كتاب Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures
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 كتاب Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures    كتاب Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures  Emptyالثلاثاء 27 سبتمبر 2022, 11:13 pm

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Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures
D. A. Wigley
Engineering Laboratories
The University of Southampton
Southampton, England

كتاب Mechanical Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures  M_p_o_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter 1 Deformation Processes in Pure Metals . 1
1.1. Glossary of Terms Relevant to the Tensile
Test . 2
1.2. Elastic Deformation 6
1.3. General Aspects of Plastic Deformation in
Metals '" 9
1.3.1. Microplasticity 9
1.3.2. The Generic Tensile Stress-Strain Curve for
Single Crystals 12
1.3.3. Yield and Plastic Deformation in Polycrystals 14
1.4. The Effect of Temperature on the Yield and
Flow of Pure Face-Centered-Cubic Metals 16
1.4.1. Single Crystals 16
1.4.2. Polycrystals . 18
1.4.3. Dislocation Structures. . 18
1.4.4. Engineering Parameters , . 21
1.5. The Effect of Temperature on the Yield and
Flow of Pure Body-Centered-Cubic Metals . 23
1.5.1. Single Crystals 24
1.5.2. Polycrystals . 26
1.5.3. Dislocation Structures " " . . 27
1.5.4. Engineering Parameters 30
1.6. The Effect of Temperature on the Yield and
Flow of Pure Hexagona1-C1ose-Packed Metals. 31
1.6.1. Single Crystals 31
1.6.2. Pol ycrystals . 33
1.6.3. Dislocation Structures 34
1.6.4. Engineering Parameters 36
1.7. A Comparison of the Main Characteristics of
Face-Centered-Cubic, Body-Centered-Cubic,
and Hexagona1-C1ose-Packed Metals 36
1.S. Plastic Deformation at Constant Stress: Creep. 39
1.9. Annealing: Recovery and Recrystallization. 40
References 42
Chapter 2 Deformation Processes in Impure Metals and
Alloys . 47
xixii Contents
2.1. Yield and Flow in Solution-Hardened SinglePhase Alloys . • 48
2.1.1. Dislocation-Solute Interactions . 48
2.1.2. The Effect of Solutes on the Yield Stress . 49
2.1.3. The Effect of Solutes on Strain Hardening . 51
2.1.4. Single-Phase, Solution-Hardened Alloys Used
in Cryogenic Applications 53
2.1.5. AlloY Stabilized High-Temperature Phases . 57
2.2. Yield and Flow in Precipitation-Hardened
Alloys '" 67
2.2.1. Simple Binary Alloys 68
2.2.2. Precipitation-hardened Alloys Used in Cryogenic Applications . 70
2.3. Yield and Flow in Two-Phase Alloys 78
2.3.1. Soft, Ductile Second Phases 79
2.3.2. Hard, Ductile Second Phases . . . 79
2.3.3. Soft, Brittle Second Phases . . . 80
2.3.4. Hard, Brittle Second Phases . . . . 80
2.4. Yield Drops and Serrated Stress-Strain Curves. 81
2.4.1. Yield Drops . 82
2.4.2. Serrated Stress-Strain Curves . 84
Note Added in Proof . 88
References 90
Chapter 3 Fracture . 93
3.1. Basic Mechanisms of Ductile and Brittle
Failure . . . 94
3.1.1. Ductile Fracture . 96
3.1.2. Brittle Fracture . 102
3.2. Crack Propagation: Fracture Toughness 111
3.2.1. The Energy Balance Approach 111
3.2.2. The Fracture Mechanics Approach 114
3.2.3. Measurement of Fracture Toughness " . . 119
3.2.4. The Relationship between Strength and Toughness in Metals . 126
3.2.5. Applied Fracture Mechanics " . . 129
3.2.6. The Effect of Temperature on Fracture Toughness . . . . 134
3.3. The Ductile-Brittle Transition in Ferrous
Metals . " 138
3.3.1. The Basic Problem . 138
3.3.2. Transition Temperatures in Ferrous Alloys 148
3.3.3. Testing for Resistance to Brittle Failure . 150
3.4. Time-Dependent Failure " 163
3.4.1. Fatigue . 164
3.4.2. Corrosion and Embrittlement . 171
References 174Contents xiii
Chapter 4 The Properties of Nonmetals 177
4.1. Polymers . 177
4.1.1. The Relationship between the Structure and
Mechanical Properties of Polymers 178
4.1.2. Polymeric Materials of Particular Interest for
Cryogenic Applications 210
4.2. Ceramics and Glasses . 226
4.3. Composites . 228
4.3.1. Basic Theory 231
4.3.2. Cryogenic Properties of Composites . 242
References 248
Chapter 5 Testing Methods and Techniques . 253
5.1. Basic Types of Cryostat and Cooling System 254
5.2. Modifications, Variations, and Special-Purpose Attachments 258
5.2.1. Multiple-Specimen Testing . 258
5.2.2. Compression Testing . 261
5.2.3. Flexural, Torsional, and Other Tests 262
5.2.4. Fatigue Testing . 265
5.2.5. Impact Testing 266
5.3. Extensometry . 267
5.3.1. Resistive Strain Gauges .• 269
5.3.2. Displacement Transducers 270
5.3.3. Capacitance Gauges . 271
References 271
Chapter 6 Design and Materials Selection Criteria 273
6.1. Compatibility . 275
6.1.1. Compatibility with Liquid Oxygen and Other
Process Fluids . 275
6.1.2. Compatibility with the External Environment 278
6.2. Toughness 279
6.2.1. The Basic Problem . . . 279
6.2.2. Codes of Practice for Pressure-Containing Equipment . 280
6.2.3. Some Economic Implications of Designing to
Pressure Vessel Codes . . 283
6.3. Practicability . 286
6.3.1. Availability of Materials . 286
6.3.2. Availability of Reliable Design Data 288
6.3.3. Availability of Suitable Forming Equipment and
Techniques . 289
6.3.4. Jointing Techniques . 290
6.4. Economic Considerations . " 295xiv Contents
6.5. Other Technical Considerations .• 297
6.5.1. Density . 297
6.5.2. Specific Heat 298
6.5.3. Thermal Expansion 300
6.5.4. Electrical Conductivity . 302
6.5.5. Thermal Conductivity 303
6.5.6. Other Physical Properties . 306
References • • • . 307
Appendix 1 A Brief Summary of the American Aluminum
Association Alloy and Temper Designation
System . 309
Appendix II Conversion Table for the Units Most Commonly Used to Measure Stress or Pressure . . 311
Appendix III Some Important Cryogenic Temperatures 312
Index
Subject Index
Acicular structures, 78
A D MerkbJatter design codes, 283
Adhesives, 210, 217-220, 269
Adiabatic deformation, 84-85
Adiabatic shear rupture, 97
Admiralty brass, 53-55
Age hardening, 67-78
AI-Fin technique, 293
Alkali metals, 23 (see also under
individual metals)
Allotropic transformations
in iron, 57-58
in titanium, 65
Alloy stabilized high-temperature phases,
57-67
Aluminum
as deoxidant, 146
effect of temperature on fatigue in, 162
as gasket, 216
mechanical properties of pure, 18, 20, 23
recrystallization in, 41
as vapor barrier, 246
Aluminum alloys
cryogenic properties of, 56-57, 70-76
dip brazing of, 293
formability of, 289
fracture toughness of, 135
LOX compatibility of, 274, 276
precipitation hardened, 68-76
welding of, 291
1000 series, 71-74, 309
2000 series, 68,71,72,73,74,309
3000 series, 57, 309
5000 series, 56-57, 71-74, 309
6000 series, 309
7000 series, 7G-76, 309
B.95,74-75
Aluminum copper crystals, 68-70
Aluminum silver crystals, 69
Aluminous cement, 228
Amorphous polymers, 182-187
Annealing, 40-42
Antiferromagnetism, 89
317
Applied fracture mechanics, 129-134
Araldite (Epoxy)
linear thermal contraction, 301
specific heat of, 299, 300
Armco Iron, 26, 30
ASME 8 design code, 279, 280, 282, 284,
285, 286, 296
Ausformed steel, 127
Austenite ductile cast iron, 80
Austenitic steels, see Stainless steels
Availability
of materials, 275, 286-288
of reliable data, 275, 288-289
of suitable equipment and techniques,
289-290
Axial ratio (cia), 31
Axiality in tensile tests, 255, 260
Ball-rebound test, 201-204
Barrier layers, 221, 223, 246-248
Basal plane, and cleavage failure, 105
Basal slip, 31-33
Bearing materials, 225-226
Bearing strength, of glass reinforced
plastics, 242, 244-
Bend tests, 3- and 4-point, 262-263,
265
Bent-beam extensometers, 269, 270
Beryllium
LOX compatibility of, 274
mechanical properties of, 31, 36
Beryllium copper, 53, 76
Beta brass, 78, 79
Biaxially wound GRP cylinders, 247
Body centered cubic metals, effect of
temperature on mechanical properties,
23-31, 36-39
Boron-reinforced composites, 247
Brass, mechanical properties of, 53-55, 78,
79
Brazing, 292-293318
British Standards
B.S. 1500, 280, 282
B.S. 1515,280,283,284
British Welding Research Association
(BWRA) wide-plate test, 154-155, 157,
162
Brittle fracture, basic mechanisms, 94-96,
102-111
Brittleness temperature in polymers,
186, 193
Burgers vector, 18, 19, 38, 105, 107
"Burst" dislocation formation, 84
Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers, 214
Butadiene-styrene copolymers, 214
Butyl rubber, 181,214
Cadmium, mechanical properties of, 33,
34,36,40
Calibration of extensometers, 269
Capacitance gauge transducers, 271
Carbon
as interstitial impurity, 25, 27,48,51,82
effect on transition temperature, 144,
145
Carbon fibers, 230, 247, 248
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, 247-248
Carrier, use in adhesive joints, 218
Cast iron, 78, 80
Casting resins, 205
Cement, 228
Cementite, 58, 78, 80-81
Ceramics, 226-228, 229
Cesium, 23
Charpy tests, 138, 140, 159-163, 281
specimen orientation relative to rolling
direction, 159-160
Chevron markings, 118-119
Chisel-edged failure, 96
Chisel-point failure, 97
Chromium, 27
Ciment Fondu, 228
Cleanliness, importance of, 278
Cleavage, in hcp metals, 31, 33, 36
Cleavage cracks
initial growth of, 107-111
nucleation mechanisms, 103-107
Cleavage failure
definition of, 94
in steel, 141
Cleavage failure stress, relationship with
yield stress, 102-103
Cleavage plane, 94
Coatings, 217-220
Codes of practice
economic implications, 283-286
Subject Index
Codes of practice (Continued)
in pressure vessel design, 280-286
proof stress (codes), 283
tensile stress (codes), 282-283
Coextruded joints, 294
Cold drawing, in polymers, 185-186,
192-193
Cold flow, 213-215
Cold spots, 134
Cold work, effect on brittle fracture, 110
Columbium, see Niobium
Commercial bronze, 53
Compatibility, 274, 275-279
with external environment, 274,
278-279
with LOX and other process fluids,
275-278
Compensated sleeve joint, 294-295
Composites, 221-248
Compression cylinder, in tensile tests, 255
Compression set, 215
Compression tests, 261-262
Compressive strength, of glass-reinforced
plastics, 242, 243
Constantan, 55
Continuous-flow tensile cryostats, 256,
257
Copper
formability and uses of, 286, 290
LOX compatibility of, 276
mechanical properties of, 15-17, 21-23,
53,87
Copper-based alloys, cryogenic properties
of, 53-56, 87-88
Copper-zinc crystals, 50
Corrosion and embrittlement, 171-174
Corrosion fatigue, 170, 171
Costing, see Design criteria; Economic
cOIlsideratjons
Cottrell, mechanism for nucleation of
cleavage cracks, 104, 105
Cottrell-Stokes law, 20, 27, 34
Crack arrest temperature, 149, 150, 152,
154, 157
definition of, 149
Crack growth, detection of, 121
Crack opening displacement test, 115,
155-157
Crack propagation, 111-138 (see also
Fracture toughness)
energy balance approach, 111-114
Crack resistance force, Gc (toughness),
definition of, 114
Creep
in adhesives, 219
in metals, 2, 21, 39-40
in polymers, 196-198Subject Index
Critical resolved shear stress (c.r.s.s.), 10, 12,
16,17,51
Critical stress intensity factor, Ke (fracture
toughness), defmition of, 114
Critical transfer length, Ie' 235
Critical volume fraction, Vcrit' 233
Crosslinking, 178,204-206
Cross slip, 13-14, 16, 17, 19,21,27,'33
Cryogenic Data Book (UCRL), 43
Cryogenic Materials Data Handbook, ix,
43
Cryogenic stretch forming, 39
Crystalline polymers, 187-194
Crystalline polymers, stress - strain
curves, 192
Cup and cone fracture mode, 98-100
Cupronickel,55
Damping in polymers, 198-200
Data, availability of, 275, 288-289
Debye temperatures, 298, 299, 300
Deformation twinning, 9, 10, 26, 31,32,
84, 87
Degree of plastic constraint, effect on
transition temperatures, 141
Density, 297-298
Deoxidizers, 145, 146
Design criteria, 273-307
and fracture transition temperatures,
150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 157-158, 161
Differential contraction, 217, 262,
294-295,301,302
Differential tensile tests, 19
Diffusion-bonded joints, 294
DiglycidyI ether of bisphenol A (epoxy
resin), 181
Discaloy, 257
Discontinuous slip, 87
Dislocations
and plastic deformation, 12-21, 24-30, 34-
36,38,40
influence on cleavage crack propagation,
110,111
interaction with precipitates, 67, 69, 70
pinning by impurities, 25, 82-84
role in fatigue, 162
Dislocation structures
in bcc metals, 27-30
in fcc metals, 18-21
in hcp metals, 34-35
Displacement transducers, 270-271
Double-cup mode of fracture, 88, 89
Double shear tests, specimen configuration,
259
Draw stress, definition of, 185-186
Drop weight tear test, 163
Drop weight tests for polymers, 207,
208
319
Ductile - brittle transition, 38, 80, 102-111,
138-163,280
basic concepts, 102-111, 138-148
basic mechanisms, 103, 104
due to grain size variation, 108-109
effect of composition, 144-148
effect of degree of plastic constraint,
141-143
effect of material size, 143
effect of metallurgical structure, 143-144
effect of strain rate, 141
experimental tests, 150-163
in polymers, 207
transition temperatures in ferrous
alloys, 148-150
Ductile fracture, basic mechanisms,
94-102
Ductility
definition of, 4
effect of temperature on, 21, 22,26,
32
Duplex alloys, 78-81
Dynamic effects in polymers, 198-204
Easy glide, 13,31,32,51,68
Ebonite foams, 225
Economic considerations, 275, 283-286,
295-297
EicheIman - Hull equation, 88
Elastic constants, 7-8
Elastic deformation, 6-9
Elastic limit, definition of, 3
Elastic modulus of polymers, 179, 184,
213
Elastomeric behavior in polymers, 178,
180,187,200,214
Elastomers, 213-216
definition of, 178
LOX compatibility of, 210, 214, 277
specific heat of, 299, 300
thermal conductivity of, 305
Electrical conductivity, 302-303
Elgiloy,76
E.L.1. grade titanium, 66
Elongation, definition of, 4, 5
Emissivity, 307
Endurance limit, 162
Engineering strain, definition of, 2
Engineering stress, defmition of, 2
Enthalpy, 299
Environmental stress cracking, 209
Epoxy foams, 223-224
Epoxy - nylon adhesives, 218, 219
Epoxy-phenolic adhesives, 219320
Epoxy resins, 205, 242-245,247-248
Equiaxed structures, 78
Eutectoid transformation in steel, 80
Extensometers, 260, 267-271
attaclunent of, 268-269
Face centered cubic metals, effect of
temperature on, 16-25,36-39
Fatigue, 164-171
of aluminum alloys, 168
in composites, 209, 241, 244-245
and discontinuity in S - N curves,
169-170
effect of temperature on, 162-164
experimental techniques, 265-266
and fracture toughness, 132, 134
of Inconel, 167, 168
in polymers, 209
relationship to notch sensitivity, 125
of stainless steel, 169
of titanium alloys, 168
Fatigue cracks, use in fracture toughness
testing, 121
Fatigue limit, 165-166
FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene
copolymer), 210, 212, 213, 219
Ferrite, 58, 80, 81
Ferromagnetism, 60, 89-90
Fiber-reinforced composites
cryogenic properties of, 242-248
effect of fiber orientation on, 236-240
failure of, 240-242
notch toughness of, 240-242
theory for continuous fibers, 232-234
theory for discontinuous fibers, 234-236
Fibers, 220-222, 229-231
mechanical properties of, 230
Fibrous rupture, 96, 97
Filament-wound composites, 246-248
Fillers
use in thermoplastics, 211, 212, 213
use in thermosetting resins, 205-206, 218
Films, 210-211, 220-222, 246
Flanged and bolted joints, 294-295
Flaw shape parameter, 130-134
Flaw size safety factor, 133-134
Flexural strength, of glass-reinforced
plastics, 242, 243, 244
Flexural tests, 262-263
Flow curve, definition of, 5
Flow stress
and adiabatic deformation, 84-86
definition of, 5
in bcc metals, 27-30, 51
in fcc metals, 19-21, 50
in hcp metals, 34-36
Subject Index
Fluorel,214
Fluorinated ethylene - propylene copolymer
(FEP), 210, 212, 213, 219
Fluorine, compatibility problems, 277-278
Fluxes, 292-293
Foam-insulated tensile cryostat, 254-255
Foams, 222-225
Fracture analysis diagram, 148-150
Fracture strain, definition of, 4
Fracture stress, definition of, 4
Fracture toughness, 111-138
applied fracture mechanics, 129-134
basic fracture mechanics, 114-119
effect of temperature on, 134-138
effect of thickness on, 117-119, 136-138
measurement of, 119-126
relationship between strength and toughness, 126-129
Fracture toughness, Kc' definition of, 114
Fracture transition elastic (PTE), 150, 161
definition of, 150
Fracture transition plastic (FTP), 150,
161
Free cutting brass, 78-79
Friction stress, 14, 26, 27, 109
effect of temperature in bcc metals, 27
thermal (T *) and athermal (T C)
components, 19, 27-30, 34-36, 50
Friction welded joints, 294
Fringe-micelle model, 188
Gaskets, 210, 213-216
Gauge length, definition of, 2
German silver, 56
Glass, 226-228
microcracks in, 113,226-228
thermal conductivity of, 304, 305
Glass fibers, 228, 230, 231, 236, 238, 245
Glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GRP's), 221,
229,231,242-247
barrier layers for, 221, 246-248
cryogenic properties of, 242-247
thermal conductivity of, 305, 306
Glass transition in polymers, 179-182, 183,
184, 201, 202
Glass transition temperature, definition of,
180
Glue line, 218
Glyptal, specific heat of, 299
Goodman diagram, 170, 171
Grain boundaries, effect on cleavage crack
initiation and propagation, 105, 111,
144
Grain boundary embrittlement, 78, 144,
145Subject Index
Grain rerming agents, 145,146
Grain size, effect on brittle fracture, 108-
109, 143, 144
Graphite, 78, 80
as bearing material, 225
Griffith cracks, 111-114, 208, 226, 227
Group Va and VIa metals, 27
Gruneisen Coefficient, r ,300
Guinier-Preston (G.P.) zones, 68, 69
H film (polyimide), 220
Hafnium, 33
Hall-Petch equation, 14, 19, 26, 108,
110
Hard soldering, 79
Hard tensile testing machines, 88
Hardness, measurement of, 263
Hastelloy,76
Haynes, 25, 76
Hexagonal close packed metals, effect of
temperature on mechanical properties,
30-36, 36-39
"Hi-proof" stainless steels, 63, 64, 88-90
High-energy shear failure, 118, 128, 140
High strain fatigue, 169-170
High-strength materials, toughness of,
127-128
Homologous temperature, definition of, 36
Honeycomb structures, 219, 224
Hookean springs, 194
Hot cracking, 64
Hydride formation, 173
Hydrogen embrittlement, 163, 172-174
Hydrogen, interstitial impurity, 27, 172-174
Ignition, in high-pressure oxygen, 281, 307
Impact tests, 138, 140, 159-163, 281
experimental technique, 266-267
for polymers, 207
Inconel,56
Inconel 718, 76
Inconel X, 76
Indium, 39-40, 216
Initial flow stress, dermition of, 5
Insurance company requirements, 280,
281,297
Intergranular fracture, dermition of, 95
Interlaminar shear strength, measurement of,
263
Internal friction, 8
Interstitial impurities
and dislocation pinning, 6,24,25,27,28,
35,36,48,82
and sharp yield points, 48, 82
in titanium, 35, 66
Intrinsic permeability, 60
321
Invar,58
linear contraction of, 300, 301
Iron, mechanical properties of, 26-30, 83
Iron-based alloys, cryogenic properties of,
57-65
Irradiation, effect on polymers, 209
Joint configuration for 0 ring seals,
217,218
Jointing techniques, 290-295
brazing and soldering, 292-293
flanged and boitedjoints, 294-295
transition pieces, 293-295
welding, 290-292
Kaptan, 221
KEL-F (polychlorotrifluoroethylene),
210-213, 220, 221
Killed steels, 146
Knife-edge failure, 96, 97
Kromarc-55, 60
Kynar (polyvinylidene fluoride), 220, 221
Laminates, 206
Lattice hardening, in bcc metals, 28
Leak-before-break criterion, 134
Linearly variable differential inductance
transducer (LVDI), 270-271
Linearly' variable differential transformer
transducer (LVDT), 270-271
Lithium, 23
Lithium fluoride, 82
Loaded needle penetrometer test, 182-
183, 201, 202
Lomer-Cottrell barriers, 13, 15
Long chain molecules, 177-178
Lorentz ratio, 304
Loss modulus, 199-200
Low-angle tilt boundary and cleavage crack
initiation, 104, 105
Low-cycle fatigue, 169-170
Low-energy shear fracture, 113, 127, 163
Low-strength materials, toughness of, 128
LOX compatibility, 210, 214, 219, 274,
275-281
Ludwik- Davidenkow - Orowan criterion,
141-142
Liiders bands, 6, 83
Magnesium
LOX compatibility of, 274
mechanical properties of, 31, 33, 35
Magnetic permeability, 60, 63322
Manganese, effect on transition temperature,
145,146
Manson -Coffm law, 169
Maraging steel, 77
Martensitic transformation
in alkali metals, 23
in austenitic stainless steel. 60-63, 88-90
and serrated stress-strain curves, 86
Materials Manual (U. S. Steel), 43
Matrix materials for fiber-reinforced
composites, 229, 232
Matthiessen's rule, 302
Maxwell model of viscoelasticity, 194-196
Medium-strength materials, toughness of,
128
Mercury, creep in, 40
Metal Inert Gas (M.I.G.) process, 291, 292
Metallography at low temperatures, 263
Metallurgical structure, effect on transition
temperatures, 143
Microplasticity, 9-12
Microyield stress, defInition of, 3
Mild steel, 6, 82
fatigue limit in, 165-166
Miner's rule (for cumulative fatigue
damage), 170
Mixed fracture, defmition of, 95
Moisture
effects of, 278, 291
removal of, 279
Molecular orientation, 186, 193
Molybdenum, 27, 83
Monel,56
Monel K, 76
Monel S, 76
Multiple slip, 15
Multiple-specimen testing, 258-262
Muntz metal, 79
Mylar (pET, polyethylene terephthalate),
181,210,212-213,216,217,220,221,
222, 246, 277
LOX compatibility of, 277
Natural aging, 78
Natural cracks, for fracture
toughness tests, 121
Natural draw ratio, 186
Natural rubber, 181, 214
Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) ring
tests, 245
Necking, 97, 185-186, 192-193
Neoprene, 181, 214
Newtonian fluids, 194
Nickel
as barrier layer in GRP's, 246
Subject Index
Nickel (Continued)
influence on transition temperatures in
steel. 146-148
mechanical properties of, 16-17, 20
Nickel-based alloys
cryogenic properties of, 56
Nickel-cobalt crystals, 51, 52
Nickel silver, 55,56
Nil-ductility temperature (NDT), 149,
150, 153, 154, 160-161
defmition of, 149
Nilo 36, 58
Nine percent nickel steel, 146-148
welding of, 291
Niobium, mechanical properties of, 24-25,
27,31
Nitrile-phenolic adhesives, 218, 219
Nitrogen
effect on transition temperature, 145
interstitial impurity, 25, 27, 48, 82
Nitroso rubber, 214
Nomex-nylon paper, 221
Nonlinear viscoelasticity, 197
Normal rupture, 96, 98
Notch brittleness, 124-126, 141-142
tests for, 124-126
Notch toughness, of fiber-reinforced
composites, 240-242'
Notched-tensile strength, 63, 66
Notches
and fatigue, 166
as stress concentrators, 111, 112
Nylon, 181,212-213,216
O.C.M.A. design code, 157-159
Offset yield stress, 3
o rings, 214, 215, 216
Oxygen, interstitial impurity, 27, 48,
82, 145
Parabolic hardening, 14, 18
Pearlitic steels, 80-81, 143, 144
feel tests, 218
Peierls-Nabarro stress, 20, 28
Pellini drop weight test, 152-153
Percentage crystallinity, 161
in thermoplastics, 212, 213
Percentage elongation, effect of temperature
in fcc metals, 22
Permeability, 60, 63
PET (nylon, polyethylene terephthalate),
181,210,212-213,216,217,220,
221, 222, 246
Phenol-formaldehyde resin, 181
Phenolics, 181, 222, 242, 244Subject Index
Phosphorus, 145
Plain carbon steel, 138-140
Plane strain fracture toughness, 117
Plastic constraint, 117
Plastic deformation
general aspects, 1-2,9-16
polycrystals, 1:4-16, 18, 26-27,33-34
single crystals, 12-14,16-17,24-25,31-33
Plastic zone correction factor, defmition
of,115
Polychloroprene, 181,214
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (KelF),
210-213, 220, 221
Polydimethyl siloxane (silicone rubber),
181, 214
Polyester foams, 224
Polyester resin, 229, 242-245, 247
Polyethylene, 181, 188, 189,222
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 181,
210,212-213,216, 217, 220, 221,
222, 246
Polyhexamethylene adipamide (Nylon 6.6),
181, 212-213, 216
Polyimide (H) film, 220
Polyisobuty1ene, 181, 214
Polyisoprene, 181, 214
Polymers
environmental compatibility, 278
failure in, 206-209
LOX compatibility of, 277
specific heat of, 299
thermal conductivity of, 304-305
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 181,
202, 203, 209
Polypropylene, 181, 222
Polystyrene, 181, 190-192, 222
Polysulfides, 214
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 181,
189-190,198,204,212-216,220
Polyurethane adhesive, 203, 204, 218, 219
Polyurethane foams, 224
Polyviny1chloride, 181, 185-186, 222
Polyvinylfluoride (Tedlar), 220
Polyvinylidene fluoride, 220, 221
Pop-in,121-123
Porous bronze/PTFE bearings, 225
Porosity in glass-reinforced plastics, 238,
246-247
Portevin - LeChatelier effect, 83
Potassium, 23
Precipitation-hardened alloys
cryogenic properties of, 67-78
welding of, 77-78
Pressure vessels, codes of practice, 280-286
Prisniatis; slip, 32
Proof stress, definition of, 3
Proof tests, 133-134
PTFE/bronze/graphite bearings, 225-
226
PTFE/g1ass-fiber composites, 214
PTFE 0 rings, 265
Pure shear failure, 96
Pyramidal slip, 33
Pyroceram, 227
R-curves,123
Recovery, 40-42
Recrystallization, 41-40
of polymer chains, 193
323
Reduction in area, 4,74,97,99,101
effect of second-phase particles, 99, 101
effect of temperature on, 22-23
Reflectivity, 307
Relaxation time, T, 194-196, 200
Rene, 41, 76
Resins
specific heat of, 299
thermal conductivity of, '304, 305
Retardation time, T, 197, 200
Robertson test, 151-152, 153
Rubbers, definition of, 178
Rubidium, 23
Sealants, 213-216
Seals, 210, 213-216
Season cracking, 172
Secant offset criterion, 123
Secondary bonds in polymers, 180
Secondary glass transitions, 203-204, 208
Second phase particles
effect on cleavage crack initiation, 105
effect on failure, 97, 98, 99, 101
Selection of materials, 273-307
Sensitization, 64
Serrated stress-strain curves, 32, 34, 53,
54, 59, 62, 84-88
Sharp yield points, 6, 25, 30
Shear failure, definition of, '94
Shear modulus, 38
Shear rupture, 96, 97
Shear stress, 6, 10, 38
Sigma phase, 65
Silane primers, 219-220
Silica fibers, 230
Silicon, as deoxidant, 146
Silicone rubber, 181, 214
Silver
as gasket, 216
mechanical properties of, 20
Size of materials, design criteria and,
287-289324
Slant failure, 96
Sliding-off failure, 96, 97
Slip systems, 10, 31
S-N curves, 165-110
Sodium, 23
Soldering, 292-293
Solute concentration, effect on flow stress
in bee metals, 29-30
Solution-hardened alloys
cryogenic properties of, 53-57
mechanical properties of, 48-67
Solution hardening
in bcc metals, 28-30
in hcp metals, 35, 36
Specific heat, 298-300
and adiabatic deformation, 84-86
Specimen configurations for Kc tests, 120
Spheroidal graphite (S.G.) cast iron, 80
Spheroidization, 78, 81
Spherulites, 188
Spontaneous transformation in stainless
steels, 61-63
Stacking fault energy, ),,18,21,38,86
Stainless steel
compatibility with fluorine, 277-278
compatibility with LOX, 276, 278
"Hi-proof' grades, 63, 64, 88-90
properties of, 58-65, 77, 88-90
serrated stress-strain curves, 86
welding of, 64-65, 89, 291
type A286, 60, 77
type 17-7 PH, 77
type 202, 65
types 304 and 304L, 61-63, 86, 88-90
type 310,58-60,86,88-90
type 316, 61, 63, 88-90
type 321, 60, 61
type 347,60,61,63
Static fatigue
in glass-reinforced plastics, 241, 245
in polymers, 209
Stiffness of testing machines, 253
Storage modulus, 199-200
Strain aging, and fatigue limits, 166
Strain gauges, 260, 267, 269-270
Strain hardening, 4,12,15-18,24,31,33,
37,51,52,54,63,68,69
effects of solutes, 51, 52
and fatigue, 162
Strain rate
effect on deformation in thermoplastics,
177,179,184,186,194,202
effect on failure in polymers, 207
effect on transition· temperatures, 141
Strain sensors, 255
Strength/thermal conductivity ratio, 231,
305-306
Subject Index
Strength/we~htratio,66,230, 231,246
Stress concentration factors, 125
Stress corrosion, 171-172
Stress intensity factor, 114
Stress relaxation, 194-196
Stretcher strains, definition of, 6
Structural adhesives, 210, 217-220
Structure, use in adhesive joints, 218
Substitutional impurities, and dislocation
pinning, 48
Sulfur, 145
Sulfur contamination, 56, 58
Superparamagnetism, 89-90
Surface energy, )'8,107,108,110,113,208
Surface fmish, effect on fatigue, 164, 165
Tantalum, mechanical properties of, 27
Tedlar (polyvinylfluoride), 220
Temperature superposition theory, 201,
202
Tensile strength, defmition of, 4
of glass-reinforced plastics, 242, 245
Tensile test, terminology, 2-6
Testing methods and techniques, 253-272
Tests
drop weight tear, 281
impact, 281, 282, 283
notched tensile, 281
TFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), 210,
212-213, 214
Thermal conductivity, 303-306
of foams, 222
of polymers, 205
Thermal cycling, and martensitic
transformation, 61-63
Thermal expansion, 206, 300-302
Thermal expansion of thermosets, 206
Thermal fat~e, 170
Thermal shock, 205, 227, 245
Thermomechanical curves, 182-183,
190-191
Thermoplastics, defmition of, 177-178
Thermosetting plastics, 178, 204-206
Thermosetting plastics, defmition of, 178
Thiokol,214 .
Three-stage hardening, 13, 51
Time-dependent failure, 163-174
Tipper test, 163
Titanium
LOX compatibility of, 274, 276-277
mechanical properties of, 30-39
Titanium alloys
cryogenic properties of, 65-67
fracture toughness of, 132, 135
Titanium streaking, 64
Torsional tests, 264Subject lDdex
Toughened glass, 227
Toughness
in adhesive systems, 218
defmition of, 5
influence on design criteria, 273, 279-
280
micromechanisms of, 113-114
Transgranular fracture, definition of, 95
Transition metals, 23-31
effect of interstitial impurities, 24-30
Transition pieces, 293-295
Transition temperatures, 141-146, 148-150
Transitions in thermoplastics, effect of
temperature and time, 177, 179
Tresca criterion, 142
True strain, def'mition of, 5
True stress, defmition of, 4
Tufnol,206
Tungsten, 27
Tungsten Inert Gas (T.I.G.) process, 291
Twinning, 10, 25, 31-33
and cleavage crack nucleation, 106-107
Two-phase (duplex) alloys
mechanical properties of, 78-81
Ultimate tensile stress
defmition of, 4
effect of temperature in fcc metals, 21,
22
Ultraviolet light, effect on polymers, 209
Uniform elongation, definition of, 4
Vacuum seals, 39
Van der Veen test, 163
Van der Waals bonds, 180
Vanadium, mechanical properties of, 27
Viscoelastic behavior in polymers, 194-
198
Viscofluid state, in amorphous polymers,
184
Viscofluid transition in polymers, 183
Viton, 214, 277
Voids
influence on failure of polymers, 209
influence on properties of GRP's, 245
influence on toughness, 127
role in ductile failure, 95, 98-102, 127
Voigt model of viscoelasticity, 196-197
Volume fraction, effect on strength, 79
Von Mises criterion, 15, 142
Washers, use in stacks to minimize heat
leaks, 235
Water vapor
as plasticizer in polymers, 212
and static fatigue, 241, 245
Weak interfaces, 127
Wiedemann-Franz law, 304
Weld decay, 64
Welding
325
effect on toughness, 131, 154, 157, 159
and hydrogen embrittlement, 174
as jointing technique, 290-292, 293, 294
WLF shift function, 201, 202
Work hardening, defmition of, 4
Work of plastic deformation, "lp, 113, 127
Work of viscous flow, "lv' 208-209
Work softening, 84
Yield
in amorphous polymers, 185-186
in crystalline polymers, 192-193
drops and sharp yield points, 6, 30, 82-84
effect of temperature in bcc metals, 25-
30,37
effect of temperature in fcc metals, 22,
37
effect of temperature in hcp metals, 33,
34,36,37
general aspects, 9-16
polycrystals, 14-16, 18, 26-27, 33-34
in single crystals, 10-12, 24-25, 31-33
Yield elongation, defmition of, 6
Yield stress
definition of, 3
effect of solutes on, 48-51
Young's modulus
definition of, 3
effect of impurities and cold work, 8
temperature dependence of, 7-9
Zener, mechanism for nucleation of
cleavage cracks, 104-105
Zinc, mechanical properties of, 31, 32,33,
36
Zirconium, mechanical properties of
x
Abbott, W.K., 92
Algie, S.H., 92
Allen, G.R., 307
Allen, N.P., 175
Alper, R.H., 46
Altshuler, T.L., 44,262
American Society for
Mechanical Engineers,
307
American Society for
Metals, 91, 174, 307
American Society for Testing
and Materials, 42, 174,
175,176,249
Anderson, E., 45
Anderson, W.J., 251
Andrews, E.H., 248
Andrianov, Yu. E., 272
Argon, A.A., 42, 45
Arko, A., 40, 45
Arp, V.D., 272
Arsenault, R.J., 28, 40, 44,
45,46,254,256,271
Aseff, G.V., 272
Asby, M.F., 92
Averbach, B.L., 42, 92, 174
Backofen, W.A., 44, 174
Baer, E., 251
Bailey, C.D., 220, 251
Baldwin, D.H., 45
Baldwin, W.M., 101, 175
Barrett, C.S., 45
Barron, R., 42
Basinski, Z.S., 43, 44, 45, 85,
87,92,256,272
Beale, B.T., 251
Beall, R.J., 251
Beardmore, P., 45
Bechtold, J.H., 45
Begley, J.A., 308
Behrsing, G.V., 257, 272
Bell, R.L., 45
Bell, T.I., 250
Berry, J.P., 250
Biggs, W.D., 175
Bilby, B.A., 82,92
Bilello, J.C., 45
Billmeyer, F.W., 248
Bily, M., 169, 176
Biorkland, W.R., 250
Birmingham, B.W., 42,92,
251
Bisson, E.E., 251
Blewitt, T.H., 16,44,87,
92
Boas, W., 42
BoeHner, R.C., 176
Boughton, P., 308
Bowen, D.K., 45
Boyd, G.M., 163, 176
Boyle, R.W., 175
Breedis, J.F., 92
Brennan, J.A., 251
Brickner, K.G., 92
Brink, N.O., 252
Brisbane, A.W., 125, 175
British Standards Institution,
307
Broadwell, R.G., 92
Broutman, L.J., 42, 231, 249
Brown, N., 272
Brown, W.F., 117,118,120,
122,123,174,175
Bueche, F., 248
Bunn, C.W., 189,249
Burdekin, F.M., 156, 157,
176
Burns, K.W., 145, 176
Burwood-Smith, A., 252
Byrne, J.G., 70, 92
Cahn, R.W., 45
Callaway, R.F., 272
Cambell, J.D., 175
Cambell, J.E., 44, 272
313
Caren, R.P., 238, 251
Carlson, O.N., 45
Carlson, R.L., 44, 272
Carrekar, R.P., 22,44
Chafey, J.E., 307
Chamberlain, D.W., 242,
243,244,252,265,272
Chechel'nitskii, G.G., 272
Chelton, D.B., 92
Chiarito, P.T., 269, 272
Chin, G.Y., 44, 98,174
Chiou, c., 92
Christian, J.L., 44, 92,125,
l37,175,272,307
Christian, J.W., 45, 92
Codd, R.M., 44
Codlin, Ellen M., 43
Cohen, M., 92
Collins, S.C., 92
Colston, R.M., 251
Coltman, R.R., 44, 92
Conrad, H., 29, 35, 36, 38,
43,44,45
Conte, R.R., 43
Cook, J., 240, 252
Cooper, A., 251
Corruccini, R.J., 43, 307
Cottrell, A.H., l3, 15, 20,
27,34,42,44,82,84,92,
104,105,107,175
Cox, H.L., 240, 252
Coxe, E.F., 251
Cratchley, D., 251
Croft, A.J., 292, 308
Davis, H.R., 174
Davis, J.W., 252
Denton, W.H., 43
Derungs, W.A., 158, 176
Desai, M.B., 252
De Sisto, T.S., 34, 37,
45, 272
Dew-Hughes, D., 92314
Dimitrov, 0., 46
Dixon, C.E., 308
Doherty, D.J., 251
Doremus, R.H., 249
Dorn, J.E., 28, 45
Drucker, D.C., 174
Dubus, F., 251
Dudzinski, N., 44
Duke, W.M., 42
Durcholz, R.L., 271, 272
Eash, D.T., 266, 272
Eberly, W.S., 91
Edelson, B.l., 101, 175
Eichelman, G.H., 92
Emmons, W.F., 272
Englehardt, V., 250
Eschbacher, E.W., 176
Etheridge, B.R., 173, 176
Ezekial, F.D., 92
Favor, R.J., 272
Ferry,"J.D., 248, 249
Fetkovitch, J.G., 250
Fiedlev, H.C., 92
Fields, T.H., 250
Findley, W.N., 249
Fine, M.E., 44, 92
Flanigan, A.E., 174
Fleischer, R.L., 28, 36,45
Flom, D.G., 251
Flory, P.J., 249
Foxall, R.A., 44
Frank, F.C., 44, 250
Franz, H., 44
Freche, J.C., 176,272
Freeman, S.M., 251
French, R.S., 49, 92
Friedel, J., 110, 175
Gaffney, J., 7, 44
Gaigher, H.L., 45
Gibbons, H.P., 43, 71, 73, 91
Gibbs, H.G., 249
Gideon, D.N., 272
Gilbert, A., 45
Gillam, E., 249
Gilman, 1.1., 82, 92, 104,
174,175
Gindin, l.A., 44, 45,258,
260,272
Glen, 1.W., 40, 46
Gniewek, J.J., 307
Gopal, E.S.R., 43, 300,
307
Gorden, M., 202, 240, 249,
250,252
Gosnell, R.B., 250
Greetham, G., 68, 92
Grieveson, B.M., 202, 250
Griffm, J.D., 251
Griffith, A.A., 111, 112, 113,
114,115,144,175,208,
226
Grove, C.S., 246, 249
Grover, H.J., 272
Gunter, C.S., 61, 62, 92
Guter, M., 307
Haasen, P., 16,44, 92
Hahn, G. T., 45, 83, 92
Halford, P., 295, 308
Hall, E. 0.,14,19,26,44,
92, 108, 144
Hands, B.A., 44
Hanson, M.P., 247, 252, 254,
272
Hargreaves, R., 225, 251
Harper, J.H., 252
Haselden, G.G., 42
Haskins, J.F., 251
Hauser, R.L., 44,175,277,
307
Haward, R.N., 250
Heaver, R.A., 252
Hernandez, H.P., 92
Herring, R.N., 250
Hertz, J., 217, 219, 246,
250, 251, 252
Heyes, I.E., 272
Hibbard, W.R., 22,44,45,
49,92
Hill, R., 251
Hirsch, P.B., 44
Hoare, F.E., 43,271,308
Holiday, L., 251
Holister, G.S., 249
Holland, W.D., 251
Holmes, A.M.C., 251
Holt, D.B., 43
Honda, R., 175
Honeycombe, R.W.K., 40,
42,68, 91. 92
Hopkins, D.E., 175
Horsley, R.A., 208, 250
Hosford, W.F., 44, 174
Howells, E.R., 189, 249
Hughes, F.A., 42
Hull, D., 42, 44, 45,107,
175,256,263,272
Hull, F.C., 92
Hulsebos, J., 251
Author Index
Huntington, H.B., 44
Hurd, R., 251
Hurlich, A., 44, 175
Ingram, A.G., 44
Inglis, C.E., 111, 175
International Nickel
Company, 91, 92,147
Irwin, G., 114, 115, 175
Jackson, L.C., 43, 271, 308
Jech, R.W., 251
Jenckel, E., 249
Johnson, E.W., 125, 175
Johnson, R.L., 225, 251
Johnson, W.G., 82, 92
Jorden, D.E., 308
Kargin, V.A., 183, 191,249
Kaufman, J.G., 125, 175
Kausen, R.C., 219, 250
Keeping, W., 307
Keh, A.S., 45
Keifer, T.l., 43, 176, 250,
252, 266
Keller, A., 188,249
Kelly, A., 43, 44, 92, 237,
249,251
Kelly, P.M., 30, 45
Kendell, E.G., 43, 68, 91
Kenny, N.T., 44
Kenny, P., 175
Keys, R.D., 43, 176, 250,
252,259,260,265,272
Khosla, G., 249
King, H.W., 92
King, W., 45
Kinney, G.F., 249
Klajvin, 0.,75,92,254,
256,272
Klein, E., 249
Klima, S.J., 176, 272
Koenig, J.L., 42,211,249
Kondorsky, E.I., 92
Koster, W., 44
Krafft, J.M., 122, 175
Krock, R.H., 42,231,249
Kropschot, R.H., 42, 251
Kula, E.B., 34, 37,45
Kuno, J.K., 219, 250
Kurti, N., 43, 271,308
Lagneborg, R., 92
Laird, C., 176Author Index
Landel, R.F., 249
Landrock, A.H., 249
Larbalestier. D.C 92
Lark, R.F., 221, 251
Lassila, A., 44, 92
Lau, S.S., 45
Law, D., 45
Lawley, A., 45
Laydon, L.M., 308
Lazan, B.J., 250
Lazerev, B.G., 44
Lazareva, M.B , 44
Lebeder, D.V., 272
Lester, G.R., 251
Liebfried, G., 69, 92
Liebschutz, A.M., 272
Light, J.S., 251
Lombardo, J.J., 279, 308
Lomer, W.M., 13, 15,44,84
Loria, E.A., 45
Low, J.R., 30,43,45,71,
91,103,174,175
Lucas, L.R., 257, 272
Lucey, J.A., 308
Ludtke, P.R., 250
McCammon, R.D., 167, 176,
265, 272
McClintock, F.A., 42, 175
McClintock, R.M., 42, 44,71,
73,91,175,251,255,264,
269, 272
McClure, G.M., 272
McDanels, D.L., 251
McEvily, A.J., viii, 42,126,
143,174,176,249
McGarry, F.J., 252
McGee, R.R., 44, 272
McLean, D., 15,40,42,91
McQueen, H.S., 272
Magelich, J.C., 92
Maloof, S.R., 45
Makin, M.J., 92
Mann, D.B., 42, 92
Mann, J., 250
Manning, 1.K., 44,272
Mark, H.F., 42,248
Marshall, 1., 249
Martin, H.L., 44
Martin, K.B., 250, 251
Massalski, T.B., 45
Masters, B.C., 45
Masters, J.N., 130, 131, 133,
175
Meaden, G.T., 43
Meiklejohn, W.H., 92
Mendelssohn, K., 42
Meyer, K.H., 187,249
Mikesell, R.P., 43, 53, 54,
91,92,264,272
Miller, R.N., 225, 251
Mitchell, T.E., 13,20,25,
43,44,45,50,91
Mohr, 1.G., 251
Molho, B., 245, 252
Morgan, P., 249
Mott, N.F., 40, 46
Mowers, R.E., 212, 220, 250
Mullins, L., 250
Mukherjee, A.K., 45
Nabarro,F.R.N., 19, 28,43
Nachtigall, A.J., 167, 168,
176,265,272
Nakada, Y., 45
Nicholls, C.M., 43
Nichols, R.W., 176
Nicholson, R.B., 92
Nieglisch, W.D., 250
Nielsen, L.E., 249
Ogorkiewicz, R.M., 249
Oleesky, S.S., 251
Orowan, E., 11,44,113,
141
Osgood, S.H., 43, 250
Outwater, 1.0., 235, 251
Overton, W.C., 7,44
Ovsyannikov, B.M., 272
Parker, E.R., 174
Partridge, P.G., 43
Peieris, R., 19,28, III
Pellini, W., 148, 149, 152,
153,155,175,176
Petch, N.l., 14, 19, 26,44,45,
107,108,110,144,175
Pewitt, E. G., 250
Pfaff, F., 52, 91
Phillips, L.N., 248, 252
Pickering, F.B., 145, 176
Picklesimer, M.L., 45
Polanyi, M., 11,44
Post, C.B., 91
Pratt, P.L., 175
Puttick, K., 100, 175
Puzak, P., 148, 149, 153,
175,176
315
Raffo, P. L., 45
Rajnak, S., 28, 45
Ranji, S., 45
Rauscher, W., 44
Read, W.T., 44
Redman, 1.K., 44,92
Reed, R.P., 22,43, 53, 54,
59,61,62,91,92,256,
270, 271
Reed-Hill, R.E., 45
Rees, W.P., 175
Reid, C.N., 45, 106, 175
Rice, L.P., 272
Richards, H.T., 272
Rickards, P.l., 92
Risebrough, N.R., 32,45
Rizika, J.W., 92
Robbins, R.F., 203, 204,
250
Roberts, 1.M., 272
Robertson, T.S., 123, 151,
152,155,175
Robertson, W.D., 92
Robinson, D.E., 250
Robinson, R.J., 252
Rogers, H.C., 174, 176
Rosato, D.V., 246, 249
Rose-Innes, A.C., 43
Roseland, L.M., 218, 219,
250, 251,252
Rosen, B., 249, 251, 252
Rosenberg, H.M., 43,167,
176,254,256,263,265,
271,272
Rumpel, W.F., 277, 307
Rutherford, 1.L., 26, 45, 92
Sato, S., 44, 92
Saunders, D.W., 249
Schmid, E., 42
Schreihaus, F.A., 250
Schuerch, H., 252
Schuman, P.D., 250
Schuster, M.E., 176
Schwartzberg, F.R., 43, 91,
124,167,175, 176,250,
252,254,259,265,271,
272
Scott, R.B., 42, 43
Sedov, V.L., 92
Seeger, A., 44
Sepp, D.W., 92
Serafini, T.S., 42,211,249
Skochdopole, R.E., 251
Slonimsky, G.L., 183, 191,
249316
Smith, M.B., 219, 251
Smith, R.L., 26,45, 92
Soffer, L.M., 245, 252
Spaeder, C.E., 92
Spitzig, W.A., 45
Spreadborough, J., 45
Spurr, O.K., 250
Srawley, I.E., 117, 118,
120,122,123,174,175
Starodubov, Ya.D., 44, 45,
272
Stein, D.F., 29, 30,45,51, 91
Stepanov, A.V., 75, 92
Stickley, G.W., 272
Stoiker, L.R., 251
Stokes, R.J., 20, 27, 34, 44,
92
Stoy, S.T., 251
Stroh, A.N., 104, 107, 175
Stump, E.C., 250
Sullivan, A.M., 175
Susman, S. E., 219, 251
Sutton, W.H., 251
Takayangi, M., 189, 249
Tanalski, T.T., 175
Tantam, D.H., 225, 251
Taylor, G., 45, 261, 272
Taylor, G.I., 11,44
Tegart, W.J. MeG., 45
Teghtsoonian, E., 32, 45
Tetelman, A.S., viii, 42,
126,143,174,249
Thomas, A.G., 250
Thomas, C., 249
Thomas, G., 45
Thompson, A.B., 249
Thompson, R.W., 45
Tiffany, C.F., 130, 131,
133, 175
Timmerhaus, K.D., 42,91,
174,249,271,307
Tiner, N.A., 307
Tipler, H.R., 175
Tobolsky, A.V., 201, 249
Toth, J.M., 251
Treloar, L.R.G., 187, 249
Tsai, S.W., 236, 251
Tyson, W.R., 251
United States Steel Co.,
43,297,307
University of California
Radiation Laboratory
(UCRL),43
Uzhik, G.V., 92
Vance, R. W., 42
Van Vlack, L. H., 42, 249
Vincent, P. I., 209, 250
Von Mises, R., 15,44, 142
Von Susich, C., 249
Walker, W. R., 250
Warren, K. A., 22,43,59,91,
255, 270, 272
Author Index
Watson, J. F., 44, 92,125
175,259,260,272,307
Weertman, 1., 46
Weeton, J.W., 251
Weleff, W., 272
Weiss, V., 116, 176
Weitzel, D. H., 215, 216,
250
Wells, A.A., 115, 156, 175
Wessel, E.T., 92, 175, 256,
257,272
Westmoreland, G., 250
White, G.K., 43, 272, 292,
303,307
Wickstrom, W.A., 173, 176
Wigley, D.A., 252
Williams, M.L., 201, 249
Williams, T.R.G., 169, 176
WiIshaw, T.R., 175
Wilson, F.M., 250
Wilson, W.A., 251
Wisander, D.W., 225, 251
Witzell, W.E., 307
Wood, R.A., 92
Woodley, C.C., 155, 176
Wulff, J., vii, 42,249
Yorgiadis, A., 250
Yukawa, S., 116, 176
Zeilberger, E.J., 278, 307
Zener, C., 104,175
Zurkowski, N.B., 252


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