كتاب Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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كتاب Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences   كتاب Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences Emptyالإثنين 29 أغسطس 2022, 11:52 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences
Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences
Necdet Saglam, Feza Korkusuz, Ram Prasad
Editors

كتاب Nanotechnology Applications in Health and Environmental Sciences N_t_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Diverse Manifolds of Biogenic Nanoparticles in Synthesis,
Characterization, and Applications 1
Jeyaraj Pandiarajan
2 Impact of Nanoparticles on Human Microbiota . 29
Fadime Kiran
3 In Vitro Applications of Nanoparticles . 41
Beste Cagdas Tunali, Dogan Tunali, and Mustafa Turk
4 Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery 71
Eylem Güven
5 Green Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
and Its Biomedical Applications 83
Mansee Thakur, Smital Poojary, and Niharika Swain
6 Nano-Forensics: The New Perspective in
Precision Forensic Science . 111
Naresh Kumar and Arun Sharma
7 Recent Advances in Nanomaterial-Based Diagnosis and Treatment:
Next-Generation Sequencing, Microarray and DNA Origami 135
Celal Ulger, Esra Örenlili Yaylagül, Aykut Bilir, and Necdet Saglam
8 Nanobiosensors for Biomedical Applications 147
Yeşeren Saylan, Fatma Yılmaz, and Adil Denizli
9 Emerging Role of Nanomaterial-Assisted Biosensors
for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection 159
Nura Brimo and Dilek Çökeliler Serdaroğlu
10 Advanced Functional Polymers for Biomedical Applications:
Drug, Sensor, Diagnosis, and Prognosis 181
Kevser Kuşat and Sinan Akgölviii
11 SERS Sensor Applications in Environmental
Analysis and Biotechnology 197
Uğur Tamer, Hilal Torul, Üzeyir Doğan, Merve Eryılmaz, Ayşen
Gümüştaş, İsmail Hakkı Boyacı, Sibel A. Özkan, and Bengi Uslu
12 Design and Creation of Micro/Nano Environment
in Regenerative and Restorative Medicine 237
Arda Kucukguven and Ibrahim Vargel
13 Presenting and Treating Bone Infections Using
Silver Ion Containing Nano-hydroxyapatite 257
Nusret Köse, Aydan Ayşe Köse, Ayşe Gül Toktaş, and Aydın Doğan
14 Trace Element Containing Nano-HAp for Preventing
Musculoskeletal Infections . 269
Merve Gizer, Özge Boyacıoğlu, Petek Korkusuz, and Feza Korkusuz
15 Biotechnological Approaches in Maintenance of a
Healthy Immune System for Protection Against Diseases 291
Emin Umit Bagriacik
16 Production and Characterization of Antibiotic
Containing Nano Calcium Phosphates . 299
Feray Bakan
17 Lantibiotics Nanotechnology, Bioengineering, and Biotechnology 319
Mesut Sam, Semran Saglam, Serap Altindag, Kazim Kose,
Ezgi Emul, Lokman Uzun, and Necdet Saglam
18 Microbial Nanotechnology in Reference to Postmortem Diagnosis 333
Mahmut Şerif Yıldırım, Ramazan Akçan, Michal Kaliszan,
and Necdet Saglam
19 Cleanup and Pollution with Nanoparticles:
Environmental Dilemma 347
Feride Öykü Sefiloğlu and Işıl Akmehmet Balcıoğlu
20 Environmental Mycobiotechnology in Special
Reference to Fungal Bioremediation . 361
Ozlem Abaci Gunyar and Alev Haliki Uztan
21 Nanoinsecticides: Preparation, Application, and Mode of Action . 385
Fatemeh Graily-Moradi and Behnam Asgari Lajayer
22 Design and Analysis of Induction-Balance Sensor Using Non-spiral
Planar Microcoils for Biomedical Applications 405
S. Krishnapriya, Rama S. Komaragiri, and K. J. Suja
Index
A
Acacia leucophloea extract, 8
Accessory gene regulator RNAIII
(agrRNAIII), 283
Adipose TE circumvents, 250
Adipose tissue, 250
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs),
242, 244, 245, 248, 250
Advanced functional polymer
biological system, 192
composite, 189
cryogel, 185
diagnosis/prognosis, 190, 191
drug/gene treatment, 191
membrane structures, 185, 186
microparticles, 188
MIP, 186
monoliths, 188, 189
polymeric nanomaterials, 184
tissue engineering, 191
use, 192
Aerobic plate count (APC), 224
Agar diffusion assay, 310, 311
Agglomeration, 41
Ag+ ion doped calcium phosphate based
powder, 263
Ag-loaded SrHAP/chitosan (CS), 279
AgNP-ingested mice, 34
AgNPs impacts on microbiota
dietary, 34
Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, 34
Gram-positive bacteria, 35
immunomodulatory gene expressions
suppression, 34
Lactobacillus spp., 35
local and systemic homeostasis, 34
non-rodent studies, 35
pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, 34
size variation, 35
Agrochemicals, 385
Albumin and zwitterionic modification, 54
Alcohol-based antiseptic solutions, 258
Alfalfa roots, 7
Algal organic matter (AOM), 349
Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 363
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 279, 280
Alloderm, 249
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT antigen), 210
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 222
Amino acid derivatives, 322
Amino-modified polystyreneformulated NPs, 18
Amorphous calcium phosphates (ACPs),
303, 304
Amorphous silica (SiO2), 37
Angiogenic GFs, 243
Anionic bacterial lipid membrane, 325
Anti-adherence effect, 261
Antibacterial Ag+ property, 262
Antibacterial spectrum, 262
Antibacterial tests, 308
Antibiotic prophylaxis, 260
Antibiotic-laden scaffolds, 312
Antibiotic-laden 3D printed CaP spacers, 311
HA coatings, 262
nonantibiotic substances, 262
ROS, 263
silver-coated prostheses, 263
toxicity limitations, 263
Applied nanotechnology, 30
Aptasensor, 167
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, 374
Arc-discharge method, 14, 15
Aromatic hydrocarbons, 363
Aspergillus fumigatus, 6
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
(AAS), 87
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 17, 21, 117,
118, 386
Attenuated total reflection (ATR), 321
AuNP-based detection technology, 137
Azadirachtin, 388
Azo dyes, 363
Azospirillum brasilense sp7 bacteria, 115
B
Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14581), 114
Bacteria, 149, 260, 326, 327
Bacteria-imprinted optic nanobiosensor
preparation, 149, 150
Bacterial adhesion, 261
Bacterial biofilm formation, 260
Bacterial colonization, 260, 261
Bacterial genome sequence (Haemophilus
influenza), 136
Bacterial infection, 257, 264
Bacterial species, 16
Bacteria-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, 5
Bacteria Proteus mirabilis PTCC 1710, 5
Bacteriocins
identification and classification
group I, 322
group II, 323
group III, 323
group IV, 323
molecular size, 321
lactic acid bacteria, 321
mode of action (see Mode of action,
bacteriocins)
properties, 324
synthesis and action mechanism,
323, 324
Bacteroidetes, 34, 37
BA+ vancomycin, 276
Benzoylecgonine (BCG), 213
Index425
Bicomponent lantibiotics, 325
Bifidobacterium, 34
Bifidobacterium bifidum, 114
Bimetallic film over nanosphere
(BMFO, 210
Bioaccumulation, 362
Bioattenuation, 366
Bio augmentation, 366
Bioceramics, 283
Biocompatible solid-phase microextraction
fibers, 127
Biodegradable carriers, 302
Biodegradable polymers, 57
Biodeterioration, 362
Biofilm
assay, 276
bacteria, 260
formation, 261, 264
microbes, 260
polysaccharide matrix and proteins, 260
Biofuel cells (BFC), 166
Biofunctionalization strategy, 246
Biofunctionalized materials, 243, 246
Biological apatites classification, 303
Biological approaches, 85
Biological degradation, 362
Biomacromolecules, 246
Biomaterials, 244, 245
Biomedical nanotechnologies, 140, 144
Biomembrane model, 57
Biomineralization, 364
Biomolecular analyte, 408
Biomolecule detection
bacteria, 149
nucleic acid, 152, 153
peptides, 153
polysaccharides/ metabolites, 153
proteins, 151, 152
virus, 149, 150
Bionanotechnology, 22
Biopile, 366
Bioremediation, 362
ex situ, 362
in situ, 362
pollutants
dyes, 363
ED, 364
heavy metals, 364
hydrocarbons, 363
PAH, 363
PCB, 363
pesticides, 363
phenolic compounds, 364
radionuclides, 363, 364
Biosensors, 160, 162, 408
Biosorption, 364
Biosparging, 366
Biotransformation, 362
Bioventing, 366
Biphasic calcium phosphates
(BCP), 304
Blood circulation time, 54
Blood fingerprints, 120
B lymphocytes, 295
Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs),
242, 248, 250
Bone mineral density (BMD), 276
Boric acid (BA), 276
Boron (B), 276, 277
Botryoid agglomerates, 11
Bottom-up approach, 4, 41, 85
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), 222
Bovine serum albumin-functionalized
fluorescent gold nanoclusters (BSA
Au-NCs), 124
Branched polymeric materials, 182
Breast cancer–associated gene 1
(BRCA1), 210
Brucite, 392
C
Cacumen platycladi leaf extract, 114
Cadmium ion-functionalized titanium
phosphate nanospheres, 171
Cadmium selenide (CdSe), 120
Cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide
nanoparticles, 119
Cadmium sulfide (CdS), 120
Cadmium telluride (CdTe), 120
Calcium alginate (CA), 387
Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite
(CDHA), 303
Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials,
271, 273
Calcium phosphates (CaPs)
ACP, 304
BCP, 304
biological apatites, 303
biological organisms, 304
CDHA, 303
DCPD, 303
HA nanoparticles, 303
inorganic components, 303
solubility isotherms, 304
soluble phases, 303, 313
synthetic, 303
β-TCP, 304
Index426
Callosobruchus maculatus, 396
Cancer
anticancer agents, 72
death rates, 71
definition, 71
drug delivery (see Anticancer drug delivery
systems)
fatal diseases, 77
nanotechnology, 77
therapy, 73
traditional treatment methods, 71, 72
vaccines, 295
Cannabinoids, 127
Capping agents, 13
CaPs-based local antibiotics delivery systems
antibacterial effect, 310
brushite bone cement, 307
CDHA, 307
CDHA:β-TCP, 310
cement formulations, 310
CHA coatings, 308
ciprofloxacin, 310
clindamycin-laden hydroxyapatite, 307
clindamycin-loaded, 307
dentinal tubule disinfection treatment, 307
drug release rate, 308
effectiveness, 310
efficacy, 310
erythromycin, 309
gentamicin, 307
HA biomimetic surfaces, 308
HA carriers, 309
HPLC, 310
in vivo/in vitro, 306, 310, 312
ITSD, 308
periodontitis treatment, 308
rational approach, 310
3D printing, 311
vancomycin, 307
Carbohydrate-active enzymes
(CAZymes), 372
Carbon nanoparticles, 55
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 77, 161, 169, 349
Carbonated HA (CHA), 308
Carbon-based nanomaterials, 77
Carboxylic group, 313
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 221
Carrier stoichiometry, 313
Cartilage, 248, 249
CDHA-antibiotics system, 307
CDHA nanocarriers, 307
CD-like NanoBioArray chip, 116
CDP-based nanoparticle carrier system, 43
Ceftriaxone sodium, 310
Cell’s substrate cytoskeleton myosin, 244
Cell stress-induced IONPs, 100
Cellular ınteractions, microenvironment
ECM mechanics and structure, 244
intercellular signals, 243
matrix signals, 243
soluble molecules, 243
Cellulose nanofiber layer, 204
Cell wall biosynthesis inhibition, 325
CHA coating, 308
Cheese production, 327
Chemical vapor condensation (CVC), 14
Chemical vapor deposition method, 23
Chemotherapeutic agents, 74
Chemotherapy, 22
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), 294
Chitosan-calcium alginate (CCA), 387
Chitosan-coated nanoliposomes, 389
Chlamydia trachomatis, 115
Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), 258
Chlorinated phenolic compounds, 364
Chronic bone infections, 259
Chronic inflammatory diseases, 137
Ciprofloxacin, 305, 310
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), 159, 161
Citrate-coated Fe3O4 NPs, 98
Clay materials, 391
Clindamycin-loaded calcium phosphate
nanoparticles, 307
Clindamycin-loaded hydroxyapatite, 307
Clonazepam, 127
Clostridium tetani, 292
Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum
(CoCrMo), 280
CoCrMo-nAg nanoparticles, 280
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
(CARS) techniques, 216
Colicin gene clusters, 324
Colloidal control, 136
Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, 136
Colonized bacterial species, 30
Commercial reagent, 14
Common microbes, 260
Complementary DNAs (cDNAs), 137
Computed tomography (CT), 51
Computer-based methods, 155
Contamination, 257
Contrast agents, 93
Controlled antibiotic release, 313
Conventional antibiotic administration, 301
Conventional cancer treatment approaches, 96
Conventional methods, 136
Index427
Conventional procedures, 238
Co-precipitation method, 119
Coprinopsis atramentari, 373
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 292
Cryogels, 185
Cryogenic plasma etching process, 205
Curcuma longa, 97
Cyclodextrin polymer (CDP), 43
Cyclodextrins, 43
Cyto-sensing platforms, 167
D
DC arc-discharge system, 15
Death scene investigation, 337
Defense mechanism, 291
Dehydroalanine amino acids, 326
Dehydrobutyrine, 326
Deinococcus radiodurans, 375
Dendrimers, 44, 75
Dibutyl sebacate, 388
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), 303
Diffusion-controlled drug release, 57
Diphtheria vaccine, 292
Disinfection byproduct formation (DBP), 349
Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), 276
Dissolved organic matter (DOM), 349
Distant flaps, 238
DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles, 119
DNA analysis, 118, 128, 136
DNA and molecular genetics, 136
DNA-based computation, 136
DNA hybridization, 115
DNA isolation, 119
DNA-like robotic nanoscale assembly
devices, 136
DNA microarray
AuNPs, 137
clinical diagnosis, 137
conventional microarray detection, 138
conventional proteomics, 138
laboratory tool, 137
nanomaterials, 137, 138
probe molecules, 137
protein–protein interactions detection, 138
sequencing technologies, 137
techniques, 137
uses, 137
wide-ranging microarray technologies, 137
DNA-nanostructured aptasensor, 167
DNA nanostructures, 144
DNA nanotechnology, 22
DNA origami
DNA nanotechnology, 142
double-stranded, 142
duplex structure, 142
electrostatic binding, 142, 143
nanoscale engineering, 144
nanostructures, 142
DNA-platinum nanoparticles, 172
DNA profiling, 125
DNA sequence analysis, 136
DNA sequencing technologies, 137
DNA transport methods, 261
DNA vaccine technology, 294
Dodecylsulfonate (DSO), 392
Dopamine-conjugated nanocapsules, 397
Dose-dependent toxicity, 100
Double-stranded DNA, 116, 152
Doxorubicin (DOX), 96
Doxorubicin-loaded tubular and triangular
DNA origami, 143
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), 136
Drug carriers, 72
Drug delivery, 3
Drug identification techniques, 125
Drug release kinetics, 313
Drug release mechanism
characteristics, 57
degradation-controlled systems, 57
diffusion-controlled, 57
lipid-based nanosystems, 57
models, 57
polymeric nanocarrier, 55
solvent-controlled systems, 57
Dyes, 363
Dynamic light scattering (DLS), 18, 19,
118, 386
Dysbiosis, 30–32, 34
E
ECM mechanics and structure, 244
Effluent organic matter (EfOM), 349
Electrical parameters, 414, 415
Electrochemical detection method, 170
Electrochemical method (electrolysis), 14
Electrochemiluminescence (ECL), 168, 170
Electron-beam lithography, 205
Electron microscopy techniques, 17
Electrospinning, 328
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), 364
Endocytosis and degradation pathways, 59
Endogenous stimuli, 51
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), 243
Engineered nanoparticles, 3, 4, 350–353, 355
Index428
Enterococcus faecalis-imprinted optic
nanobiosensor, 149
Enzyme-free cyto-sensor, 172
Epidermin, 326
Epitopes, 295
Erythromycin, 309
Escherichia coli, 114, 119, 321
Ethanol injection method, 389
1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium
hexafluorophosphate ionic
liquid, 127
Excretion mechanisms, 59
Explosive detection
fabricated platinum palladium, 124
gunshot residue analysis, 124, 125
luminescent silicon nanocrystals, 124
metal–organic polyhedra, 121
nanomaterials, 124, 126
nanosensors, 121
sensing technologies, 121
sensitive sensor system, 121
solution-borne RDX, 124
Ex situ bioremediation, 362
Extracellular and intracellular synthesis, 16
Extracellular synthesis, 6
Extremophilic fungi, 373
Extrinsic vascularization concept, 247
F
FDA-approved tissue-engineered skin
products, 249
Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO), 94
Feraheme, 101
Ferumoxytol (Feraheme), 93
Fingerprint visualization
acid-based solvothermal approach, 121
blood, 120
carbon dot-based nanopowders, 120
fluorescent nanomaterials, 120
hydrophobic capped gold
nanoparticles, 120
latent fingerprint, 119
nanomaterials, 121–123
nanotechnology, 119
patent fingerprints, 119
SALDI-MS, 120
Finite element analysis (FEA), 413, 419, 420
Fipronil, 391
Firmicutes, 34, 37, 341
First-generation DNA sequencing
produces, 138
First-order release kinetics model, 57
Flaps
intact blood supply, 239
prefabrication and prefabrication, 247
vascularized tissue transfers, 239
Flavus fungus, 6
Floral microorganisms, 334
Fluorescence imaging, 51
Fluorescent and electrochemical methods, 144
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), 140
Fluorescent nanomaterials, 120
Fluoroquinolone, 305
Folic acid-coated IONPs, 99
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 30
Food-grade TiO2/E171, 35, 36
Foreign body response (FBR), 246
Forensic applications, nanotechnology
body fluids identification, 125
DNA analysis, 118
DNA isolation, 119
explosive detection, 121–124
fingerprint visualization, 119–121
illicit drugs detection, 125, 127
toxicology, 127
Forensic microbiology, 334
molecular diagnostics, 335
nanodiagnostics, 336
death scene investigations, 336, 337
postmortem interval, 340, 341
postmortem investigation, 338, 339
Forensic science
multidisciplinary approach, 112
nanomaterials, 112
nanotechnology, 112 (see also Forensic
applications, nanotechnology)
NPs (see NPs, Forensic science)
Forensic scientists, 128
Forensic toxicology, 127
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR), 87, 321, 386
Fourth-generation sequencing, 139
Free floating planktonic bacteria, 259–260
Functional polymers, 181
Fungal bioremediation, see Mycoremediation
Fungal cell wall, 368
Fungal isolates, 371
Fungal-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, 5–7
Fungal mycelia, 367
Fungi, 16
G
Gadolinium (Gd), 75
Gallidermin, 326
Index429
GAM-4 carboxylate-terminated PAMAM
dendrimers, 44
Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki, 8
Gas chromatography (GC), 125
Gas phase deposition technique, 206
Gastrointestinal tract lesions, 335
Gd-based contrast agents, 75
Gene delivery, 97
Gene expression analysis, 136, 144
Genetic detection systems, 136
Genome sequencing, 138
Gentamicin, 305
Glomalin, 374
Glomalin-associated soil protein
(GRSP), 374
Glutathione S-transferase (GST), 397
Glycosmis mauritiana leaf extracts, 87, 88
Gold nanoparticle-assisted biosensor,
165, 166
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), 9, 31, 161
advantages, 45
biomedical fields applications, 44
nucleic acids delivery, 45
Gold nanorods (Au NRs), 45
Grafts, 238
Gram-negative bacteriocin, 324
Gram positive/negative microorganisms, 320
Graphene, 51
Graphene nanobiosensor, 151
Graphene oxide (GO), 37, 349
Graphene quantum dots (GQD), 349
Green nanotechnology
environmental sustainability, 86
green nano-products, 86
metal-borne contaminants removal, 86
metal ions bioreduction, 86
Green synthesis
AgNPs synthesis, 8
biomolecules, 8
Colletotrichum sp., 8
nontoxic phytochemicals, 8
parameters, 8
plants, 8
traditional chemical synthesis, 13
Green synthesized α-Fe2O3 NPs, 100, 101
Green-synthesized Fe3O4 NPs, 98
Green synthesized IONPs, 99
Group I bacteriocins, 322
Group II bacteriocins, 323
Group III bacteriocins, 323
Group IV bacteriocins, 323
Guanine-rich DNA, 152
Gunshot residue analysis, 124, 125
H
HA biomimetic surfaces, 308
HA-coated titanium implants, 262
Hallow gold nanosphere (HGNs), 222
HA nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres, 308
HAp-cip-2, 274
HBsAg gene, 294
Health care-associated infection (HAI),
257, 258
Healthy immune system, 291
Heavy metals, 364
Hepatitis B vaccine, 294
Heterogenous photocatalyst, 354
Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
vaccine, 294
Higuchi model, 57
Holliday junctions, 141
Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles
(HMS), 391
Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNs), 390
Host defense, 258
Host niches, 29
Human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs), 279
Human body fluids, 125
Human Genome Project, 135
Human immunoglobulins, 296
Human osteoblastic MG-63 cells, 274
Hybridomas, 295
Hydrolysis, 98
Hydrophobic capped gold nanoparticles, 120
Hydrothermal method, 22–23
Hydroxyapatite (HAp)
bioactive surface material, 262
bone, 274
ceramics, 262
crystalline, 262
glass-like bioceramic subclass, 273
medicinal carrier, 271
osseointegration, 262
RM, 273
titanium implants, 262
Hydroxyl radical (HO.), 354
Hyperthermia, 95
I
Ice-template spray drying (ITSD), 308
IDA treatment, IONPs
biochemical and immunoassay, 101
co-precipitation, 99
cytotoxicity effect evaluation, 100
drug delivery system, 98
iron-deficient anaemic albino mice, 100
Index430
IDA treatment, IONPs (cont.)
iron encapsulation, 98
plant-based synthesis, 100
protein adsorption, 98
toxicological hazard, 100
Ideal antimicrobial agent, 260
Illicit drugs detection, 125, 127
Imidacloprid-loaded particles, 388
Imidacloprid nanocapsules, 388
Immune system responses, 291
Immunity, 293
Impedance spectroscopy (IS), 166
Implant-related chronic osteomyelitis (IRO), 271
Implant-related infections
biological response, 260
complication, 259
incidence, 259
osteolysis and implant loosening, 261
pathogenesis, 264
prevention, 259, 261
surgical asepsis-antisepsis, 259
surgical wounds, 259
systemic antibiotics administration, 260
Inactivated vaccines, 293
Indocyanine green (ICG), 95
Induction-balance sensor, 415, 416
design, 416
FEA, 419, 420
geometrical parameters, 419
RX coil, 418
Infection, 259
Inflammation-related cytokines, 36
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 30
Inorganic mineral phase, 261
Inorganic nanoparticles, 44
AuNPs, 77
biomedical applications, 76
carbon-based nanomaterials, 77
carbon-based nanostructures, 76
IONPs, 77
mesoporous silica nanoparticles, 76, 77
metallic NPs, 77
platforms, 76
Insecticide-based nanoformulations, 386
In situ bioremediation, 362
Insoluble/low-solubility NPs, 31
Insulin-imprinted piezoelectric
nanobiosensor, 154
Integrated molecularly imprinted polymer, 154
Intercellular signals, 243
Interdisciplinary approach, 251
Intrinsic vascularization concept, 247
In vitro assessment, NPs
drug release mechanism, 55–57
efficient delivery, 55
methods, 55
toxicity, 55–57
transfection efficiency, 59
In vitro transfection efficiencies, 58, 59
IONP-based carrier, 97
IONP-based materials, 101
IONPs biomedical applications
antimicrobial/antifungal agent, 97, 98
disorders diagnosis, 93, 94
drug delivery, 96, 97
gene delivery, 97
hyperthermia, 95
MRI contrast agent, 92, 93
nanozymes, 94, 95
overview, 93
IONPs plant-based synthesis
cost-effective, 100
G. mauritiana leaf extracts, 87, 88
P orientalis leaf extracts, 88
S. oleracea leaf extracts, 87
Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA)
biochemical indicators, 84
clinical and diagnostic evaluation, 84
iron supplementation, 84
malnutrition disorders, 83
neurocognitive impairment, 83
peripheral blood smear, 84
prevention and control, 84
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)
biomedical applications (see IONPs
biomedical applications)
biosynthesized, 90
green synthesis, 89, 91
IDA treatment, 98–101
in vivo assessment, 99
MNPs, 86
plant-mediated, 92
production, 91
properties, 92
superparamagnetic properties, 125
Iron therapy, 98
K
Kerogen, 374
Klaenhammer’s classification, 321
L
Label-free method, 209
Lab-on-chip (LoC) systems, 218, 405
β-Lactam antibiotics, 305, 310
Lactic acid bacteria, 321, 322
Lactic bacteria, 320
Lactobacillus spp., 35, 321
Index431
Lactococcus, 321
Lambda-cyhalothrin, 389
Langmuir model, 154
Lantibiotics
application areas
cheese production, 327
clinical treatment, 327
food applications, 327
food industry, 326
yoghurt production, 326
bacteriocins (see Bacteriocins)
characterization, 321
microorganisms, 320
nanotechnology, 327, 328
synthesis, 321
2D structure, 320
Larvicidal activity, 395
Latent fingerprints, 120, 121
Lateral flow assays (LFA), 222
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), 392
Layered hydroxide salts (LHSs), 392
Levofloxacin, 274
Lignin, 369
Ligninolytic enzymes, 374
Linear polymers, 182
Lipid-based drug delivery agents, 144
Lipid-based nanoparticles, 389
Lipid-based nanosystems, 57
Lipid-based systems, 42
Lipid carrier nanosystems, 57
Lipid nanoparticle, 42
Lipid nanotechnology, 22, 42
Liposomes, 75
active targeting, 74
advantages, 74
cancer therapy, 75
diagnostic agents, 75
drug discovery, 75
drug’s properties enhancement, 74
hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, 74
self-assembled spherical vesicles, 74
versatile phospholipid vesicles, 42
Liquid chromatography (LC), 125
Live-attenuated vaccines, 293
Llithium-doped nanostructured zinc oxide
powders, 117
Local flaps, 238
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR),
200, 203
M
Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), 293
Magnesium (Mg), 277–279
Magnesium-based biomaterials, 278
Magnetic glassy carbon electrode
(MGCE), 165
Magnetic immunoassay, 407
Magnetic microbeads, 408
Magnetic nanomaterials, 144
Magnetic nanoparticle-assisted biosensor,
164, 165
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), 9, 10, 45, 161
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
51, 77, 92
Magnetic sensing, 405
Malachite green (MG), 220
Malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), 222
Manganese peroxidase (MNP), 370
Marinal halophilic species, 372
Marine algae Sargassum wightii, 7
Marine fungi, 371, 372
Mass-sensitive-based biosensors, 162
Mass spectrometric determination, 120
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizationtime of flight (MALDI-TOF), 321
Matrix signals, 243
MC3T3-E1 cells, 274
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 84
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), 293
Measles virus, 293
Measured environmental concentrations
(MEC), 349
Mechanical ball milling, 15
Medical imaging
contrast agents, 51
conventional, 51
early detection/therapeutic response
assessment, 51
endogenous stimuli, 51
methods, 51
NPs, 54
Mentha piperita, 7
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), 242
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid
(DMSA), 119
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs),
76, 77, 390
Mesoporous silica particles, 45
Metallic inorganic nanoparticles, 44
Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs)
bacteria, 5
nanosized metals, 10
plants extracts, 8
preparation, 13
silver ions, 5
synthesis approaches, 4
Metal nanoparticles, 377, 393, 395
Metal oxides, 275
Metals nanofabrication, see MNPs synthesis
Index432
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA), 305
Mg-based biomaterials, 278
MgO doped nHAp, 279
Micelles, 386
Microbial bioremediation, 365, 366
bio augmentation, 366
biocell, 366
biosparging, 366
biostimulation, 366
natural attenuation, 366
venting, 366
Microbial biotechnology, 338
Microbial enzymes, 377
Microbiology, 305
Microbial routes, NPs synthesis, 16
Microbial sampling, 100
Microbiota
colonized bacterial species, 30
description, 29
health impacts, 29
members, 29
NPs impacts (see NPs impacts on
microbiota)
stable, 30
symbiotic ecosystem, 29
Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 114
Microcytic hypochromic RBCs, 84
Microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS), 405
Microenvironment
cellular ınteractions (see Cellular
ınteractions, microenvironment)
creation, cell sources, 242
Microfluidic devices, 172, 174, 226
Microfluidic PCR chips, 118
Microfluidics, 118
Microorganisms, 321, 324
Microorganism-synthesized IONPs, 100
Microparticles, 188
advantages, 188
properties, 188, 190
Microscopic techniques, 17
Microvascular transplantation, 238
Minimum bactericidal concentration
(MBC), 276
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC),
276, 307
miRNA detection, 140
MNP-based antifungal nanotherapies, 98
MNPs properties
characteristics, 10
harmfulness, 12
oxidative stress, 13
synthesis goals and problems, 11
synthetic NPs risks, 11, 12
MNPs synthesis
bacterial species, 16
bacteria-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, 5
bottom-up approach, 4
fungal-mediated nanoparticle
synthesis, 5–7
green synthesis, 7–8
top-down approach, 4
Mode of action, bacteriocins
affinity, 324
antimicrobial agents, 325
binding mechanism, 325
cell wall biosynthesis, 324
nisin, 325, 326
potassium and phosphate ions flow, 325
RNA structure distruption, 325
Molecular biology tools, 296
Molecular cytogenetics, 140
Molecular imprinting methods, 148, 150, 155
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), 186
applications, 155
features, 148
nanobiosensor, 153
vs. natural biomolecules, 148, 149
Molecular microbiological tests, 338
Molybdenum (Mo), 280
Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets
(MoS2NSs), 280
Monodispersity, 100
MoOx-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles
(nano-HA/MoOx), 280
Mo oxide (MoOx), 280
Mouse calvarial preosteoblastic cell line
(MC3T3-E1), 307
MRSA-induced osteomyelitis rabbit
model, 276
Multidrug resistance (MDR), 73
Multifunctional IONPs, 95, 101
Multifunctional mesoporous silica
nanomaterials, 77
Multifunctional nanoparticles, 49
Musculoskeletal infections
bone infection, 271
nHAp, 282
osteomyelitis, 271–273
septic arthritis, 273
trace elements (see Trace elements doped
nHAp composites)
Mycolic acid (MA), 213
Myconanotechnology, 377
Index433
Mycoremediation, 367
contaminants, 369
enzymes, 368
genetically engineered fungi, 376
lignin, 369, 370
mechanisms, 368
Mycotransformation, 376
N
NADH-dependent reductase enzyme, 16
Nanoalumina, 396
Nano-based insecticides, 396
Nanobiosensors
albumin detection, 151
biomedical applications, 155
biomolecules detection (see Biomolecules
detection)
capabilities, 148
classification, 147
DNA recognition, 152
E. faecalis-imprinted optic, 149
and insulin biomolecules, 154
kinetic behavior, 149, 154
molecular imprinting, 148
patient diagnosis, 155
piezoelectric, 152, 154
potentiometric, 154
Nanobiotechnology, 2, 136
Nanocapsules, 43, 386
Nanocarriers, 328, 394
Nanochannel-based single-molecule genome
mapping, 139
Nanocomposites, 170, 171
Nanocrystalline material, 3
Nanodiagnostics
aims, 50
approaches, 50
efficiency/cost ratios, 50
inorganic fluorescent nanoparticles, 50
metallic NPs, 50
NPs, 51–53
QDs, 50
semiconductor nanocrystals, 50
SPIOs, 51
Nanoencapsulation, 386
Nano-forensics, 112, 128
Nanogels, 386
Nanoinsecticides, 386
Nanoliposomes, 389, 390
Nanomaterial-assisted biosensor, 163
CTC, 164, 173
microfluidic device, 172, 174
Nanomaterial-based genetic
identification systems
DNA origami (see DNA origami)
microarray, 136–138
miRNA detection, 140
molecular cytogenetics, 140
NGS (see Next-generation
sequencing (NGS))
Nanomaterials, 2, 42
advantages, 184
characterization
AFM, 117, 118
DLS, 118
SEM, 117
TEM, 117
Nanomedicine, 22, 72, 86, 184
Nanometer-sized HAp (nHAp), 276
doping, 274
features, 273
osteointegration capability, 271
treatment, 273
Nano/microenvironments, 251
Nanoparticle-based diagnostics, 50
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems, 72
Nanoparticles (NPs)
advantages and disadvantages, 46–47
adverse effects, 85
biomedical applications (see NPs
biomedical applications)
characterization (see NPs characterization)
commercial products, 30
drug delivery, 3
economic benefits, 31
engineered, 3, 4
entry routes, 31
food-related applications, 30
genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, 31
impacts, 11
innovation and productivity, 23
nondegradable particles, 4
potential risks, 31
properties, 3, 30
size and distribution, 85
surface, 3
synthesis, 85
toxicological effects, 12
types, 30
AgNPs, 9
AuNPs, 9
magnetic, 9, 10
platinum, 10
ultrafine, 4
Nanophotocatalysts, 354
Index434
Nanopore-based genome sequencing
platform, 139
Nanopore-based sequencing, 139
Nanoprobes, 128
Nanorobots, 22
Nanoscale materials, 2
Nanoscale titanium dioxide, 12
Nanoscience, 2
Nanosensors, 128
Nano-sized HAp, 273
Nanosized materials, 162
Nanospheres, 43, 386
Nanostructured materials, 59
Nanostructures
excretion mechanisms, 59
nanosensors, 50
types, 50
Nanosuspension, 394
Nanosynthesis methods
biological synthesis
microbial routes, 16
MNPs via plants, 15, 16
chemical reduction
electrochemical, 14
photochemical, 14
reducing agents, 13
physical methods
arc-discharge, 14, 15
mechanical ball milling, 15
PVC, 14
Nanotechnology, 376, 385, 394
applications
bacterial detection, 21
disease pathophysiological, 3
protein purification, 22
definition, 2
discovery, 41
focuses, 2
green synthesis, 13
medicine, 3
nanobiotechnology, 2
NPs (see Nanoparticles (NPs))
research, 2
scientific fields, 42
technology and industry applications, 84
types, 4
Nanotechnology-enabled sensors, 121
Nano-theranostic entities, 101
Nanotransporters, 328
Nanozymes, 94, 95
The National Institutes of Health Human
Microbiome Project, 29
Natural attenuation, 366
Natural organic matter (NOM), 349
Natural polymers, 74, 182, 387
Near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, 121
Neovascularization, 247
Network or cross-linked polymers, 183
Next-generation sequencing (NGS), 34
amplification, 139
application areas, 139
DNA fragments, 139
massive sequence platforms, 139
test method, 138
Next generation vaccines, 296
N-hydroxysuccinimide, 154
NIR thermal ablation procedures, 77
Nisin, 325, 326, 328
Nitroaromatic compounds, 124
Nitrogen fixation (NifD), 115
Non-circular geometries
magnetic field distribution, 413, 414
Non-fouling materials, 246
Non-labelled target molecules, 138
Nanoparticles (NP), 396
applications, 394
characteristics, 386
effects, 347
exposure, 348
MEC, 349
mode of action, 396
occurence in environment, 348
toxic effects, 355
water treatment, 349, 353
Non-spiral planar microcoils, 409, 410
boundary condition, 412
magnetic field distribution,
410, 412
oxidized silicon substrate, 411
Non-targeted organs, 72
Nonviral gene delivery systems, 192
Nosocomial, 257
Novel targeted liposomes, 74
NPs aspects, 51
NPs-based drug systems, 30
NPs-based transport systems, 55
NPs biomedical applications
medical imaging, 51–55
nanodiagnostics, 50–51
schematic representation, 49
therapy, 48–50
NPs characterization
AFM, 21
DLS, 18, 19
particle size analysis
distribution and morphology, 17
stability, 18
surface properties, 17, 18
Index435
SEM, 19, 20
size-dependent property, 17
TEM, 20, 21
XRD, 18
NPs, forensic science
AgNPs, 113–116
DNA bands, 114
ZnONPs, 116, 117
NPs impacts on microbiota
AgNPs, 34–35
entry routes, 31
human health, 32
mediated disorders, 31
scientific research, 32
TiO2NPs, 35–36
toxicity, 31
UV absorption properties, 32
ZnONPs, 36–37
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 406
Nucleic acid, 152, 153
Nucleic acid vaccines, 294, 295
O
Oblique-angle deposition process, 208
Oleic acid-based solvothermal approach, 121
Orally ingested NPs, 32
Origami-Dox complex, 142
Orthopedic implant infections, 312, 313
Orthopedic surgery, 259
Osmotic-controlled release, 57
Osteocalcin (OCN), 275
Osteomyelitis
calcium phosphate-based biomaterials, 271
classification, 272
devascularization, 272
forms, 271
infection sources, 272
IRO, 271
long-lasting chronic, 272
management, 272
musculoskeletal infection, 271
P
PAMAM dendrimers, 44
Parasexual cycle, 376
Passive coating, 261
Pathogens, 257
PEGylated Fe/Fe3O4 NPs, 95
PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin, 75
Penicillins, 305
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, 124
Peppas model, 57
Peptide-glycan biosynthetic pathway, 325
Peptide nanoparticles (PNPs), 171
Peptide nanostructures, 207
Perioperative intranasal mupirocin, 258
Peripheral nerves, 250
Pesticides, 363
Pharmaceutical stability, 18
Pharmacokinetic bioavailability, 142
Phenanthrene, 370
Phosphatase and tensin homologue
(PTEN), 97
Photocatalytic membrane reactor, 354
Photochemical method (irradiation), 14
Photothermal yherapy (PTT), 95
Physical vapor condensation (PVC), 14
Phytoconstituents, 98
Planar microcoils, 406, 407
geometrical parameters, 410
magnetic field, 410
magnetic sensors, 406, 408
non-spiral microcoil, 408–410
Plantanus orientalis leaf extracts, 88
Plasmodium falciparum, 136
Platinum drugs, 96
Platinum nanoparticles, 10
PLGA-based nanoparticles, 43
PLGA-PEG copolymer system, 96
Point of care (PoC), 405
Point-of-use (POU), 355
Polyamidoamines (PAMAMs), 44
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 361
Polycaprolactone (PCL), 43, 387
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 361, 363
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), 361
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p dioxin
(PCDD), 361
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), 363
Polydispersity index (PDI), 386
Poly D, L-lactide co-glycolide (PLGA), 43
Polyethyleneglycol (PEG), 54, 184, 387
Polyethylenimine (PEI), 43, 214
Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated IONPs, 100
Polyglycolic acid (PGA), 43
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), 387
Polylactic acid (PLA), 387
Polylactide, 43
Polymer nanoparticles, 387
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 114
Polymer-based nanofibers, 328
Polymeric membranes, 185
Polymeric micelles, 76
Polymeric monoliths, 188
Polymeric nanomaterials, 184
Index436
Polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), 31
aticancer agents delivery, 73
cancer treatment, 74
clinical evaluation, 74
nano-range size, 73
organic based, 42
pharmacokinetic controls, 43
size ranges, 43
submicron colloidal particles, 73, 74
surface properties, 73
sustained release, 74
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 212,
260, 301
Polymorphic ompA gene encoding, 115
Porous silica nanoparticles, 390
Positive microbiological result may, 338–339
Positron emission tomography (PET), 51
Postmortem interval, 340
Postmortem microbiological
examinations, 335
Postmortem microbiological test, 339
Postmortem putrefactive process, 334, 335
Principal component analysis (PCA), 216
Printed circuit board (PCB), 406
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, 37
Protein folding studies, 22
Protein microarrays QDs, 144
Protein neuropilin-1 (NRP), 142
Proteins, 151, 152
Proteobacteria, 341
Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259, 5, 16
Purified diphtheria toxoid, 292–293
Putrefaction, 335
Q
Quantitative gene expression analysis, 138
Quantitative reverse transcription PCR
(qPCR), 136
Quantum dot (QD)-assisted biosensor,
169, 170
Quantum dot-based multicolor probes, 44
Quantum dots (QDs), 44, 120, 128, 138, 140,
144, 161
Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), 19
R
Radionuclides, 363
Raman spectroscopy, 198, 199
Stokes/anti-Stokes, 199, 200
theory, 199
types, 199
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), 94
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 94, 354
Reconstructive elevator, 238
Reconstructive ladder, 238
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), 84
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO), 349
Reducing agents, 13
Regenerative medicine (RM), 239–241,
251, 273
RNA sequencing, 139
ROS production, 100
S
Salt-tolerant fungi, 372
Saprophytic fungi, 368
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 17, 19,
20, 117, 124, 166, 276, 386
SCFAs-producing bacteria, 36
Seeman’s tile-based approach, 142
Self-assemble, 22
Semisynthetic polymeric materials, 182
Sensing technologies, 121
Septic arthritis, 271, 273
Sequencing platforms, 139
Serial analysis of gene expres​sion(SAGE), 136
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 36
Short-wave infrared light (SWIR), 192
Silica-chitosan NPs, 45
Silver-coated prosthesis, 262
Silver-containing HA coatings, 262
Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), 31, 45, 168, 390
Silica nanospheres, 51
Silver ion doped ceramic nanopowder coating,
263, 265
Silver ion doped nano ceramics, 265
Silver nanoparticle-based microfluidic
chips, 127
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), 5–7, 9, 31, 168
antimicrobial agent, 34
commercialized nanomaterial, 34
cosmetics, 34
human health impacts, 34
medical and personal care applications, 34
Silver nanoparticles and hydroxyapatite
nanoparticles (SR-PM-Ag-HA), 280
Silver-tolerant yeast strain MKY3, 6
Single photon emission computed tomography
(SPECT), 51
Single-stranded DNA, 116, 152
siRNA-based gene silencing, 44
Six-arm junction, 141
Skin, 249, 250
Skin grafts, 238
Index437
Smart drug delivery designs, 314
Smart polymers, 245
Soft tissue TE, 251
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), 42, 389
Soluble chitosan and linoleic acid (SCLN), 97
Soluble molecules, 243
Solution-borne RDX, 124
Solvent-controlled systems, 57
Sophora viciifolia, 375
Spinacia oleracea leaf extracts, 87
Split ring resonators (SRRs), 205
Sr-Ag-HA biofilms, 279
SrHAP nanoparticles, 279
Sr-loaded PLGA, 280
Standard scanning electron microscopy-energy
dispersive spectroscopy (SEMEDS), 125
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, 222
Staphylococcus aureus, 260, 327
Staphylococcus epidermidis, 260
Staphylococcus species, 312
Starch-calcium alginate (SCA), 387
Starch-chitosan-calcium alginate (SCCA), 387
Stimulant-sensitive controlled release
systems, 57
Stober method, 390
Stoichiometric HA, 303
Strontium (Sr), 279, 280
Subunit vaccines, 294
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 340
Sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI, 340
Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles
(SPIOs), 51
Superoxide dismutase (SOD), 94
Superparamagnetic iron oxide
nanoparticles, 96
Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization/
mass spectrometry
(SALDI-MS), 120
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering
substrates, 114
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
(SERS), 127, 198, 200
bioactive, 204
CM, 201, 202
EBL, 205
electromagnetic properties, 205
EM, 200
HGN, 221
labeled
DNA-RNA, 217–220
pathogens, 223, 224
proteins, 220, 222, 223
small molecules, 225, 227
label-free, 208
cell imaging, 216, 217
DNA-RNA, 209, 210
pathogens, 214, 215
proteins, 210–212
small molecules, 212, 213
nanoparticle, 202, 203
PVD, 207
substrates, 208
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), 162
Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP), 258
Surgical site infections (SSI)
complication, 257–258
HAI, 258
incision site, 259
surgery, 258
surgical incision, 258
Swelling-controlled systems, 57
Synergistic combinations, 313
Synergistic effect, 313
Synthesized amine-functionalized carbon
dots, 127
Synthesized carbon dot-based
nanopowders, 120
Synthesized dendrimers, 44
Synthesized recombinant HBsAg, 294
Synthetic CaPs, 303
Synthetic polymers, 182
T
Tailored delivery systems, 245
Tapered square geometry, 414
TE advanced biomaterials
biofunctionalized materials, 246
non-fouling materials, 246
smart polymers, 245
tailored delivery systems, 245
Templating method, 390
Tetanus toxin, 292
Theranostic platform, 101
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies
biologic drugs, 291
global annual market value, 296
humanization, 296
immunization, 296
immunoglobulins, 296
phase display library
biotechnology, 296
Thermo-responsive polymer
N-isopropylacrylamide, 245
3D cartilaginous framework, 248
3D culture gel environment, 244
3D printing, 311
Index438
Tissue-based microenvironment
creation/control
adipose tissue, 250
bone, 248
cartilage, 248, 249
peripheral nerves, 250
skin, 249, 250
Tissue-engineered skin product, 249
Tissue engineering (TE)
advanced biomaterials, 245–246
biomaterials, 244, 245
biopsy procedure, 242
BMSCs, 242
definition, 241
heterologous/xenogeneic cells, 242
isolation, 242
proliferated and differentiated
ex vivo, 242
reconstructive procedures, 239
RM, 241
tissue-based microenvironment
control, 248–250
vascularization, 247
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 30
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles
(TiO2NPs), 35, 36
Titanium oxide (TiO2)–SrHAP, 280
Top-down approach, 4, 41, 85
Toroidal model, 57
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), 84
Toxic reducing agents, 88
Toxoid vaccines, 292, 293
Trace elements doped nHAP composites
boron, 276, 277
combinations, 281
damaged bacterial growth, 283
effects, 278, 283
medical applications, 283
Mg, 277–279
Mo, 280
molecular aspects, 282, 283
osteogenesis, 283
osteomyelitis, 274, 275
Sr, 279, 280
Zn2+, 275
Trametes versicolor, 370
Transdifferentiation, 250
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 17,
20, 21, 117, 124, 386
Transport antimicrobials, 260
Transverse plasmon (TP), 203
β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), 303
Trichoderma, 373
Trichoderma viride, 378
Trichodesma indicum leaf extract, 113
Trinitrotoluene/trinitrotriazine (RDX), 121
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), 45
Tumour-penetrating peptides (TPP), 142
Turmeric-extracted curcumin nanoparticlebased, 121
2D lattices, 141
Two-film theory mathematical model, 57
Tyrosine phosphorylation, 244
U
Ultrasound (US), 51
United States Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), 258
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 75
UV illumination, 120
UV spectroscopy, scanning electron
microscopy-energy dispersive
spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), 87
UV–Vis spectroscopy, 7, 125
V
Vaccine biotechnology
cancer vaccines, 295
immune system protection, 292
immunization, 292
immunotherapies, 296
inactivated vaccines, 293
live-attenuated vaccines, 293
nucleic acid vaccines, 294, 295
subunit vaccines, 294
toxoid vaccines, 292, 293
vaccination, 292
Vancomycin, 274, 305
Vancomycin-conjugated FePt
nanoparticles, 21
Vancomycin-loaded chitosan-gelation, 279
Vancomycin-loaded nHAp pellets, 274
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), 21
Vascularization, 247
Vascularized tissue transfers, 239
Virola oleifera extract, 114
Virus, 149, 150
W
Watson–Crick base pairing, 141
Weibull release model, 57
Index439
White rot fungi, 369
Wound infection factors, 258
X
X-ray diffraction (XRD), 18, 386
X-ray diffractometer, 263
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),
154, 166
X-ray radiography, 51
Y
Yeasts, 375
Yoghurt production, 326
Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4), 120
Z
Zebrafish (Danio rerio), 35
Zero-order release kinetics model, 57
Zika virus, 150
Zinc (Zn2+), 275
Zinc altered calcium transition and
fluidity, 282
Zinc-doped nHAp composite, 275
Zinc-doped nHAp nanoparticles, 281
Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), 392
Zinc oxide (ZnO), 30
Zinc oxide doped nHAp composites, 275
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs),
36, 37
Zn+ ions, 282


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