كتاب A Textbook of Thermal Engineering
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 كتاب A Textbook of Thermal Engineering

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A Textbook of Thermal Engineering
[A Textbook for the Students ofB.Sc. Engg., UPSC (Engg. Services), Section 'B' ofAMIE (I) and Diploma Courses]
(S.I. UNITS)
R.S. KHURMI, J.K. GUPTA

كتاب A Textbook of Thermal Engineering  A_t_b_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1
2. Properties of Perfect Gases 30
3. Thermodynamic Processes of Perfect Gases 50
4. Entropy of Perfect Gases 103
5. Kinetic Theory of Gases 140
6. Thermodynamic Air Cycles 153
7. Formation and Properties of Steam 199
8. Entropy of Steam 219
9. Thermodynamic Processes of Vapour 230
10. Thermodynamic Vapour Cycles 264
11. Fuels 289
12. Combustion of Fuels 301
13. Steam Boilers 323
14. Boiler Mountings and Accessories 334
15. Performance of Steam Boilers 345
16. Boiler Draught 360
17. Simple Steam Engines 374
18. Compound Steam Engines 394
19. Performance of Steam Engines 422
20. Steam Condensers 446
21. Steam Nozzles 469
22. Impulse Turbines 501
23. Reaction Turbines 521
24. Performance of Steam Turbines 535
25. Modern Steam Turbines 560
26. Internal Combustion Engines 582
27. Testing of Internal Combustion Engines 611
28. Reciprocating Air Compressors 637
29. Rotary Air Compressors .. 665
30. Performance of Air Compressors 682
31. Air Motors 700
32. Gas Turbines 707
33. Performance of Gas Turbines 721
34. Introduction to Heat Transfer 736
35. Air Refrigeration Cycles 751
36. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems 771
37. Psychrometry 798
38. Air Conditioning Systems 824
39. General Thermodynamic Relations 835
40. Variable Specific Heat 859
Index 887
Index
Absolute humidity, 799, 800, 801
- pressure, 12
- temperature, 11
- units of force, 7
Actual gas turbine, 725
- indicator diagram, 381, 588, 590, 593,
595
- vapour compression cycle, 789
Adiabatic compressibility, 842
- process, 63
- mixing of two air streams, 819
- saturation temperature, 806
Advantages of compoundingof steam engines,
395
- condensers in a steam power plant, 446
- mechanical draught, 361
- multistage compression, 647
- reheating of steam, 561
- steam turbinesover reciprocating steam
engines, 501
- superheating of steam, 206
- two stroke cycle over four stroke cycle
engines, 586
- vapour absorption refrigeration system
over vapour compression refrigeration
system, 792
- vapour compression refrigeration sys
tern over air refrigeration system, 771
Air conditioning system, 825
- consumption, 626
- cooling system, 602
- injection method, 600
- preheater, 340
- pump, 464
- refrigeration cycle, 751
- refrigerator working on Bell Coleman
cycle, 761
- on reversed Carnot cycle, 755
- standard efficiency, 617
Ammonia hydrogen refrigerator, 793
Anthracite coal, 290
Application of first law of thermodynamics to a
nonflow process, 51
- to a steady flow process, 86
- of kinetic energy to laws of perfect
gases, 146
- of steady flow energy equation to
engineering system, 92
Approximate method for heat absorbed, 135
Artificial draught, 360
Arrangement of cylinders in compound steam
engines, 394
Assumptions for overall (thermal) efficiency of
an ideal gas turbine cycle, 721
- in thermodynamic cycle, 153
- in kinetic theory of gases, 140
- in two stage compressor with inter
cooler, 648
Atomic mass, 301
Atomiser, 608
Atmospheric air, 861
Atoms and molecules, 301
Axial flow compressors, 677
Available heat energy, 105
Average piston speed, 377
Avogadro's law, 35
B
Babcock and Wilcox boiler, 329
Back flow in positive displacement air compressors, 668
Back pressure turbine, 577
Balanced draught, 362
Barometric jet condensers, 449
Barrel calorimeter, 211
Benson boiler, 331
Binary vapour cycle, 577
- plant, 567
Bituminous coal, 290
Blading efficiency, 535
Blast furnace gas, 292
Bleeding, 570
Blow off cock, 338
Boiler accessories, 323,340
- efficiency, 346
- mountings, 323, 334
- shell, 323
- trial, 351
Bomb calorimeter, 295
Boyle's law.30
Boy's gas calorimeter, 296
Brake power, 389,615
- thermal efficiency, 423,616
Brayton cycle, 761
Briquetted coal, 290
Brown coal, 290
By-pass factor, 813,815
887888 A Text book of Thermal Engineering
Caking bituminouscoal, 290
Calorific value of fuels, 293
Carburettor, 606
Carnot cycle, 157, 264
Celsius or centigrade scale, 10
- flow surface condenser, 451 .
Centrifugal compressor, 670
Cetane number, 598
C.G.S. units, 2
Change of entropy of a perfect gas, 110
- during reversible adiabatic process, 124
- constant pressure process, 115
- constant temperature process, 120
- constant volume process, 110
- in thermodynamic properties with variable specific heat, 864
- isentropic process, 124
- polytropic process, 126
Characteristic equation of a gas, 33
Charles'law, 31
Chimney draught, 360
Classification of air compressors, 637
- air conditioning systems, 825
- compound steam engines, 395
- of draughts, 360
- fuels, 289
- gas turbines, 708
- I.C. engines, 583
- properties of a system, 8
- steam boilers, 324
- steam condensers, 447
- steam engines, 374
- steam turbines, 502
- thermodynamic cycles, 158
- thermodynamic process, 51
- thermodynamic systems, 7
Clausius statement, 22
- inequality, 106
Clearance volume, 156, 377
Closed air refrigeration cycle, 755
- cycle gas turbines, 708
- system of thermodynamics, 7
Coal gas, 291
Cochran boiler, 326
Coefficient of performance, 752
- volume expansion, 841
Coil ignition system, 599
Coke, 290
- oven gas, 292
Combined air compressor and air motor, 701
- indicator diagram for a compound steam
engine, 397
- separating and throttling calorimeter,
214
- velocitytrianglefor movingblades of an
impulse turbine, 505
- of a reaction turbine, 524
Combustion chamber, 323
- equations of gaseous fuels, 303
-of solid fuels, 302
Comfort air conditioningsystem, 825
Comparison between air cooling and water
cooling-system, 603
- centrifugal and axial flow air compres
sors, 677
- closed and open cycle gas turbines, 718
- forced draught and induceddraught, 361
- gas turbines and I.C. engines, 708
- impulse turbines and reaction turbines,
522
-jet and surface condensers, 452
- petrol and diesel engines, 592
- reciprocating and centrifugal air com
pressor, 665
- steam engines and I.C. engines, 582
- turbine and centrifugal compressor
blades, 697
- water tube and fire tube boilers, 332
Components of I.C. engine, 584
Compounds, 301
Compound steam engine, 394
Compounding of impulse steam turbines, 552
Compressed air system, 701
Compressibility factor, 856
Compression ratio, 156,538
Compressor capacity, 638
- efficiency, 682
Condenser efficiency, 458
Condition for maximum discharge through the
nozzle, 476
- efficiency of an impulse turbine, 545
- efficiency of a reaction turbine, 548
- maximum discharge through the chim
ney, 366
connecting rod, 376, 585
Constant enthalpy process, 84, 92
- entropy process, 63, 247
- internal energy process, 84
- pressure gas turbines, 719
- pressure lines, 225
- pressure process, 57, 238
- temperature process, 61, 242
- total heat process, 91, 257
- volumegas turbines, 719
- volume lines, 225
- volume process, 54, 231Index 889
Convergent nozzle, 469
- divergent nozzle, 469
Conversion of volumetric analysis into mass
analysis, 307
- mass analysis into volumetricanalysis,
307
Cooling and duhumidification, 817
- of I.C. engines, 601
- systems of I.C. engines, 602
- towers, 465
Cornish boiler, 328
Counterflow jet condensers, 448
Crank case, 585
-shaft, 376, 585
Critical pressure ratio, 476
- Physical significance of, 479
- Values of, 479
Cross head, 376
Cyclic process, 9
Cylinder bore, 156, 377
- dimensionsfor compound steam engine,
398
- head of I.C. engines, 584
- of steam engines, 375
Cushion steam, 429
Cut off governing of compound steam engines,
440
- of simple steam engines, 439
- volume, 377
D
Dalton's law of partial pressure, 452, 800
Dead centres, 377
- weight safety valve, 336
Degree of reaction, 525, 678
- saturation, 799, 800
Degrees of freedom, 148
Dehumidification, 816, 817
De-Laval impulse turbine, 502
Demerits of gaseous fuels, 292
- liquid fuels, 291
Dense air regrigeration cycle, 755
Derived units, 2
Detonation in I.C. engines, 597
Dew point temperature, 799
- depression, 799
- lines, 810
Deagram efficiency, 535
- factor, 382
Diameters of throat and exit of a nozzle for
maximum discharge, 481
Diesel cycle, 178
Difference between a heat engine, refrigerator
and heat pump, 753
Disadvantages of mechanical draught, 361
- two stroke over four stroke cycle en
gine, 586
-vapour compression refrigeration system
over air refrigeration system, 771
Discharge pressure, 638
Divergent nozzle, 469
Down flow surface condenser, 450
D'slide valve, 375
Dry air, 798
- bulb temperature, 799
- bulb temperature lines, 809
- saturated steam, 200
Dryness fraction lines, 224
- of steam, 201
Dual combustion cycle, 188
E
Eccentric, 376
- rod, 376
Economiser, 340
Edward's air pump, 464
Effect of variable specific heat in I.C. engines,
872
- on Otto cycle, 872
- on Diesel cycle, 879
Effects of air leakage, 464
- friction on the velocity diagram of an
impulse turbine, 507
- piston rod in a double acting steam en
gine, 387
- supersaturation, 491
Efficiencies of a compressor, 682, 693
- multistage turbine, 564
- steam engine, 422
- steam turbine, 564
Efficiency of compressed air system, 702
- chimney, 370
- cycle, 157
- heat exchanger, 730
- modified Rankinecycle, 277
- ratio, 267, 565
Ejector condensers, 449
Electrolux refrigerator, 793
Elements, 301
- Symbols for, 302
Equations of state, 854
Energy, 13
- Law of conservation of, 15
Enthalpy of gas, 39
- entropy (h-s) diagram for water and"
steam, 223
- lines, 810890 A Text book of Thermal Engineering
- moist air, 803
- steam, 202
Entropy, 103
- importance of, 104
- increase during evaporation, 220
- of superheated steam, 220
- of water, 219
- of wet and dry steam, 220
- Principle of increase of, 107
- Units of, 106
Equipment used in air conditioning system, 825
Equaility of temperature, 11
Equivalence of Kelvin-Plank and Clausius
statements, 23
Equivalent evaporation, 345
Ericsson cycle, 166
Essentials of a good steam boiler, 324
Evaporative condenser, 451
Excess air, 310
- Mass of, 310
Exhaust ports, 375
- turbine, 578
Experimental determination of higher calorific
value, 294
Extensive properties of thermodynamics, 9
External work done during evaporation, 207
Extraction turbine, 57.8
F
Factors affecting comfort air conditioning,824
Fahrenheit scale, 11
Fan draught, 360
Feed check valve, 339
- pump, 340
First law of thermodynamics, 19
- limitations of, 20
Flow of steam through nozzles, 470
- process, 86
Flue gas analysis by Orsat apparatus, 319
Flywheel, 376,585
Force, 6
Forced draught, 361
- lubrication, 604
Formation of steam, 199
Fourier's law of heat conduction, 737
Four stroke cycle diesel engine, 589
- gas engine, 591
- petrol engine, 587
F.P.S. units, 2
Free air delivery, 638
- expansion process, 83
Frame of steam engine, 375
Friction in a nozzle, 470
Fuel pump, 607
Fundamental units, 1
Furance, 323
Fusible plug, 339
Future power plants, 579
G
Gas turbine with intercooling, 711
- with reheating, 713
- uses of, 733
Gauge pressure, 12
Gaseous fuels, 291
Gasoline, 291
Gay-Lussac law, 31
General equations of change in internalenergy,
843
General expression for the change of entropy of
a perfect gas, 108
- gas equation, 31
- law for expansion and compression of
perfect gas, 85
Gibbs function, 837
Governor, 376
Governing of I.C. engines, 605
- steam engines, 437
- steam turbines, 55
- simple steam engines, 438
Grate, 323
Gravimetric analysis, 307
Gravitational units of force, 7
Gross calorific value, 293
- efficiency, 536
Guide mechanism, 521
H
Heat, 15,17
- absorbed or rejected during poly tropic
process, 61
- balance sheet, 352,433,628
- capacity, 16
- exchanger, 729
- losses in a boiler, 351
- rejected in a reciprocating air compres
sor, 656
- transfer by conduction through a slab,
737
- transfer during a process with variable
specific heat, 862
- during polytropic expansion or com
pression process, 863
- through a composite wall, 739
- through thick cylinders, 741
- through thick sphere, 744
Heating and humidification, 818
Heavy fuel oils, 291Index 891
Height of blades for reaction turbine, 527
- chimney, 362
Helmholtz function, 835
Higher calorific value, 293
- Experimental determination of 294
High level jet condensers, 449
- steam law water safety valve, 336
Humidification,816,818
Humidity, 799,800
- lines, 883
- ratio, 800
Hyperbolic process, 60,244
Hypothetical indicator diagram, 378
- mean effective pressure, 379
I
Ignition system of petrol engines, 598
Indicated mean effective pressure, 611
-power, 383,612
- thermal efficiency, 423,616
Indicator diagram of a simple steam engine,
378
Induced draught, 361
Industrial air conditioning system, 826
Injector, 608
Inlet ports, 375
- pressure, 637
Inner dead centre, 377
Intensive properties of thermodynamics, 9
Intercooling, 760
- of air in a two-stage reciprocating air
compressor, 648
Internal energy, 14
-of steam,208
- efficiency, 564
- losses in turbine, 555
International system of units, 2
Importance of entropy, 104
Important terms used in steam, 200
- thermodynamic cycles, 156
- for steam boilers, 323
Impulse turbine, 502
Irreversible cycle, 154
- process, 50
Isentropic process, 63,247
- efficiency, 683
- expansion with variable specific heat,
869
-lines, 223,226
Isobaric process, 57,238
Isochoric process, 54,231
Isothermal compressibility,842
- lines 223,226
- efficiency, 682
- process, 61,242
Jet condensers, 447
Joule's cycle, 168
- law, 32
Joule Thomson coefficient, 92,852
K
Kelvin, 3
Kerosene, 291
Kilogram, 3
Kinetic energy, 14
- per kg molecule of a gas, 143
L
La-Mont boiler, 330
Lancashire boiler, 327
Latent heat of vaporisation, 202
Law of conservation of energy, 14
- equipartition of energy, 14
- perfect gases, 30
- thermodyamics, 19
Lever safety valve, 335
Lignite, 290
Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, 20
Liquid fuels, 290
Locomotive boiler, 328
Loeffler boiler, 331
Lower calorific value, 293
Low leveljet condenser, 448
-pressure turbine, 578
Lubrication of I.C. engines, 604
M
Magneto ignitionsystem, 600
Main components of I.C. engines, 584
Mass, 6
- Atomic, 301
- of carbon in flue gases, 308
- of cooling water required for condensa
tionof steam, 460
- of excess air supplied, 310
- fuel gases per kg of fuel burnt, 308
- of steam discharged througha nozzle,
474
- of steam in the engine cylinder, 420
--Molecular, 302
Mathematical Fundamentals, 839
Maximum discharge through nozzle, 477
- throughchimney, 366
Maxwell's equation,840
Mean effective pressure, 156,378,638
Measurement of brake power, 389
- dryness fraction of steam, 211
- vacuum in a condenser, 453892 A Text book of Thermal Engineering
Mechanical draught, 360
- efficiency, 422, 616
- equivalent of heat, 16
Mechanism of simple vapour compression refrigeration system, 772
Merits of gaseous fuels/292
- liquid fuels, 291
Metastable flow through nozzles, 490
Methods of governing I.C. engines, 605
- heat transfer, 736
- reducing missing quantityor cylinder
condensation, 431
- reducing rotor speeds, 552
Metre, 3
Minimum mass of air required for complete
combustion, 304, 306
- work required for a two stage compressor, 652
Missing quantity, 430
Mixture qf air and steam in condensers, 452
M.K.S. units, 2
Modified Rankine cycle, 277
- Efficiency of, 278
Moist air, 799
Moisture content, 800
- lines, 809
Molar constant, 36
- specific heat of a gas, 39, 859
Molecular mass, 302
Molecules and atoms, 301
Mollier chart, 223
Mand gas, 292
Morse text, 613
Mountings, 323, 334
Multistage compression, 647
- turbine, 563
N
Natural draught, 360
Net calorific value, 293
Newton's law of cooling, 736
- motion, 5
Non-caking bituminous coal, 290
Non-flow process, 51
- Application of first law of thermody
namics to, 51
Normal temperature and pressure (N.T.P.), 13
Nozzle efficiency, 470, 536
O
Octane number, 598
Open air refrigerationcycle, 754
- cycle gas turbines, 717
- system ofthermodynamics, 8
Orsat apparatus, 319
Otto cycle, 1.71
Outer dead centre, 377
Oven gas, 292
Overall coefficient of heat transfer, 746
- efficiency, 422, 565, 616, 721
- isothermal efficiency, 683
P
Paraffin oil, 291
Parallel flow jet condensers, 448
Parson's reaction turbine, 521
Pass-out turbine, 578
Path of change of state, 9
Peat, 289
Percentage humidity, 800
Performance criteria for thermodynamic vapour
cycles, 267
Perpetual motion machine of the first kind
(PMM-I), 20
- second kind PMM-II), 21
Physical significance of critical pressure ratio,
479
Piston, 375, 585
- displacement volume, 377
- rings, 585
- rod, 375
Polytropic index, determination of, 82
- process, 72, 253
Potential energy 14
Power, 18
- produced by compound steam engine
398
- impulseturbine, 505
- reaction turbine, 524
- required to drive a compressor, 642, 651
- required to drive a fan, 369
- simple steam engine, 383
Preheating of compressed air, 704
Presentation of units and their values, 3
Pressure, 12
- and velocity of steam in turbine, 503,
522
- compoundingof an impulse turbine,
553
- enthalpy chart, 773
- exerted by an ideal gas, 142
- gauge, 335
- of water vapour, 801
- velocity compounding of an impulse
turbine, 554
Prewhirl, 676
Principle of increase of entropy, 107
Producer gas, 292Index 893
Prony brake dynamometer, 389
Properties of a refrigerant, 793
- system, 8
Psychrometer, 799
Psychrometric chart, 809
- processes, 812
- relations, 800
-terms, 798
Pulverised coal, 290
Q
Quality of wet steam, 201
Quasi-equilibrium or Quasi-static process, 9
R
Rankine cycle, 268
- with incomplete evaporation, 272
- with superheated steam, 274
- efficiency, 565
Rate of heat absorpotion or rejection per unit
volume during a polytropic process, 81
Rating of C.I. engine fuels, 598
- S. I. engine fuels,598
.Ratio of coefficient of volume expansion and
isothermal compressibility, 843
- cylinder diameters, 658
- specific heats, 43, 149
Receiver type compound steam engine , 397
Recent trends in gas turbines, 734
Refrigerants commonly used in practice, 794
Regenerative cycle, 569
- with single feed water heater, 570
- with two feed water heaters, 573
- surface condenser, 451
Regnault's law, 42
Reheat cycle, 561
- factor, 563
Reheating of steam, 560
- advantages of, 561
Relation between cycle and engine, 155
- heat and entropy, 103
- specific heats, 42
Relative efficiency. 423, 617
- humidity, 799, 800
- humidity lines, 811
Requirements of a steam condensing plant, 446
-good fuel, 292
Reversed Carnot cycle, 755
- Joule cycle, 761
Reversible adiabatic process, 247
- cycle, 154
- process, 50
Reversibility and irreversibility of thermodynamic processes, 155
Roots blower compressor, 666
Rope brake dynamometer, 390
Rules for S.I. units, 4
S
Safety valves, 335
Saturated air, 799
Scavenging of I.C. engines, 596
Scotch marine boiler. 326
Second, 3
- law of thermodynamics, 20
Selection of a steam boiler, 324
Semiclosed cycle gas turbine, 719
Sensible cooling, 812
- heat factor, 816
- heating, 814
- heat of water, 201
Separating calorimeter, 213
Sequence of operations in a cycle, 585
Simple vertical boiler, 325
S.I. Units, 2
Single stage reciprocating air compressor, 638
Slip factor, 697
Solid fueld, 289
- injection method, 600
Spark plug, 607
splash lubrication, 604
Sources of air in the condenser, 464
Specific heat, 15, 37, 850
- at constant pressure, 37
- at constant volume, 38
- humidity, 800
- humidity lines, 809
- ratio of, 43
- relations, 851
- relation between, 42
- steam consumption, 267
- volume lines, 810
- volumeofsteam, 202
Spring loaded safety valve, 337
State of a system, 9
Standard temperature and pressure (S.T. P.), 13
Static and total head quantities, 695
Steady flow process, 86
- Workdone in a, 89
Steam consumption, 440
-chest, 375
- injector, 493,494
- jet draught, 361
- stop valve, 338
- tables, 203
Stirling cycle, 164
Stored energy, 13
- Types of, 14894 A Text book of Thermal Engineering
Stroke length, 156
- volume, 377
Summary of formulae of heating and expansion
of perfect gases, 85
Summer air conditioning system, 829
Supercharging of I.C. engines, 603
Superheated steam, 201,206
Supersaturated flow through nozzles, 490
Surface condenser, 449
Swept volume, 156,377,638
Symbols of elements and compounds, 302
System of units, 2
T
Tandem type compound steam engine, 395
T ds equations, 847
Temperature, 10
- entropy diagram for water and steam,
222
- gradient, 738
- limitations for reversed Carnot cycle,
756
- vs total heat graph during steam formation, 200
Theroretical indicator diagram of simple steam
engine, 378
- mass of air required for complete com
bustion, 304, 306
- mean effective pressure, 379
- vapourcompression cycle with dry
saturated vapour after compression,
774
- with superheated vapour after compres
sion,783
- with undercooling or subcooling of re
frigerant, 785
- with wet vapour after compression, 778
Thermal capacity, 16
- conductivity, 737
- equilibrium, 11
Thermodynamic cycle,9
- assumptions in, 153
- equilibrium, 11
- for rotary air compressor, 693
- Important terms used in, 156
- systems, 7
- text of I.C. engines, 611
- wet bulb temperature, 806
Thermosyphon system of cooling, 602
Three cylinder compound steam engine, 414
Throttle governingof compound steamengine,
414
Throttle governing of compound steam engines, 439
- simple steam engines, 438
- steam turbines, 555
Throttling calorimeter, 213
- lines, 226
- process, 91,257
Total heat lines, 810
- of moist air, 803
- of steam, 202
Transit energy, 13
Two cylinder compound steam engine, 399,
401,407
- stage reciprocating air compressor, 647
- stroke cycle diesel engine, 594
- stroke cycle petrol engine, 592
Types of cooling towers, 465
- draughts, 360
-jet condensers, 448
- rotary air compressors, 665
- scavenging, 597
- steam nozzles, 469
- stored energy, 14
- surface condensers, 450
- thermodynamiccycles, 157
- vapour compression cycles, 773
U
Unavailable heat energy, 105
Unitary air conditioning system, 830
Units of entropy, 106
- refrigeration, 752
Universal gas constant, 36
Unresisted expansion process, 83
Uses of gas turbines, 733
- steam tables, 203
Vacuum efficiency of steam condenser, 453
Values for maximum discharge through a nozzle, 477
- of critical pressure ratio, 479
Valve timing diagrams, 587,589,591,594,596
Vane blower compressor, 667
Vander Waals' equation of a real gas, 150
Vapour absorption refrigeration system, 791
- compression cycles, 773
- pressure lines, 811
Variation of specific heat with temperature,860
Velocity compounding of an impulse turbine,
552
- diagram for axial flow air compressor,
678
- diagram for moving blade of an im
pulse turbine, 503Index 895
- diagram for two stage impulse turbine,
514
- of a molecule, 141
- of steam flowing through a nozzle, 471
- triangle for centrifugal compressor, 673
- triangle for moving blades of a reaction
turbine, 522, 524
Vertical multi-tubular boiler, 326
Volumetric efficiency, 617, 683, 684
W
Water cooling system of I.C. engines, 602
- equivalent, 16
- gas, 292
- level indicator, 334
Weight, 6
Wet bulb depression, 799
- temperature, 799
- temperature lines, 810
Wet steam, 200
Width of impeller blades, 675
Willian's law, 440
Winter air conditioning system, 828
Wood, 289
- charcoal, 290
Wpolf type compound steam engine, 396
Work, 16.'17
- ratio, 267
Workdone by air in air motor, 700
- compound steam engine, 398
- centrifugal air compressor, 670
- during a non-flow precess, 51
- for various steady flow processes, 90
- single stage reciprocating air compres
sor, 639, 645
- steady flow process, 89
- twostage reciprocating air compressor
with intercooler, 649
Working of an ideal engine, 155
- single cylinder double acting horizontal
reciprocating steam engine, 376
- single stage reciprocating air compres
sor, 638
Y
Year round air conditioning, 830
Z
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 19


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