كتاب Reverse Osmosis - Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Reverse Osmosis - Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers

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Reverse Osmosis - Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers
Jane Kucera

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Contents
Preface xvii
PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS
1 Introduction and History ofDevelopment 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.1 Uses of Reverse Osmosis 3
1.1.2 History of Reverse Osmosis Development 5
1.1.3 Recent Advances in RO Membrane Technology 9
1.1.4 Future Advancements 12
References 12
2 Reverse Osmosis Principles
2.1 Osmosis
2.2 Reverse Osmosis
2.3 Dead-End Filtration
2.4 Cross-Flow Filtration
3 Basic Terms and Definitions
3.1
3.2 Recovery
3.3 Rejection
3.4 Flux
3.5 Concentration Polarization
3.6 Beta
3.7 Fouling
3.8 Scaling
3.9 Silt Density Index
3.10 Langelier Saturation Index
Reverse Osmosis System Flow Rating
References
viiviii CONTENTS
4 Membranes
4.1 Transport Models
4.1.1 Solution-Diffusion Model
(non-porous model)
4.1.2 Solution- Diffusion Imperfection
Model (porous model)
4.1.3 Finely-Porous Model
(porous model)
4.1.4 Preferential Sorption- Capillary
Flow Model (porous model)
4.1.5 Phenomenological Transport
Relationship (Irreversible
thermodynamics)
4.2.1 Cellulose Acetate
Membranes-Asymmetric
membranes
4.2.2 Polyamide and Composite
Membranes
4.2.2.1 Linear Aromatic Polyamide
4.2.2.2 Composite Polyamide Membranes
4.2.3 Improvements to Polyamide,
Composite Membranes
4.2.4 Other Membrane Materials
4.3.1 Plate and Frame Modules
4.3.2 Tubular Modules
4.3.3 Spiral Wound Modules
4.3.4 Hollow Fine Fiber Membrane
4.3.5 Other Module Configurations
4.4 Commercially-Available Membranes
4.4.1 Seawater Membranes
4.4.2 Brackish Water Membranes
4.2 Membrane Materials
Membranes
4.3 Membrane Modules
Modules
4.4.2.1 Low-Energy Membranes
4.4.2.2 High-Rejection Membranes
4.4.2.3 Low-Fouling Membranes
79 CONTENTS ix
4.4.2.4 Low-Differential-Pressure
Membrane Modules
4.4.2.5 High-Productivity Membrane
Modules
4.4.2.6 Other Membrane/Module
TYPes
References
5 Basic Flow Patterns
5.1 Arrays
5.2 Recycle
5.3 Double Pass
5.4 Multiple Trains
6 Reverse Osmosis Skids
6.1 Cartridge Filters
6.2 Reverse Osmosis Feed Pumps
6.3 Pressure Vessels
6.4 Manifolding-Materials of Construction
6.5 Instrumentation
6.6 Controls
6.7 Data Acquisition and Management
6.8 Reverse Osmosis Skid
6.9 Auxiliary Equipment
6.10 Other Design Considerations
6.10.1 Access to Profile and Probe
RO Membranes
6.10.2 Interstage Performance Monitoring
Instrumentation
6.10.3 Stage-by-Stage Membrane Cleaning
References
PART 2 PRETREATMENT
7 Water Quality Guidelines
7.1 Suspended Solids
7.2 Microbes
7.3 Organics
7.4 Color
129 X CONTENTS
7.5 Metals
7.6 Hydrogen Sulfide
7.7 Silica
7.8 Calcium Carbonate
7.9 Trace Metals-Barium and Strontium
7.10 Chlorine
7.11 Calcium
7.12 Exposure to Other Chemicals
References
8 Techniques and Technologies
8.1 Mechanical Pretreatment
8.1.1 Clarifiers
8.1.1.1 Solids-Contact Clarifiers
8.1.1.2 Inclined-Plate Clarifiers
8.1.1.3 Sedimentation Clarifiers
8.1.1.4 Chemical Treatment for Clarifiers
8.1.2 Multimedia Pressure Filters
8.1.3 High-Efficiency Filters
8.1.4 Carbon Filters
8.1.5 Iron Filters
8.1.5.1 Manganese Greensand Filters
8.1.5.2 BIRM@Filters
8.1.5.3 Filox Filters
8.1.5.4 Other Iron Removal Media
8.1.6 Sodium Softeners
8.1.7 Spent Resin Filters
8.1.8 Ultraviolet Irradiation
8.1.9 Membrane
8.2 Chemical Pretreatment
8.2.1 Chemical Oxidizers for Disinfection of
Reverse Osmosis Systems
8.2.1.1 Chlorine
8.2.1.2 Ozone
8.2.1.3 Hydrogen Peroxide
8.2.2 Antiscalants
8.2.3 Sodium Metabisulfite
8.2.4 Non-Oxidizing Biocides
8.2.4.1 Sodium Bisulfite
182 CONTENTS xi
8.2.4.2 DBNPA
8.2.4.3 Other Non-Oxidizing Biocides
8.3 CombinationMechanical Plus Chemical
Pretreatment-Lime Softening
8.3.1 Cold Lime Softening
8.3.2 Warm Lime Softening
8.3.3 Hot Process Softening
8.4 Sequencing of Pretreatment Technologies
References
PART 3 SYSTEM DESIGN
9 Design Considerations
9.1 Feed Water Quality
9.1.1 Feed Water Source
9.1.2 Total Dissolved Solids
9.1.3 Calcium and Natural Organic Matter
9.1.4 Chemical Damage
9.2 Temperature
9.3 Pressure
9.4 Feed Water Flow
9.5 ConcentrateFlow
9.6 Beta
9.7 Recovery
9.8 pH
9.9 Flux
References
10 RO Design and Design Software
10.1 ROSA Version 6.1
10.2 TorayDS Version 1.1.44
10.3 Hydranautics IMS Design Version 2008
10.4 Koch Membranes ROPRO Version 7.0
Reference
PART 4 OPERATIONS
11 On-Line Operations
11.1 Reverse Osmosis Performance Monitoring
11.2 Data Collection
11.3 Data Analysis and Normalization
239 xii CONTENTS
11.3.1 Data Normalization
11.3.1.1 Normalized Product Flow
11.3.1.2 Normalized Salt Passage
11.3.1.3 Normalized Pressure Drop
11.3.2 Normalization Software
11.4 Preventive Maintenance
References
12 Performance Degradation
12.1 Normalized Permeate Flow
12.1.1 Loss of Normalized Permeate Flow
12.1.1.1 Membrane Fouling
12.1.1.2 Membrane Scaling
12.1.1.3 Membrane Compaction
12.1.2 Increase in Normalized Permeate Flow
12.1.2.1 Membrane Degradation
12.1.2.2 Hardware Issues
12.2 Normalized Salt Rejection
12.2.1 Loss of Salt Rejection
12.2.1.1 Membrane Scaling
12.2.1.2 Membrane degradation
12.2.1.3 Hardware Issues
12.2.2 Increase in Salt Rejection
12.3.1 Loss in Pressure Drop
12.3.2 Increase in Pressure Drop
12.3 Pressure Drop
References
13 Off-Line Operations
13.1 System Flush
13.1.1 Off-Line Flush
13.1.2 Return to Service Flush
13.1.3 Stand-by Flush
13.2.1 When to Clean
13.2.2 How to Clean
13.2.3 Cleaning Chemicals
13.2 Membrane Cleaning
13.2.3.1 High-pH cleaners
271CONTENTS
13.2.3.2 Neutral-pH Cleaners
13.2.3.3 Low-pH Cleaners
13.2.3.4 Cleaners for Specific Foulants
and Scale
13.2.4 Cleaning Equipment
13.2.4.1 Cleaning Tank
13.2.4.2 Cleaning Recirculation Pump
13.2.4.3 Cartridge Filter
13.3 Membrane Lay-Up
13.3.1 Short-Term Lay-Up
13.3.2 Long-Term Lay-up
References
PART 5 TROUBLESHOOTING
14 Troubleshooting
14.1 Mechanical Evaluation
14.2 General Performance Issues
14.3 System Design and Performance Projections
14.3.1 System Design
14.3.2 Performance Projections
14.4 Data Assessment
14.5 Water Sampling
14.6 Membrane Integrity Testing
14.7 Profiling and Probing
14.8 Membrane Autopsy
14.8.1 Visual Inspection
14.8.2 Pressure Dye Test-Rhodamine B
14.8.3 Methylene Blue Test
14.8.4 Fujiwara Test
14.8.5 Spectroscopy
14.8.6 Other Tests
References
PART 6 SYSTEM ENGINEERING
15 Issues Concerning System Engineering
15.1 Sodium Water Softening
15.1.1 Sequencingof the Sodium Softenersand RO
15.1.2 Sodium Softening and Antiscalants
Case 1: High Hardness Well Water 310xiv CONTENTS
Sodium Softener
Antiscalant
Summary
Case 2: Low Hardness Surface Water
Sodium Softener
Antiscalant
Summary
Case 3: Well Water with Iron and Manganese
Sodium Softener
Antiscalant
15.2 Reverse Osmosis Sizing and Capacity
15.3 Membrane Cleaning: On-Site versus Off-Site
15.3.1 Off-Site Membrane Cleaning
15.3.2 On-Site Membrane Cleaning
15.4 Reverse Osmosis Reject Disposal Options
15.4.1 Discharge to Drain or Sewer
15.4.2 Discharge to Cooling Tower
15.4.3 Zero Liquid Discharge
References
16 Impact of Other Membrane Technologies
16.1 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
16.1.1 Microfiltration
16.1.2 Ultrafiltration
16.2 Nanofiltration
16.3 Continuous Electrodeionization
16.4 HERO Process
References
PART 7 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
17 Frequently Asked Questions
17.1 General
17.1.1 What is Reverse Osmosis Used for?
17.1.2 What is the Difference Between
Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis?
17.1.3 What is Data Normalization?
17.1.4 How Do SDI and Turbidity Correlate?
366 CONTENTS xv
17.1.5 Why Does the pH Drop from the RO
Feed to the RO Permeate? 366
17.2 Operational 367
When is it Time to Clean
an RO Membrane?
How Long Does it Take to Clean an
RO System?
What Temperature Cleaning Solution
Should Be Used to Clean Membranes?
Can Extended Soak Time Compensate for
Cleaning at Lower Temperature, for
Example, When the Heater is
Not Working?
Should the Low or High pH Cleaning
Be Conducted First?
What Should Be Done if Cleaning Does
Not Return Performance to Baseline?
If the Clean-In-PlacePump Cannot
Provide the Required Flow Rate, Can
the Pump Be Run at Higher Pressure
to Compensate?
What Should Be Done with Permeate that
is Generated During Membrane Cleaning?
Why is the Permeate Conductivity High
After Cleaning the Membranes?
17.2.10 Why is Chlorine Both Added and then
17.2.11 What Chemicals Can Be Used to Disinfect
17.2.12 Why Does the RO Trip Off on Low
17.2.13 Should RO Feed Water Be Heated?
17.2.14 What Limits Recovery by an RO?
17.2.15 How Do I Start up an RO?
17.2.16 Do RO Membranes Need to Be
Preserved When Taken Off Line?
17.2.17 Is there a Shelf Life for Reverse Osmosis
Membranes?
Removed Prior to the RO?
RO Membranes Directly?
Suction Pressure?
374 xvi CONTENTS
17.2.18 What is the Difference Between Membranes
that Have Been Wet Tested and those
that are Dry? 375
17.2.19 What is the Impact on the RO If the
Pretreatment System Fails, for
Example, If the Softener Leaks Hardness?
Be Used in an RO Unit?
375
376
17.3.1 What is the Footprint for an RO System? 377
17.3.2 What is a Variable Frequency Drive
Used for? 377
17.3.3 What is the Difference Between Pleated,
String-Wound, and Melt-Blown
Cartridge Filters? 378
17.3.4 What is the Correct Way to Install Shims
and the Thrust Ring? 379
17.3.5 How should the Cleaning Pump Be Sized? 379
References 379
17.2.20 Can Different Types of Membranes
17.3 Equipment 377
Unit Equivalent and Conversions 381
Index 383 Preface
The use of revers
Index
Acid feed, 189
Actiflo@ clarifier, 144-145,146
AD26 (AdEdgeTechnologies),163
Aerobic bacteria, microbial
testing, 303
Anaerobic bacteria, microbial
testing, 303
Anti-telescopingdevices
(ATDs),63
Antiscalants, 177-180
acid feed, 178-1 79
dosages, 179
feed, 189
methods, 177
normal crystalsand crystals,
Aromatic interfacial composite
Arrays, 85-89
modified, 178
membrane,8
2-stage array with 3pressure
concentrationchanges, 88
concentration changes per
LSI increaseswith increasing
vessels, 86
module, 88
recovery,89
Assimilableorganiccarbon
test, 127
Automated SDIkits, 121
Auxiliary equipment, 120-121
Barium and strontium, scaling
control, 136
Beta (concentration polarization
factor),29-30
concentration polarization
minimization,203-204
definition, 29,202
effect on flux and salt passage,
203-204
Hydranautics’ recommended
beta values, 204
BIRM@filters, iron and manganese
removal, 162-1 63
Bisulfite feed, 189
Boron rejection membranes, 81
Brackish water membranes,
78-82
modules, 81
high-productivity membrane
high-rejection membranes, 79
low-differential-pressure
membrane modules, 80
low-energy membranes, 79
low-fouling membranes, 79-80
test conditions, 78
Brackish water RO (BWKO),9,77
BW30-365membrane, 211
BW30-400membrane, 211
BW30-400-34i,80,211
B-10 (seawater)Permeators, 74
B-10 membranes,8
B-9 (brackish water)Permeators. 74
Calcium carbonate, scalingcontrol,
Calcium fluoride, scaling
134-135
-
, ~ -~~~ I - - control,138
383 384 INDEX
Calaum phosphate, scaling
Calcium sulfate, scalingcontrol,
Capillary flow model (preferential
Capped, in-floor immersionwell, 8
Carbon filters
control, 138
137-138
sorption),45-46
backwashing, 159
chloramineremoval, 158,175
chlorineremoval, 158
flow rates, 159
influent water requirements, 159
TOC removal, 158
Carbon filtration, 189
Cartridge filters,97-100
back-washable, limitations,98
disposable, construction, 98
end cap styles,99
Cationic polymeric coagulants, 150
Cellulose acetate membranes,5,8,
47-51
characteristics,50
chemical structure,48
cross section, 48
effect of pH, 207-209
improvements in flux and
lifetime, 51
smooth surfacemorphology, 50
tubular membranes, 7,51-52
durability., 5-7
Centrifugal pumps, 100
Chemical feed, 189
Chemical pretreatment,
170-183
disinfection chemicaloxidizers
chlorine, 171-176
hydrogen peroxide, 177
ozone, 176177
ondation-reduction
potential, 171
techniques and species
treated, 170
Chloramines,136-137,174-175
Chlorine, 136-137
clarifier, 150-151
dechlorinationofRO feed
water, 137
degradation of polyamide
composite membrane,
136-137
disinfection, 149,171-176
Chlorine dioxide, disinfection, 175
Clarifiers,142-151
chemicaltreatment
chlorine, 150-151
coagulation, 149-150
flocculation,150
design characteristics, 143-144
inclined plate, 145-148
sedimentation, 148-149
solids-contact, 142-145
Cleaningpump, sizing, 379
Cleaning skid, 120
Coagulants, 149-150
Coagulation,149-150
Color, 129-130
control, 129
measure of, 129
poly-DADMACS, 149
Composite polyamide membranes,
52-56
characteristics,55-56
chemical structure, 54
cross-sectiun, 54
interfacial polymerization,53
Concentrateflow, 202
Concentrationfactor,22
Concentration polarization,
27-29
definition, 28
hydraulic boundary layer, 28
Continuous eledrodeionization,
344-357
cleaners, 354
costs, 356
Dow module, 350
evolution,355INDEX 385
feed water quality
requirements,353
manufacturers,356
process flow diagram,
347,349,351
recovery, 351
Controls, 116-118
Cross-flow filtration, 18-19
Current US industrial RO
concentrateflow control valve, 19
membrane manufacturers,77
Data acquisition and management,
HMI status indicators,118-119
human-machineinterface, 119
normalization software, 119
118-119
Data analysis, 239
Data assessment, 287-290
Data collection, 237-239
Data normalization,239-241,366
DBNPA, biocide, 182-183
Dead end filtration, 17-18
Delamination, 298
Delaware River Water (casestudy),
primary monitoring variables, 238
normalized product flow, 240-241
241-247
actual raw data, 242
different axial loads, 246
normalized pressure drop,
normalized raw data, 242
normalized salt passage,
243-245
pressure drop, 245
Designing RO system
beta, 202-205
concentrateflow rate per
pressure vessel, 202
design software, 212
feed flow rate per pressure
vessel, 201
scaling indexes, 35
245-247
US membrane manufacturers
water flux, 26-27,211
and design programs, 213
Dewatering, 3
Disposablecartridge filters, 98
DMI65 (Itochu Chemicals
America), 163
Double pass, 90-93
Dow Water and Process
SolutionsFilmTec
Technical Manual, 212
3D TRASAR" system, 179,180
Electron spectroscopy for chemical
analysis (ESCA),303
Energy dispersive X-ray
fluorescence(EDXRF),
302-303
Exposure to other chemicals, 139
Feed water flow, 201
Feed water quality
calcium and NOM, 197-198
chemicaldamage, 198
feed water source, 193-196
concentrateflow rates, 196
feed water flow rate, 195
flux rates, 194
total dissolved solids, 196-197
effect on flux and salt
flux and cross flow rate, 198
rejection, 197
FilmTec, 9
Filox filters, iron, manganese
and hydrogen sulfite
removal, 163
Filtration spectrum, 4
Finely-porous model, 45
Flocculants, 150
Flocculation, 150
Fluid Systems", 9,77
Flux, 2627,209
definition, 26
operating variables, 209386 INDEX
recommended, 27
specific, 27
Fouling, 30-33
barrier layer, 31
definition, 30
membrane, 32
species, 30
water quality guidelines for
FT-30 membrane, 8,9,43,53,56,
Fujiwara test, 302
Fungi, microbial testing, 303-304
minimizing, 30
136,211
General performance issues, 285
Greensand filtration, 189
High efficiency reverse osmosisTM
(HERO) process, 133,
358-360
additional pretreatment, 359
advantages, 359
features, 358
limitations, 359-360
process flow diagram, 357
process steps, 358
raising pH, 358-359
High flux/high capacity
membranes, 173
High hardness well water
(case study)
antiscalant, 311-312
sodium softener, 311
High-efficiency filters (HEF),
153-157
advantages, 157
cooling water particle size
distribution, 155
multimedia pressure
filters us., 157
top-over-bottom design, 155
turbidity and SDI removal,
153-1 57
vortex design, 156
High-pH cleaners
effecton removal of biofilm, 273
sample high-pH cleaning
formulations, 272
target species, 271
Hollosep@ cellulose triacetate
Hollow fine fiber membrane
hollow fine fiber, 74
modules, 8,9,52,58,72-74,
328,330-337
characteristics, 72
cross section, 74
Humic substances, 129
Hydranautics CPA3-LD, 80
Hydranautics IMS Design Version
2008,224-230
help contents, 226
numbered inputs, 226,227
primary design input screen, 227
recommended flux decline per
year, 228
recommended salt passage
increase per year, 229
screen inputs, 228,229
summary report output screen,
water analysis input screen, 227
229
Hydranautics low-fouling
composite LFC3-LD
membrane, 79
Hydrogen peroxide,
disinfection, 177
Hydrogen sulfide, 131-132
treatment recommendations, 131
ILECTM(Interlocking End Cap)
membrane module, 65,
66,108
clarifiers), 145-148
Inclined-plate clarifiers (Lamella0
advantages, 148
treatment zones, 147
Inductively coupled plasma
emission (ICP),303INDEX 387
Infrared spectroscopy, 303
Instrumentation, 114-1 16
alarms and shutdowns,
basic recommended, 115
Inter-pass caustic injection,91
Interstage performance monitoring
instrumentation, 121
Iron filters, 160-164
BIRM@' filters, 162-163
filox filters, 163
iron removal media,
manganese greensand filters,
properties of manganese
115-116
163-1 64
161-162
greensand, BIRM@,and
Filox, 160461
Isothiazolone,biocide, 183
Koch Membranes ROPRO Version
7.0,230-234
231,232
array configurationinput screen,
feed analysis screen, 231
flowrates and recovery input
screen,231,232
input screens, 230
output screen, 233
primary input screen, 231
printed output, 234
project informationscreen,231
LangelierSaturationIndex, 35,
LayneOx (LayneChristensen),163
Lead membrane modules, 32
Lime softening, 183-187
cold, 184-185
downflow hot process
softener, 187
effluentfrom cold, warm, and
hot, 184
38-39
hot, 185-187
sludge-blanket hot process
warm, 185
softener,186
Linear aromatic polyamide
membranes, 8,51-52
Loeb-Sourirajan method, 52
Low fouling membranes, 57
Low hardness surface water (case
study)
antiscalant, 313-314
sodium softener,313
hydrogen peroxide, precautions,
specificfoulants and scale, 274
Low-pH cleaners
273-274
preferred cleaning
solutions,275
Low-pressure membranes, 57
LSI see Langelier Saturation Index
Lyotropic liquid crystals(LLCs),
11-12
Magnum@module, 69
Manganese greensand filters,
161-162
backwashing, 162
iron, manganese and hydrogen
regeneration, 162
sulfite removal, 161-162
Manifolding, 114
Mechanical evaluation,284-285
Mechanical pretreatment, 142-170
target species, 143
Media filtration, 189
MegaMagnum@module, 69,70
Melt-blown cartridge.filter,
Membrane autopsy, 294
Membrane cleaning
378-379
visual inspection, 295-301
CIPpump flowrate, 369
cleaning chemicals
for foulants and scale, 274
high-pH cleaners, 271-272388 INDEX
low-pH cleaners, 273-274
neutral-pH cleaners, 272
cleaning procedure, 267-269
different membranes, 376-377
factorsaffecting cleaning
efficacy, 269-270
fail to return performance, 368
generation of permeate
prevention, 369
heating RO feed water,
advantages, 371
high pH, 368
low suction pressure, 370-371
non-oxidizing biocide, 370
on-site versus off-site, 317-319
permeate conductivity,369
preserve in off line, 372-374
shelf life, 374-375
temperature and pH, 367-368
time to clean, 266-267,367
wet versus dry, 375
Membrane cleaning equipment
cartridge filter, 277
cleaning tank, 275
recirculation pump, 277
Membrane compaction, 256
Membrane degradation,
Membrane fouling, 255-256
Membrane integrity testing, 291
Membrane lay-up
long-term, 278
short-term,277
256-257,259
Membrane materials, 46-58
Membrane modules, 58-76
comparisonof basic forms, 58
Membrane pretreatment, 170
Membrane scaling, 256,258-259
Membrane technology
developments in, 9
recent advances, 9-12
Metal fouling, 130-131
MethyleneBlue test, 301-302
MF see microfiltration
Microbial fouling, 127-128
bacteria and biofilm control, 128
culture technique, 127-128
total bacteria count, 128
Microfiltrationand ultrafiltration,
325-338
advantages and limitations
outside-in and inside-out
service flow designs, 330
tubular, spiral wound and
hollow fiber module
configurations,334
advantages of MF, 339
applications of MF, 339
asymmetricand uniform,
328,329
flux decline, 333
hollow fiber MF system, 332
improvements,328
microbes and algae removal, 170
polymers used, 326
pressurized VS.submerged
hollow fiber, 336,337
spiral wound UF system,331
strength and elongation
characteristicsof
polymers, 327
tubular UF system, 332
wettability/ hydrophilic
properties, 327
Microporous membranes, 325
Microprocessor, 116
Module configurations, 74-76
Multimedia pressure filters, 151-153
horizontal filter, 153
turbidity and colloids removal,
vertical filter, 152
151-1 53
Multiple trains, advantages and
disadvantages, 93
Nanofiltration,342-344
applications,344
hardness and color removal, 170INDEX 389
rejection of species between NF
structure, 342
versus reverse osmosis, 365-366
and RO membranes, 343
Nanostructured polymer
membranes, 11-12
Nanotechnology,11
Natural organic matter (NOM),138
Neutral-pH cleaners,272-273
NOM see natural organic matter
Non-oxidizing biocides, microbial
fouling prevention
DBNPA, 182-183
isothiazolone, 183
sodium bisulfite, 182
normalized differential
pressure, 249
normalized permeate flow, 249
normalized salt rejection, 249
outputs, 250
typical data inputs, 248
Normalized permeate flow
increase in
Normalization software, 247-250
hardware issues, 257
membrane degradation,
256-257
loss in
membrane compaction, 256
membrane fouling, 255-256
membrane scaling,256
Normalized salt rejection
increase in, 259
loss in
hardware issues, 259
membrane degradation, 259
membrane scaling, 258-259
O-ring leaks and permeate
tubes, 257
breaches, 259
advantages of, 318
shortcomings, 318
Off-site cleaning, 317-318
On-site membrane cleaning
advantages of, 319
shortcomingsof, 319
Organicfouling, 128-129
contol methods, 129
Osmosis, 15-16
concentration equilibrium, 16
definition, 15
Osmotic pressure, 16
Ozone, disinfection,
176-1 77
PermasepTMB-9 and B-10
PermasepTMB-9 membranes, 8
pH, effect on flux and salt
rejection, 207-209
Phase inversion method, 47
Phenomenologicaltransport
relationships, 46
PID controllers, 117
Plate and frame membrane
membranes,51
modules, characteristics,
59-60
PLC see programmablelogic
controller
Pleated cartridge filters, 378
Polyacrylate-HEDP,178
Polyamide compositemembranes,
11,51-58
characteristics,56
degradation, 136
effect of pH, 207-209
improvements,56-57
rough surfacemorphology, 57
Polyether urea (PEU),58
Positive displacement pumps, 100
Pressure, 200-201
effect on flux and rejection, 201
Pressure drop, 245,259
increase/decrease in,
260-261
301
Pressure dye test-Rhodamine B,390 INDEX
Pressure vessels, 106-114
adaptor, 110
cone, 111
113
elliptical end cap with end
elliptical end cap with thrust
elliptical head with thrust cone,
end cap with snap ring, 113
end cap with thrust ring, 112
sequence of module removal,
shims, 110,114
side entry of feed water, 106,107
spiral-wound modules, 107
thrust rings/cones, 108,110
RO and process flow
diagram, 188
system failure, impact on
RO, 375-376
technologies, 189
items, 252-253
schedule, 251
109
Pretreatment, 141
Preventative maintenance, 250-253
Process flow diagram, 96
Product blending kits, 121
Profiling and probing, 121,
Programmablelogic controller, 116
291-294
Recovery,21-23,205207
concentrateconcentration, 23
concentrationfactor, 22
definition, 21
effecton flux and salt
rejection, 205
individual membrane modules
and rejection, 206
instantaneous permeate
concentration,23
Recycle, 89-90
array with concentrate
recycle,90
disadvantages, 90
Reject disposal options
dischargeto cooling tower,
dischargeto drain or sewer, 320
zero liquid discharge, 321-323
Rejection, 23-26
characteristics,24
definition, 23
polyamide composite
Reverseosmosis,16-17
applications,3-4
components, 95,97
definition, 3,15
flow rate, 21
future advancements, 12
history and development, 5-9
time line in development of
uses of, 34,365
320-321
membranes, ability of, 25
technology, 5
ReverseOsmosisPurification
Apparatus, 9
RO feed pumps, 100-106
centrifugal pumps, 100
concentrateflow control
valve, 104
factors responsiblefor low
pressure and volume, 106
outside and inside of VFD
control panel, 103,104
pressure control valve, 104
pump curves, 101
water hammer prevention, 105
RO membranes
chlorine-tolerant, 11
costsof, 10
development, 10
fouling resistant, 11
low pressure, 11
RO performance monitoring, 237
ROsee Reverse osmosis
ROCHEM RO-Wasserbehandlung
ROCHEMST module, 75
GmbH (ROCHEM),75INDEX 391
ROSA Version 6.1,53,214-221
actual and projected water
configuration input screen,
quality,219
215,216
215,216
warnings, 220
inputs and features,
design and solubility
feed data screen, 214
overview report, 221
primary design output, 218
design inputs and
outputs, 217
project info screen,214
projected performance of each
element, 219
projected scaling indexes, 220
report screen,215
scaling screen,214-215
Sanitary membrane modules,
81-82
SCADAsystem, 117
Scaling, 33-35
index, 35
performance issues, 34
species, 33
water guidelines for
minimizing, 33
Scanning electron microscopy
(SEMI, 302
SDIsee Silt density index
Seawatermembranes, 76-78
Koch Membrane Systems, 78
test conditions, 76
Sedimentationclarifiers, treatment
zones, 148-1 49
Sequencingof pretreatment
technologies, 187-189
Shimsand thrust ring,
installation,379
Silica fouling/scaling control,
132-1 34
Silt density index, 35-38
and turbidity, 37,366
apparatus, 36
definition, 35
pads, 37-38
procedures, 35-37
Sizing and capacity, 316-317
Sizing process, 57
Skids, 120
Sodiumbisulfite, biocide, 182
Sodium hexametaphosphate
Sodium metabisulfite,
Sodium softener, 189
Sodium softeners, 166167
approximate size, 378
WIMP), 178
dechlorination,180-1 82
feed water guidelines, 167
hardness leakageand resin
regeneration of softenerresin,
softening reaction for calcium
soluble hardness removal, 164
styrene-divinylbenzenegel
capacity, 166
166-1 67
exchange, 165
cation resin, 164
Sodium water softening
advantages, 308-309
and antiscalants, 309-310
issues, 308
sequencing, 307-309
operating cost issues, 310
Solids-contact clarifiers(upflow
clarifiers),144-145
treatment zones, 144
Solution-diffusiontransport
model, 7,41,42-44
flux and salt rejection,
43,44
nonporous, 42
SolutionAiffusion imperfection
models, 44-45
Spent resin filters, 167-168392 INDEX
Spiral wound membrane modules,
9,61-72
advantages, 61-62
ATDs and iLEC ATD, flow
characteristics, 68
characteristics, 71
cross section, 62
cut-away of pressure
Dow Water Solutions-FilmTec
multi-leaf, 9,62
placement of module
interconnector
adaptor, 66
vessel, 71
iLEC ATDs, 66
pressure vessel end caps, 73
pressure vessel without end
caps, 72
strap wrench with iLEC
membranes, 67
styles of standard ATDs, 65
two-train MegaMagnum
U cup brine seal, 69,70
uniform telescoping,64
Stage-by-stage membrane
cleaning, 122
Starting up RO, 372
Stiff-DavisSaturation Index, 35
String-wound filters, 378
Suspended solids, 125-127
modules, 70
fouling of membranes, 127
measure of, 125
System design, 285-286
System flush
off-line flush, 263-264
return to service flush,
stand-by flush, 265-266
264-265
System performance projections,
286-287
Taper/ Christmastree
configuration,85
Temperature, feed water
effect on water flux and salt
rejection, 199
operating pressure, 200
TFC@membranes, 52
Thin-film nanocomposite
membrane (TFN)
technology, 11
Top-over-bottomhigh efficiency
filter, 155,156
TorayDS Version 1.1.44,221-224
Auto- Design/Auto - Element,
data inputs, 221-222
design output screen, 225
primary input screen, 223
TEACHMODE,221
Transport models, 41-46
Trihalomethanes,173
Troubleshooting,283
data assessment, 287-290
Fujiwara test, 302
general performance issues, 285
matrix, 288
mechanical evaluation, 284-285
membrane autopsy,294-301
membrane integrity testing, 291
methylene blue test, 301-302
other tests, 303-304
performance projection,
pressure dye test, 301
profiling and probing, 291-294
spectroscopytests, 302-303
system design, 285-286
water sampling, 290-291
Tubular casting equipment, 7
Tubular cellulose acetate
membranes, 9
Tubular membrane modules,
60-61
applications, 61
characteristics,61
221
286-287
TW30, tap water membrane, 9INDEX 393
UF see ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration,339-342
Ultrafiltration
applications,341
microbesand algae removal, 170
water treatment process flow
Ultraviolet irradiation, 168-169
diagram, 340
advantages, 169
destruction of bacteria, chlorine
and chloramines,169
limitation, 169
organic compounds reduction,
water conditions, 169
168
Variablefrequency drives, 101-103,
377-378
Vibratory Shear Enhanced
Processing (VSEP)
membrane, 76
Vortex high efficiency filter,
154,156
Vortisand@ filters, 154
Water hammer, 257
Water quality guidelines, 125-139
Water sampling, 290-291
Well water with iron and
antiscalant,31 4-31 6
sodium softener,314
manganese (casestudy)
X-Ray diffraction, 303
Zero liquid discharge,321-323


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