 462–464, 469, 473,
475, 481, 482, 486–488, 493, 497, 499,
500, 505, 507–509, 513, 516, 517, 519,
521, 525–527, 531, 535, 539–541, 545–
547, 553, 554, 559, 563, 564, 575, 634,
636, 642, 650, 652, 654, 657, 658, 660,
662
Diatomite, 584
Diazonium, 19
Dibutyltin diacetate, 540
Diesel index, 311, 318, 320, 321, 642
Diethylaminoethyl cellulose, 345
Diglycerides, 52, 234, 284, 456, 571, 590,
615, 654, 656–658, 661–663
Dimethyl carbonate (DMC), 313, 314, 595,
605–606
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 575
Diocotyltin oxide, 540
1,3- dipalmitin, 100
Diphenyltin oxide, 540
Distillate, 237, 239, 655
Docosadienoic acid, 99
13-Docosenol (C22H42O2), 539
Eicosenoic acid, 99, 100, 118, 123, 341, 520
Elaeis guineensis, 53–58
Eicosenoic acid ethyl ester, 183
Elaidic acid methyl ester, 345
Elastomers, 606, 634, 663
Emulsions, 40, 63, 83, 150, 213, 233, 242,
259, 294, 309, 315, 396, 397, 457, 651
11-Eicosenol (C20H38O2), 539
Encapsulation, 608, 610–611
Entrapment, 608–610
Enzyme lid, 594
Enzyme tuning, 594
Epichlorohydrin, 18
Epoxide, 526
Erucic acid, 95, 99, 100, 102, 108, 118, 125,
127, 149, 328, 519, 574
Esterification, 16, 28, 40, 137, 138, 149,
152, 191, 209, 217–219, 225, 231,
233–235, 258, 261, 263, 273–275, 295,
342, 343, 353, 388, 450, 481, 482, 484–
486, 488, 508, 509, 516, 526, 535, 546,
547, 553, 554, 572, 577, 588, 589, 591,
597, 651
Esters, 3, 4, 10, 12, 21, 25, 26, 40, 50–53,
59–64, 67, 72, 79, 80, 83, 100, 101,
108–114, 119, 120, 125–127, 138, 148,
150–153, 163, 168, 169, 171, 172, 177,
183, 185, 186, 191, 192, 204, 209–211,
213–215, 229–231, 233–235, 237, 239,
241, 244, 255, 258–261, 263, 264, 274,
280, 284, 295, 297–302, 312, 313, 315,
319, 320, 329, 331–333, 336, 341, 345,
349, 355, 356, 358, 374–376, 389, 390,
412, 413, 418, 421, 422, 433, 438, 450,
456, 458–461, 469, 486–488, 496, 499,
500, 508, 509, 520, 521, 526, 531, 539,
540, 547, 564, 565, 569, 571–574,
578–580, 582, 583, 585, 587, 590–592,
Index 669594–596, 598, 599, 601–604, 614–618,
633, 634, 636–639, 641, 643–647, 649–
651, 653, 654, 656–660, 662, 663
Ethanolysis, 10, 126, 320, 398, 458, 593,
594
Ethoxide, 25, 40, 63, 64, 79, 126, 396, 457,
526, 589
Ethyl oleate, 183
ETS-10, 581
Exhaust, 21, 29, 34, 41, 49, 53, 65, 70, 85,
87, 88, 94, 102, 115, 120, 154, 156, 163,
169, 186, 198, 205, 211, 239, 257, 261,
300, 301, 304, 305, 323, 324, 337–339,
347, 376, 390, 402, 403, 415, 439, 444,
451, 462, 464, 468, 483, 489, 510, 516,
517, 527, 528, 541, 564, 635, 637, 642,
647, 648, 653
Exhaust Gas Circulation Rate (EGR), 415,
416, 541
Expellers, 82, 106, 166, 203, 253, 254, 270,
328, 372, 380, 393, 436, 442, 492, 534
Fire points, 30, 34, 271, 311, 449, 525, 635
First esterification, 485
Flash point, 21, 28–30, 34, 40, 51, 58, 63,
65, 80, 85, 93, 101, 107, 118, 120, 127,
146, 152, 153, 155, 162, 163, 167–169,
172, 173, 177, 181, 182, 186, 189, 191,
197, 198, 203, 205, 210, 215, 218, 228,
236, 239, 257, 260, 271, 276, 281, 295,
296, 300, 301, 311, 312, 314, 318, 333,
334, 342, 343, 345, 346, 350–353, 359,
368, 373–375, 381, 382, 387, 389, 395,
400, 427, 433, 437, 439, 443, 444, 449,
451, 456, 459, 468, 469, 473–475, 478,
481, 482, 486, 493, 497, 499, 500, 505,
507, 508, 521, 531, 535, 539–541, 546,
547, 553, 554, 559, 563, 564, 633, 635,
643, 654, 655, 657, 658, 660, 662
Flavonoids, 328, 418
Free fatty acids (FFA), 16, 27, 28, 30, 32,
33, 39, 46–49, 56, 58, 61, 82, 83, 107,
117, 123, 138, 146, 147, 149, 150, 152,
161, 181, 191, 197, 198, 203, 208, 209,
212–214, 217, 225, 227, 229, 230, 236,
246, 256, 258, 259, 270–272, 276,
295–297, 300, 308, 309, 312, 313, 316,
330, 332, 333, 341, 342, 345, 352, 353,
358, 373, 381, 382, 387, 388, 396,
412–414, 421, 422, 448, 449, 473, 476,
477, 484–488, 499, 505, 508, 513, 516,
519, 525, 526, 535, 539, 546, 547, 553,
569, 572, 573, 589–591, 616, 641, 644,
649, 651
Fructus schisandrae, 529, 531
FTIR spectra, 185, 487
Gadoleic acid, 32, 125, 456, 519, 559
Gamma alumina (γ-Al2O3), 52
Gardner colour, 98–101
Gasifiers, 251
Glutaraldehyde, 603, 612, 613, 616, 618
Glycerides, 3, 109, 153, 210, 234, 298, 341,
499, 547, 641, 645, 646, 649, 654, 658,
661, 662
Glycerolysis, 12, 214
Glycidol stearate, 183
Glycine, 183
Glycosylated enzyme, 599
Gondoic acids, 100, 127
Guanidines, 312
Heating value, 21, 28, 29, 34, 48, 50, 51, 57,
65, 70, 79, 80, 93, 94, 101, 107, 109,
114, 115, 118, 120, 125, 127, 146, 153,
155, 162, 163, 169, 173, 185, 186, 192,
197, 203–205, 210, 211, 215, 218, 227,
228, 236, 238, 257, 260, 263, 276, 296,
300, 301, 304, 318, 334, 336, 338, 339,
346, 351–353, 359, 368, 369, 373–376,
381, 382, 387, 389, 390, 412, 415, 432,
433, 437, 439, 443, 444, 449, 451, 459,
462, 481–483, 486, 489, 499, 500, 513,
514, 517, 519, 527, 539, 541, 547, 553,
554
Heat of combustion, 58, 63, 311, 418, 419,
459
Heneicosanoic acid, 99, 342, 519
Heptadecanoic acid, 99, 279
Heptadienal, 527
Heptamethylnonane, 375
Heptanals, 527
Heterogeneous catalysts, 10, 40, 51, 61,
119, 172, 230, 233, 235, 299, 330–332,
413, 438, 540, 567, 574–575, 578, 581,
587
Heteropoly acids, 17
Hexadecane, 375
Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, 183
Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 183, 235,
580
Hexanals, 527
High frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR),
101, 113, 186, 497, 638
1H NMR spectrum, 488
Homogeneous catalysts, 61, 413, 567–574
Hydrocarbon, 21, 41, 49, 53, 65, 66, 85, 87,
115, 154, 169, 228, 240, 256, 304, 309,
324, 335, 337, 375, 403, 439, 462, 464,
670 Index469, 510, 528, 548, 606, 643, 644, 647,
653, 655
Hydrocyclone, 67
Hydrophobicity, 218
Hydrotalcite, 314, 315, 575, 581
Hyperperoxide, 639
Ignition delay, 21, 65, 66, 93, 102, 156, 163,
169, 205, 239, 240, 301, 338, 375, 450,
489, 500, 547, 656
Ignition timing, 469
Immobilization, 12, 18, 83, 259, 273, 346,
593, 605–614, 618–620
Impregnation, 19, 62, 575–577, 579,
583–586
Induction period, 99, 101, 111, 112, 191,
390
Injection pressure, 21, 102, 186, 323, 403,
482
Injection timings, 29, 402, 403, 415, 482,
489, 527
Internal combustion engines, 7, 9, 41, 86–
88, 260, 302, 303, 324, 376, 399, 401,
402, 416, 432, 434, 448
Iodine value, 27–30, 40, 48, 57, 58, 72, 82,
93, 99–101, 109, 120, 137, 146, 147,
152, 153, 161, 162, 167, 171, 181, 182,
191, 192, 197, 198, 215, 217, 218, 225,
227, 236, 237, 241, 242, 257, 271, 272,
276, 279, 283, 284, 295, 296, 300, 301,
328, 333, 334, 337, 338, 341, 346, 350,
351, 356, 358, 359, 367, 368, 373, 381,
382, 387, 389, 412, 421, 422, 432, 437,
443, 444, 451, 455, 460, 461, 469, 473,
478, 481, 482, 499, 500, 505, 513, 519,
525, 527, 534, 535, 539, 540, 546, 547,
553, 554, 559, 563, 564, 645, 646, 657
Ionic binding, 608, 613–616
Ionotropic gelation, 610
Isobutane, 587
Isomerization, 460, 587
Kaolinite, 607
KBr/Al2O3, 582
KCl/Al2O3, 582
K2CO3/γ-Al2O3, 582
K2CO3/Al2O3, 582
K2CO3/MgO, 581
Ketones, 120, 240, 294, 375, 526
KF/Al2O3, 581, 582
KF/MgO, 581, 584
KF/ZnO, 62, 581
KI/Al2O3, 581, 582
Kinematic viscosity, 21, 25, 27–29, 31, 32,
34, 39, 40, 48, 50, 51, 63, 70, 80, 93,
98–101, 118, 120, 123–125, 127, 133,
137, 138, 146, 147, 152, 153, 162, 167,
168, 171–173, 177, 178, 181, 182, 186,
189, 191, 192, 197, 203, 205, 208–210,
212, 215, 218, 227, 236, 241, 276, 280–
284, 311, 319, 320, 334, 337, 338, 341,
342, 345, 346, 350–353, 356, 358, 359,
368, 374, 381, 382, 387, 389, 400, 418,
421, 422, 432, 433, 437, 439, 449, 451,
455, 459, 461, 473, 475, 478, 481, 482,
486, 493, 496, 497, 499, 500, 505, 507,
508, 514, 515, 519, 521, 531, 535, 539,
540, 545–547, 553, 554, 559, 564, 655
K/KOH/c- Al2O3, 581
KNO3/Al2O3, 581, 582
KOH/Al2O3, 62, 582
KOH/γ-Al2O3, 582
Komet expeller, 254
La/zeolite beta, 581
Lewis and Bronsted acid sites, 213
Licanic acid, 137
Lignoceric acid, 32, 161, 297, 388, 412,
450, 519
Limonoids, 418
Linoleic acid, 17, 25, 28, 39, 48, 69, 80, 82,
83, 93, 99, 108, 118, 123, 125, 127, 133,
137, 147, 149, 155, 161, 167, 171, 175,
181–183, 186, 189, 191, 197, 203, 205,
209, 212, 216, 217, 228, 237, 256, 279,
280, 283, 284, 295, 297, 312, 319, 322,
341, 342, 344, 350, 352, 353, 356, 358,
373, 381, 388, 395, 412, 418, 421, 422,
432, 437, 443, 450, 456, 459, 469, 473,
475, 477, 484–486, 493, 499, 505, 507,
518–520, 525, 530, 535, 545, 546, 553,
559, 563, 564, 617
Linoleic acid ethyl ester, 183
Linolenic acid, 28, 32, 57, 58, 108, 118,
120, 123, 125, 127, 137, 161, 188, 209,
212, 216, 217, 228, 237, 256, 279, 280,
283, 312, 317, 319, 341, 342, 352, 353,
373, 432, 450, 456, 459, 475, 477, 485,
486, 493, 507, 519, 530, 545, 559, 563,
641, 644, 654, 657, 658, 660, 662
LiOH/γ-Al2O3, 582
Lipoxidase, 639, 645
Lipozyme, 10, 177, 280, 592
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), 316
Macroporous ion-exchage resin, 520
Magnesium oxide, 583–585
Magnesol, 118, 119, 126
Malaxation, 454
Malvaloyl, 553
Index 671(cont.)
Margaric acid, 256, 312
Melting points, 40, 50, 100, 101, 257, 285,
311, 337, 459, 645–647
Metallic alkoxide, 569
Methanolysis, 298, 320, 450–451, 456, 540,
547, 577, 583, 593, 594, 617, 618
Methoxy silane, 607
12-Methyl-E, E-2, 13-octadecadien-1-ol,
183
Methyl stearate, 21, 51, 173, 183, 192, 210,
239, 390, 439
Mg-Al-CO (hydrotalcite), 581, 609
Mg–Al HT, 581
MgAl2O4, 581
MgO, ZnO, Al2O3, 581
Mg/Zr, 581
Micromolecular amine, 17
Microporous cellulose, 17
Microwave, 19, 39, 278, 279, 308, 332,
393–394, 457, 481, 482, 519, 520, 540,
583
Miscella, 106, 233, 234
Moieties, 231, 460
Moisture content, 20, 30, 46, 61, 84, 105,
149, 150, 175, 185, 197, 225, 271, 272,
308, 393, 394, 450, 506
Molar ratio, 10, 12, 17, 19, 20, 25, 32, 40,
59–62, 72, 79, 93, 100, 108, 119, 123,
126, 138, 150–152, 162, 167, 168, 171,
172, 177, 181, 182, 189, 203, 209, 213,
214, 217, 218, 230, 231, 233, 235, 280,
284, 297–299, 313–315, 331–333, 342,
345, 351, 353, 355, 367, 374, 375, 382,
388, 398, 413, 414, 426, 432, 438, 450,
456, 481, 482, 485, 486, 505, 508, 516,
526, 531, 540, 546, 553, 554, 563, 577,
578, 582–587, 602, 603, 620, 649
Molecular sieves, 1, 235, 473, 496, 509, 636
Molecular weight, 27, 83, 109, 125–127,
138, 163, 177, 181, 217, 227, 241, 259,
271, 276, 295, 298, 310, 311, 318, 334,
346, 375, 382, 387, 400, 460, 497,
525–527, 540, 571–573, 607, 638, 647,
650
Molybdenum pentachloride (MoCl5), 217
Monobutyltin chloride, 540
Monobutyltin hydroxide, 540
Monochlorofluromethane, 234
Monoglycerides, 214, 234, 273, 284, 456,
571, 590, 646, 654, 656–658, 660, 662,
663
1-monopalmitin, 100
1-monostearin, 100
Montmorillonite KSF, 108
Montmorillonite K10, 108, 111–113, 330
Myristic acid, 39, 49, 58, 69, 72, 99, 108,
123, 256, 279, 312, 319, 368, 388, 418,
450, 475, 499
Na2 CO3/γ-Al2O3, 582
Na/NaOH/-Al2O3, 581
Nanocomposite, 584
Nanofibres, 607
Nanorods, 588
NaOH/γ-Al2O3, 582
NaOH/alumina, 581
Naphthol, 531, 532
Na2 polyethylene glycol, 314
N-butoxycarbonyl-isohexyl ester, 183
Nervonic acid, 99, 519
Net brake power, 301–303
Nitrogen oxide (NOx), v, 21, 29, 41, 53,
65–67, 85, 87, 94, 101, 115, 153, 154,
156, 169, 186, 187, 206, 211, 304, 324,
338, 339, 390, 403, 415, 416, 439, 451,
464, 468, 469, 483, 489, 510, 517, 528,
536, 541, 564
N3 (Linolenic acid), 149
Novozyme 435, 280
Nucleophile–OR, 571
Nucleophilic attack, 213, 572
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z), 183
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-2-
hydroxy-1-ethyl ester, 183
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-methyl
ester, 183
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,
E), 183
9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-methyl ester, 183,
253, 580
9-Octadecenoic acid, 1, 2, 3-propanetriyl
ester (E, E, E), 183
Oil stability index, 111
Olefinic bonds, 273
Oleic acid, 17, 25, 28, 31, 32, 39, 49, 57, 58,
63, 69, 80, 82, 93, 99, 108, 118, 123,
125, 127, 133, 137, 147, 149, 155, 161,
167, 171, 177, 181, 182, 186, 188, 191,
197, 203, 205, 209, 212, 216, 217, 228,
237, 256, 272, 279, 283, 284, 295, 297,
312, 317, 319, 335, 350, 352, 353, 356,
358, 368, 373, 381, 388, 395, 412, 418,
421, 422, 432, 437, 443, 450, 456, 459,
469, 473, 475, 477, 485, 486, 493, 499,
672 Index505, 507, 519, 520, 525, 530, 535, 545,
546, 553, 559, 563, 564, 574, 617, 618,
641, 647
Oligomers, 527
Organotin carboxylates, 540
Oxidation stability, 25, 28, 34, 37, 40, 67,
120, 125, 127, 146, 152, 153, 161–163,
169, 171–173, 177, 178, 204, 210, 212,
215, 218, 280, 281, 285, 317–320, 367,
375, 432, 433, 437, 439, 475, 477,
507–510, 539, 540, 547, 548, 554, 639,
640, 650, 651, 654, 655, 657, 658, 660,
662, 663
Palmitic acid, 17, 25, 28, 32, 39, 49, 57, 58,
69, 80, 82, 93, 99, 108, 118, 123, 125,
127, 133, 137, 147, 149, 155, 167, 171,
181, 182, 186, 188, 191, 197, 203, 205,
209, 212, 217, 228, 256, 279, 283, 284,
297, 312, 319, 341, 342, 344, 345, 350,
352, 353, 356, 358, 368, 373, 381, 388,
395, 412, 418, 421, 422, 432, 437, 443,
450, 456, 469, 473, 475, 477, 484–486,
493, 499, 505, 507, 519, 520, 525, 530,
535, 545, 546, 553, 559, 563, 564, 574,
617, 618
Palmitoleic acid, 25, 32, 58, 99, 108, 123,
149, 161, 256, 279, 312, 381, 432, 450,
475, 477, 485, 493
Pentadecyclic acid, 312
Pentane, 527
Peroxidation, 459
pH, 18, 19, 27, 55, 81, 95, 100, 103, 135,
138, 141, 150, 188, 195, 203, 207, 209,
210, 220, 236, 249, 255, 259, 270–272,
280, 291, 295, 296, 300, 307, 314, 326,
340, 345, 346, 356, 365, 382, 392, 397,
400, 407, 412, 429, 441, 450, 452, 487,
491, 516, 531, 533, 554, 564, 572, 594,
606, 618
Phosphatides, 48, 106, 309, 310
Photocatalyst, 588
Photogenerated electron, 588
Phytate, 652
Phytate inositol hexaphosphate, 652
p-Naphtholbenzein, 634
Polar lipids, 256
Polar phase, 274
Polyacrylic, 49
Polyacrylonitrile, 609
Polylactic acid, 619
Polymerization, 137, 182, 218, 237, 240,
257, 276, 422, 610, 639, 645
Polymethacrylate, 609
Polystyrene, 609, 619
Pomace, 431, 432, 613
Potentiometry, 634
Pour point, 21, 25, 28–30, 34, 40, 58, 64,
65, 79, 80, 93, 98–101, 109, 118, 120,
121, 123, 124, 127, 153, 155, 162, 163,
168, 171–173, 181, 186, 189, 192, 197,
198, 203–205, 208, 210, 215, 236, 239,
267, 276, 280, 296, 300, 301, 311, 314,
318, 333, 334, 342, 346, 352, 353, 359,
368, 369, 373, 374, 376, 387, 389, 390,
400, 433, 437, 439, 443, 444, 449, 451,
458, 459, 468, 469, 473, 478, 481, 482,
497, 505, 507, 508, 525, 527, 535, 540,
547, 554, 563, 644, 645
Propanals, 527
Prophyl gallate, 215
Propoxide, 526, 589
Propyl gallate, 40, 547
Protonation, 213, 572
Pungent, 146, 221, 468, 590
Pyrogallol, 215, 547
Pyrolysis, 9, 257, 374
Rancimat method, 109, 640
Rated power, 482
Rated speed, 172, 482
Re-esterification, 233, 234
Refractive index, 58, 82, 257, 271, 295,
296, 300, 346, 387
Regioselectivity, 590
Relative density, 276, 342, 634
Resiniferous channels, 348
Respirable matter, 403
Rheopexy, 275, 276
Ricinoleic acid, 123, 271, 272
Rubber trees, 219–242
Saponification, 17, 48, 58, 61, 82, 146, 147,
152, 161, 177, 227, 229, 233, 236, 257,
271, 295, 296, 298, 315, 328, 332, 334,
338, 345, 381, 387, 388, 395, 398, 412,
427, 473, 505, 516, 559, 569, 572, 644
Sayari oil expeller, 254
Scar diameter, 113, 114, 497, 509
Screw press, 47, 106, 123, 212, 217, 226,
308, 372, 387
Scuffing Load Ball on cylinder Lubricity
Evaluator, 113
Second esterification, 485
Sephadex, 609
Sepharose, 609
Sesamin, 443
Sesamol, 443
Sesamolin, 443
Index 673(cont.)
Shelf life, 4, 240–242, 272, 279, 280
Silica gel, 213, 274, 436, 593, 609, 610, 647
Siliconized glass, 609
Smoke, 46, 53, 82, 107, 153, 154, 156, 163,
169, 206, 261, 300, 311, 312, 339, 346,
390, 415, 416, 444, 451, 464, 510, 528,
536, 564, 641, 642, 647
Sodium ethoxide, 40, 457
Sodium methoxide, 118, 125, 162, 167,
171, 181, 185, 203, 209, 232, 233, 279,
297, 314, 367, 395, 457, 473, 477, 508,
568
Solvent extraction, 82, 105, 166, 167, 203,
226, 233, 234, 252–253, 265, 278, 308,
381, 411, 453, 534
Sonication, 253, 254
Sorbitan monostearate, 17
Soxhlet extraction, 15, 27, 328, 534, 539
Specific gravity, 58, 65, 98, 126, 191, 212,
227, 236, 242, 271, 295, 296, 300, 301,
328, 334, 341, 473, 514–516, 526
Spherosil, 609
Squalene, 183
SrO, 119, 280, 457, 581, 585, 586
Static injection timing, 29, 402
Stearic acid, 17, 25, 28, 32, 39, 49, 58, 69,
80, 82, 93, 99, 108, 118, 123, 125, 127,
133, 137, 149, 155, 167, 171, 181, 182,
186, 188, 191, 197, 203, 205, 209, 212,
217, 228, 256, 279, 283, 284, 297, 312,
319, 341, 342, 344, 345, 350, 352, 353,
356, 358, 368, 373, 381, 388, 395, 412,
418, 421, 422, 432, 443, 450, 456, 459,
469, 473, 475, 477, 485, 486, 493, 505,
507, 519, 520, 535, 545, 546, 553, 559,
563, 564
Sterculoyl, 553
Steric hindrances, 571, 606
Steroids, 411, 418
Sterols, 256, 309, 647
Stigmasterol, 411
Stoichiometric, 50, 231, 312, 337, 396, 456,
601
1-(4-sulfonic acid) butyl-pyridinium
hydrosulphate, 177
Sulphated ash, 51, 65, 153, 236, 238, 642,
654, 655, 657, 658, 660, 662
Sulphated titanium oxide, 389
Sulphonated graphene oxide, 19
Supercritical fluid extraction, 233, 234, 454
Superparamagnetism, 619
Surface tension, 163, 311, 638
Tert-butylhydroquinone, 475
15-Tetracosenol (C24H46O2), 539
Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), 213, 315,
620
Tetrahydrofuran (THF), 32, 438, 552, 575
Textile membranes, 609
Titanates, 586
Titanosilicates, 586
α-tocopherol, 547
Torque, 49, 114, 115, 169, 182, 185, 218,
276, 302, 304, 322, 403, 434, 548
Total pore volume, 62, 577
Toyonite, 609
Transesterification, 3, 10, 17, 25, 39, 83,
108, 132, 137, 149, 162, 167, 177, 181,
203, 209, 295, 367, 374, 382, 388, 413,
426, 438, 443, 456, 468, 476, 481, 493,
499, 508, 525, 531, 535, 540, 547, 553,
558, 563, 569, 633
Trans (Oleic acid), 31
Triacylglycerol, 146, 246, 256, 309, 448,
539, 598
Triamino phosphoranes, 312
Trienoic fatty acid, 99, 137
Triethylenetetramine (TETA), 18
Triglycerides, 3, 12, 16, 25, 27, 51, 59, 61,
83, 109, 147, 150, 152, 163, 185, 203,
228, 231, 234, 241, 242, 256, 257, 273,
275, 284, 309–312, 341, 368, 375, 399,
456, 458, 539, 547, 569–573, 575, 585,
590, 592, 599, 600, 605, 611, 614,
645–647, 649, 650, 654, 656–658,
661–663
1,5,7, Triazabicyclo (4,4,0) dec-5-ene, 314
Trilinolein, 183
Trimethoxysilane, 619, 620
Triterpenes, 418, 644
Triterpenoids, 411
Tungstate, 587
Ultrasounds, 308, 313
Unsaponificable matter, 58
Vacuum distillation, 16, 27, 118, 126, 236,
314, 467, 500, 503
Viscosity, 9, 10, 25, 29, 30, 33, 39, 40, 48,
50, 57, 58, 62–65, 79, 82, 85, 87, 93, 94,
100, 102, 106, 107, 109, 115, 117, 123,
126, 138, 146, 153, 155, 156, 161–163,
167, 169, 171, 177, 182, 185, 189, 197,
198, 204, 205, 215, 225, 228, 233,
236–238, 241, 257, 258, 260, 271, 275,
276, 284, 295, 296, 299–302, 304, 311,
674 Index312, 314, 318, 320, 321, 328, 329, 333,
337–339, 341–343, 345, 346, 353, 356,
358, 359, 368, 369, 373–376, 381, 382,
387, 390, 395, 399, 412, 413, 415, 419,
422, 427, 432, 437, 439, 443, 444,
449–451, 459–464, 469, 473, 475, 477,
481–483, 486, 493, 500, 508–510,
513–517, 525–527, 534, 535, 540, 541,
547, 553, 563, 602, 633, 637, 638, 640,
647, 649, 650, 654, 655, 657, 658, 660,
662
Volatile, 48, 109, 191, 239, 334, 468, 469,
602
Wear Scar Diameters (WSD), 497
Whole- cell biocatalyst, 592, 616–618
WO3/ZrO2, 581
Zeolites, 17, 152, 235, 330, 388, 413, 575,
586–587, 609
Zirconia, 235, 389, 413, 581, 587, 619
Zn/I2, 581, 588


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