كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0
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 كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0

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كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0    كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0  Emptyالخميس 03 نوفمبر 2022, 9:31 pm

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Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0
Norbert Meyendorf, Nathan Ida, Ripudaman Singh, Johannes Vrana
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كتاب Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0  H_b_o_18
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Contents
Volume 1
Part I Concepts and Trends 1
1 Introduction to NDE 4.0 . 3
Johannes Vrana, Norbert Meyendorf, Nathan Ida, and Ripudaman Singh
2 Basic Concepts of NDE 31
Norbert Meyendorf, Nathan Ida, and Martin Oppermann
3 History of Communication and the Internet . 77
Nathan Ida
4 Creating a Digital Foundation for NDE 4.0 95
Nasrin Azari
5 Digitization, Digitalization, and Digital Transformation 107
Johannes Vrana and Ripudaman Singh
6 Improving NDE 4.0 by Networking, Advanced Sensors,
Smartphones, and Tablets 125
Chris Udell, Marco Maggioni, Gerhard Mook, and Norbert
Meyendorf
7 Value Creation in NDE 4.0: What and How 151
Johannes Vrana and Ripudaman Singh
8 From Nondestructive Testing to Prognostics: Revisited . 177
Leonard J. Bond
9 Reliability Evaluation of Testing Systems and Their Connection
to NDE 4.0 205
Daniel Kanzler and Vamsi Krishna Rentala
10 NDE 4.0: New Paradigm for the NDE Inspection Personnel . 239
Marija Bertovic and Iikka Virkkunen
vii11 “Moore’s Law” of NDE 271
Norbert Meyendorf
Part II Technical Disciplines . 293
12 Industrial Internet of Things, Digital Twins, and Cyber-Physical
Loops for NDE 4.0 . 295
Johannes Vrana
13 Compressed Sensing: From Big Data to Relevant Data . 329
Florian Römer, Jan Kirchhof, Fabian Krieg, and Eduardo Pérez
14 Semantic Interoperability as Key for a NDE 4.0 Data
Management 353
Christian T. Geiss and Manuel Gramlich
15 Registration of NDE Data to CAD . 369
Stephen D. Holland and Adarsh Krishnamurthy
16 NDE 4.0: Image and Sound Recognition 403
Kimberley Hayes and Amit Rajput
17 Image Processing 2D/3D with Emphasis on Image
Segmentation 423
Andreas H. J. Tewes, Astrid Haibel, and Rainer P. Schneider
18 Applied Artificial Intelligence in NDE 443
Ahmad Osman, Yuxia Duan, and Valerie Kaftandjian
19 The Human-Machine Interface (HMI) with NDE 4.0 Systems . 477
John C. Aldrin
20 Artificial Intelligence and NDE Competencies 499
Ramon Salvador Fernandez Orozco, Kimberley Hayes, and
Francisco Gayosso
21 Smart Monitoring and SHM 553
Bianca Weihnacht and Kilian Tschöke
22 Sensors, Sensor Network, and SHM 569
M. Faisal Haider, Amrita Kumar, Irene Li, and Fu-Kuo Chang
23 Probabilistic Lifing . 603
Kai Kadau, Michael Enright, and Christian Amann
24 Robotic NDE for Industrial Field Inspections 641
Robert Dahlstrom
viii ContentsVolume 2
Part III Applications . 663
25 NDE for Additive Manufacturing 665
Julius Hendl, Axel Marquardt, Robin Willner, Elena Lopez,
Frank Brueckner, and Christoph Leyens
26 In Situ Real-Time Monitoring Versus Post NDE for Quality
Assurance of Additively Manufactured Metal Parts . 697
Christiane Maierhofer, Simon J. Altenburg, and Nils Scheuschner
27 NDE in Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Components 735
Christian Wunderlich, Beatrice Bendjus, and
Malgorzata Kopycinska-Müller
28 Inspection of Ceramic Materials . 755
Susanne Hillmann and Bernd Köhler
29 Testing of Polymers and Composite Materials 775
Kara Peters
30 Characterization of Materials Microstructure and Surface
Gradients using Advanced Techniques 799
Paul Graja and Norbert Meyendorf
31 Nondestructive Testing of Welds . 819
A. Juengert, M. Werz, R. Gr. Maev, M. Brauns, and P. Labud
32 Optical Coherence Tomography as Monitoring Technology for the
Additive Manufacturing of Future Biomedical Parts . 859
Jörg Opitz, Vincenz Porstmann, Luise Schreiber, Thomas Schmalfuß,
Andreas Lehmann, Sascha Naumann, Ralf Schallert, Sina Rößler,
Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Benjamin Kruppke, and Malgorzata
Kopycinska-Müller
33 NDE for Electronic Packaging 883
Martin Oppermann, Johannes Richter, Jörg Schambach, and
Norbert Meyendorf
Part IV Industrial Domains 935
34 NDE 4.0 in Civil Engineering . 937
Ernst Niederleithinger
35 NDE 4.0 in Railway Industry . 951
Xiaorong Gao, Yu Zhang, and Jianping Peng
Contents ix36 NDE in The Automotive Sector . 979
R. Gr. Maev, A. Chertov, R. Scott, D. Stocco, A. Ouellette,
A. Denisov, and Y. Oberdorfer
37 Applications of NDE 4.0 Cases in the Automotive Industry . 1011
Matthias Nöthen
38 Digital Twin and Its Application for the Maintenance
of Aircraft 1035
Teng Wang and Zheng Liu
39 NDE in Energy and Nuclear Industry 1053
Rafael Martínez-Oña
40 NDE in Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Facilities 1089
Sascha Schieke, Mark Geisenhoff, and Ke Wang
Part V Business . 1107
41 Best Practices for NDE 4.0 Adoption . 1109
Ripudaman Singh
42 Estimating Economic Value of NDE 4.0 . 1127
Lennart Schulenburg
43 Ethics in NDE 4.0: Perspectives and Possibilities 1159
Ripudaman Singh and Tracie Clifford
44 Training and Workforce Re-Orientation 1187
Ramon Salvador Fernandez Orozco
45 Are We Ready for NDE 5.0 . 1245
Ripudaman Singh
Index 1263
Index
A
Accelerometer sensors, 572
Acceptable annual risk, 617
Acceptable risk, 615, 616, 618, 619
Acoustic emission (AE), 61, 197, 704, 1099
Acoustic impedance, 64
Acoustic methods, 811–814
acoustic emission, 704
SRAS, 703
ultrasonics, 703
Acoustic microscopy, 282–284
Acoustic scene classification (ASC), 417
Active sensing mode, 577
Active systems, 179
Active thermography, 759, 890
Additive manufacturing (AM), 12, 698–700,
702, 703, 706, 715, 724, 822, 828, 861,
862, 1146
bioprinting, 862–863
definition, 666
extrusion process, 671
layer by layer, 669
limitations of, 669
SLS, 863
typical defects, 679
unique manufacturing way of, 668
unmolten powder, 680
versatility of, 666
Additive manufacturing of ceramic green
bodies, 736
advantages, 737
data monitoring, 749–751
laser speckle photometry, 738–741
optical coherence tomography, 743–750
Adhesive bonding, 1003–1004
Advanced analytics, 1039
Advanced small modular reactor
(AdvSMR), 189
Advisory circular (AC), 604
Aero-engine disk, 616, 622
Aggregation bias, 1171
AI chips, 538
Airborne remote inspection robots, 647–651
Aircraft gas turbine engines, 621
Aircraft maintenance
development of, 1037–1039
digital twin for (see Digital twin)
Air gaps, 671
Airworthiness Qualification Plan (AQP), 590
Algorithmic bias, 1178
Algorithms, 478–480, 482, 484–490, 492, 493
ALOK method, 337
Amazon’s computer models, 1161
American Industrial Radium and X-Ray
Society (AIRXS), 481
American Petroleum Institute (API), 1091
American Society of Mechanical Engineering
(ASME), 831, 1091
Amount of data, 330
Analog data, 97
Analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs), 336
Anomaly distribution, 622, 624
Application programming interfaces (API), 307
Applied ethics, 1163
Arc welding, 822–824, 828, 829, 842, 854
ARPANET, 84
Artificial intelligence (AI), 10, 246, 289, 516,
518, 810, 821, 835, 842, 843, 847, 855,
927–928, 1012, 1013, 1016, 1018, 1099,
1160, 1167, 1247
automated inspection programming,
928–929
awareness, 524
and data science, 513–515
development through corporations and
SMEs, 522–523
early research, 520
ethics and security, 524–527
Artificial intelligence (AI) (cont.)
frontiers and lines of exploration, 523
implementation, 530–531
initiatives, 533–540
initiatives through academic
institutions, 521
intelligent inspection functions, 929–931
meaning, 510–513
phased-out parallel advancement with
health sector, 523
planning and decision support, 537–538
policy research, 527–530
pre-history of, 519–520
preventing classification errors, 929
programing languages, 537
social impact, 531–533
Artificial intelligence knowledge map (AIKM),
515, 516
Artificial neural networks, 409, 540
Asset inspectors, 156, 166
Asset management, 355, 357–360
Asset OEMs, 155
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 886
Augmented reality (AR), 137–138, 246, 248,
252, 253, 255, 263, 1098
systems, 489
Automated data, 97
Automated data analysis (ADA), 246, 482, 484,
489, 492
Automated defect detection, 447
Automated defect recognition (ADR), 482
Automated inspection programming, 928–929
Automated SHM, 572
Automated testing, 837, 839, 841, 844,
855, 856
Automated ultrasonic testing, 840
Automatic optical inspection (AOI) system,
895–897, 898, 925
Automation, 147, 164, 169, 170, 478–480,
484–490, 493, 1247
awareness, 524
stack, 298–300
Automotive industry
adhesive bonding, 1003–1004
applications of post-process inspections,
1001–1007
laser brazing, 1005–1006
NDE 4.0 in, 984–987
polymers, 1006–1007
resistance spot welding, 1001–1003
role of artificial intelligence in, 989–992
signal/image processing, 987–989
spot weld quality analysis (see Real-time
in-line resistance spot weld analysis)
Automotive industry, NDT 4.0
characteristic extraction of paint defects,
1019–1021
deflectometry method for paint defect
detection, 1019
fold-adhesive bonds (see Fold-adhesive
bonds)
industrial applications, 1012
strip light method for paint defect
detection, 1018
types of paint defects, 1016
visual inspection of paint defects,
1013–1015
Automotive sector, 845, 847, 855
Autonomous robots, 1145
Average precision, 464
Avitas Systems, 186
B
Backwall echoes (BWE), 452
Ball grid array (BGA) structures, 280
Barkhausen and Eddy current microscopy
(BEMI), 277
Barkhausen noise microscopy, 41, 277–279
Batch normalization (BN), 437
Baudot code, 79
Bayesian masses, 471
Beam hardening, 802
Bernoulli distribution, 335
Bernoulli matrix, 338
Big data, 11, 138–139, 821, 1039
Binder Jet printing (BJP) process, 675, 677
Biomedical applications, 861, 877
Bioprinting, 862–863
Bloch walls, 41
Blockchain, 9, 137, 246
Bonding/melting, powder, 669
Bremsstrahlung, 833
British Institute of non-destructive testing
(BINDT), 128
Brute-force Monte Carlo approach, 606
Building information modeling (BIM),
943–947
BuildingSMART, 945
Business models, 159
C
CAD data, 822, 849, 850
Calibration test case, 621–623
Camera angles, 395
Camera-based sensing, 382–385
Camera calibration, 385
1264 IndexCapacitive micromachined ultrasound
transducer (CMUT), 342
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP),
449–451, 779
Case depth determination, 808–810
Case hardening, 803
Catastrophic accident, 208
Cathode-ray tube (CRT), 481
Cavities, 829
Cellular communication, 80–83
Cellular networks, 82
Ceramic materials
cryo-ultrasound, 769
defects, 757
eddy current testing, 766–767
elastodynamic methods, 768–772
infrared transmission, 760–761
laser speckle photometry, 762
laser ultrasound technology, 769
microwave testing, 766–767
non-destructive testing methods, 757
optical coherence tomography, 762
optical testing methods, 758–763
penetrant testing, 758–759
resonance testing, 771
terahertz testing, 767
thermography, 759–760
ultrasonic testing, 768–769
visual inspection, 758
X-ray methods, 763–766
Ceramics, 671
manufacturing chain, 737, 750
Characterization, 478, 480, 482, 484, 488
Civil engineering
BIM, 943–947
construction assessment, 940–942
data management, 942–944
recommendations and standards, 947–948
Cladding modeling, 1063
Classic heterodyne approach, 48
Classifiers
for NDE detection tasks, 449
performance measure of, 461–464
Climbing robots, 647
Closed-loop networking, 1247
Cloud, 133
computing, 10, 1039
solutions, 821
Cloud-based data repository, 100
Coaches, 159
Cognitive capabilities, 252
Coherence, 334
Cold cracking, 682
Cold welding, 825
Collaboration rooms, 108
Collaborative robots (Cobots), 13, 489–490
Collective learning, 1211, 1212
Color penetration test, 1024, 1025
Comma-separated values (csv), 1095
Common fleet database, 1047
Communication, 78
cellular, 80–83
electric concept of, 78
in NDE, 88–90
network growth, 83–87
platform, 108
role of networks in NDE, 89
satellites, 82
world wide web, 87–88
Competency(ies)
defined, 507
NDE, 1203–1205
Completely debiased dataset, 1171
Compressed sensing (CS), 330–333, 335, 348
cognitive radar, 336
a priori knowledge, 332, 335
redundancy, 331
sufficient information, 335
temporal CS, 340
terahertz imaging, applications in, 346–348
ultrasound testing, applications in, 336–342
X-ray computed tomography, applications
in, 342–346
Compression matrix, 334
Computed tomography (CT), 424, 425,
786–788, 836, 885, 886, 903,
904–908, 1147
Computer aided design (CAD), 370, 371, 373,
374, 376–378, 386–389, 862
systems, 7
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 862
Computerized maintenance management
systems (CMMS), 356
Computer vision (CV), 413
Conceptual model for life models and
inputs, 192
Condition based maintenance (CBM), 180, 184,
193, 200, 492
Condition monitoring (CM), 160
Confusion matrix, 462
Conscious Capitalism, 1249
Construction industry, 938
Consultants, 159
Consumer education, 175
Contact-based inspection, 649
Contact-free automatic NDE in automotive
sector, 847–850
Continuous improvement model for big data, 139
Index 1265Continuous wave method, 47–48
Convolutional layer, 437
Convolutional neural networks (CNN), 412,
435–437, 453–456, 992
Cooled detector, 891
Corrosion monitoring locations (CMLs), 1094
Cost-based planning, 1044
Cost of failure, 618, 619
COVID-19 pandemic, 1090
Cracks, 829
Critical defect, 208
Cryo-ultrasound, 770
Cumulative distribution function (CDF), 607
Cured adhesive layer, 1023
Cyber-physical-biological, 1259
Cyber-physical ecosystem, 296
Cyber-physical integration, 109
Cyber-physical loop, 153, 164–175, 297, 324,
325, 1148
Cyber physical systems (CPS), 240
CYCLADES network, 85
D
Damage detection, 588
Damage index method, 578–579
Damage localization, 588
Damage quantification, 588–589
Damage tolerant model, 209
Damage verification testing, 587
2-D arrays, 338
Dartmouth Summer Research Conference, 521
DARWIN pre-zoning algorithm, 624
Data analytics maturity model, 26
Data augmentation, 419
Database, 99, 810, 811, 814
Data elements, 98
Data-exchange, 159
Data fields, 100
Data format, 100
Data fusion, 465–471
Data fusion classifier (DFC), 471
Data gathering machines, 643
Data market, 173
Data processing, 555, 556, 561, 567, 941
Data provider, 173
Data rates, 330
Data science and AI, 513–515
Data security, 313
Datasets, 99
Data sovereignty, 313, 314
Decade of Action, 1249
Decimal to binary number conversion, 112
Decision-making, 103
Decision trees, 539
Deep convolutional network, 1100
Deep learning, 408, 434, 991
convolutional neural network and regionbased CNN, 453–456
libraries and frameworks, 464–465
long short-term memory-recurrent neural
networks, 458–461
Deep learning neural network (DLNN), 482
Deep neural network (DNN), 990
Defect classification process framework, 453
Defect localization, 457
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA), 521
Deflectometry method, 1019
Degradation accumulation, 196
Degradation observation, 1047
Delamination/Swelling, 680
Delay-and-sum (DAS)-schemes, 337
Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, 468
Dempster-Shafer fusion classifier (DFC), 473
Denavit and Hartenberg (DH) parameters, 382
Design case, 612
Design target life (DTL), 604
Design target risk (DTR), 605
Design thinking, 1110, 1111
Destructive testing method, 1024
Deterministic AI environments, 536
Deterministic approach, 609
Deterministic life, 612, 613
2D geometric inconsistency, 375–376
2D homogeneous coordinates, 375
3D homogeneous coordinates, 379
Diagnostic imaging method, 579–581
DICOM, 311
DICONDE data, 313–315, 835, 856
Dielectric spectroscopy, 785–786
Digital assistants, 540–541
Digital automation, 246
Digital-biological systems, 1256
Digital immortality, 1258
Digital interconnection, 1066
Digitalization, 98, 109, 114, 122, 938,
1055, 1207
actors/tasks, 102
audit trial, 104
build new process map, 104
data, 98
database, 99
data elements, 98
data fields, 100
data format, 100
1266 Indexdatasets, 99
decision-making, 103
evaluate/choose solutions, 103
fix problem areas, 103
goals, 105
historical information, 99
human-machine interfaces, 115
identify problem areas, 103
identify your baseline, 102
implement/test, 104
map out existing processes, 102
music, 115
NDE, 117–119
photography, 115
processes, 101
queries, 99
of radiography, 121
storing data, 100
vector graphics, 115
Digital learning, 1208
Digital Maintenance of Railway Bridges
(DiMaRB), 947
Digital-physical-biological systems, 1256
Digital-Physical-Human, 1256
Digital-physical systems, 1256
Digital Review Boards, 1182–1183
Digital skills, 1197, 1239
Digital Technology Training Schools, 158
Digital thread, 8, 161–164, 320, 321
asset, 161
NDE system, 162
Digital transformation, 109, 111, 122, 298
components for, 116
of NDE, 119–120
of photography, 116
of radiography, 121–122
of word and image processing, 116
Digital twin, 7, 153, 161–164, 166, 167,
170–172, 175, 249, 316, 323, 370, 371,
821, 968, 1036–1037
accessibility and interaction, 1039
advantage, 1051
basic concepts, 318, 319
big data and advanced analytics, 1039
cloud computing, 1039
data, 1037, 1040
data processing, 324
future status prediction, 1042–1043,
1046–1048
health status evaluation, 1041–1042,
1045–1046
information, 324
information sensing and processing, 1044
interrelation, 321, 322
IoT, 1039
maintenance activity management,
1043–1045, 1049–1050
mathematical modeling and solving, 1045
nesting, 319
person, 317, 318
personnel, 320
visualization, 324
Digital twin aggregate (DTA), 321
Digital twin instance (DTI), 321
Digital weave, 163
Digital workflow, NDE, 23, 312
Digital X-ray systems, 1149
Digitization, 7, 108, 109, 111, 122, 297, 298,
1092
binary numbers, 112
decimal numbers, 111
encoding method, 112, 113
images and videos, 113
NDE methods, 117
of radiography, 121
signals and waveforms, 113
volumetrics and games, 114
Dimensionality reduction, 540
Direct 3D visualization, 389–390
Direct Energy Deposition (DED), 828
Direct Energy Deposition with a laser
(DED-LB/M)
melt pool properties, 715
requirements, 715
VIS, SWIR and MWIR camera systems,
716–719
Direct Iterative REconstruction of Computed
Tomography Trajectories (DIRECTT)
algorithm, 342, 344
Direct-to-metal laser sintering (DMLS), 636
Disconnected data, 97
Displacement sensors, 573
Disruptive innovation, 1141
Distortion correction, 385
Domain adaptation, 419
3D printing, 861, 865, 1258
2D registration, NDE data, 374–375
2D geometric inconsistency, 375–376
2D homogeneous coordinates, 375
Drones, 647–649
Dry film thickness (DFT), 657
Duty theories, 1163
3D video games, 114
2-D X-ray inspection method radiography,
900–903
Dye penetrant testing, 757
Index 1267E
Economic analysis, 618
Economic impact of NDE 4.0
cost of risk, 1141
disruptive innovation, 1152–1154
efficiency and effectiveness, 1139–1140
equipment efficiency, 1136–1137
impact, 1148–1154
incremental innovation, 1148–1152
innovations, 1140
investment evaluation, 1138
key performance indicators, 1129–1138
quantitative performance, 1133–1135
return of investment, 1137
system availability, 1135
total cost of ownership, 1129–1130
value generation, 1138–1141
Economy of scale, 333
Eddy current, 807
inspection, 142
inspection of steam generator and heat
exchanger tubes, 1083
sensors, 573
Eddy current testing, 37–39, 956, 958
cermanic materials, 766–767
Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0, 1214–1216
conceptual frameworks for transitioning,
1216
evolutionary and disruptive modification, in
education models, 1216–1217
NDE instructor role, evolution of,
1226–1227
NDE mentorship, evolution of, 1227–1228
re-training of workforce, 1217–1225
Effect of defects, 690
Electric arc pressure welding, 826
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 1076
Electric trolley for ultrasonic rail flaw
detection, 973
Electromagnetic methods, 704, 806–811
Electromagnetic testing (ET), 1092
Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication
(EBF), 828
Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion
(EB-PBF), 828
Electron beam welding, 825
Electronic discrete variable automatic computer
(EDVAC), 80
Electronic numerical integrator and computer
(ENIAC), 80
Electronic packaging, 888–889
classification, 885
optical inspection, 894–900
thermography, 889–894
ultrasonic microscopy, 915–922
X-ray inspection methods, 900–915
Electronics prognostics, 194
Electrons, 58
Electrotherapeutic devices, 1257
Embedded sensor arrays, 790–792
Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), 783
End of life (EOL), 159, 162
Energy Science Network (ESNet), 86
Engineering management, 490–491
Engine health monitoring (EHM), 187
Enhanced mobile broadband, 9
Enterprise Resource Planning, 1247
Environmental, social and governance
(ESG), 1240
Ethics, 1203
code of, 1168
debate, 1165
at Markkula Center for Applied Ethics,
1175–1178
and morals, 1163–1164
new ethical concerns, 1170
resolving existing ethical concerns, 1169
and 4th revolution, 1166–1170
trust, 1165
European Network for Inspection Qualification
(ENIQ), 1057
EUROPIPE GmbH, 851
Event processing architecture, 536
Evidential classifiers, 468
Exemplary fictitious model, 461
Explosion welding, 825
Extended reality, 12
F
Failure, 208
catastrophic accident, 208
critical defect, 208
damage tolerant model, 209
zero-defect tolerance, 209
Failure-based planning, 1044
Failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA),
355, 986
Fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm
(FISTA), 340
Fatigue crack growth (FCG), 604
Fatigue life prediction, 607
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 604
Fifth Era, 1255, 1256
Filtered back projection (FBP), 342
Fine seam bubble, 1028
1268 IndexFine structure analysis, 52
First- and second order reliability methods
(FORM/SORM), 606
First digital cell network, 81
First industrial revolution, 4, 1246
Fixed wing drones, 647
Flame hardening, 802
Flat wheel detection method, 959, 961
Fleet assessment case, 612
Flight testing, 589–591
Fold-adhesive bonds
cross-sectional representation, 1022
destructive testing methods, 1024
exemplary fold geometries and model,
1028, 1029
integration of test into process chain, 1027
Kissing Bond, 1023
meandering structure, 1024
modeling of sound propagation,
array C, 1030
phased array ultrasonic systems for,
1025–1027
porosities, 1023
prototype for testing, 1030
testing and destructive testing for validation,
1030–1031
two-dimensional model, for probe design
and sound progression, 1029
Ford Model T, 984
Forge welding, 826
Forging flaws, 610
Fourier coefficients, 338
Fourier matrix, 338, 347
Fourth industrial revolution, 5, 1246
Fracture mechanics, 606, 609–611, 614,
621, 633
Friction stir welding, 822, 827
Friction welding, 827
Fuchsin test, 759
Full-matrix capture (FMC), 337–342,
840, 1093
Full waveform inversion (FWI), 337
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 671, 862
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), 671
Fusion welding, 823–825
Future NDE, 132
G
5G, 9
Gamma rays, 58, 832, 833
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 823
Gas porosity, 679
Gas turbine, 604, 615, 616, 618, 620, 626,
629–631, 634, 637
rotors, 620
Generic data fusion framework, 468
Geographic information systems (GIS), 372
Geometric inconsistency
accommodating, 396–397
2D, 375–376
Geometry-sensitive model based inversion, 373
Global Human Body Models Consortium
(GHBMC), 1257
Global Positioning System (GPS), 372
Graphical user interface (GUI), 479, 481,
487–488, 493, 593
Graphics processing unit (GPU), 387, 606
Ground-based inspection robotic systems,
645–647
Ground penetrating radar, 43
Guided ultrasonic waves, 788–790
Guided wave imaging, 790
Guided wave (GW) ultrasonics, 1099
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in
Measurement (GUM), 208
H
Hamburg Port Authority (HPA), 947
Handheld ultrasonic system, 1002
Hardening depth
acoustic methods, 811–814
definition, 804–805
destructive determination, 805–807
electro-magnetic methods, 806–811
nondestructive determination, 806–816
surface and case hardening, 800–804
thermographic methods, 814–816
Hard skills, 1194
Hardware-as-a-service, 140
Hatch spacing, 676
Hawthorne effect, 136
Health status evaluation, 1041–1042,
1045–1046
Heat-affected zone (HAZ), 822
Heavy-duty gas turbine, 631
Heavy-duty GT rotor disk, 629
Hermite polynomials, 607
High frequency scanning acoustic microscopy
(HF SAM), 282
High performance computing (HPC), 482
High-speed rail flaw detection vehicles,
972–973
Hirth-serration, 627
Historical bias, 1171
Index 1269HIT-MISS-POD approach, 219–221
Holistic asset management approach, 355
Hot cracks, 829
Household NDE applications, 146–147
Human-centered approach, 260
Human machine interaction, 252
Human-machine interface (HMI), NDE 4.0
systems, 478–479, 482–485
AR systems, 489
automation and NDE inspector, 486–487
automation development environments,
492–493
cobots, 489–490
data quality, 488
digital NDE systems, 481
digital twin and material review board,
491–492
engineering data mining and discovery, 491
engineering management, 490–491
feedback tools, 488–489
graphical user interface development,
487–488
implementing NDE 4.0 algorithms,
485–486
software interfaces, NDE inspector
training, 490
Human touch revolution, 1250
Human values, 1250
Hyper parameters, 436
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), 309
I
IDS connectors, 173
Image processing, 447
classification, 449–454
development, 536
features extraction, 449
image segmentation, 448
preprocessing, 447–448
system, 899
Image quality indicator (IQI), 834
Image recognition, 411, 412
NDE 4.0, 413, 414
Image segmentation, 448
activation maps, 437
application, 439
CNN, 435–437
complex components, 429
CT, 424, 425
deep neural network, 437
3D modelling sufaces, 430
3D reconstruction, 430
3D tomographic dataset, 429, 430
encoder-decoder structure, 438
gray value distribution, 427, 428
images filters, 428
interfaces, 430
limitation, 433
magnetic resonance tomography, 426
Mask-RCNN, 439
model-based 3D geometry extraction,
431–433
motivation, 434
neural networks, 424
SegNet architecture, 437
U-Net, 438, 439
wooden pencil, 427
X-ray beam, 428
X-ray radiography, 424, 425
X-ray spectra, 429
Immersion techniques, 837
Indication probabilistic fracture mechanics, 612
Induction hardening, 802
Industrial heavy manufacturing inspection
system, 253
Industrial internet consortium (IIC), 308, 309
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), 8, 153,
155, 164, 175, 306, 333, 599–600,
1092, 1247
automation stack, 298, 300
idea, 300–302
interfaces, 307
NDE, 303–305
OPC UA, 309, 310
semantic interoperability, 305, 306
Industrial Revolution, 152
Industrial robotic inspections, 643
benefits of, 652–655
drawbacks of, 656
standards, 657–658
Industrial tablet, 147
Industry, 133, 136, 140
Industry 4.0, 6, 153, 157, 159, 163, 173, 174,
176, 240, 241, 245–247, 249, 250, 253,
255, 257, 259, 260, 263, 264, 508, 981
additive manufacturing, 12, 1146
artificial intelligence, 10, 1145–1146
automation, robots, and drones, 13
in automotive industry, 984–987
big data, 11, 1145–1146
blockchains, 9
cloud and connectivity, 1147
cloud computing, 10
cmputed tomography, 1147
data processing, 9
1270 Indexdigital thread, 8
digital twins, 7
digitization, digitization, digital
transformation and informatization, 7
evolution of, 1142–1144
extended reality, 12
5G, 9
industrial internet of things, 8
mobile devices, handheld computers and
small-size computers, 11
for NDE, 22–25
quantum computers, 11
revolutions in, 14–22
robotics, 1144–1145
semantic interoperability, 9
Industry 5.0, 1248, 1250–1253, 1260
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), 946
Infant mortality, 620
Information fusion, 470
Information sensing and processing, 1044
Information transparency, 1175
Informatization, 109
of general life examples, 109
of radiography, 120–122
stages in NDE, 116–122
Informatization of Training and
Certification, 120
Infrared imaging, 783, 784
Infrared (IR) transmission, 760–761
Infrared thermography
LSTM-RNN-based defect classification,
460–461
stainless-steel sample, 452–454
Inlet-guide-vane load-following cycle
(IGV-LFC), 631, 632
Inline inspection (ILI) tools, 1094
Inline OCT monitoring, 868–873
Inner surface structure, 433
Innovation, 1140, 1257
value chain, 1115–1119
In-service inspections (ISIs)
objectives of, 1054
role in maintenance programs, 1068
In-service wheelset
condition-based maintenance, 968–970
daily on-line inspection, 959–961
intelligent detection system, 959–964
IoT and intelligent diagnosis of, 964–968
periodic off-line wheel inspection, 963–964
periodic on-line wheel inspection, 961–963
In-situ monitoring methods
acoustic methods, 703–704
electromagnetic methods, 704
laser thermography, 702
measurement of particle and fume
emission, 704
optical methods, 701
optical tomography, 702
passive thermographic methods, 702
vs. post NDE, 722–727
requirements and thermographic methods,
705–722
spectroscopic methods, 701
standardization of, 700
In situ NDE investigation, 683–684
Inspection data management system (IDMS),
1094
Inspection personnel, 241, 253, 260
Inspection qualification, nuclear power plant,
1057–1059
Inspector, 157
Institute of Asset Management (IAM), 357
Integrated development environments (IDE),
492
Intel 4004 micro processer, 272
Intelligence, defined, 510
Intelligence augmentation (IA), 479, 486
Interaction capabilities, 252
International Data Space Association (IDSA),
173, 313
International Standardization Organization
(ISO), 831
Internet, 87
Internet of things (IoT), 138, 148, 240, 300,
301, 246, 1039, 1040
Internet of Things (IoT), in-service wheelset
inspection, 964
conceptual map of, 966
fault diagnosis, 965
health assessment, 968
intelligent operation and maintenance
system, 967
life time prediction, 968
Interoperability
automation MT, 1092
definition, 1092
ET, 1093
ILI tools, 1094
NDE methods, 1095
NDT services, 1097
PT, 1092
ultrasonic testing, 1093
ultrasonic thickness monitoring, 1096
wireless communication technologies, 1097
Intersection over Union (IoU), 463, 1120
iRoll, 595, 596
Index 1271Iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, 386
Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm
(ISTA), 344
J
Jittered subsampling, 339
Joint quality control, 1002
K
Keyhole welding, 824
Kinematic model, 377
Kissing Bond, 1023
K-Means, 539
K-nearest neighbors (kNN), 539
Kronecker product, 347
L
Lack of fusion, 679, 829
Lack of penetration, 829
Lagrange multipliers, 584
Lamb wave, 848–850
Laminography, 837, 903–904
Land grid array (LGA), 909–912
Laser brazing, 1005–1006
Laser doppler vibrometer (LDV), 339, 573
Laser-Excited Acoustics (LEA), 848–850
Laser metal deposition (LMD), 673
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF), 675, 828
Laser power, 674
beam current, 676
Laser speckle photometry
experimental setup of, 738–739, 738–739
porosity multi material jetting, 740–744
in quality control of additive manufactured
ceramics, 740–741
Laser spot size, 674
Laser thermography, 702
Laser ultrasound technology, 769
Laser welding, 822, 824, 825, 845
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), 573, 574,
576, 587
Learning, 148
management systems, 1208
Lenz’ law, 37
Life Cycle Costs (LCC), 361
Life Cycle File (LCF), 362
Lifting methods, 608, 620, 626, 634
advantage, 608
deterministic, 607
disadvantage, 609
failure risks, 609
probabilistic, 608
probabilistic vs. deterministic, 613
Lift-off effect, 37
Linear regression, 539
Liquid penetrant testing (LPT), 34
Lissajous plot, 137
Lithography-based ceramic manufacturing
(LCM) technology, 746
Lock-in techniques, 50
Logbook, 136
Logistic regression, 539
Longitudinal and transverse flaw testing, 851
Longitudinal waves, 62
Long short-term memory-recurrent neural
networks (LSTM-RNN), 458
defects in honeycomb structure, 460–461
hierarchical structure of, 459
Low-power wide-area-networks
(LPWAN), 307
M
Machine intelligence, 1120
Machine learning (ML), 246, 407, 408, 513,
751, 989, 1099, 1167
Machine-to-machine (M2M), 1092
Magnetically impelled arc butt (MIAB)
welding, 826
Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), 841
Magnetic particle testing (MT), 36, 841, 956,
1092
Magnetic recording, 79
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 424
Magnetic resonance tomography, 426
Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO)
Platform, 965
Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO),
1037, 1038, 1042, 1043
real-world MRO, 1040
service system, 1040
virtual MRO, 1040
Maintenance program, 1069
Manual process, 97
Manufacturing Execution Systems, 1247
Manufacturing shops, 5
Material anomalies, 605, 610
Material state awareness (MSA), 181, 183
Maturity assessment model, for AI
deployment, 530
Mean average precision, 464
Measurement bias, 1171
Mechanized testing, welds, 840
1272 IndexMentorship, 1198, 1227–1228
Metaethics, 1162
Metal inert gas welding (MIG), 823
Metallographic grinding image analysis, 1024
Michigan Educational Research Information
Triad (MERIT), 86
Micro-computed tomography (μCT), 786
Micro cracks, 283
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
technology, 275
Micromagnetic techniques, 41–42
Microwave microscopy, 44
Microwave testing, 766–767
Mindful digital transformation, 1252
Minitel project, 86
Mobile inspection system, 962
Mobile technology
5G and wireless data streaming, 132
local and cloud-storage, 132
processing power, 131
user interfaces, 131
Model assisted probability of detection
(MAPOD), 184
Model-based inversion, 374, 390
Modern robotics, 645
Modulation transfer function (MTF), 288–289
Monitoring, 554–557, 559, 564, 565
Monte Carlo simulation method, 606, 607
Moore’s law
consequences, 273–275
of NDE, 287
Morse code, 79
Motivations, 405
Multidisciplinary optimization process (MDO),
618, 619
N
Naive Bayes algorithm, 539
Nano-NDE, 276–277
acoustic microscopy, 282–284
Barkhausen noise microscopy, 277–279
modifications of atomic force microscopy,
284–287
nano-Raman microscopy, 279
X-ray nano-tomography, 280–283
Nano-Raman microscopy, 279
NASA Science Internet (NSI), 86
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE), 657
National bodies, 158
Natural Language Processing (NLP), 534
NDE 1.0, 88
NDE 2.0, 89
NDE 3.0, 89
NDE 4.0, Oil/Gas/ petrochemical
decentralizes decisions, 1102
design principles, 1090
industry standards, 1091
information transparency, 1098
interoperability, 1092
production equipment, 1091
requirement, 1092
technical assistance, 1098, 1100
ultrasonic thickness measurements, 1102
NDE 4.0, 89, 141, 152–159, 161, 162, 164,
168, 172, 173, 175, 176, 248–250, 502,
636, 637, 1253
anatomy, 251
assembly of automotive bodies,
985–987
automation, changing role of, 245–246
in automotive industry, 984–987
challenges, 259–263
components of, 21
definition, 16, 1111
digital connectivity, 1078
as eco-system, 27–28
implementation of, 982
for industry 4.0, 25–27
modular model, 231–232
new roles and responsibilities, 256–259
process tasks and automation
opportunities, 480
quantitative NDE and algorithms for NDE
data review, 481–482
reliability evaluation, 226–229
role of artificial intelligence, 989–992
scarce events, 234
terminologies, 21
tools of, 1080
traditional NDE paradigm, 242–245
types of inspection, 1079
NDE 4.0 Deployment Management
Guidance, 508
NDE 4.0 era, 541–547
NDE 4.0 technologies, 96
digital foundation, 96
foundation, 105
NDE 5.0, 1253, 1254
NDE competencies, 510, 547
foundation of, 502
qualification and certification of, 501
specialization and diversification, 503
NDE Council 2.0, 108
Index 1273NDE ecosystem, 154
asset inspectors, 156
OEM, 155–157
owner-operators, 156
stakeholders, 155, 157
NDE practitioners, 1228–1229
academic institutions, role of, 1235
certification standards, 1195–1197
companies, role of, 1232–1234
digital platform tactics framework,
1237, 1238
human perspective, 1238–1240
NDE students, practitioners, mentors and
instructors, personal business model for,
1237–1238
professional and human perspective, 1191
training for stable, evolved and new roles of
practitioners, 1229–1232
NDE professionals
experiential knowledge, 506
knowledge claims, 507
skills, 506
technology impact, 508–510
traditional formation, 505
NDE trainer, 1203
ethics, 1203
NDE competencies, 1203–1205
teaching competencies, 1205–1206
NDT businesses, 99
NDT value perception, 153
business administrators, 153
business case, 153
realistic business case, 154
traditional business case, 153
Nearfield scanning optical microscopy
(NSOM), 279
Neural engineering, 1257
Neural network software, 411
Neutrons, 58
New York State Education and Research
Network (NYSERNet), 86
Nitriding hardness depth, 805
NLE 4.0, probabilistic framework, 232–234
Nominal input values, 608
Nondestructive determination, hardening depth,
806–816
Nondestructive evaluation in civil engineering
(NDE-CE)
BIM, 943–947
capabilities, 939
construction assessment, 940–942
data management, 942–944
recommendations and standards, 947–948
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE), 241
advanced visualization, 137–138
AI ethical principles in, 1179–1180
augmented reality, 137–138
basic education, NDE career, 1194–1195
bias and fairness, 1171–1172
big data, 138–139
blockers to adoption, 140
cellphone for teaching in schools, 142–145
characteristics, 667
complex user interfaces, 130
complicated data interpretation, 130
data application and ethical issues of,
1170–1175
data projects, 1174
data regulation, 1174
development and qualification, 700
dynamic load tests and, 670
ecosystem for, 141–148
eddy current testing, 37–39
elastic/acoustic waves, 59–67
electric and magnetic fields, 35–36
electromagnetic radiation, 42–58
elementary particles, 58–60
engineers, 172
enhancement of visibility of
defects, 34–35
equipment OEMs, 171
ergonomics, 134
feedback loops, 1172
generation shift, 129
hardware-as-a-service, 140
incomplete traceability, 130
information integrity, 1173
information transparency, 1175
in situ investigation, 683
and in-situ methods (see In-situ monitoring
methods)
in-situ NDE (see In-situ monitoring
methods)
inspection techniques, 614, 618, 626, 627,
629, 633–636
language and training, 1174
magnetic particle testing, 36
mentors, role of, 1197–1198
methods, 275, 667
micromagnetic techniques, 41–42
microwave methods of, 43
microwave microscopy, 44
microwave THz and radar techniques, 43
NDE 1.0, 241
NDE 2.0, 241
NDE 3.0, 241
1274 Indexnetworks, role of, 1198–1202
nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic
resonance imaging, 40–41
objectives, 501
obstructed data sharing, 130
OEMs design, 157
optical spectroscopic techniques, 51–52
personnel, 160
polymer-matrix composites (see Polymermatrix composites)
post processing, 687
privacy and surveillance, 1173
as professional path, 1193–1194
quantification of, 71
recourse and accountability, 1171
reflection, scattering and transmission
methods, 43–46
reporting, 137
research, 288
resolution of, 287–289
resonant methods, 45–46
roles, 1194
screen sharing, 135
semi nondestructive methods, 68
skill shortage and aging workforce,
128–129
stage of NDE profession, 1191–1193
and structural health monitoring, 182–189
student ideas for business cases, 145–148
system, 160
tasks, 68–71
terahertz methods of, 46–48
thermography and thermal techniques,
48–51
tracking, 136
training, 133–134
visual inspection, 33–34
X-ray techniques, 51–58
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) 4.0, 370
automated determination of pipe
identification number, 852
automated set up of inspection
system to another inspection order,
853–854
automatic adjustment of process
parameters, 854
automatic verification and evaluation of
indications, 854
compressed sensing (see Compressed
sensing (CS))
contact-free automatic NDE in automotive
sector, 847–850
perspectives for, 842–844
real-time embedded ultrasonic monitoring
for resistance spot welding, 845–847
ultrasonic inspection system integrated in
pipe production mill, 851–852
Non-destructive examination (NDE), 613
Nondestructive examination
technologies (NDE)
digital transformation, 1090
production or service, 1090
Non-destructive inspection schemes, 614, 615
Nondestructive testing (NDT), 128, 189–191,
1040, 1041
capability, 207–208
company/industry requirements, 206–207
customer needs, 207
electronic packaging (see Electronic
packaging)
reliability (see Reliability of NDT)
Nondestructive weld testing
detectability and applicability, 832
magnetic particle testing, 841
penetrant testing, 841, 842
radiographic testing, 832–836
ultrasonic testing, 837–840
Non-Uniform Rational Basis Splines
(NURBS), 388, 389
Normative ethics, 1163
NSFNET, 84
Nuclear power plants (NPPs)
analysis of NDE inspection in, 1080–1081
data flow, 1068–1069
elements of NDE inspection, 1065–1066
input information for inspection in, 1059
inspection qualification in, 1057–1059
NDE inspection procedure, 1066–1068
NDE inspection simulation, 1060
reactor pressure vessel inspection,
1069–1073
scope and requirements of NDE inspections,
1056–1057
steam generators tube, 1073–1079
structural integrity assessment and NDE
inspections, 1064–1065
Null-space property, 334
Nyquist frequency, 332
Nyquist rate, 334
O
Object linking and embedding (OLE), 309
Obsolescence
economic skills, 1223
perspectivistic, 1225
technical skills, 1223
Index 1275Offline OCT monitoring
powder bed, 874–875
simple printed structures, measurements on,
876–877
On-condition maintenance model, 187
Online training, 1207–1209
OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA), 309, 310
OpenCASCADE, 387
Open set classification, 419
Operational Database Management Systems,
360–366
Operations and maintenance (O&M)
approaches, 194
Operator 4.0, 240
Optical coherence tomography (OCT), 51, 762,
861, 877
advantages of, 744
basics, 863–865
bioprinter, 865–873
contamination detection, 747–748
in 3-D printed ceramic materials, 745–750
Fourier-domain OCT, 864
geometry evaluation, 746
image acquisition direction, 866–867
inline OCT monitoring, 868–873
methods, 745
offline OCT monitoring, 874–877
principle of operation, 744
printing process, 867–868
SLS printer, 873–876
subsurface information and material
contrast, 747–750
time domain OCT, 863, 864
Optical inspection, 894–900
Optical methods, 701
Optical pulsed-thermography, 460
Optical tomography, 702
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM), 156,
187, 634
OSI model, 307
29 out of 29 POD method, 218–219
Overall equipment efficiency (OEE)
metric, 1136
Owner-operator, 156, 167, 168
P
Packet switching, 84
Paint defects
characteristic extraction of, 1019–1021
deflectometry method, 1019
strip light method, 1018
types, 1016
visual inspection of, 1013–1015
Paper-based data, 97
Paper manufacturing equipment, 595–597
Passive sensing mode, 577
Passive systems, 180
Passive thermographic methods, 702
Passive thermography, 49, 890
Pattern recognition, 534
advancements enabling machine
learning, 410
machine learning helps pattern
recognition, 407, 408
neural networks, 409
neural network software, 411
sound and image data structures,
406, 407
Penetrant testing (PT), 758–759, 841,
842, 1092
Performance based criteria, 243
Performance demonstration initiative, 1057
Performance measures of classifier, 461–464
Periodic destructive tests, 992
Personal computers (PCs), 904
Personal Digital Thread, 1258
Phased array ultrasonics, 66
Phased array ultrasonic testing, 1021, 1025,
1025–1027
Phased array ultrasound (PAUT), 840
Physical-biological systems, 1256
Physical capabilities, 252
Physical entity, 1036
Physical inspection, 166
Physical reasoning, 1067
Physics based models, 373
Physics model-based methods, 1042
Piezoelectric constant index, 574
Piezoelectric (PZT) sensors, 1045
Pipe identification number, 852
Pipeline inspections, 648
Pipe production, 851–852
Plastics, 671
Polyamide (PA), 863
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 863
Polymer-matrix based composite defects
fabrication quality control, 777–778
service loading, 778–781
Polymer-matrix composites
computed tomography, 786–788
dielectric spectroscopy, 785–786
embedded sensor arrays, 790–792
guided ultrasonic waves, 788–790
thermography, 783–784
ultrasound imaging, 781–783
Polymers, 1006–1007
1276 IndexPolystyrene (PS), 863
Porosities, 1023
Positrons, 59–60
Post nondestructive evaluation, 700, 722–728
Post-process feedback, 1001
Powder bed fusion, 675
Powder bed fusion of metals with laser beam
(PBF-LB/M)
artificial and natural defects, 710–715
special requirements, 707–710
Powder mass, 675
Powder quality, 676
Power consumption, 330
Practices for NDE 4.0 adoption
adoption roadmap, 1113–1115
creative execution, 1118
ethics, 1125
innovation value chain, 1115–1119
interface standards for digitalization, 1120
ISO 56000, 1118–1119
leadership, 1121–1122
management, 1122
market insight, 1116
network of excellence, 1118
organization practices, 1120–1125
purposeful qualification, 1117
role of gender, 1123–1125
skill set, 1122
strategic roadmap, 1111–1115
structured ideation, 1117
technical challenges, 1119–1120
technology selection and integration,
1112–1113
validation, 1120
value chain, 1118
Precision, 463
Precision-recall curve, 464
Predictive analytics, 537
Predictive maintenance, 355, 554, 556,
564, 567
Preprocessing, 447–448
Pre-specified failure threshold, 1048
Pressure gas welding, 826
Pressure sensors, 573
Pressure welding, 825–827
Printed circuit board (PCB), 889, 891, 894, 895,
897, 906, 909, 913, 915, 920, 922, 923,
925, 927, 928, 930
Printing pattern, 868–873
Prior image constrained compressed sensing
(PICCS), 344
Proactive management of material degradation
(PMMD), 180, 182
Probabilistic analysis, 612
Probabilistic crack propagation, 212
Probabilistic damage tolerance
approach, 605
Probabilistic design, 608, 612, 614–616,
618, 619
Probabilistic fracture mechanics lifing, 630
Probabilistic rotor lifing, 633
Probability of characterisation (POCh), 213
Probability of correct sizing (POS), 213
Probability of defence existence, 233–234
Probability of detection (PoD), 209, 213, 217,
483, 484, 611, 612, 627, 633,
1041, 1120
data points, 225–226
HIT-MISS-POD approach, 219–221
method, 1131, 1146
non-parametric 29 out of 29 method,
218–219
reliability toolbox, 226–229
signal response POD approach, 221–224
Probability of failure (PoF), 209–210, 605
Probability of false alarm (POFa), 214, 217
Probability of identification (POI), 213
Probability of occurrence (POO), 210
Proceq GP8800 radar system, 940
Process-structure-property relationships,
684, 687
Product lifecycle management
(PLM), 299
Professional path, of NDE professionals, 502
Prognostics
for CBM, 193
challenges, 199–200
conceptual structure of, 196
definition, 191
diagnostics and damage state awareness,
196–197
life and component economics, 195
model-based approaches, 196
from precursors, 197
range of prognostic approaches, 193
technologies, 194
technology demonstrations, 197–198
uncertainty quantification, 197
Prognostics health management (PHM)
systems, 188
Programming machines, 1166
Projection welding, 826
Pulsed phase thermography (PPT), 784, 785
Pulsed thermography, 50, 760
Pulse-echo-technique, 61, 837, 838, 845, 848
Purposeful digital transformation, 1252
Index 1277Q
Quad flat no leads (QFN packages), 909
Qualitative maintenance optimization, 357
Quantitative maintenance optimization, 357
Quantitative nondestructive evaluation
(QNDE), 481–482
Quantitative performance, 1133–1135
Quantum computers, 11
R
Radiographic imaging, 1147
Radiographic testing (RT), 832–836, 1092,
1094, 1134
R&D value stream, 161
Rail inspection
condition maintenance, 974
electric trolley for ultrasonic rail flaw
detection, 972
high-speed rail flaw detection vehicles,
972–973
manually pushed rail flaw detector, 972
portable devices, 972
Railway assets and detection techniques
NDT methods, 955–959
rail defects, 953–955
rail inspection technologies, 957
wheel defects, 953–954
wheel inspection technologies, 956
Railway maintenance, 210–213
Random forest algorithm, 540
Random sampling, 339
Random variables, 605
Rare events, 485, 486, 490
Raster angle dependency, 671
Rayleigh waves, 62, 770
Reactor pressure vessel inspection
characteristics of components, 1070
inspection deployment, 1072–1073
inspection system, 1070–1071
Real-time Active Pipeline Integrity Detection
(RAPID) system, 592, 593
Real-time in-line resistance spot weld analysis
application of AI, 999–1000
feedback and adaptive process control,
1000–1001
principle of operation, 993–996
ultrasonic M-scan, 996–999
Real-time integrated resistance spot weld
testing, 845–847
Real-World AI application categories, 540
Real-world MRO, 1040
Receiver operating characteristics (ROC),
216–218, 463
Rectified linear unit (ReLU), 436
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs), 992
Reference-less approach, 448
Reference machine learning algorithm, 471
Region-based CNN, 455–458
Registration of NDE data
accommodating errors, 398
automated model-based inversion, 374
CAD models, 386–389
data fusion, 373
2D registration, 374–376
3D registration, 376–386
geometry-sensitive model based
inversion, 373
open standards and open source tools,
399
practical fusion, 373
temporal fusion, 373
Regulatory bodies, 157
Regulatory value stream, 161
Relative risk approach, 619, 620
Relevant data, 339
Relevant transient stress, 629
Reliability, 479, 482, 483, 486, 488, 570, 571,
593, 594
Reliability evaluation
of NDE 4.0, 226–229
of testing system, 226–229
Reliability of NDT, 207–208, 213
event of failure, 208
measurement uncertainty, 214–215
probability of failure (POF), 209–210
railway maintenance, 210–213
receiver operating characteristics (ROC),
216–218
testing uncertainty, 214–215
Remaining useful life (RUL) assessment,
181, 588
Remote inspection robots, 645
Remote inspection vehicles (ROVs), 649–651
Reporting vs. decision limits, 175
Representation bias, 1171
Resistance spot welding, 1001–1003
Resistance spot weld testing, 845–847
Resistance welding, 822, 826
Resonance testing, 771
Restricted isometry constant (RIC), 335
Restricted isometry property (RIP), 335
Return of investment (ROI), 1137
Ring artifacts, 425
Risk contours, 614
1278 IndexRobotic(s), 1144–1145
and AI, 536
systems, 382
Robotic inspection
advantages, 643
airborne remote, 647–651
benefits and drawbacks of, 651–652
growth in, 658
in industry, 651
and measurement systems, 643
round-based inspection robotic systems,
645–647
underwater remote inspection robots,
649–651
Robust learning machine, 1181
ROC curve, see Receiver operating
characteristics (ROC)
Rotary aircraft, 647
Rotational symmetry, 376
Rotor disk, 616–618, 627, 630, 633, 634
S
Safe-life methodology, 604
Sampling-based probabilistic analysis
methods, 606
Sampling phased array (SPA), 67, 840
Scanning aperture focusing technique
(SAFT), 67
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 886
Scanning speed, 674, 675
Scheduled SHM, 571–572
Science and technology domains, 1259
Second industrial revolution, 4, 1246
Selective Electron Beam Melting (sEBM), 675
Selective laser melting (SLM), 863, 876
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 862, 863
OCT, in SLS printer, 873–877
Self-driven learning processes, 1209–1211
Self-inspection of used automobiles, 146
Semantic interoperability, 305, 306
holistic asset management approach, 355
operational database management systems,
360–366
technological asset management, 357–360
Semi-destructive approach, 806
Sensitivity, 463
Sensitivity requirements, 175
Sensor
data fusion, 465–471
waveform sampling and digitization, 113
Sensor-actuator arrays, 793
Sensorial capabilities, 252
Sensor networks, 574, 576, 580, 597, 600, 601,
776, 777, 790
SERCnet, 85
Service system, 1036
Shannon-Nyquist rate, 332
Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, 333
Short time Fourier transformation (STFT), 739
Signal response POD approach, 221–224
Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction
technique (SART), 342–344
Single indication case, 612
Situation awareness, 524
Smallest replaceable unit (SRU), 364
Smart automation, 240, 245
Smart factory concept, 990
SmartInspect system, 341
SMART layer, 576, 586, 587, 592, 593, 595, 597
Smartphone, 138
Android, 142
as eddy current instrument, 142
modern, 134
processing power, 131
Snell’s law, 837
Snell’s law refraction, 378
Societies, 158
Society 5.0, 1248
Society for Protective Coatings Paint
Application Standard No. 2
(SSPC-PA 2), 657
Software approaches, NDE
artificial intelligence, 927–931
closed-loop processes, 926–927
programming inspections, 923–925
visualization and statistics, 925–926
Solder paste inspection systems (SPI), 926
Solid inclusions, 829
Sound propagation prediction, 854
Sound recognition, 415–418
Sound testing, 61
Sparse coefficients, 334
Sparse representation, 331, 339
Sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA), 338
Sparsity order, 335
Spatial database storage, 397–398
Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy
(SRAS), 703
Specialized hardware, for AI, 538
Speckle effect, 738
Speckle noise, 450
Spectroscopic methods, 701
Speech recognition and generation, 534
Spiking, 829
Index 1279Squirter techniques, 837
Standardization, 158, 174
Statistical model-based method, 1042
Steam generator tube inspection
characteristics of component, 1074–1075
eddy current inspection, 1083
inspection deployment, 1077–1079
inspection system, 1074–1076
Steel disk, 610
Strain sensors, 573
Strategic asset management plan (SAMP), 359
Strip light method, 1018
Structural health monitoring (SHM), 160, 330,
349, 570–572, 600, 939
accelerometer sensors, 572
application, 565, 566
automated SHM, 572
classification of, 187
damage index method, 578–579
diagnostic imaging method, 579–581
displacement sensors, 573
eddy current sensors, 573
estimating impact force, 582–585
estimating impact location, 581–582
high speed train, 597–599
IIoT solutions, 599–600
method selection and system design, 557
and NDE, 182–189
optical fiber sensors, 573
paper manufacturing equipment, 595–597
piezoelectric sensors, 573–576
pipeline, 591–594
pressure sensors, 573
regulations, 564
rotorcraft, 585–587
scheduled SHM, 571–572
sensor networks, 576
sensor selection, 559
signal processing and data evaluation,
561–564
signal processing and diagnostics, 576–578
strain sensors, 573
system integration and reliability, 565
temperature sensors, 573
velocity sensors, 572
Structural integrity assessment models, 1064
Structure geometry, 1047
Submerged arc welding (SAW), 824, 842, 850
Subsurface fatigue cracks, 953
Supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA), 298, 361
Support vector machine (SVM), 471
Surface hardening, 802
Surface hardening depth (SHD), 805
Surface-mounted devices (SMDs), 894
Surface parameterizations, 390–392
creating, 392–393
mapping data, 393–394
parameterized domain, analysis in, 396
representations, 392
Surface testing, 840–842
Surface topography, 52
Sustainable Development Goals, 1249
Synchrotron radiation computed laminography
(SRCL), 786
Synchrotron radiation computed tomography
(SRCT), 786, 787
Syntactic interoperability, 8
Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT),
337, 839
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), 43
System-in-package (SiP), 902
T
Tail Boom Crack Detection System (TBCDS),
585, 586, 589, 590
Tangential stress components, 610, 611
Technology acceptance model (TAM), 262
Technology classification levels (TCLs),
579–580
Technology innovation, 1249
Technology management processes, 531
Technology standardization, 158
Tecnatom SIGMA automatic image recognition
system, 1077
TeleNDE, 24
TELENET, 86
Telephone network, 83
Terahertz imaging, 346–348
Terahertz methods of NDE
continous wave method, 47–48
imaging, 48
time-domain spectroscopy, 47
Terahertz testing, 767
Testing system
four answers, 216
reliability evaluation, 226–229
TFM/FMC, 840
Thermal cracks, 954
Thermal hardening, 802
Thermochemical hardening, 803
Thermography, 698, 702, 722, 759–760,
783–784, 793, 890–894
Thermoplastic 3D printing, 740
Third industrial revolution, 5, 1246
1280 IndexThree-dimensional (3D) registration, NDE data
camera-based sensing, propagation model
for, 382–385
3D homogeneous coordinates, 379
kinematic models, calibration of, 386
mapping of coordinate frames, 380–383
pose estimation, 385–386
propagation models, ultrasonic testing,
377–379
robotic systems, 382
rotational symmetry, 376
simple kinematic models of measurement
systems, 377
Through silicon vias (TSV), 886
Time-based planning, 1044
Time-domain spectroscopy, 47
Time of arrival (TOA), 582
Time-of-flight (TOF), 578, 579
Time of flight diffraction (TOFD)
technique, 839
Time-of-flight mode (TOF), 942
Time-resolved laser speckle photometry, 762
Titanium, 604
Topology-optimized design, 669
Total cost of ownership, 1129–1130
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), 361
Total focusing method (TFM), 337, 840
Total variation (TV) regularization, 344
Traditional NDE paradigm, 242–245, 254
Training
collective learning and communities’
development, 1211–1213
online training platforms, 1207–1209
self-driven learning processes, 1209–1211
Transducer angle, 378
Transferable belief model (TBM), 468
Transfer learning, 420
Transformation, 1129
Transitional systems, 246–248, 255–256
Translational Laminography, 904
Transversal waves, 62
True flaw size (TFS), 633, 634
Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), 824
Turing-complete computer, 80
Turing test, 520
U
Ultrasonic(s), 562, 703
backscatter, 811
microscopy, 915–922
waveform, 378
welding, 826
Ultrasonic inspections, 148
in contact mode, 66
Ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection
system, 1082
Ultrasonic testing (UT), 768–769, 837–840,
956, 957, 1092, 1093
Ultrasound imaging, 781–783
Ultrasound scan modes, 918
Ultrasound testing, 336–342
Ultrasound transmission method, 919
Uncertainty quantification, 197
Uncooled detector, 891
Underwater remote inspection
robots, 649–651
Unemployment rate, 1218, 1221
Unified life-cycle engineering
(ULCE), 190
Uniform linear arrays (ULAs), 332, 337
Unique sparsest solution, 335
Unmanned aerial system, 147
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), 647
Unmolten powder, 680
US Air Force Digital Thread, 371
Use Cases, 152, 158
USENET, 86
UUNET, 86
V
Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding
(VARTM), 777
Validation challenges, 418
Validation testing plan, 1181
Valuation, 1141
Value chain activities, 1167
Value proposition, 152, 157, 163
Values driven revolution, 1251
Value streams, 159
Vector graphics, 115
Video meetings, 108
Virtual mode, 1036
Virtual MRO, 1040
Virtual reality, 246, 252, 255, 263
Virtual travel, 1257
Virtue theory, 1163
Visual information processing, 435
Visual inspection, 33–34, 147, 645, 648, 650,
758
Visual testing, 840
Volumetric testing
radiographic testing, 832–837
ultrasonic testing, 837–840
Voxels, 605
Index 1281W
Wafer size, 273
Wall crawling robot (WCR) systems, 646
Wayside wheel crack ultrasonic testing
system, 960
Weld defects
acceptance of flaws, 831
cavities, 829
cracks, 829
hot cracks, 829
lack of fusion, 829
lack of penetration, 829
powder thickness, 830
shape and dimension imperfections, 830
solid inclusions, 829
spiking, 829
Welding
additive manufacturing, 828
defects (see Weld defects)
definition, 822
fusion, 823–825
pressure, 825–827
Weld inspection, 1100
Weld testing, 821, 822, 831, 834, 838–842,
855, 856
Western reactor pressure vessel in-service
inspection, 1072
Wheelset health diagnosis, digital twins, 970
Wheel tread damage, 953
Wifi, 132, 145
Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), 828
Wireless communication, 79
Wireless data streaming, 132
Workflow systems, 166
Workforce reorientation, 1191, 1193, 1202,
1214, 1225, 1232, 1235, 1240, 1241
Workforce training, 420
World Economic Forum, 1238
World wide web, 87–88
X
X-ray(s), 832, 833
detectors, 55
diagnostics, 51
images, 471–473
nano-tomography, 280–283
radiography, 424, 425
X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT),
342–346, 764, 793, 836
X-ray inspection methods
defect detectability, 913–914
double-sided assembled BGA, 909
2-D X-ray inspection method radiography,
901–903
3-D X-ray inspection methods
laminography and computed
tomography, 902–908
LGA connections, module with, 909–912
QFN device, with exposed pad for heat
dissipation, 909
X-ray micro-computed tomography,
non-destructive investigation, 688
Z
Zero-defect manufacturing, 983, 991
Zero-defect tolerance, 209
Zirconium oxide, 767
Zone-based risk integration approach, 605
Zone plates, 281
Zoning approach, 605
Zuse computer, 80
1282 Index


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