كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition
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 كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition   كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition Emptyالأحد 04 سبتمبر 2022, 4:28 pm

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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design
Gene R. Cogorno
Third Edition

كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design - Third Edition G_d_a_13
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Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv
1 Introduction to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 1
Chapter Objectives 2
What Is GD&T? 2
When Should GD&T Be Used? 2
Advantages of GD&T over Coordinate Dimensioning and Tolerancing 3
The Cylindrical Tolerance Zone 4
The Maximum Material Condition Modifier 5
Datum Features Specified in Order of Precedence 6
Summary 7
Chapter Review 7
2 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Fundamentals 9
Chapter Objectives 9
Fundamental Drawing Rules 9
Units of Linear Measurement 10
Specifying Linear Dimensions 11
Specifying Linear Tolerances 11
Interpreting Dimensional Limits 13
Specifying Angular Dimensions 13
Specifying Angular Tolerances 14
Dimensioning and Tolerancing for CAD/CAM Database Models 14
Summary 15
Chapter Review 15
3 Symbols, Terms, and Rules 19
Chapter Objectives 19
Symbols 19
Geometric Characteristic Symbols 19
The Datum Feature Symbol 20
The Feature Control Frame 22
Reading the Feature Control Frame 22
Attaching a Feature Control Frame to a Feature 24
Other Symbols Used with Geometric Tolerancing 25
Terms 34
Rules 41
Rule #1: Limits of Size Prescribe Variations of Form 41
Rule #2: Applicability of Modifiers in Feature Control Frames 44
The Pitch Diameter Rule 45
Summary 45
Chapter Review 46
Problems 55
viiyjjj Contents
4 Datums 57
Chapter Objectives 57
Definition of a Datum 57
Application of Datums 57
Immobilization of a Part 58
A Datum Reference Frame Provides Origin and Direction 59
Datum Feature Selection 60
Datum Feature Identification 60
Inclined Datum Features 62
Cylindrical Datum Features 63
Establishing Datum Features 63
Plane Flat Surfaces Specified as Datum Features 63
Datum Features of Size at RMB 64
Datum Features of Size at MMB 64
Plane Flat Surfaces versus Features of Size 64
Irregular Datum Features of Size 66
Common Datum Features 66
Partial Datum Features 67
Datum Targets 68
Datum Targets Established on a Cylindrical Part 70
Step Datum Targets and Movable Datum Target Symbols 70
Summary 71
Chapter Review 72
Problems 76
5 Form 81
Chapter Objectives 81
Flatness 81
Definition 81
Specifying Flatness Tolerance 81
Specifying Flatness of a Derived Median Plane 83
Unit Flatness 85
Straightness 85
Definition 85
Specifying Straightness of a Surface Tolerance 85
Specifying Straightness of a Derived Median Line 87
Unit Straightness 88
Circularity 88
Definition 88
Specifying Circularity Tolerance 88
Cylindricity 90
Definition 90
Specifying Cylindricity Tolerance 90
Average Diameter 91
Free State 92
Restrained Condition 92
Summary 92
Chapter Review 93
Problems 98Contents
6 Orientation 101
Chapter Objectives 101
Perpendicularity 101
Definition 101
Specifying Perpendicularity of a Flat Surface 102
The Tangent Plane 102
Specifying Perpendicularity of an Axis to a Plane Surface 104
Parallelism 104
Definition 104
Specifying Parallelism of a Plane Surface 104
Specifying Parallelism of an Axis 106
Angularity 107
Definition 107
Specifying Angularity of a Plane Surface 107
Specifying Angularity of an Axis 108
Summary 110
Chapter Review 110
Problems 114
7 Position, General 119
Chapter Objectives 119
Definition 119
The Tolerance of Position 120
Specifying the Position Tolerance 121
Specifying the Position Tolerance at RFS 121
Specifying the Position Tolerance at MMC 124
Inspection with a Functional Gage 125
Datum Features of Size Specified with an RMB Modifier 126
Datum Features of Size Specified with an MMB Modifier 127
MMB Modifier Explained in More Detail 128
Locating Features of Size with an LMC Modifier 132
Minimum Wall Thickness at LMC 133
Boundary Conditions 134
Zero Positional Tolerance at MMC 136
Summary 138
Chapter Review 139
Problems 142
8 Position, Location 149
Chapter Objectives 149
Floating Fasteners 149
Clearance Hole LMC Diameter 151
Clearance Hole Location Tolerance (T) 151
Clearance Hole MMC Diameter (H) 152
Fixed Fasteners 153
Clearance Hole LMC Diameter 154
Threaded Hole Location Tolerance (Q 154
Clearance Hole Location Tolerance (t2) 155
Clearance Hole MMC Diameter (H) 155X Contents
Projected Tolerance Zones 156
Through Holes 156
Blind Holes 158
Multiple Patterns of Features, Simultaneous Requirements 158
Composite Positional Tolerancing 161
Multiple Single-Segment Positional Tolerancing 167
Nonparallel Holes 169
Counterbored Holes 170
Noncircular Features of Size 172
Spherical Features Located with the Position Control 173
Symmetrical Features Located with the Position Control 174
Summary 175
Chapter Review 176
Problems 179
9 Position, Coaxiality 197
Chapter Objectives 197
Definition 197
Comparison between Coaxiality Controls 199
Specifying Coaxiality at MMC 200
Composite Positional Control of Coaxial Features 200
Positional Tolerancing for Coaxial Holes of Different Sizes 202
Coaxial Features Controlled without Datum References 202
Tolerancing a Plug and Socket 203
Summary 204
Chapter Review 204
Problems 205
10 Runout 209
Chapter Objectives 209
Definition 209
Circular Runout 209
Total Runout 210
Specifying Runout and Partial Runout 211
Common Datum Features 212
Planar and Cylindrical Datum Features 213
Geometric Control of Individual Datum Feature Surfaces 214
The Relationship between Feature Surfaces 214
Inspecting Runout 215
Summary 216
Chapter Review 217
Problems 218
11 Profile 221
Chapter Objectives 221
Definition 221
Specifying a Profile Tolerance 221
The Application of Datum Features 224
A Radius Refinement with Profile 225
Combining Profile Tolerances with Other Geometric Controls 226
Coplanarity 227
Profile of a Conical Feature 230Contents
Composite Profile Tolerancing 230
Multiple Single-Segment Profile Tolerancing 234
Inspection 235
Summary 235
Chapter Review 236
Problems 238
12 A Strategy for Tolerancing Parts 247
Chapter Objectives 247
Locating Features of Size to Plane Surface Datum Features 248
Locating Features of Size to Datum Features of Size 255
Locating a Pattern of Features to a Second Pattern of Features 260
Summary 264
Chapter Review 265
Problems 270
13 Graphic Analysis 277
Chapter Objectives 277
Advantages of Graphic Analysis 277
The Accuracy of Graphic Analysis 278
Analysis of a Composite Geometric Tolerance 278
Analysis of a Pattern of Features Controlled to a Datum Feature of Size 283
Summary 287
Chapter Review 288
Problems 290
A Concentricity and Symmetry 295
Chapter Objectives 295
Concentricity 295
Definition 295
Specifying Concentricity 296
Applications of Concentricity 298
Symmetry 298
Definition 298
Specifying Symmetry 298
Applications of Symmetry 300
Summary 301
Chapter Review 301
Problems 303
B Reference Tables 307
Index 313Index
Abbreviation AVG, 91
Actual mating envelope, 34
Advantages of GD&T over coordinate
dimensioning and tolerancing, 3
Advantages of graphic analysis, 277-278
American National Standards Institute,1
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,1
Analysis of a composite geometric tolerance, 278-282
Analysis of a pattern of features controlled to a
datum feature of size, 283-286
Angularity:
dimensions, 13-14
tolerances, 14
Application of datums, 57
ASME Y14.5-2018,1
Average diameter, 91
Basic dimension, 35
Bonus, 39
Boundary conditions, 134

Circularity, 88-89
Coaxial features controlled without datum
references, 202
Coaxiality at MMC, 200
Common datum features, 66, 212
Comparison between coaxiality controls, 199
Composite:
positional control of coaxial features, 200
positional tolerancing, 119
profile tolerancing, 230
Concentricity, 199, 295
Conical taper, 33, 230
Controlled radius, 29
Coplanarity, 227-228
Counterbored holes, 170-171
Cylindrical datum features, 63
Cylindrical tolerance zone, 4-5
Cylindricity, 90

Datum, 36, 57
feature, 36
feature identification, 60
feature selection, 60
feature symbol, 20
features of size at maximum material boundary
(MMB), 38, 126
features of size at regardless of material boundary
(RMB), 44, 126
features specified in order of precedence, 6
Datum reference frame, 36, 58
Datum targets, 32, 68-71
Dimensional limits, 13
Dimensioning and tolerancing for
CAD/CAM database models, 14-15
Double fixed fastener, 156
E^—
Establishing datum features, 63-64
Feature control frame, 22
Feature of size, 37
Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Framework
(FRTZF), 162
Fixed fastener formula, 153
Fixed fasteners, 153
Flatness, 81-85
Flatness of a derived median plane, 83
Floating fastener formula, 150
Floating fasteners, 149
Form tolerances, 20, 81
313Index
Free state, 92
Functional gages, 125
Fundamental drawing rules, 9-10
Planar and cylindrical datum features, 213
Plus and minus tolerancing, 11
Position, 119
tolerance at MMC, 124-125
Geometric characteristic symbols, 19-20
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, 2
Graphic analysis, 277-293
tolerance at RFS, 121-122
Profile:
conical feature, 230
tolerance, 221-223
Projected tolerance zones, 156
Inclined datum features, 62
Irregular datum features of size, 66
R^—
Radius, 29
Reading the feature control frame, 22
Least material condition (LMC), location, 132
Limit tolerancing, 11
Limits of size, 37
Linear dimensions, 11
Linear tolerances, 11
Locating a pattern of features to a second pattern of
features, 260-263
Locating features of size to datum features of size,
255-259
Locating features of size to plane surface datum
features, 248-254
Regardless of feature size (RFS) modifier, 38, 121
Regardless of material boundary (RMB) modifier,
38, 126
Restrained condition, 92
Resultant condition, 40
Rule #1: Limits of size prescribe variations of form,
41-43
Rule #2: Applicability of modifiers in feature
control frames, 44-45
Runout:
circular, 209-210
total, 210-211
M—
Material condition modifiers, 38
Maximum material boundary (MMB) modifier,
38, 126
Maximum material boundary modifier explained
in more detail, 128-132
Maximum material condition (MMC) modifier,
38, 124
Multiple patterns of features, 158-160
Multiple single-segment positional tolerancing,
167-168
Multiple single-segment profile tolerancing,
234-235
s^—
Separate requirements (SEP REQT), 160
Simultaneous requirements, 158
Slope, 33
Spherical features, 173
Straightness, 85-88
Straightness of a derived median line, 87
Symbols, geometric tolerancing, 25-26
Symmetrical features at MMC, 174
Symmetry, 298-300
T^—
Tangent plane, 102-103
Terms, 34-41
Noncircular features of size, 172
Nonparallel holes, 169
Tolerancing a plug and socket, 203
True position, 41
True profile, 41
0—
Orientation, 101-118

Unit flatness, 85
Unit straightness, 88
Partial Parallelism, — datum104-106 features, 67
Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Framework
(PLTZF), 162
Perpendicularity, 101-104
Pitch diameter rule, 45
Units of linear measurement, 10-11
— v^—
Virtual condition, 41
Zero positional tolerance at MMC, 136-138


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» كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design
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» كتاب Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) - Reference Book
» كتاب The Mechanical Design Process - Fourth Edition
» حل كتاب Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design 9th Edition

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