كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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 كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories

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كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories    كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories  Emptyالثلاثاء 20 سبتمبر 2022, 12:46 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
R. C. Gupta
Former Professor and Head
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology–BHU
Varanasi

كتاب Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories  F_f_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
1. Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories Need and Their Significance
1.1 Fuels
1.1.1 Definition
1.1.2 Classification of Fuels
1.1.3 Use of Fuels by Metallurgical Industries
1.1.4 Merits and Limitations of Fuels
1.1.5 Fuel Requirements by Some Major Metallurgical Units
1.2 Furnaces: Need and Type
1.2.1 Definition
1.2.2 Basic Features
1.2.3 Methods of Furnace Classification
1.2.4 Basic Components of Furnace
1.2.5 Factors Responsible for Selection of Furnace
1.3 Refractories
1.3.1 Definition and Function of Refractory
1.3.2 Classification of Refractory based on Chemical Nature
1.3.3 Classification of Refractory based on Other Considerations
1.3.4 Forms of Refractories: Shaped and Monolithic
1.3.5 Applications
1.3.6 Performance of Refractory
2. Solid FuelsCoal and Coke
2.1 Origin of Coal
2.1.1 Peat Formation (Biochemical Period)
2.1.2 Conversion of Peat into Coal (Dynamochemical Period)
2.2 Type, Rank, Class and Grade of Coal
2.3 Coal Constituents2.3.1 Petrological Constituents in Coal
2.3.2 Elemental Constituents in Coal
2.3.3 Constituents Important for Coal Use
2.4 Coal Classification
2.5 Properties of Coal and its Testing
2.5.1 Ultimate Analysis of Coal
2.5.2 Proximate Analysis of Coal
2.5.3 Caking Property of Coal and Test Methods
2.5.4 Fusion Behaviour of Coal (Coal Rheology or Plasticity)
2.5.5 Coal Ash Fusion Behaviour
2.5.6 Coal Calorific Value
2.5.7 Coal Grindability Test (HGI)
2.6 Coal Preparation and Cleaning
2.6.1 Impurities in Coal
2.6.2 Liberation of Impurities
2.6.3 Principles for Separation of Coal from Impurities
2.6.4 Coal Breaking Equipment
2.6.5 Coal Sizing Equipment
2.6.6 Coal Cleaning Methods
2.6.7 Hand Picking of Coal Impurities
2.6.8 Wet Gravity Separation
2.6.9 Dry Gravity Separation
2.6.10 Float and Sink Method
2.6.11 Froth Floatation Method
2.7 Coal Storage
2.7.1 Aim of Coal Storage
2.7.2 Problems with Coal Storage
2.7.3 Factors Promoting Natural Oxidation of Coal
2.7.4 Precautions Required during Storage
2.8 Coke Making
2.8.1 Coke Making Methods
2.8.2 Beehive Coke Making Method
2.8.3 Non-recovery Coke Oven Method2.8.4 By-product Coke Oven Method
2.9 Coke Properties and Testing
2.9.1 Coke Appearance
2.9.2 Cell Size
2.9.3 Coke Size
2.9.4 Coke Porosity
2.9.5 Coke Analysis
2.9.6 Coke Strength
2.9.7 Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR)
2.9.8 Coke Reactivity
2.10 Carbon Structure and its Reactivity
2.10.1 Carbon and its Structure
2.10.2 Carbon Structure and its Gasification Rate
2.10.3 Carbon Reactivity Determination Techniques
2.11 Coke Oven Emissions
2.12 Applications of Coal in Metallurgical Plants
2.12.1 Coke Making
2.12.2 Sponge Iron Making in Rotary Kilns
2.12.3 Smelting Reduction (SR) Process (COREX)
2.13 Use of Coke for Various Applications
2.13.1 Blast Furnace
2.13.2 Cupola
2.13.3 Water Gas
2.14 Numerical Problems
2.14.1 Surface Moisture
2.14.2 Proximate Analysis
2.14.3 Coal Blending and Coke Making
2.14.4 Coke Oven Design
3. Liquid Fuels
3.1 Origin of Liquid Fuels
3.2 Sources of Liquid Fuel
3.2.1 Crude Petroleum
3.2.2 Oil Shale3.2.3 Coal Tar Fuel (CTF)
3.2.4 Coal Liquefaction
3.3 Commonly Used Petroleum Products
3.3.1 Petrol (Gasoline)
3.3.2 White Spirit
3.3.3 Naphtha
3.3.4 Kerosene
3.3.5 Diesel
3.3.6 Furnace Oil
3.4 Properties and Testing Techniques for Liquid Fuels
3.4.1 Viscosity
3.4.2 Flash Point and Fire Point
3.4.3 Specific Gravity
3.4.4 Calorific Value
3.4.5 Sulphur in Oils
3.4.6 Carbon Residue
3.4.7 Ash Content
3.4.8 Cloud Point
3.4.9 Pour Point
3.4.10 Sludge and Sediments in Oil
3.4.11 Water in Oil
4. Gaseous Fuels
4.1 Natural Gas
4.2 Reformed Natural Gas
4.2.1 Technique Used by HyL III
4.2.2 Technique Used by MIDREX Process
4.3 LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) or Bottled Gas
4.4 Blast Furnace Gas
4.5 Coke Oven Gas
4.6 LD Steel Gas
4.7 COREX Gas
4.8 Producer Gas
4.8.1 Properties of Producer Gas4.8.2 Manufacturing Process of Producer Gas
4.8.3 Flexibility of Use of Fuel for Generating Producer Gas
4.8.4 Applications
4.9 Water Gas (or Blue Gas)
4.9.1 Water Gas Generation Unit
4.9.2 Fuel Quality for Water Gas Generation
4.9.3 Applications of Water Gas
4.10 CarburetTed Water Gas
4.11 Oil Gas
4.12 Testing of Gaseous Fuels
4.12.1 Gas Analysis Methods
4.12.2 Gas Analysis by Orsat Apparatus
4.12.3 Gas Calorimeter
4.13 Storage and Safety of Gaseous Fuels
4.13.1 Gas Holder
5. Combustion of Fuels
5.1 Definitions and Terminology
5.2 Combustion Systems
5.2.1 Combustion Process Requirements
5.2.2 Air for Combustion
5.2.3 Combustion System Design Factors
5.3 Combustion Mechanism for Solid Fuels
5.3.1 Solid Fuel Bed Combustion on Hearth or Grate
5.3.2 Pulverised Fuel Combustion through Burner
5.3.3 Solid Fuel Combustion in Fluidised Bed
5.4 Liquid Fuel Combustion and Liquid Fuel Burners
5.4.1 Methods for Atomising Liquid Fuel
5.4.2 Types of Burner
5.4.3 Oil Ignition Systems
5.4.4 Flame Detection
5.4.5 Oil Combustion Mechanism
5.4.6 Flame Properties
5.5 Gaseous Fuel Combustion5.5.1 Flame Propagation
5.5.2 Gas Burner Types
5.6 Numerical Problems
5.6.1 Combustion of Solid Fuel
5.6.2 Gaseous Fuel Combustion
6. Furnaces and its Accessories
6.1 Commonly Used Furnaces
6.1.1 Solid Fuel based Furnaces
6.1.2 Liquid Fuel based Furnaces
6.1.3 Gaseous Fuel based Furnaces
6.1.4 Furnaces based on Electricity
6.1.5 Chemical Energy based Furnaces
6.2 Basic Principles of Furnace Design
6.2.1 Chamber Design
6.2.2 Burners
6.2.3 Fans and Blowers
6.2.4 Chimney
6.3 Furnace Instruments
6.3.1 Temperature Measuring Devices
6.3.2 Pressure Measuring Equipment
6.3.3 Flow Rate
6.4 Major Furnace Accessories
6.4.1 Waste Gas Cleaning Systems
6.4.2 Waste Gas Collecting Systems for Melting Units
6.4.3 Thermal Shields
6.4.4 Acoustic Chambers
7. Refractories
7.1 Properties of Refractory
7.1.1 High Temperature Behaviour
7.1.2 Corrosion Resistance
7.1.3 Erosion Resistance
7.1.4 Thermal Conductivity
7.1.5 Porosity7.1.6 Density
7.1.7 Cold Crushing Strength (CCS)
7.2 Raw Materials for Refractory Manufacture
7.2.1 Clay based Refractory Raw Materials
7.2.2 Non-clay based Refractory Raw Materials
7.3 Refractory Manufacturing Process
7.4 Commonly Used Equipment in Refractory Industry
7.4.1 Crushing and Grinding Equipment
7.4.2 Sizing Equipment
7.4.3 Mixing Machines
7.4.4 Kneading Machines
7.4.5 Shaping Machines
7.4.6 Firing Kilns
7.4.7 Finishing Equipment
7.5 Preparation of Commonly Used Refractory Bricks
7.5.1 Silica Bricks
7.5.2 Fireclay Bricks
7.5.3 Burnt Magnesite Bricks
7.5.4 Dolomite Bricks
7.5.5 Chromite Bricks
7.5.6 Chrome Magnesite Bricks
7.5.7 Insulation Bricks
7.5.8 Graphite based Refractory
7.5.9 Zirconia Bricks
7.5.10 Silicon Carbide Bricks/Blocks
7.6 Common Monolith Refractories
7.6.1 Grog
7.6.2 Dead Burnt Magnesite
7.6.3 Ramming Mass
7.6.4 Alumina Powder
7.6.5 Fireclay
7.6.6 Fire Cement
7.7 Casting Pit Refractories7.7.1 Ladle Components
7.7.2 Tundish
7.7.3 BF Runner
8. Heat Transfer and Energy Management
8.1 Modes of Heat Transfer
8.1.1 Thermal Conduction
8.1.2 Numerical Problems
8.1.3 Heat Convection
8.1.4 Thermal Radiation
8.2 Thermal Efficiency of Furnaces
8.3 Sources of Heat Loss in a Furnace
8.3.1 Heat Stored in Furnace Structure and its Loss
8.3.2 Thermal Losses from the Furnace Outer Walls or Structure
8.3.3 Heat Loss through Furnace Components
8.3.4 Thermal Loss from Furnace Walls and Openings
8.3.5 Heat Carried Away by the Cold Air Infiltration in the Furnace
8.3.6 Heat Loss by Hot Flue Gases and Excess Air Used for
Combustion in the Burners
8.3.7 Heat Loss by Cooling Water
8.4 Waste Heat Recovery
8.4.1 Classification of Waste Heat Source
8.4.2 Merits and Limitations in Heat Recovery
8.4.3 Waste Heat Recovery Devices
8.5 Energy Audit
8.5.1 Definition
8.5.2 Aim of Audit
8.5.3 Audit Procedure
8.5.4 Presentation of Energy Audit
8.5.5 Numerical Problems
9. Furnace Atmosphere Control and Environmental Issues
9.1 Furnace Atmosphere—Nature and Application
9.1.1 Definition
9.1.2 Properties of Different Gases9.1.3 Classification of Atmospheric Gases
9.1.4 Vacuum as Atmosphere
9.2 Methods to Generate Furnace Atmosphere
9.2.1 In-situ Methods of Atmosphere Generation
9.2.2 External Atmosphere Generators
9.3 Selection of Atmosphere in the Furnace
9.3.1 Alloy under Treatment and its Requirement
9.3.2 Chemical Properties of the Atmosphere
9.3.3 Reactions with Respect to Temperature and Heat Transfer
9.3.4 Restriction with Regard to the Furnace
9.3.5 Restrictions with Regard to Product Quality
9.4 Monitoring Furnace Atmosphere
9.4.1 Indicating Panel of Instruments
9.4.2 Auto Control System
9.4.3 Visual Observations
9.5 Safety during using Gas
9.6 Fuels, Furnaces and Environmental Issues
9.6.1 Impact Area of Pollutants
9.6.2 Airborne Pollutants
9.6.3 Waterborne Pollutants
9.6.4 Solid Pollutants
9.6.5 Thermal Radiation
9.6.6 Noise
9.7 Pollution Abatement Devices
9.7.1 Devices to remove Airborne Pollutants
9.7.2 Devices to Treat Waste Water
10. Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories Indian Scenario
10.1 Natural Resources of Coal in India and its Availability
10.1.1 Coal Reserves in India
10.1.2 Coal Demand and Supply in India
10.1.3 Coal Producing Companies in India
10.2 Natural Resources of Oil in India and its Availability
10.2.1 Production and Consumption of Crude Oil10.2.2 Oil Refineries in India
10.2.3 Export of Oil Products by India
10.2.4 Consumers of Petroleum Products
10.3 Resources of Natural Gas in India and its Availability
10.3.1 Production and Demand of Natural Gas
10.3.2 Natural Gas Consumers in India
10.4 Status of Electrical Energy in India
10.4.1 Installed Power Plant Capacity
10.4.2 Demand and Supply Status
10.4.3 Users of Electrical Energy
10.4.4 Major Companies in Power Sector
10.5 Furnace Design and Manufacturing in India
10.5.1 History of Furnace Development
10.5.2 Types of Furnaces Used in India by Steel Industry
10.5.3 Iron Making Furnaces
10.5.4 Steel Making Furnaces
10.5.5 Heating Furnaces
10.5.6 Furnaces for Foundries
10.5.7 Furnaces for Electrical Power Plants
10.6 Refractory Industries in India
10.6.1 History of Refractory Industry
10.6.2 Current Scenario of Refractory Industries
10.6.3 Consumption Rate of Refractory by Steel Industry
10.6.4 Major Refractory Industries in India
Appendix I: Mathematical Formulae
Appendix II: Useful Data
Appendix III: Unit Conversion Tables
Bibliography
Index
Index
Absolute pressure, 275
Acoustic chambers, 288
Airborne, 422
Airborne pollutants, 411
Air for combustion, 169
Air to fuel ratio (l), 171
Alumina powder, 355
Ammonia, 415
Amorphous graphite, 349
Applications, 328 , 332 , 337 , 340 , 342 , 345 , 348 , 350 , 352 , 354
Audit procedure, 391
Auto control system, 407
Axial flow fans, 265
Backward curved fans, 265
Baffle chambers, 283
Ball mill, 318
Basic laws, 266
Basic laws governing conduction, 365
Basic oxygen furnaces ( LD converters), 444
Basic principles, 274
Basic principles of furnace design, 262
Batch type re-rolling, 226
Benzene, 415
B F runner, 361
Bio-degradable organics, 424
Black body, 375
Blast furnaces, 442
Blowers and its types, 265
Bottom centre fired, 232Bourdon gauge, 277
Burner, 176 , 264
Burner design, 178
Burnt magnesite bricks, 332
Calorimetric flowmeter, 282
Carbon dioxide, 397, 415
Carbon monoxide, 397 , 413
Carbon refractories, 350
Carburising, 399
Casing material, 264
Centrifugal blowers, 265
Centrifugal flow fans, 265
Chamber, 262
Chamber shape, 262
Chamber size, 263
Charcoal using furnaces, 221
Chemical energy based furnaces, 253
Chemical properties, 405
Chimney, 267
Chromite bricks, 340
Chrom magnesite bricks, 344
Circuit breakers, 249
Circular kiln, 323
Classification, 275 , 383
Classification of atmospheric gases, 399
Classification of electrical furnaces, 236
Clay based, 312
Coal based DRI rotary kilns, 443
Coal based furnaces, 213
Coal preparation, 177
Coal selection, 180
Coke dry quenching, 390
Coke oven, 229
Cold air infiltration in the furnace, 380
Cold Crushing Strength ( CCS ), 311
Cold Isostatic Press ( CIP ), 321Combustion, 167
Combustion mechanism, 180
Combustion mechanism for solid fuels, 172
Combustion on hearth or grate, 172
Combustion process, 169
Combustion system design, 171
Combustion systems, 169
Commonly used equipment in refractory industry, 316
Companies in power sector, 438
Complete combustion, 168
Cone crusher, 318
Consumers, 435 , 436
Consumption, 450
Continuous pusher type re-rolling mill furnace, 227
Copper converters, 257
COREX furnace, 443
COREX iron making, 214
Corrosion resistance, 304
Counter current recuperators, 387
Cracked ammonia gas, 405
Creep at high temperature, 297
Crushing, 317
Crystalline graphite, 349
Cupola, 219
Current scenario, 450
Cyclone dust catcher, 283
Dead burnt magnesite, 354
Decarburising, 399
Definition, 391 , 396
Demand, 430 , 438
Density, 309
Design, 216
Devices, 385
Devices to treat waste water, 423
Differential pressure, 275
Diffusive mixing, 195Dimensions, 263
Dog house, 248
Dolomite bricks, 338
Draw furnace, 235
Dri plants, 443
Dry scrubbing, 286
Dust catchers, 283 , 422
Electrical power plants, 446
Electric arc furnace, 246 , 445
Electric pig iron furnace, 222
Electrode holder, 248
Electrode regulators, 250
Emperature, 366
Endogas, 404
Energy audit, 391
Environmental issues, 410
Erosion resistance, 305
Excess air used for combustion in the burners, 380
Exogas, 404
Explosion, 168
Export, 434
External atmosphere generators, 402
Extruding machines, 322
Finishing, 323
Fire cement, 355
Fireclay, 355
Fireclay bricks, 329
Firing kilns, 322
Flake graphite, 349
Flame detection, 191
Flame length, 192
Flame propagation, 193
Flame properties, 191
Flame stability, 192
Flash smelting furnace, 255
Flow rate, 279Flue-gas desulphurisation, 423
Fluid flow origin, 372
Fluid flow type, 372
Fluidised bed, 182
Forced convection, 372
Forced draft, 195
Forging furnace, 226
Forward curved fans, 265
Foundry pit furnace, 221
Fourier’s law, 367
Fuel, 217
Furnace accessories, 283
Furnace atmosphere, 396
Furnace components, 379
Furnace cover, 247
Furnace design, 440
Furnace instruments, 268
Furnaces based on electricity, 235
Furnaces for foundries, 446
Furnace shell, 246
Furnace tilting, 247
Gas, 443
Gaseous fuel based furnaces, 228
Gases, 397
Gasification, 168
Gauge pressure, 275
Graphite based refractory, 348
Graphite bricks, 350
Graphite electrode, 350 , 248
Grease, 424
Grinders, 318
Grinding, 317
Grog, 354
Heat convection, 372
Heat flow, 366
Heat flow through furnace wall, 368Heating furnaces, 445
Heat loss by cooling water, 381
Heat stored in furnace structure, 378
Heat transfer, 406
Heat treatment, 234
Helium, 398
High Temperature Modulus of Rupture ( HMOR ), 299
History, 447
History of furnace development, 440
Hot flue gases, 380
Hydraulic press, 321
Hydrocarbons, 397
Hydrogen, 398
Impact area of pollutants, 411
Incident radiation, 375
Indicating panel, 407
Induction furnaces, 445
Induction melting furnace, 239
Inert or neutral atmosphere, 399
Installed power plant capacity, 437
Insulation bricks, 346
Integral quench, 235
Iron making furnaces, 442
Kirchhoff’s law, 376
Kneading machines, 320
Ladle components, 356
Lambert’s law, 376
Laminar flow, 372
Laws governing thermal radiation, 375
Ld converter, 259
Limitations, 177 , 384
Liquid fuel burners, 187
Liquid fuel combustion, 187
Low NO
x , 196Low NO
x burners, 423
Low pressure air atomising burners, 190
Luminosity, 192
Machines for finishing green refractory shapes,
322
Major refractory industries in India, 451
Making process, 327
Manufacturing in India, 440
Mechanical press, 321
Merits, 176 , 235 , 384
Methods for atomising, 187
Methods to generate furnace atmosphere, 400
Mixer unit, 223
Mixing, 319
Modes of heat transfer, 364
Moisture, 397
Monitoring furnace atmosphere, 407
Monogas, 405
Monolith refractories, 354
Mullar mixer, 320
Multiple hearth roasting furnace, 253
Natural, 334
Natural graphite, 349
Natural resources of coal in India, 429
Natural resources of oil in India, 431
Nitriding atmosphere, 399
Nitrogen, 397
Noise, 421
Non-ferrous heat treatment furnaces, 235
Nozzle, 280, 358
Oil combustion mechanism, 191
Oil ignition systems, 190
Oil refineries in India, 433
One way fired, 232Open hearth furnaces, 224
Optical pyrometer, 271
Orifice plates, 280
Outokumpu flash smelting, 255
Oxidation, 167
Oxides of Nitrogen ( NO x ), 398, 413
Oxidising, 193
Oxidising atmosphere, 399
Oxidising filter, 424
Oxygen, 398
Ozone, 414
Parallel flow recuperators, 387
Particulate matter ( D ust), 412
Penning gauge, 278
Physics of heat transfer, 365 , 374
Pirani gauge, 277
Pitot tubes, 282
PLC test, 303
Pneumatic atomisation with air or steam, 189
Pneumatic steel making converters, 258
Pollution abatement devices, 422
Pollution control, 221
Porosity, 307
Positive displacement blowers, 265
Positive displacement flowmeters, 282
Pre-mixing, 195
Preparation method, 342 , 345 , 350 , 352 , 353
Preparation of commonly used refractory bricks, 323
Pressing machines, 320
Pressure atomisation with orifice, 188
Pressure atomisation with swirling nozzle, 189
Pressure measuring devices, 275
Pressure measuring equipment, 274
Primary air, 171
Process of heat transfer, 372
Producing companies, 430Production and consumption, 432
Production and demand, 436
Propeller fans, 265
Properties, 397
Properties of graphite, 349
Properties of refractory, 291
Properties of silicon carbide bricks, 353
Properties of zirconia bricks, 351
Pulverised fuel, 176
Quality control, 328
Quality of bricks, 324 , 329 , 338 , 341 , 346
Quench tank furnace, 235
Radial fans, 265
Radiant power, 375
Ramming mass, 355
Rate of heat flow, 366
Raw material, 338 , 349 , 351 , 353
Raw materials for refractory manufacture, 312
Raw materials needed, 334 , 342 , 346
Reactors, 249
Recuperator, 386
Reducing atmosphere, 399
Reducing flame, 193
Refractory industries in India, 447
Refractory lining, 247
Refractory manufacturing process, 315
Refractory thickness and nature, 264
Regenerator, 385
Reheating furnaces, 234
Removal of oil, 424
Requirement, 405
Reserves, 429
Resources of natural gas, 436
Restrictions with regard to product quality, 407
Restriction with regard to the furnace, 407Reverse osmosis, 426
Ribbon blender, 319
Rod mill, 318
Roll crusher, 318
Rotameter, 281
Rotary cup burner, 190
Rotary hearth furnace for sponge iron, 214
RUL, 295
Safety during using gas, 409
Sealed, 275
Sea water, 335
Secondary air, 171
Secondary crushers, 318
Selection, 266
Selection of atmosphere in the furnace, 405
Settling chambers, 283
Settling tanks, 424
Shape, 192
Shaping machines, 320
Shuttle kiln, 323
Siemens-martin furnace, 224
Silica bricks, 324
Silicon carbide, 352
Sinter coolers, 390
Sizing equipment, 319
Skelner furnace, 223
Slide gate, 247 , 358
Small iron blast furnace, 222
Soaking pit, 231
Solid pollutants, 417
Sources of heat loss in a furnace, 378
Spark ignition, 190
Special direct heat exchanging devices, 390
Special issues, 329 , 342 , 345
Specific rate of heat flow, 366
Sponge iron rotary kilns, 213Status of electrical energy in India, 437
Steady state or stationery temperature, 366
Steam raising boilers, 215
Steel industry, 450
Steel making furnaces, 444
Stopper, 358
Stopper rod sleeve, 358
Sulphur dioxide, 397 , 413
Supply, 430 , 438
Synthetic graphite, 350
Tangentially fired circular soaking pits, 232
Tapping spout, 247
Temperature measuring devices, 268
Tempering, 235
Tertiary air, 171
Thermal conduction, 365
Thermal conductivity, 306 , 366
Thermal efficiency of furnaces, 377
Thermal expansion, 301
Thermal loss from furnace walls, 380
Thermal radiation, 374 , 421
Thermal shields, 288
Thermal shock resistance, 300
Top two way fired soaking pits, 232
Total or actual air, 170
Transformer, 250
Transient or non-stationery temperature, 366
Transitional flow, 372
Tribal iron making furnace, 222
Tube axial fans, 265
Tundish, 359
Tunnel kiln, 322
Turbine flowmeter, 282
Turbulent flow, 373
Turndown ratio, 169
Two stage, 196Two way fired, 232
Types of burner, 188
Types of furnaces used, 441
Users, 438
Vacuum as atmosphere, 399
Value, 295
Vane axial fans, 265
V-blender, 320
Velocity flow meters, 282
Vented, 275
Venturi tubes, 280
Vertically fired soaking pits, 232
Vibrating press, 321
Visual observations, 409
Volatile organic compound, 414
Waste gas cleaning systems, 283
Waste gas collecting systems, 286
Waste heat boilers, 388
Waste heat recovery, 381
Water borne pollutants, 417
Water distillation, 425
Wet scrubbing, 286
Wobbe number, 168
Working, 217
Zirconia bricks, 351


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