كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) - Reference Book
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 كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) - Reference Book

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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) - Reference Book

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction: Tolerances . 13
1.1 What is Tolerance? .13
1.1.1 Dimensional Tolerance .15
1.1.1.1 Different dimension groups 16
1.1.2 Form and Position (Geometric) Tolerances .16
1.1.3 Design Deviations .17
1.1.4 Tolerance Zones .18
1.2 Why Do We Need Tolerances? .19
1.3 What Types of Tolerance Deviations Do Exist? .20
1.4 What is “Right” Tolerance? 21
2 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) 22
2.1 Historical Background .22
2.2 Norms and Standards .24
2.2.1 What is a Norm/Standard? 24
2.2.2 Organizations .25
2.2.3 Summary of Relevant DIN Standards .26
2.2.4 General Manufacturing Tolerances .27
2.2.5 Legislative Framework for Standards 28
2.2.6 OEM related overview for GD&T Standards 28
2.3 Benefits of GD&T 29
3 Types of Tolerances 30
3.1 Tolerances of Form .30
3.2 Tolerances of Profile .31
3.3 Tolerances of Orientation 32
3.4 Tolerances of Location 33
3.5 Runout Tolerances 34
4 Representation of Tolerances . 36
4.1 Summary: Standard Drawing Layout .36
4.2 Baseline Dimensioning 37
4.2.1 Tolerance/Datum Arrow 37
4.2.2 Ideal/Theoretically Precise Dimension 39
4.2.3 Controlled Dimension 40
4.2.4 Datums .404
4.3 Feature Control Frame 41
4.3.1 Controlled Properties 43
4.3.2 Diameter .45
4.3.3 Tolerance Values 45
4.3.4 Material Conditions .46
4.3.5 Datums .46
4.3.6 Additional Textual Data .47
4.3.7 Single and Combined Feature Control Frames .48
4.3.7.1 Single Feature Control Frame 48
4.3.7.2 Combined Feature Control Frame 48
4.3.7.3 Example: Position Tolerance 49
4.3.7.3.1 Single Feature Position Control Frame 49
4.3.7.3.2 Combined Feature Position Control Frame 50
4.3.7.4 Example: Profile Tolerance 50
4.3.7.4.1 Single Feature Profile Control Frame .51
4.3.7.4.2 Combined Feature Tolerance Frame with Directional Limit 51
4.3.7.4.3 Combined Feature Control Frame with Form Variation Ratio .52
4.3.7.5 Composite Feature Control Frame .53
4.3.7.5.1 Example: Composite Position Tolerance 53
4.4 Additional Symbols .54
4.5 General Table of Tolerances .55
5 Datums 56
5.1 What are Datums good for? 57
5.2 Datum References in Drawings .58
5.2.1 Datum Triangle .58
5.2.2 Datum Locations / Datum Features .58
5.2.3 Sequential Order of Datum Indications According to MBN 11011 .61
5.2.4 Axis / Plane as Datum .62
5.2.5 Coplanar Surface as Datum 64
5.2.6 Unfolded State as Datum 64
5.2.7 Difference Between Datum Plane and Datum Location .65
5.2.8 Sequence of Datums related to Datum Reference Frame .66
5.3 Datum System 68
5.3.1 6 Degrees of Freedom 68
5.3.2 The 3-2-1 Rule 695
5.3.3 Determination of Datum System .75
5.3.4 Datum System Requirements .76
5.3.5 Datum System Arrangement .76
5.3.6 Determination of Datum/Locating Distance (Effective Distance) .77
5.3.7 Determination of Unilateral Surface Tolerances 79
5.3.8 Definition of Datums through Coordinate Data 81
5.4 Locator Selection Strategy 82
5.4.1 Hole/Oblong Hole Principle .82
5.4.2 Opening 83
5.4.3 Distance between Locators .84
5.4.4 Low Strain Arrangement with Locators .84
5.4.5 Curvilinear Surfaces as Locator 85
5.4.6 Pressing Tools and Locators .85
5.4.7 Locators on Vertical Surfaces .85
5.4.8 Locator Block and Pin Layout .86
5.4.9 Locator Pins on Plastic Parts 86
6 Material Conditions 87
6.1 Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) Material Conditions .87
6.2 Maximum Material Condition (MMC) .87
6.3 Least Material Condition (LMC) .88
6.4 Bonus Tolerance .88
6.5 Comparison between MMC and RFS 89
6.6 Comparison of MMC and LMC 91
6.7 Hole-Piston Interplay .92
6.7.1 Example of MMC 92
6.8 Effective Condition 93
6.8.1 Example: Effective condition .94
7 Tolerance Principles 96
7.1 Tolerance Principle .97
7.1.1 Basics of Envelope Principle .97
7.1.2 Tolerance by Envelope Principle .98
7.1.3 Basics of Independence Principle .100
7.1.4 Tolerance by Independence Principle . 100
8 Differences between ASME and ISO Standard 104
9 Specifics of Use of MBN 11011 . 1126
9.1 Surface Lines as Datums 112
9.2 Angular Measure Tolerances (± Tolerances) . 112
9.3 Stepped Measures 113
9.4 Surface Profile Outline Symbols 113
9.5 Concentricity / Coaxiality, Symmetry . 114
9.6 Combined Feature Control Frame for Position and Surface Tolerances 114
10 Best Business Practice (Simplified GD&T) 116
10.1 Position vs. Concentricity 116
10.2 PROFILE VS. PERPENDICULARITY . 117
10.3 PROFILE VS. PARALLELISM .118
10.4 PROFILE VS. ANGULARITY 119
10.5 PROFILE VS. POSITION 120
11 Measurement Uncertainty and Tolerances 121
11.1 Measuring and Manufacturing Process Capability . 122
11.2 Determination of Measurement Uncertainty 123
11.3 Measurement Uncertainty Considerations . 125
11.4 Measurement Uncertainty Implications 126
12 Tolerancing Processes and Concepts . 127
12.1 Product Definition 127
12.2 Illustration of Tolerancing Process by Means of General Car Development Process
127
12.3 Tolerance Assessment in FMEA .131
12.3.1 Example for Assignment of FMEA Ratings to Characteristic Classes 132
12.4 Process Prerequisites for Functional Dimensioning Concept 133
12.4.1 Required Data and Information . 133
12.5 VDA Standardized Tolerancing Process Draft . 136
13 Tolerance Analysis and Tolerance Simulation 137
13.1 What Is Tolerance Analysis? . 137
13.2 What Do We Need Tolerance Analysis for? 137
13.3 Prerequisites for Effective Tolerance Analysis . 138
13.3.1 Requirements Placed on Drawings . 139
13.4 Tolerance Simulation 140
13.4.1 One-dimensional Simulation / Calculation . 142
13.4.1.1 Example of One-dimensional Simulation / Calculation 143
13.4.1.2 Excel Spreadsheet for One-dimensional Simulation / Calculation 1437
Table of Figures
Figure 1:Comparison of a geometrically ideal shape, tolerance zone and true profile .14
Figure 2:Dimensional tolerance 15
Figure 3:dimension groups .16
Figure 4: Zones of tolerance .18
Figure 5:Qualitative characteristics .19
Figure 6: Hole series alignment precision .19
Figure 7: Gap & Flush focus .19
Figure 8: Possible errors if tolerance specifications are absent 20
Figure 9: Deviation ratios 21
Figure 10: Representation of a standard drawing layout .36
Figure 11: Representation of a tolerated feature .37
Figure 12: Representation of a tolerated feature (2) .38
Figure 13: Representation of a tolerance arrow (datum arrow) .38
Figure 14: Representation of a tolerance arrow (datum arrow) (2) 38
Figure 15: Representation of a tolerance arrow (datum arrow) (3) 39
Figure 16: Representation of the ideal/theoretically precise dimension .39
Figure 17: Representation of a controlled dimension 40
Figure 18: Representation of datums 40
Figure 19: Representation of a feature control frame 42
Figure 20: Representation of descriptions in a feature control frame 42
Figure 21: Representation of symbols of controlled properties .43
Figure 22: Diameter symbol 45
Figure 23: Indication of tolerance values 45
Figure 24: Datum reference letter indications in a feature control frame .46
Figure 25: Datum indication according to coordinates 46
Figure 26: XYZ coordinate system 47
Figure 27: Additional textual data .47
Figure 28: Additional textual data (2) 47
Figure 29: Example – additional textual data 48
Figure 30: Single feature control frame .48
Figure 31: Combined feature control frame 48
Figure 32: Single/combined feature control frame with a position tolerance example .49
Figure 33: Single feature position control frame 49
Figure 34: Combined feature position control frame .50
Figure 35: Single/combined feature control frame with a profile tolerance example 50
Figure 36: Single feature control frame .51
Figure 37: Combined feature profile tolerance frame with a directional limit .51
Figure 38: Combined feature control frame with a form deviation ratio .52
Figure 39: Composite feature control frame 53
Figure 40: Composite position tolerance 53
Figure 41: Datum feature 56
Figure 42: Datum – datum feature relationship .56
Figure 43: Sequential order of datums 57
Figure 44: Representation options for datum triangles relating to different datum features .58
Figure 45: Types of datum features/datum locations 599
Figure 46: Surface datum locations 59
Figure 47: Line datum locations 60
Figure 48: Point datum locations 60
Figure 49: Off-frame indication of a datum 61
Figure 50: Datum referencing sequence .61
Figure 51: Sequential order of datums 62
Figure 52: Central plane of outer datum features 62
Figure 53:Central plane of an inner datum feature 62
Figure 54: A datum axis of an outer dimensioned feature (shaft) 63
Figure 55: Datum axis of an inner dimensioned feature (hole) 63
Figure 56: A datum plane with a flatness tolerance 63
Figure 57: Coplanar plane as datum .64
Figure 58: Unfolded state as datum 64
Figure 59: Difference between a datum plane and a datum location .65
Figure 60: Effects related to different datum sequences .67
Figure 61: 6 degrees of freedom .68
Figure 62: 6 degrees of freedom (2) .68
Figure 63: 3-2-1 rule .69
Figure 64: 3-2-1 rule (2) .70
Figure 65: Example 1 for the 3-2-1 rule (1) .70
Figure 66: Example 1 for the 3-2-1 rule(2) 71
Figure 67: Example 2 for the 3-2-1 rule 71
Figure 68: Example2 for the 3-2-1 rule (2) 72
Figure 69: Example 3 for the 3-2-1 rule 72
Figure 70: Example 4 for the 3-2-1 rule 73
Figure 71: Example 4 for the 3-2-1 rule (2) .73
Figure 72: Example 5 for the 3-2-1 rule 74
Figure 73: Determination of a datum system 75
Figure 74: Determination of a datum system influencing measurement results 75
Figure 75: Datum system arrangement – part defect 76
Figure 76: A part with a defined tolerance in different systems .77
Figure 77.Determination of an effective/locating distance .77
Figure 78. Determination of the datum/locating distance (2) .78
Figure 79. Determination of the datum (locating) distance (critical area) 78
Figure 80. Determination of unilateral surface tolerances .79
Figure 81: Determination of unilateral surface tolerances (Example 1) .79
Figure 82: Determination of unilateral surface tolerances (Example 2) .80
Figure 83: Determination of unilateral surface tolerances (Example 3) .80
Figure 84: Definition of datums through coordinate data .81
Figure 85: The hole/oblong hole principle .82
Figure 86: The hole/oblong hole principle (2) 83
Figure 87: Locator selection strategy 83
Figure 88: Distance between locators .84
Figure 89: Locator pins on plastic parts 86
Figure 90: Representation of bonus tolerances 88
Figure 91: Representation of tolerance array 89
Figure 92:Example of MMC 9210
Figure 93:Comparison between MMC and LMC for an outer feature 93
Figure 94: Tolerance principles 96
Figure 95: Tolerance principles (2) .97
Figure 96: Examples of applications where the envelope principle cannot be used 99
Figure 97: DIN 7167 Tolerance 99
Figure 98: DIN 7167 Tolerance (2) . 100
Figure 99: ISO 8015 Tolerancing 101
Figure 100: Taylor testing principle . 102
Figure 101: Taylor testing principle (2) . 103
Figure 102: Drawing representations 105
Figure 103: Geometric tolerance notations . 106
Figure 104: Fig. 104: Special tolerancing 107
Figure 105: Special location tolerances 108
Figure 106: Special feature control frames . 109
Figure 107: Profile tolerancing 110
Figure 108: Boundary control . 111
Figure 109: Surface line as datum 112
Figure 110: Angular measure tolerances 112
Figure 111: Stepped measures 113
Figure 112: Surface profile outline symbols 113
Figure 113: Concentricity / coaxiality and symmetry . 114
Figure 114: Combined feature control frame for position and surface tolerances 114
Figure 115: Best Practice: Positon vs. Concentricity . 116
Figure 116: Not preferred: Position vs. Concentricity 116
Figure 117: Best Practice: Profile vs Perpendicularity . 117
Figure 118: Not preferred: Position vs. Perpendicularity . 117
Figure 119: Best Practice: Profile vs. Parallelism 118
Figure 120: Non-Preferred: Profile. vs Parallelism 118
Figure 121: Best Pracice: Profile vs. Angularity 119
Figure 122: Non-Preferred: Profile vs. Angularity . 119
Figure 123: Best Practice: Profile vs. Position 120
Figure 124: Non-Preferred: Profile vs. Position . 120
Figure 125: Measurement result and measurement uncertainty . 121
Figure 126: Overlay of manufacturing process and measuring process variances 122
Figure 127: Effect of %GRR on the characteristic quality process capability variable Cp 123
Figure 128: extended area on uncertainty, area of conformity, area of nonconformity 125
Figure 129: Areaof tolerance (USG – OSG) . 126
Figure 130: System boundaries of a complete vehicle 128
Figure 131: A part and a component in a complete vehicle 129
Figure 132: Dimensional quality implementation process . 133
Figure 133: Concept stage 134
Figure 134: Development . 135
Figure 135 Representation of results (quality- and function-related customer requirements)
. 137
Figure 136: Product requirements for the tolerance analysis 138
Figure 137: : Requirements placed on drawings . 139
Figure 138: Requirements placed on drawings (2) . 13911
Figure 139: 1D and 3D simulation 140
Figure 140: Execution of 1D Studies 143
Figure 141: 1D Excel spreadsheet 143
Figure 142: 3D analysis overview . 144
Figure 143: Development process assessment 145
Figure 144: Comparison between the Monte Carlo simulation and the sensitivity analysis . 147
Figure 145: Monte Carlo simulation procedure . 148
Figure 146: Normal distribution . 148
Figure 147: Sensitivity analysis procedure 149
Figure 148: HLM Report . 149
Figure 149: Six Sigma region in a HLM Report . 150
Figure 150: Tolerance and manufacturability calculation 152
Figure 151: Example of a garage for cp and Cpk 152
Figure 152: Example of 1D and 3D workflow for interiors . 153
Figure 153: Costs needed for manufacturability 155
Figure 154: Cost reduction through preventive action by DM 156
Figure 155: General tolerance analysis process at JC 157
Figure 156: GD&T reports in the PLUS plan . 158
Figure 157: Support options in the PLUS plan 159
Figure 158: Workgroup on tolerancing 160
Figure 159: Quality objectives at JC . 16112
Table Overview
Table 1: Design deviations .17
Table 2: Summary of relevant DIN standards .26
Table 3: General manufacturing tolerances 27
Table 4: OEM related GD&T Standard .28
Table 5: Tolerances of form 30
Table 6: Tolerances of profile .31
Table 7: Tolerances of orientation 32
Table 8: Tolerances of location (position) .33
Table 9: Runout tolerances 35
Table 10: Symbols for form tolerance indications .43
Table 11: Symbols for profile tolerance indications .44
Table 12: Symbols for orientation tolerance indications 44
Table 13: Symbols for location tolerance indications 44
Table 14: Symbols for runout tolerance indications 45
Table 15: Material conditions 46
Table 16: Additional symbols 54
Table 17: General table of tolerances .55
Table 18: Comparison between MMC and RFS 90
Table 19: Comparison between MMC and LMC .91
Table 20: Comparison between MMC and LMC for an inner feature: .92
Table 21: Comparison between MMC and LMC for an outer feature .93
Table 22: Effective condition with an inner feature ( MMC) .94
Table 23: Effective condition table of an outer feature (MMC) 94
Table 24: Effective condition table of an inner feature (LMC) 95
Table 25: Effective condition table of an outer feature ( LMC) 95
Table 26: Form deviations and envelopes of simple geometric features 102
Table 27:Use of unilateral surface tolerances . 115
Table 28: Overview of uncertainty components 124
Table 29: Measurement uncertainty considerations for limit values (tolerance zone
boundaries) 125
Table 30: Assignment of FMEA ratings to characteristic classes 132


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» كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design
» كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition
» كتاب Geometric Design Tolerancing Theories, Standards and Applications
» كتاب Geometric and Engineering Drawing - Third Edition - K . MORLING
» كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook

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