كتاب Programming of CNC Machines
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Programming of CNC Machines

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Programming of CNC Machines  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Programming of CNC Machines    كتاب Programming of CNC Machines  Emptyالثلاثاء 01 نوفمبر 2022, 6:15 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Programming of CNC Machines
Fourth Edition
Ken Evans

كتاب Programming of CNC Machines  P_o_c_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix
ABOUT THE AUTHOR xi
PREFACE xiii
PART 1: CNC BASICS 1
Objectives 3
Safety 3
Maintenance 4
Tool Clamping Methods 6
Cutting Tool Selection 7
Tool Compensation Factors 7
Tool Changing 8
Metal Cutting Factors 9
Process Planning for CNC 12
Types of Numerically Controlled Machines 17
What Is CNC Programming? 17
Introduction to the Coordinate System 18
Coordinate Systems 20
Points of Reference 25
Program Format 31
Part 1 Study Questions 34
PART 2: CNC MACHINE OPERATION 37
Objectives 39
Operator Panel Features 39
Operation Key Panel Descriptions 41
Control Panel 48
Setting 73
Common Operation Procedures 74
Part 2 Study Questions 80
Table of Contentsvi
PART 3: PROGRAMMING CNC TURNING CENTERS 83
Objectives 85
Preparatory Functions (G-Codes) 85
Miscellaneous Functions (M-Codes) 85
Tool Function 90
Practical Application of Tool Wear Offset 90
Feed Function 92
Spindle Function 93
Coordinate Systems for Programming of CNC Turning Centers 96
Program Structure for Turning Centers 98
Preparatory Functions for Turning Centers (G-Codes) 104
Multiple Repetitive Cycles 123
Programming for the Tool Nose Radius 140
Programming Examples for Turning Centers 143
Complex Program Example 163
Example of Cutting a Three-Start Thread 171
Part 3 Study Questions 172
PART 4: PROGRAMMING CNC MACHINING CENTERS 177
Objectives 179
Tool Function (T-Word) 179
Tool Changes 179
Feed Function (F-Word) 180
Spindle Speed Function (S-Word) 181
Preparatory Functions (G-Codes) 181
Miscellaneous Functions (M-Codes) 182
Programming of CNC Machining Centers
In Absolute and Incremental Systems 182
Program Structure for Machining Centers 187
Preparatory Functions for Machining Centers (G-Codes) 197
Canned Cycle Functions 223
Boring Cycles 235
Examples of Programming CNC Machining Centers 240
Part 4 Study Questions 285vii
PART 5: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND COMPUTER-AIDED
MANUFACTURING (CAD/CAM) 293
Objectives 295
What Is CAD/CAM? 295
Machine Group Setup and Geometry Creation 301
Solid Model Mill Program Example 317
Solid Model Lathe Program Example 327
Summary 341
Part 5 Study Questions 342
PART 6: INTRODUCTION TO FEATURED-BASED MACHINING 345
Objectives 347
Definition 347
Modeling Basics 347
General Steps for Feature-Based Programming 350
Summary 362
Part 6 Study Questions 363
PART 7: FANUC NC GUIDE PROGRAMMING 365
Objectives 367
NC Guide 367
NC Guide Turning Center Program Creation 373
NC Guide Machining Center Program Example 380
Part 7 Study Questions 394
PART 8: MAZATROL CONVERSATIONAL PROGRAMMING 397
Objectives 399
What Is Conversational Programming? 399
Turning Center Program Creation 400
Machining Center Program Creation 405
Part 8 Study Questions 434
APPENDICES 437
APPENDIX A-1: ENGLISH DRILL SIZES 439
APPENDIX A-2: METRIC DRILL SIZES 440
APPENDIX A-3: ENGLISH THREADS 441viii
APPENDIX A-4: METRIC THREADS 442
APPENDIX A-5: U.S. SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS 443
APPENDIX A-6: METRIC SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS 444
APPENDIX A-7: GEOMETRIC SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS 445
APPENDIX A-8: GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS 446
APPENDIX A-9: TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTIONS 450
APPENDIX A-10: RIGHT TRIANGLES 451
APPENDIX A-11: OBLIQUE TRIANGLES 452
APPENDIX A-12: POPULAR ACRONYMS 453
GLOSSARY 456
ANSWERS TO STUDY QUESTIONS 462
INDEX 465
465
A
A-axis, 23, 32, 456
ABC/abc, 54
Absolute and Incremental Coordinate Systems, 28
Absolute Coordinate Programming (G90) of the
Machining Center, 182, 185
Absolute Coordinate System, 28, 55, 96, 109, 115,
193
Absolute Dimensioning System, 26
Absolute Programming Command (G90), 183,
240–242
Absolute System, Example, 66
Active Function Ribbon Bar, 299
Address, 31–32, 51–70, 71, 85–93, 181–214, 223,
456
Address and Numeric Keys, 51
Address Characters, 32
Address Searching, 71
Adjusting Wear Offsets, Examples, 66
Adjusting Wear Offsets for Machining Centers, 63
Adjusting Wear Offsets for Turning Centers, 66
Alpha-Numerical Keys, 51
Altering Program Words, 70, 72
ANSI, American National Standards Institute, 453
AOS, Algebraic Order System, 373, 453
Appendix, 437–463
Application of Tool Nose Radius Compensation
(TNRC) G40, G41, and G42, 140–143
APT, Automatically Programmed Tools, 453
ASCII, American Standard Code for Information
Interchange, 453
ASME, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
25, 453
Associativity, 296, 348
ATC, Automatic Tool Change, 8, 212, 406–407, 453
Auto, 41
Auto Cursor Ribbon Bar, 299
Automatic Tool Length Measurement (G37), 183
Auxiliary Axis, 456
Axis Direction, 47
Axis Rotation, 258–260
B
B-axis, 23, 32, 456
Back Boring Cycle (G87), 183, 239
Backplot, 315
Bar Stock, Turning, 153–154
Basic Steps for a Mastercam Mill Program, 317
BCD, Binary Coded Decimal, 453
Bit arrangement, 368
Block, 31, 99, 196, 456
Block Composition, 99
Block Number, 99, 188
Block Skip/Block Delete, 33, 42, 81, 457
Blueprint, Engineering, 12, 25
Boring Cycles, 235–240
Boring Cycle (G86), 183, 236–239
Boring Cycle (G87), 239
Boring Cycle (G88), 183, 240
Boring Cycle (G89), 183, 240
Build Machining Center Tool Data, 380
Build Turning Center Tool Data, 369
Bushing, Program Example, 154–161
C
C-axis, 23, 32, 457
CAD, Computer-Aided Design, 14, 295, 453
Calling G41 or G42 in the Program, 141
CAM, Computer-Aided Manufacturing,
295, 453
Cancel, 51
Cancellation of Coordinate System Rotation (G69),
183, 283
Canned Cycle, Spot Drilling (G81), 227–228
Canned Cycle Cancellation (G80), 86, 183, 227
Canned Cycle Functions, 183, 223–240, 457
Index466
Index
Canned Cycle Initial Level Return (G98), 183,
240–242
Canned Cycle Initial R-Level Return (G99), 183,
227–241
Canned Drilling Cycle Cancellation (G80), 227
Cartesian Coordinate, 18, 457
CCW, Counterclockwise, 18, 199, 406, 409, 427, 453
CD-ROM, Compact Disc–Read Only Memory, 453
CD-RW, Compact Disc–Re-Writable, 453
CDC, Cutter Diameter Compensation, 7–8, 61,
214–222, 254, 453
Chamfer, 308–309, 332–338, 376–377, 406, 457
Change of Heavy Tools (M16), 184
Chuck Close and Open (M10 and M11), 87, 89, 184
CIM, Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 453
Circular Interpolation Clockwise (G02), 86, 108–113,
183, 199–207
Circular Interpolation Counterclockwise (G03), 86,
108–113, 183, 199–207
CMM, Coordinate Measuring Machine, 453
CNC Basics, 1–35
CNC, Computer Numerical Control, 453
CNC Machine Operation, 37–82
CNC Machining Center Program, 76, 240–284
CNC Programming, 17
CNC Setup Sheet, 14
CNC Turning Center Program, 74
Comments, 188
Common Data Unit, 406
Common Operation Procedures, 74–80
Common Symbols Used in Programming, 33
Comparison of Absolute (G90) and Incremental
(G91) Programming, 240–242
Complex Program Example, 163–171
Complex Program Example 1, 243–256
Complex Program Example 2, 268–275
Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided
Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), 14, 293–344,
Constant Surface Speed Cancellation (G97), 86,
94–95, 183
Constant Surface Speed Control (G96), 86, 94, 183
Control Panel, 48–54
Conversational Programming, 367, 397–435
Coolant, 48
Coolant OFF (M09), 87, 89, 184
Coolant Reservoir, 4
Coordinate Input Format, 30
Coordinate System Rotation, 282–284
Coordinate System Setting (G50), 27–28, 64, 86, 98,
183
Coordinate Systems, 20–29
Coordinate Systems for Programming CNC Turning
Centers, 96
Counter Boring, “Chip Break” Cycle (G82), 183,
229–230
Counterbored Holes, 443–444
CPU, Central Processing Unit, 432, 453
CRC, Cutter Radius Compensation, 214–222, 453
Create Feature Process, 353–354
Create New Program Groups, 355
Creating an Electronic Setup Sheet, 361
CRT, Cathode Ray Tube, 18, 48–51, 453
Cursor, 53
Cursor Move, 53
Cursor Scanning, 70
Cutter Compensation, 183, 214–222
Cutter Radius Compensation Cancellation (G40), 86,
183, 196–197, 214–222
Cutter Radius Compensation Left (G41), 86, 183,
196–197, 214–222, 312, 322
Cutter Radius Compensation Right (G42), 86, 183,
196–197, 214–222, 312, 333
Cutting Tool Selection, 7
Cutting Tools, 351
Cutting Tools for Turning Center Examples, 144–145
Cutting Tool Selection, 7
Cutter Compensation, 380–381
Cutter Compensation (G40, G41, G42), 214–222
Cutting Fluid or Coolant, 10
Cutting Speed, 10
CW, Clockwise, 18, 199, 406, 409, 427, 453
Cycle Stop, 44
D
D, Depth of Cut for Multiple Repetitive Cycles, 32,
126–134
D, Tool Radius Offset Number, 32, 61, 214–222, 312,
322
Daily Maintenance Activities, 4
Data Setting (G10), Programmable, 86, 183, 209–210467
Index
Datum, 457
Datum Coordinate System, 349
Deep Hole Peck Drilling Cycle (G83), 86, 183,
231–233
Deleted Program from Memory, 58
Deleting a Program Word, 73
Depth of Cut, 11
Diagnosis, 74
DNC, Direct Numerical Control, 42, 69–70, 453
DNC Operation, 69, 453
Drawing, Engineering, 12, 25
Drill, Programming, 390
Drill, Spot, 388
Drill, Tap, 391
Drilling 1000 Holes Using Only Six Blocks of Code,
281–282
Drilling Cycle, Spot Drilling (G81), 183, 227–228
Dry Run, 17, 43–44, 68–69, 81, 457
Dry Run of Program, 68
DVD, Digital Video Disc, 453
Dwell (G04), 86, 113–114, 183, 207–209, 458
DXF, Drawing Exchange Format, 295, 453
E
E, Precise Designation of Thread Lead, 32, 119–122
Edit, 41
Editing Functions, Program, 70
EDM, Electronic Discharge Machine, 17, 453
EIA, Electronics Industries Association, 31, 401, 453
Emergency Stop (E-stop), 40
End of Program (M30), 90
End Program, 380
Engineering Drawing or Blueprint, 12, 25
English Drill Sizes, 439
English Threads, 441
EOB, End of Block, 31, 42, 52, 59–60, 99, 188, 453
Exact Stop (G09), 86, 183, 209
Execution, 44
Execution in Automatic Cycle Mode, 69
F
F, Feed Rate, 32, 92, 180
F, Precise Designation of Thread Lead, 32, 120
F-word, 107, 180, 198, 205, 458
Face Cutting Cycle (G94), 86, 122–123, 183
FANUC NC Guide Programming, 365–395
FBM, 347
FBM Terms, 347
Feature Groups, 355
Feature-Based Machining (FBM), 345–364
Feed Function, 92
Feed Function (F-word), 180–181
Feed per Minute (G94), 183
Feed per Minute (G98), 86, 92–93, 183
Feed per Revolution (G99), 86, 92–93
Feed Rate, 11, 32, 92, 180
Feed Rate Override, 40
Fillet, 308, 458
Find Features, 352–353
Fine Boring Cycle (G76), 183, 226
Finishing Cycle (G70), 86, 132–134, 183
Fixed Cycle, 458
Fixed Form Sentence, 371–375, 381–385
Flood Coolant OFF (M09), 87, 89, 184
Flood Coolant ON (M08), 89
FMS, Flexible Manufacturing System, 453
Function Buttons, 52
G
G, Preparatory Functions, 32, 85–86, 181–183,
197–222, 453, 460
G00, Rapid Traverse, 47, 86, 104, 183 197–198, 427
G01, Linear Interpolation, 86, 106–108, 183,
198–199, 427
G02, Circular Interpolation Clockwise, 86, 108–113,
183, 199–207
G03, Circular Interpolation Counterclockwise, 86,
108–113, 183, 199–207
G04, Dwell, 86, 113–114, 183, 207–209
G09, Exact Stop, 86, 183, 209
G10 Data Setting, 86, 183, 209–210
G15, Polar Coordinate Cancellation, 183, 210
G16, Polar Coordinate System, 183, 211
G17, X Y Plane Selection, 183, 211
G18, X Z Plane Selection, 183, 211
GI9, Y Z Plane Selection, 183, 211
G20, Input in Inches, 30, 86, 183, 211
G21, Input in Millimeters, 30, 86, 183, 211
G22, Stored Stroke Limit ON, 86, 183, 211
G23, Stored Stroke Limit OFF, 86, 183, 211468
Index
G27, Reference Point Return Check, 86, 183, 212
G28, Reference Point Return, 86, 114, 183, 212
G29, Return from Reference Point, 86, 116,
183, 213
G30, Return to Second, Third and Fourth Reference
Point, 86, 183, 213–214
G32, Thread Cutting, 86, 137
G37, Automatic Tool Length Measurement, 183
G40, Cutter Radius Compensation Cancellation, 86,
183, 196–197, 214–222
G41, Cutter Radius Compensation Left, 86, 183,
196–197, 214–222, 312, 322
G42, Cutter Radius Compensation Right, 86, 183,
196–197, 214–222, 312, 333
G43, Positive Tool Length Offset Compensation, 183,
190–196
G44, Negative Tool Length Offset Compensation,
183, 190–196
G49, Tool Length Offset Compensation Cancel, 183,
190–196
G50, Coordinate System Setting, 27–28, 64, 86, 98,
183
G50, Maximum Spindle Speed Setting, 86, 95–102,
or Scaling Cancel, 183
G52, Local Coordinate System, 86, 183, 211
G53, Machine Coordinate System Setting, 86, 183
G54 through G59, Work Coordinate Systems, 27–28,
60, 86, 98, 183, 185–187, 314, 384, 407,
421
G60, Single Direction Positioning, 183, 222
G63, Tapping Mode, 183
G68, Rotation of Coordinate System, 183, 283
G69, Cancellation of Coordinate System Rotation,
183, 283
G70, Finishing Cycle, 86, 132–134, 183
G71, Stock Removal in Turning, 86, 123–128, 183
G72, Stock Removal in Facing, 86, 128–129,
161–163, 183
G73, High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle, 183, 224–225
G73, Pattern Repeating Cycle, 86, 129–132, 183
G74, Left-Handed (Reverse Tapping), 183, 225–226
G74, Peck Drilling Cycle, 86, 134–136, 183
G75, Groove Cutting Cycle, 86, 136–137, 161–163,
183
G76, Fine Boring Cycle, 183, 226
G76, Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle, 86, 137–140, 183
G80, Canned Cycle Cancellation, 86, 183, 227
G81, Drilling Cycle, Spot Drilling, 183, 227–228
G82, Counter Boring, “Chip Break” Cycle, 183,
229–230
G83, Deep Hole Drilling Cycle, 86, 183, 231–233
G84, Tapping Cycle, 86, 183, 233–235
G85, Reaming Cycle, 183, 235
G86, Boring Cycle, 183, 236–239
G87, Back Boring Cycle, 183, 239
G88, Boring Cycle, 183, 240
G89, Boring Cycle, 183, 240
G90, Absolute Programming Command, 183,
240–242
G90, Outer/Inner Diameter Turning Cycle, 86,
116–118, 183
G91, Incremental Programming Command, 183,
240–242
G92, Thread Cutting Cycle, 86, 118–122, 183
G92, Work Coordinate System, 27–28, 183, 185, 187
G94, Face Cutting Cycle, 86, 122–123, 183
G94, Feed per Minute, 183
G96, Constant Surface Speed, 86, 94, 183
G97, Constant Surface Speed Cancellation, 86,
94–95, 183
G98, Canned Cycle Initial Level Return, 183,
240–242
G98, Feed per Minute, 86, 92–93, 183
G99, Canned Cycle Initial R-Level Return, 183,
227–241
G99, Feed per Revolution, 86, 92–93
G-Code, 31, 56, 80, 85–86, 104, 183, 453
GD&T, Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing,
429–433, 445–448, 454
General Selection Ribbon Bar, 299
General Steps for Feature-Based Programming, 350
Generating Machining Toolpaths, 359
Geometry, Toolpath, 279–280
Geometry Offset, 369
Gnomon, 318–319, 328, 459
Graphics Display Area, 298
Graphics Display Window, 349
Groove, 378469
Index
Groove Cutting Cycle (G75), 86, 136–137, 161–163,
183
GUI, Graphical User Interface, 295, 297, 454
H
H, Tool length Offset Number, 32, 61, 183, 190–197
Handle, 46
Helical Interpolation Using G02 or G03, 204–207
Help, 50
High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle (G73), 183, 224–225
HMI, 39
Horizontal Machining Center, 260–267
HP, Horsepower, 454
HSS, High Speed Steel, 454
I
I, Incremental X coordinate for Arc Center, 32,
108–113, 200–207
I, Parameter of Fixed Cycle, 32, 125–126, 128–132,
135, 136, 139
IGES, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, 295,
317, 328, 454
INC (Incremental), 45
Incremental Coordinate Programming (G91) of the
Machining Center, 185
Incremental Coordinate System, 30, 97, 459
Incremental Programming Command (G91), 183,
240–242
Incremental System, 67
Initial Parameters, 367
Input, 52
Input in Inches (G20), 30, 86, 183, 211
Input in Millimeters (G21), 30, 86, 183, 211
Inserting a Program Word, 72
Introduction to Feature-Based Machining, 347–364
Introduction to the Coordinate System, 18
IPM, Inches per Minute (also in/min), 11, 454
IPR, Inches per Revolution (also in/rev), 11, 454
IPW, In-Process Workpiece, 347, 454
ISO, International Standards Organization, 31, 73,
401, 454
J
J, Incremental Y coordinate for Arc Center, 32, 200–207
Jog, 45
K
K, Incremental Z coordinate for Arc Center, 32,
108–113, 200–207
K, Parameter of Fixed Cycle, 32, 130, 135, 136,
139, 223
KW, Kilowatt, 454
L
L, Number of Repetitions, 32, 101, 190,
236–239
LAN, Local Area Network, 454
LCD, Liquid Crystal Display, 50, 454
LED, Liquid Emitting Diode, 41, 44–45, 55, 454
Left-Handed Tapping Cycle (G74), 183, 225–226
Linear Interpolation (G01), 86, 106–108, 183,
198–199, 427, 459
Linking Parameters, 313–325
Local Coordinate System (G52), 86, 183, 211
M
M, Miscellaneous Functions (M-Codes), 32, 87–90,
184, 459
M00, Program Stop, 44, 84, 184
M01, Optional Stop, 43, 76–77, 87, 184
M02, Program End Without Rewind, 87, 88, 184
M03, Spindle ON Clockwise, 42, 87, 88, 184
M04, Spindle ON Counterclockwise, 87, 88, 184
M05, Spindle OFF, 87, 89, 184
M06, Tool Change, 184
M07, Mist Coolant ON, 184
M08, Flood Coolant ON, 87, 89, 184
M09, Coolant OFF, 87, 89, 184
M10, Chuck Close, 87, 89, 184
M11, Chuck Open, 87, 89, 184
M12, Tailstock Quill Advance, 87, 89
M13, Tailstock Quill Retract, 87, 89, 184
M16, Change of Heavy Tools, 184
M17, Rotation of Tool Turret Forward, 87, 89
M18, Rotation of Tool Turret Backward, 87, 89
M19, Spindle Orientation, 184, 279
M21, Mirror Image X Axis, 184, 256
M21, Tail Stock Direction Forward, 87, 89
M22, Mirror Image Y Axis, 184, 256
M22, Tail Stock Direction Backwards, 87, 89
M23, Mirror Image Cancellation, 184, 256470
Index
M23, Thread Finishing with Chamfer, 87, 89–90,
118–121
M24, Thread Finishing with Right Angle, 87, 89–90,
118–121
M30, Program End with Rewind, 59, 90, 184, 190
M98, Subprogram Call, 87, 100, 184, 189–190,
243–256
M99, Return to Main Program from Subprogram, 87,
100, 184, 243–256
Machine Coordinate System Setting (G53), 86, 183
Machine Group Setup and Geometry Creation, 301
Machine Home, 25–26, 55, 64, 459
Machine Tool, 9
Machine Type, 301
Machine Zero, 25–28, 55, 114–116, 186, 190,
212–214
Machining Center, Horizontal, 260–267
Machining Center Program Creation, 240–284,
387–393
Machining Center Program Creation (Mazatrol),
405–410
Machining Center Tool Offsets, 61
Machining Center Tool Sensor Measuring, 63
Maintenance, 4
Manual Data Input (MDI), 41–43, 47, 50–52, 58–81,
367, 454
Manual Guide i, (MGi), 367, 373, 397
Manual Pulse Generator (MPG), 39, 46
Mastercam X8 Geometry Creation Step-by-Step, 305
Mastercam X8 Program Startup, 297
Mastercam X8 User Interface, 298
Maximum Spindle Speed Setting (G50), 86, 95–102
Mazatrol Conversational Programming, 397–435
Mazatrol Machining Center Program Example,
419–439
Mazatrol Turning Center Program Example, 410–418
MB, Megabit, 454
MC Lock, 43
MCS, Machine Coordinate System, 347– 352
MCT, Machining Center Tool, 347, 351
MCU, Machine Control Unit, 7
Measure the X-axis Work Coordinate, 64
Measure the Z-axis Work Coordinate, 63
Measuring Work Coordinate Offsets: Machining
Center, 60
Measuring Work Offsets: Turning Center, 63
Measured Values, 60, 62
Memory, Delete Program, 58
Menu Bar, 298
Metal Cutting Factors, 9
Metric Drill Sizes, 440
Metric Threads, 442
Milling Example, 275–279
Mirror Image, Application of, 256–258
Mirror Image Cancellation (M23), 184, 256
Mirror Image X Axis (M21), 184, 256
Mirror Image Y Axis (M22), 184, 256
Miscellaneous Functions, 85, 87, 182, 184, 459
Mist Coolant ON (M07), 184
MKE, Machining Knowledge Editor, 347,
353–354, 360
MKL, Machining Knowledge Library, 347, 353, 360
Modal Commands, 86, 104, 107, 181–182, 459
Modeling Basics, 347
Most Recently Used (MRU) Toolbar, 300
Multiple Repetitive Cycles, 123–140
Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76), 86,
137–140, 183
N
N, Sequence or Block Number, 32, 99, 188
NC Guide, 367
NC Guide Machining Center Program Creation,
380–393
NC Guide Turning Center Program Creation,
373–380, 382
Negative Tool Length Offset Compensation (G44),
183, 190–196
NX CAM 9.0 Steps for Feature-Based
Programming, 351
O
O, Program Number, 32, 99, 187–189
Oblique Triangles, 452
OD, Outside Diameter, 454
Operation, 45
Operation Panel Key Descriptions, 41–48
Operation Select, 42
Operation Sheet, 13
Operations Manager, 300471
Index
Operations Performed at the CNC Control, 54–79
Operator Panel Features, 39–41
Opt Stop, 43
Optimize Tool Changes, 356
Optional Program Stop (M01), 43, 76–77, 87–88, 184
Origin, 20–28, 51, 460
Outer Diameter Thread, 379
Outer/Inner Diameter Turning Cycle (G90), 86,
116–117, 183
Outputting CNC Program Code, 369
Overview of the NX CAM User Interface, 348
P
P, Dwell Time Specification, 32, 113, 207–209
P, Start Sequence Number for Multiple Repetitive
Cycles, 32, 124–133
P, Subprogram Number, 32, 100–101, 189–190,
223–256
Page Up/Down, 54
Parameter, 74, 367–368
Part Program, 100
Part Program Edit Keys, 52
Pattern Repeating Function (G73), 86, 129–132, 183
PC, Personal Computer, 17, 42, 48, 52, 54, 70,
296, 454
PC Function, 54
PCMCI, Portable Computer Memory Card Interface,
50, 57, 454
Peck Drilling Cycle (G74), 86, 134–136, 183
Pipe Thread, Taper, 149–153
Plane Selection (G17, G18, G19), 211
Planning Documents, 12
PLC, Programmable Logic Controller, 455
PMI, Product Manufacturing Information, 347, 359
Pocket, Program, 387
Points of Reference, 25
Polar Coordinate Cancellation (G15), 183, 210
Polar Coordinate System, (G16), 22–23, 35, 183, 211,
460
Positive Tool Length Offset Compensation (G43),
183, 190–196
Post Processing, 316, 326, 340, 361
Power–ON and Power–OFF, 48
Preparatory Functions (G-Codes), 85–86, 104–123,
181–182, 183, 197–222
Preparatory Functions for Machining Centers
(G-Codes), 183, 197–222
PRG STOP (Program Stop), 44
Process Planning for CNC, 3, 12–16
Profile Coordinate Data Entry, 376
Program, Deleting from Memory, 58
Program, Loading from CNC Memory, 56
Program, Loading from an Offline Location, 57
Program Editing Functions, 70
Program End with Rewind (M30), 59, 90, 184, 190
Program End Without Rewind (M02), 87, 88, 184
Program Format, 3, 31
Program Number, 99, 188
Program Protect, 40
Program Source, 41
Program Stop (M00), 44, 84, 184
Program Structure for Machining Centers, 187
Program Structure for Turning Centers, 98–101
Programmable Data Setting (G10), 209–210
Programming, Absolute Coordinate System, 96
Programming, Incremental Coordinate System, 97
Programming CNC Machining Centers, 177–292
Programming CNC Machining Centers in Absolute
and Incremental Systems, 182
Programming CNC Turning Centers, 83–176
PSI, Pounds per Square Inch, 4, 455
PWE, Parameter Write Enable, 367–368
Q
Q, Depth of Cut for Canned Cycles, 32, 223–225
Q, Depth of Cut in Multiple Repetitive Cycles, 32,
128–176
Q, Last Sequence Number for Multiple Repetitive
Cycles, 32, 124–134
Quadrant, 22, 35, 460
Quality Control Check Sheet, 16
Quick Access Tool Bar, 349
Quick Masks Tool Bar, 300
R
R, Point R for Canned Cycles, as a Reference Return
Value, 32, 227–240
R, Radius Designation for Arc, 32, 109–113, 202–207
R, Tool Nose Radius Offset Amount, 64
R–8, Taper Designation, 8, 455472
Index
RAM, Random Access Memory, 455
Radial Offset Vector, 217
Rapid, 47
Rapid Traverse (G00), 47, 86, 100–106, 183
197–198, 427
Rapid Traverse Positioning (G00), 197–198
Reaming Cycle (G85), 183, 235
Rectangular Coordinate System, see Cartesian
Coordinate System, 460
REF (Reference), 45
Reference Point Return (G28), 114–115
Reference Position Return Check (G27), 86, 183, 212
Reference Position Return Check (G28), 86, 114, 183,
212–213
Register Machining Center Fixed Form
Sentence, 381
Register Turning Center Fixed Form Sentences, 371
Remote, 42
Reset, 50
Resource Bar, Navigator Windows, 349
Restart, 43
Return from Reference Point (G29), 86, 116, 183, 213
Return from the Reference Position (G29), 213
Return to Main Program from Subprogram, 87 (M99),
100, 184, 243–256
Return to Second, Third, and Fourth Reference
Position (G30), 86, 183, 213–214
Reverse Tapping (G74), 183, 225–226
RFID, 8, 455
Ribbon Bar, 349
Right Triangles, 451
Right–Hand Rule, 20, 460
RISC, Reduced Instruction Set Computer, 455
Rotation of Coordinate System (G68), 183, 283
Rotation of the Tool Turret Forward and Reverse
(M17 and M18), 87, 89
Rough and Finish Profile, 375
RPM, Revolutions per Minute (also rev/min or r/min),
11, 59, 61, 94–95, 455
RS232, Industry Standard Cabling Interface, 17, 41,
70, 455
S
S, Spindle-Speed Function (S-word), 32, 93, 181
Safety, 3
Safety Block, 196–197
Safety Rules for NC and CNC Machines, 3
Sample Program, 101–104
Sequence Number (N-word), 99, 460
Sequence Number Searching, 70
Set Initial Parameters, 367
Setting (Handy), 73, 367
Setting the Program to the Beginning, 70
Setup Sheet, 111, 317, 326–327, 340, 361–362
Shift, 50
Simulate, 388–393
Simulation, 315–316, 367, 432
Single Block, 42
Single–Direction Positioning (G60), 183, 222
SME, Society of Manufacturing Engineering, 455
Soft Keys, 50
Solid Model, 317, 327, 347–348
Solid Model Lathe Program Example, 327
Solid Model Mill Program Example, 317
SPDL CC, 48
SPDL CW, 47
SPDL STOP, 48
Special, 54
Specify the Part and Blank, 352
Spindle, 47
Spindle Function, 93
Spindle OFF (M05), 87, 89, 184
Spindle OFF (Clockwise) (M04), 89
Spindle ON Clockwise (M03), 42, 87, 88, 184
Spindle ON Counterclockwise (M04), 87, 88, 184
Spindle Orientation (M19), 184, 279
Spindle Speed, 11
Spindle Speed Setting, Maximum (G50), 86, 95–102
Spot Drill, Programming, 388
Start NC Guide, 367
Start New NC Guide Program, 368
Status Bar, 299
Step, Program, 385
Stock Removal Facing Cycle (G72), 86, 128–129, 183
Stock Removal Turning Cycle (G71), 86, 123–128, 183
Stock Setup, 302
Stored Stroke Limit ON/OFF (G22, G23), 86, 183,
211
Subprogram, 100–101
Subprogram (M98–M99), 87, 100, 184, 189–190,
243–256
Subprogram Application, 148–149473
Index
T
2D Toolpaths–Contour Dialog, 309
T, Tool Function, 32, 90, 179
Tailstock Direction Forward and Reverse (M21 and
M22), 87, 89
Tailstock Quill Advance and Retract (M12 and M13),
87, 89, 184
Tap Drill, Programming, 391
Taper Pipe Thread, 149–153
Tapered Thread Cutting Using Cycle (G92), 122
Tapping Cycle (G84), 86, 183, 233–235
Tapping Mode (G63), 183
Teach, 43
Thread Cutting (G32), 86, 137
Thread Cutting Cycle (G92), 86, 118–121, 183
Thread Finishing (M23 and M24), 87, 89–90, 118–121
Three Dimensional Coordinate System, 21
TiCN, 7
TiN, 7
Title Bar, 298
TNRC, Tool Nose Radius Compensation, 140–143,
455
Tool Change (M06), 184
Tool Changes, 179–180
Tool Changing, 8
Tool Clamping Methods, 6
Tool Compensation Factors, 7
Tool Data, 369–371, 375, 380–381
Tool Length Compensation (G43, G44, G49), 183,
190–196
Tool Length Offset (TLO), 7–8, 35, 61, 455
Tool Nose Radius, 140–143
Tool Nose Radius and Tip Orientation, 140
Tool Offset, 369, 371, 380–381
Tool Settings, 303
Tool Tip Orientation (T), 66, 140–143, 175, 369–370
Tool Wear Offset, 90
Toolbars, 298
Toolpath Creation, 309
Toolpath Geometry, 279–280
Toolpath Verification, 68, 315
Top, Bottom, Right, and Bottom Border Bars, 350
Trigonometry Functions, 450
Turning Bar Stock, 153–154
Turning Center Tool Sensor Measuring, 65
Turning Centers, Programming Examples, 143–171
Two Dimensional Coordinate System, 20
Types of Numerically Controlled Machines, 17
U
U, Additional Linear Axis Parallel to X Axis, 32, 461
U, Dwell Time Specification, 32, 113–114
U, Parameter for Multiple Repetitive Cycles, 32,
123–140
UDF, User Defined Feature, 347, 362
USB, 41–42, 48, 57, 455
User Interface, 298, 348–350
V
V-axis, 32
Verify Toolpaths, 360
Virtual Tip, 369
W
W, Parameter for Multiple Repetitive Cycles, 123–140
W-axis, 32
WCS, 299, 314, 318, 328, 455
Wear Offset, 370
Windows, 296
Word Searching, 71
Work Coordinate System Setting (G54), 98
Work Coordinate Systems (G54–G59, G92),
27–28, 60, 86, 98, 183, 185–187, 314, 384,
407, 421
Work Holding Method, 10
Workpiece Zero, 15, 18, 26–29, 35, 91, 190, 461
WPC, Workpiece Coordinate, 400
X
X, Dwell Time Specification, 113
X, X-axis, 32, 461
X Y Plane Selection (G17), 183, 183, 211
X Z Plane Selection (G18), 183, 211
XFORM, 318, 328
Y
Y, Y-axis, 32, 461
Y Z Plane Selection (G19), 183, 211
Z
Z, 32, 461
Z-axis, 461


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