كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design - Seventh Edition
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 كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design - Seventh Edition

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design - Seventh Edition
Robert C. Juvinall
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Michigan
Kurt M. Marshek
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Texas at Austin

كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design - Seventh Edition  F_o_m_28
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Content available in eBook
Student solution available in interactive e-text
Preface v
Acknowledgments ix
Symbols xix
P A R T 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1
1 Mechanical Engineering Design in Broad Perspective 1
1.1 An Overview of the Subject 1
1.2 Safety Considerations 2
1.3 Ecological Considerations 7
1.4 Societal Considerations 8
1.5 Overall Design Considerations 10
1.6 Systems of Units 12
1.7 Methodology for Solving Machine Component Problems 14
1.8 Work and Energy 16
1.9 Power 18
1.10 Conservation of Energy 19
2 Load Analysis 24
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 Equilibrium Equations and Free-Body Diagrams 24
2.3 Beam Loading 34
2.4 Locating Critical Sections—Force Flow Concept 37
2.5 Load Division Between Redundant Supports 39
2.6 Force Flow Concept Applied to Redundant Ductile Structures 41
3 Materials 45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 The Static Tensile Test—“Engineering” Stress–Strain Relationships 46
3.3 Implications of the “Engineering” Stress–Strain Curve 47
3.4 The Static Tensile Test—“True” Stress–Strain Relationships 50
3.5 Energy-Absorbing Capacity 51
3.6 Estimating Strength Properties from Penetration Hardness Tests 52
3.7 Use of “Handbook” Data for Material Strength Properties 55
3.8 Machinability 56
3.9 Cast Iron 56
3.10 Steel 57
3.11 Nonferrous Alloys 59
3.12 Plastics and Composites 61
xixii Contents
3.13 Materials Selection Charts 66
3.14 Engineering Material Selection Process 68
4 Static Body Stresses 77
4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Axial Loading 77
4.3 Direct Shear Loading 79
4.4 Torsional Loading 80
4.5 Pure Bending Loading, Straight Beams 82
4.6 Pure Bending Loading, Curved Beams 83
4.7 Transverse Shear Loading in Beams 88
4.8 Induced Stresses, Mohr Circle Representation 94
4.9 Combined Stresses—Mohr Circle Representation 96
4.10 Stress Equations Related to Mohr’s Circle 99
4.11 Three-Dimensional Stresses 100
4.12 Stress Concentration Factors, Kt 104
4.13 Importance of Stress Concentration 107
4.14 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Axial Loading 109
4.15 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Bending and Torsional Loading 113
4.16 Thermal Stresses 115
4.17 Importance of Residual Stresses 117
5 Elastic Strain, Deflection, and Stability 119
5.1 Introduction 119
5.2 Strain Definition, Measurement, and Mohr Circle Representation 120
5.3 Analysis of Strain—Equiangular Rosettes 122
5.4 Analysis of Strain—Rectangular Rosettes 124
5.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relationships and Three-Dimensional Mohr Circles 126
5.6 Deflection and Spring Rate—Simple Cases 128
5.7 Beam Deflection 130
5.8 Determining Elastic Deflections by Castigliano’s Method 133
5.9 Redundant Reactions by Castigliano’s Method 144
5.10 Euler Column Buckling—Elastic Instability 148
5.11 Equivalent Column Length for Various End Conditions 150
5.12 Column Design Equations—J. B. Johnson Parabola 151
5.13 Eccentric Column Loading—the Secant Formula 155
5.14 Equivalent Column Stresses 156
5.15 Other Types of Buckling 157
5.16 Finite Element Analysis 158
6 Failure Theories, Safety Factors, and Reliability 161
6.1 Introduction 161
6.2 Types of Failure 163
6.3 Fracture Mechanics—Basic Concepts 164
6.4 Fracture Mechanics—Applications 165
6.5 The “Theory” of Static Failure Theories 174
6.6 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory 176
6.7 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory 176
6.8 Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory (Maximum-Octahedral-Shear-Stress
Theory) 177
6.9 Mohr Theory and Modified Mohr Theory 179
6.10 Selection and Use of Failure Theories 180
6.11 Safety Factors—Concept and Definition 182
6.12 Safety Factors—Selection of a Numerical Value 184Contents xiii
6.13 Reliability 186
6.14 Normal Distributions 187
6.15 Interference Theory of Reliability Prediction 188
7 Impact 192
7.1 Introduction 192
7.2 Stress and Deflection Caused by Linear and Bending Impact 194
7.3 Stress and Deflection Caused by Torsional Impact 201
7.4 Effect of Stress Raisers on Impact Strength 204
8 Fatigue 210
8.1 Introduction 210
8.2 Basic Concepts 210
8.3 Standard Fatigue Strengths (Sn′ ) for Rotating Bending 212
8.4 Fatigue Strengths for Reversed Bending and Reversed Axial Loading 217
8.5 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Torsional Loading 218
8.6 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Biaxial Loading 219
8.7 Influence of Surface and Size on Fatigue Strength 220
8.8 Summary of Estimated Fatigue Strengths for Completely
Reversed Loading 222
8.9 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength 222
8.10 Effect of Stress Concentration with Completely Reversed Fatigue
Loading 231
8.11 Effect of Stress Concentration with Mean Plus Alternating Loads 233
8.12 Fatigue Life Prediction with Randomly Varying Loads 240
8.13 Effect of Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength of a Part 243
8.14 Mechanical Surface Treatments—Shot Peening and Others 245
8.15 Thermal and Chemical Surface-Hardening Treatments (Induction
Hardening, Carburizing, and Others) 246
8.16 Fatigue Crack Growth 246
8.17 General Approach for Fatigue Design 250
9 Surface Damage 255
9.1 Introduction 255
9.2 Corrosion: Fundamentals 255
9.3 Corrosion: Electrode and Electrolyte Heterogeneity 258
9.4 Design for Corrosion Control 259
9.5 Corrosion Plus Static Stress 262
9.6 Corrosion Plus Cyclic Stress 264
9.7 Cavitation Damage 264
9.8 Types of Wear 265
9.9 Adhesive Wear 265
9.10 Abrasive Wear 267
9.11 Fretting 268
9.12 Analytical Approach to Wear 269
9.13 Curved-Surface Contact Stresses 272
9.14 Surface Fatigue Failures 278
9.15 Closure 279
P A R T 2 APPLICATIONS 282
10 Threaded Fasteners and Power Screws 282
10.1 Introduction 282
10.2 Thread Forms, Terminology, and Standards 282xiv Contents
10.3 Power Screws 286
10.4 Static Screw Stresses 295
10.5 Threaded Fastener Types 299
10.6 Fastener Materials and Methods of Manufacture 301
10.7 Bolt Tightening and Initial Tension 301
10.8 Thread Loosening and Thread Locking 305
10.9 Bolt Tension with External Joint-Separating Force 308
10.10 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Static Loading 312
10.11 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Fatigue Loading: Fundamentals 318
10.12 Bolt Selection for Fatigue Loading: Using Special Test Data 324
10.13 Increasing Bolted-Joint Fatigue Strength 327
11 Rivets, Welding, and Bonding 329
11.1 Introduction 329
11.2 Rivets 329
11.3 Welding Processes 330
11.4 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Axial and Direct Shear Loading 334
11.5 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Torsional and Bending Loading 337
11.6 Fatigue Considerations in Welded Joints 342
11.7 Brazing and Soldering 344
11.8 Adhesives 344
12 Springs 347
12.1 Introduction 347
12.2 Torsion Bar Springs 347
12.3 Coil Spring Stress and Deflection Equations 348
12.4 Stress and Strength Analysis for Helical Compression
Springs—Static Loading 353
12.5 End Designs of Helical Compression Springs 355
12.6 Buckling Analysis of Helical Compression Springs 356
12.7 Design Procedure for Helical Compression Springs—Static Loading 357
12.8 Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading 360
12.9 Helical Extension Springs 368
12.10 Beam Springs (Including Leaf Springs) 369
12.11 Torsion Springs 374
12.12 Miscellaneous Springs 376
13 Lubrication and Sliding Bearings 379
13.1 Types of Lubricants 379
13.2 Types of Sliding Bearings 379
13.3 Types of Lubrication 380
13.4 Basic Concepts of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 381
13.5 Viscosity 383
13.6 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity 387
13.7 Petroff’s Equation for Bearing Friction 388
13.8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory 390
13.9 Design Charts for Hydrodynamic Bearings 393
13.10 Lubricant Supply 399
13.11 Heat Dissipation and Equilibrium Oil Film Temperature 401
13.12 Bearing Materials 402
13.13 Hydrodynamic Bearing Design 404
13.14 Boundary and Mixed-Film Lubrication 409
13.15 Thrust Bearings 411
13.16 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 412Contents xv
14 Rolling-Element Bearings 413
14.1 Comparison of Alternative Means for Supporting Rotating Shafts 413
14.2 History of Rolling-Element Bearings 415
14.3 Rolling-Element Bearing Types 415
14.4 Design of Rolling-Element Bearings 421
14.5 Fitting of Rolling-Element Bearings 424
14.6 “Catalog Information” for Rolling-Element Bearings 425
14.7 Bearing Selection 429
14.8 Mounting Bearings to Provide Properly for Thrust Load 436
15 Spur Gears 438
15.1 Introduction and History 438
15.2 Geometry and Nomenclature 439
15.3 Interference and Contact Ratio 447
15.4 Gear Force Analysis 450
15.5 Gear-Tooth Strength 453
15.6 Basic Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Stress (Lewis Equation) 454
15.7 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Basic Concepts 456
15.8 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Recommended
Procedure 458
15.9 Gear-Tooth Surface Durability—Basic Concepts 464
15.10 Gear-Tooth Surface Fatigue Analysis—Recommended Procedure 467
15.11 Spur Gear Design Procedures 471
15.12 Gear Materials 475
15.13 Gear Trains 476
16 Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears 481
16.1 Introduction 481
16.2 Helical-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 482
16.3 Helical-Gear Force Analysis 486
16.4 Helical Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 489
16.5 Crossed Helical Gears 490
16.6 Bevel Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 491
16.7 Bevel Gear Force Analysis 493
16.8 Bevel Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 494
16.9 Bevel Gear Trains; Differential Gears 497
16.10 Worm Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 498
16.11 Worm Gear Force and Efficiency Analysis 500
16.12 Worm-Gear-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 505
16.13 Worm Gear Thermal Capacity 507
17 Shafts and Associated Parts 511
17.1 Introduction 511
17.2 Provision for Shaft Bearings 511
17.3 Mounting Parts onto Rotating Shafts 512
17.4 Rotating-Shaft Dynamics 515
17.5 Overall Shaft Design 519
17.6 Keys, Pins, and Splines 523
17.7 Couplings and Universal Joints 526
18 Clutches and Brakes 530
18.1 Introduction 530
18.2 Disk Clutches 530
18.3 Disk Brakes 535
18.4 Energy Absorption and Cooling 536xvi Contents
18.5 Cone Clutches and Brakes 537
18.6 Short-Shoe Drum Brakes 539
18.7 External Long-Shoe Drum Brakes 542
18.8 Internal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes 548
18.9 Band Brakes 550
18.10 Materials 553
19 Belts, Chains, and Other Components 555
19.1 Introduction 555
19.2 Flat Belts 555
19.3 V-Belts 557
19.4 Toothed Belts 561
19.5 Roller Chains 561
19.6 Inverted-Tooth Chains 563
19.7 History of Hydrodynamic Drives 565
19.8 Fluid Couplings 565
19.9 Hydrodynamic Torque Converters 568
20 Micro/Nanoscale Machine Elements 572
20.1 Introduction 572
20.2 Micro/Nanoscale Actuators 573
20.3 Micro/Nanoscale Bearings 579
20.4 Micro/Nanoscale Sensors 583
20.5 Conclusions 595
21 Machine Component Interrelationships—A Case Study 597
21.1 Introduction 597
21.2 Description of Original Hydra-Matic Transmission 597
21.3 Free-Body Diagram Determination of Gear Ratios and
Component Loads 600
21.4 Gear Design Considerations 603
21.5 Brake and Clutch Design Considerations 605
21.6 Miscellaneous Design Considerations 606
22 Design and Fabrication of the Mechanical Systems for a Remote Control
Car—A Design Project Case Study 609
22.1 Case Study Summary 609
22.2 Project Components 610
22.3 Project Organization 612
22.4 System Design Considerations 613
22.5 RC Car Race 617
Problems (Available in e-text for students) P-1
A Units A-1
A-1a Conversion Factors for British Gravitational, English, and SI Units A-1
A-1b Conversion Factor Equalities Listed by Physical Quantity A-2
A-2a Standard SI Prefixes A-4
A-2b SI Units and Symbols A-5
A-3 Suggested SI Prefixes for Stress Calculations A-6
A-4 Suggested SI Prefixes for Linear-Deflection Calculations A-6
A-5 Suggested SI Prefixes for Angular-Deflection Calculations A-6Contents xvii
B Properties of Sections and Solids A-7
B-1a Properties of Sections A-7
B-1b Dimensions and Properties of Steel Pipe and Tubing Sections A-8
B-2 Mass and Mass Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous Solids A-10
C Material Properties and Uses A-11
C-1 Physical Properties of Common Metals A-11
C-2 Tensile Properties of Some Metals A-12
C-3a Typical Mechanical Properties and Uses of Gray Cast Iron A-13
C-3b Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Malleable Cast Iron A-14
C-3c Average Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Ductile
(Nodular) Iron A-15
C-4a Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels A-16
C-4b Typical Uses of Plain Carbon Steels A-18
C-5a Properties of Some Water-Quenched and Tempered Steels A-19
C-5b Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Carbon Steels A-20
C-5c Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steels A-21
C-6 Effect of Mass on Strength Properties of Steel A-22
C-7 Mechanical Properties of Some Carburizing Steels A-23
C-8 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought Stainless Steels
(Approximate Median Expectations) A-24
C-9 Mechanical Properties of Some Iron-Based Superalloys A-25
C-10 Mechanical Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some
Wrought Aluminum Alloys A-26
C-11 Tensile Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some
Cast-Aluminum Alloys A-27
C-12 Temper Designations for Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys A-28
C-13 Mechanical Properties of Some Copper Alloys A-29
C-14 Mechanical Properties of Some Magnesium Alloys A-30
C-15 Mechanical Properties of Some Nickel Alloys A-31
C-16 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought-Titanium Alloys A-32
C-17 Mechanical Properties of Some Zinc Casting Alloys A-33
C-18a Representative Mechanical Properties of Some Common Plastics A-34
C-18b Properties of Some Common Glass-Reinforced and Unreinforced
Thermoplastic Resins A-35
C-18c Typical Applications of Common Plastics A-36
C-19 Material Names and Applications A-37
C-20 Designer’s Subset of Engineering Materials A-40
C-21 Processing Methods Used Most Frequently with Different Materials A-41
C-22 Joinability of Materials A-42
C-23 Materials for Machine Components A-43
C-24 Relations Between Failure Modes and Material Properties A-45
D Shear, Moment, and Deflection Equations for Beams A-46
D-1 Cantilever Beams A-46
D-2 Simply Supported Beams A-47
D-3 Beams with Fixed Ends A-49
E Fits and Tolerances A-50
E-1 Fits and Tolerances for Holes and Shafts A-50
E-2 Standard Tolerances for Cylindrical Parts A-51
E-3 Tolerance Grades Produced from Machining Processes A-52xviii Contents
F MIL-HDBK-5J, Department of Defense Handbook: Metallic Materials
and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures A-53
F.1 Introduction A-53
F.2 Overview of Data in MIL-HDBK-5J A-53
F.3 Advanced Formulas and Concepts Used in MIL-HDBK-5J A-54
F.4 Mechanical and Physical Properties of 2024 Aluminum Alloy A-58
F.5 Fracture Toughness and Other Miscellaneous Properties A-64
F.6 Conclusion A-66
G Force Equilibrium: A Vectorial Approach A-68
G.1 Vectors: A Review A-68
G.2 Force and Moments Equilibrium A-69
H Normal Distributions A-71
H.1 Standard Normal Distribution Table A-71
H.2 Converting to Standard Normal Distribution A-73
H.3 Linear Combination of Normal Distributions A-73
I S–N Formula A-74
I.1 S–N Formula A-74
I.2 Illustrative Example A-75
J Gear Terminology and Contact-Ratio Analysis A-76
J.1 Nominal Spur-Gear Quantities A-76
J.2 Actual Quantities A-78
J.3 Illustrative Example A-79
Index I-1SYMBOLS
A area, cross-sectional area, arm of planetary
gear
A point A
A
0 original unloaded cross-sectional area
a influence coefficient
a, a acceleration
a crack depth, radius of contact area of two
spheres
A
c effective clamped area
a
cr critical crack depth
A
f final area
A
r area reduction
A
t tensile stress area, tensile stress area of the
thread
B actual backlash
b section width, half width of contact area
measured perpendicular to axes of two
parallel contacting cylinders, gear face
width, band width
C spring index, overall heat transfer
coefficient, rated load capacity, heat transfer
coefficient, constant (material property)
C specific heat
c distance from the neutral axis to the extreme
fiber, half of crack length, radial clearance,
center distance, distance between shafts,
crack length
c distance from the centroidal axis to the
extreme inner fiber, actual distance between
gear and pinion centers
c
cr critical crack length
CR contact ratio
CR actual contact ratio
CG center of gravity
C
G gradient factor or gradient constant
c
i distance from the neutral axis to the extreme
inner fiber
CL
load factor
CLi life factor
c
o distance from the neutral axis to the extreme
outer fiber
CP center of aerodynamic pressure
Cp
elastic coefficient
CR
reliability factor
c
???? volumetric specific heat
C
req required value of C
Cs
surface factor
D diameter, mean coil diameter, velocity factor
d diameter, major diameter, nominal diameter,
wire diameter
d
av average diameter
db
diameter of base circle
dc
collar (or bearing) diameter
dc∕dN crack propagation rate
(dc∕dN)o crack propagation rate at (ΔK)o
dg
pitch diameter of gear
d
i minor diameter of the internal thread
dm
mean diameter
dp
pitch diameter, pitch diameter of pinion
d
r root (or minor) diameter
E modulus of elasticity, elastic proportionality
constant, tensile elastic modulus
E modulus of elasticity (tension)
Ep
plastic strain
e distance between the neutral axis and the
centroidal axis, efficiency, eccentricity, train
value, edge distance for joint, percent
elongation at break
e∕D edge margin
Eb
Young’s modulus for the bolt
Ec
Young’s modulus for clamped member,
compression modulus of elasticity
Es
secant modulus
E
t tangent modulus
F force, compressive force between the
surfaces
f relative hardenability effectiveness,
coefficient of friction
F, F force
Fa
axial force
Fb
bolt axial load
F
bru bearing ultimate strength
F
bry bearing yield strength
Fc
clamping force
fc collar (or bearing) coefficient of friction
Fd
drag force, dynamic load
xixxx Symbols
F
cy compression yield strength
Fe
equivalent radial load, equivalent static
force, external force
F
ext external force vector applied on a member
F
ga gear axial force
F
gr gear radial force
F
gt gear tangential force
Fi
initial tensile force, initial clamping force
F
int internal force vector at a cross-section
Fn
normal force
fn natural frequency
Fr
radial load, radial force
Fs
strength capacity
F
solid force when solid
F
su shear ultimate strength
Ft
thrust force, tendon force, tangential force,
thrust load
F
tu tensile ultimate strength
F
ty tensile yield strength
Fw
wear capacity
F
wa worm axial force
F
wr worm radial force
F
wt worm tangential force
G torsional or shear modulus of elasticity
g gravitational acceleration or acceleration of
gravity, grip length
gc constant of proportionality,
32.2 lbm-ft∕lb-s2
H surface hardness, time rate of heat
dissipation
h section depth, height of fall, leg length, weld
size, film thickness, height
h
0 minimum film thickness
HB
Brinell hardness number
I polar moment of inertia, moment of inertia,
geometry factor, stress invariant
i integer
Ix
moment of inertia about x-axis
J polar moment of inertia, spur gear geometry
factor
K curvature factor, spring rate for angular
deflection, stress intensity factor, wear
coefficient
k spring rate, thermal conductivity, spring rate
for linear deflection, number of standard
deviations, shaft spring rate
K thermal conductivity
K′ section property
KI
stress intensity factor for tensile loading
(mode I)
KI
c critical stress intensity factor for tensile
loading (mode I)
Ka
application factor
KB
constant of proportionality
kb
spring constant for the bolt
Kc
fracture toughness or critical stress intensity
factor
k
c spring constant for clamped members
KE kinetic energy
Kf
fatigue stress concentration factor
Ki
curvature factor for inner fiber, effective
stress concentration factor for impact
loading, constant used for calculating initial
bolt-tightening force
Km
mounting factor
K
max stress intensity factor at ????max
K
min stress intensity factor at ????min
k
ms mean stress factor
Ko
curvature factor for outer fiber, overload
factor, critical stress intensity factor for
infinite plate with central crack in uniaxial
tension
Kr
life adjustment reliability factor
k
r reliability factor
Ks
stress concentration factor for static loading
Kt
theoretical or geometric stress concentration
factor
k
t temperature factor
K????
velocity or dynamic factor
Kw
Wahl factor, material and geometry factor
L length, contact length measured parallel to
the axis of contacting cylinder, lead, length
of weld, life corresponding to radial load Fr,
or life required by the application, pitch cone
length
L
0 original unloaded length
L
e equivalent length
Lf
final length, free length
LR
life corresponding to rated capacity
L
s solid height
L, ST, LT longitudinal direction, short transverse
direction, long transverse direction
M moment, internal bending moment, bending
moment
M0
redundant moment
m mass, strain-hardening exponent, module
(used only with SI or metric units)
m′ mass per unit length of belt
M
ext external moment vector applied on a member
Mf
moment of friction forcesSymbols xxi
M
int generalized internal moment vector at a
cross-section
Mn
moment of normal forces
N fatigue life, total normal load, number of
active coil turns, number of teeth, number of
friction interfaces, number of cycles
n rotating speed, number of cycles, normal
force, number of equally spaced planet
gears, index (subscript), Ramberg-Osgood
parameter
N′ virtual number of teeth
N.A. neutral axis
n
c critical speed
Ne
number of teeth
Nt
total number of turns, number of teeth in the
sprocket
P load, cumulative probability of failure,
bearing unit load, average film pressure,
radial load per unit of projected bearing area,
pitch point, diametral pitch (used only with
English units), diameter or number of teeth
of planet, band force, load (force), uniform
load
P actual pitch
p frequency of occurrence, probability of
failure, surface interface pressure, pitch, film
pressure, circular pitch, uniform level of
interface pressure, pressure
p actual circular pitch
p0 maximum contact pressure
pa axial pitch
pb base pitch
P
c tension created by centrifugal force
P
cr critical load
PE potential energy
pmax allowable pressure, maximum normal
pressure
pn circular pitch measured in a plane normal to
the teeth
Q heat energy transferred to the system, load,
total tangential force, flow rate, mass flow
rate
q number of revolutions, notch sensitivity
factor, tangential force
Qf volume of lubricant per-unit time flowing
across
Qs side leakage rate
R radius, transmission speed ratio, area ratio,
radius of curvature, diameter or number of
teeth of ring or annulus gear, ratio of gear
and pinion diameter, load ratio, fatigue cycle
stress ratio
r radius, reliability
r radial distance to the centroidal axis
ra
(max) maximum noninterfering addendum circle
radius of pinion or gear
rmax
ag
maximum allowable addendum radius on the
gear to avoid interference
rmax
ap
maximum allowable addendum radius on the
pinion to avoid interference
r
ap, rag addendum radii of the mating pinion and
gear
rb base circle radius, back cone radius
rbp, rbg base circle radii of the mating pinion and
gear
rc
chordal radius
rf friction radius
r
g actual pitch radius of gear
r
i inner radius
rp
actual pitch radius of pinion
R
m modulus of resilience
rn
radial distance to the neutral axis
ro
outer radius
S linear displacement, total rubbing distance,
Saybolt viscometer measurement in seconds,
bearing characteristic number or
Sommerfeld variable, diameter or number of
teeth of sun gear, slip
S
cr critical unit load
S
e elastic limit
S
eq equivalent stress—see Table F.4
SF safety factor
Sfe surface fatigue strength
SH
surface endurance strength
S–N fatigue stress versus cycles
S
max maximum fatigue cycle stress—see Table F.4
S
n endurance limit
S′
n standard fatigue strength for rotating bending
Sp
proof load (strength)
S
sy shear yield strength
S
u ultimate strength, ultimate tensile strength
S
uc ultimate strength in compression
S
us ultimate shear strength, ultimate torsional
shear strength
S
ut ultimate strength in tension
Sy
yield strength
S
yc yield strength in compression
S
yt yield strength in tension
T torque, brake torque, band brake torque
t time, thickness, nut thickness, throat length
Ta
alternating torque
ta
air temperature, ambient air temperature
Te
equivalent static torquexxii Symbols
Tf
friction torque
Tm
modulus of toughness, mean torque
t
o average oil film temperature, oil temperature
ts
average temperature of heat-dissipating
surfaces
U stored elastic energy, impact kinetic energy,
laminar flow velocity
U′ complementary energy
V internal transverse shear force, shear force,
volume
V, V linear velocity, gear pitch line velocity
???? velocity at impact, sliding velocity
V60 cutting speed in feet per minute for 60-min
tool life under standard cutting conditions
V
av average velocity
Vg
gear tangential velocity, pitch line velocity
of the gear
V
gt velocity of gear at contact point in tangent
direction
V
pt velocity of pinion at contact point in tangent
direction
V
gn velocity of gear at contact point in normal
direction
V
pn velocity of pinion at contact point in normal
direction
Vs
sliding velocity
Vw
worm tangential velocity
W work done, weight, volume of material worn
away, total axial load
Ẇ power
w load, load intensity, gravitational force,
width
Y Lewis form factor based on diametral pitch
or module, configuration factor
y distance from the neutral axis, Lewis form
factor
Y
cr configuration factor at critical crack size
Z section modulus
Greek Letters
???? angular acceleration, coefficient of thermal
expansion, angles measured clockwise
positive from the 0∘ gage to the principal
strain axes numbers 1 and 2, factor by which
the compressive strength is reduced through
buckling tendencies, thread angle, contact
angle, cone angle, normalized crack size
????
cr normalized critical crack size
????1 normalized crack size at c1
????2 normalized crack size at c2
????
n thread angle measured in the normal
plane
Δ deflection, material parameter important in
computing contact stress
????, ???? deflection
???? linear deflection, wear depth
ΔA change in area
ΔE change in total energy of the system
ΔKE change in kinetic energy of the system
ΔK stress intensity range
ΔK
o stress intensity range at the point o
ΔL change in length
ΔPE change in gravitational potential energy of
the system
ΔN12 number of cycles during crack growth from
c1 to c2
????
s solid deflection
????
st deflection caused by static loading (static
deflection)
ΔT temperature change
ΔU change in internal energy of the system
???? lead angle, helix angle, ratio of actual to
ideal distance between gear and pinion
centers
???? angle between the principal axes and the xand y-axes, angle giving position of
minimum film thickness, pressure angle,
angle of wrap
????n pressure angle measured in a plane normal to
the teeth
???? actual pressure angle
???? pitch cone angle
????xy, ????xz, ????yz shear strains
???? mean, viscosity
???? Poisson’s ratio—see Appendix F
???? Poisson’s ratio
???? normal strain
????1, ????2, ????3 principal strains
????f strain at fracture
????p
plastic strain
????
T “true” normal strain
????Tf true normal strain at fracture
????
x, ????y, ????z normal strains
???? angular displacement, angular deflection,
slope
????
P
max
position of maximum film pressure
???? mass density, radial distance
???? normal stress, standard deviation, uniform
uniaxial tensile stressSymbols xxiii
????1, ????2, ????3 principal stresses in 1, 2, and 3 directions
????0 square root of strain-strengthening
proportionality constant
????
a alternating stress (or stress amplitude)
????
e equivalent stress
????
ea equivalent alternating bending stress
????
em equivalent mean bending stress
????
eq equivalent stress
????g
gross-section tensile stress
????H
surface fatigue stress
????
i maximum normal stress in the inner surface
????m
mean stress
????
max maximum normal stress
????min minimum normal stress
????
nom nominal normal stress
????
o maximum normal stress in the outer
surface
????
T “true” normal stress
????x
normal stress acting along x-axis
????y
normal stress acting along y-axis
???? shear stress, natural period of vibration
????a
alternating shear stress
????
av average shear stress
????initial initial shear stress
????m
mean shear stress
????
max maximum shear stress
????
nom nominal shear stress
????solid shear stress when solid
????
xy shear stress acting on an x face in the y
direction
???? kinematic viscosity
???? angular velocity, impact angular velocity
????
g angular velocity of gear
????
n natural frequency
????
p angular velocity of pinion
???? helix angle, spiral angle
X
A
ABEC see Annular Bearing Engineers’ Committee (ABEC)
Abrasive wear, 267–268, 465
ABS (acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene), 63
Acetal, 63
Acme threads, 286
Acrylic, 63
Acrylic adhesives, 346
Actuators
displacement-based, 577–579
force-based, 574–576
Addendum, 442
Adhesive bonding, 344
Adhesive wear, 265–267, 410
AFBMA (Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association), 424
AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association), 438
AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction), 329
Alkyd, 64
Alloying, 61
Alloys
aluminum (see Aluminum alloys)
cast iron, 56–57
copper, 60, 216, A-29
magnesium, 60, 216–217, A-28, A-30
nickel, 60–61, 216, A-31
nonferrous alloys, 59–61
steel (see Steel alloys)
superalloys, 59–61, A-25
titanium, 61, A-32
zinc, 61, A-33
Allyl (diallyl phthalate), 64
Alternating loads/stress, 233–238
Aluminum
anodized, 260
cavitation of, 265
connecting rod, 153–155
corrosion of, 259–261
fretting of, 268–269
notch sensitivity of, 232
Aluminum alloys, 59–60
endurance limit of, 213
fatigue strength diagrams for, 213, 216
mechanical properties/uses of, A-26, A-27
temper designations for, A-28
American Blower Company, 565
American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA), 438
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 329
American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI), 5
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 60, 335
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 184, 283,
329, 563
American Welding Society (AWS), 335
Amino, 64
Anaerobic adhesives, 346
Anisotropic materials, 182
Annealing, 117, 263
Annular Bearing Engineers’ Committee (ABEC), 424
Anode, sacrificial, 257, 260
Anodized aluminum, 260
Anodizing, 259
ANSI see American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI)
Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA), 424
Approximations, 16
Ashby’s materials selection charts, 66–68
ASME see American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Asperity welding, 266–267
ASTM see American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic transmission, 597
Automobiles
load analysis, 25–30
performance analysis, 20–23
power train components, 27–28
transmission components, 28–30
AWS (American Welding Society), 335
Axial impact, 198
Axial loads/loading, 77–79
and Castigliano’s method, 134
with power screws, 295
and residual stresses, 109–113
reversed, 217–218
with roller bearings, 430–431
sign convention for, 80
with springs, 352
with threaded fasteners, 295
B
Ball bearings
and axial loading, 431
dimensions of, 425–427
history of, 415
life requirement for, 429–430
radial, 414
rated capacities of, 427, 428
reliability requirement for, 430
I-1I-2 INDEX
Ball bearings (contd.)
rings for, 420
selection of, 429–434
shields/seals for, 419–420
and shock loading, 432
special, 422–423
surface damage to, 273–279
thrust load, mounting for, 436–437
types of, 416, 417
Ball-bearing screws, 292
Band brakes, 550–552
Bars
compression/tension, impacted in, 201–202
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 128
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of stress raiser on, 206–208
stress concentration factors of, 108–109
Base units, 12
Basic design objective, 7
Basic hole system, A-51
Beach marks, 210–211
Beam loading, 34–37
Beams
bending impact, with compound spring, 200–201
bent cantilever, deflection in, 138–139
centrally loaded, deflection in, 135–136
curved, bending of, 83–88
deflection in, 130–132, A-46–A-49
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 128
extreme-fiber-bending stresses, 87–88
straight, bending of, 82–83
transverse shear loading in, 88–94
Beam springs, 369–374
Bearing(s)
ball (see Ball bearings)
bearings for shafts, 511–512
definition of, 579–583
micro and nanoscale, 579–583
rolling-element (see Rolling-element)
sliding (see Sliding bearings)
thrust, 411, 436–437
Bell crank, load analysis of, 31–32
Belt drive, with spur gears, 441
Belts
flat, 555–557
toothed (timing), 561
V-, 557–560
Bending
of beams, 34–35, 82–88
bevel gears, 494–497
and Castigliano’s method, 134
and fatigue strength, 212–218, 238–240
of gear teeth, 454–464
helical gears, 489–490
and residual stresses, 113–115
and shear stresses, 92–94
sign convention for, 35
worm gears, 505–507
Bending impact, 194–196, 200–201
Bevel gears, 481, 483, 491–498
bending stress with, 494–497
force analysis with, 493–494
geometry of, 491–492
large end, 491
pitch cones, 491
surface fatigue stress with, 494, 496
trains, gear, 497–498
and Tredgold’s approximation, 491
Zerol, 492
Biaxial effect (of stress raisers), 104
Biaxial loading, fatigue strength for reversed, 219–220
Biaxial stresses, 100, 102, 126
modified Mohr theory for, 179
Bioengineering, 33
Blind rivets, 330–331
Body stress(es), 77–118
from axial loading, 77–79
combined, 96–99
concentration factors, 104–107
from direct shear loading, 79–80
induced, 94–96
from pure bending loading, 82–88
residual (see Residual stresses)
thermal, 115–117
three-dimensional, 100–104
from torsional loading, 80–82
from transverse shear loading, 88–94
Bolted joint, shear load capacity of, 314–315
Bolts, 299
bracket attachment, selection for, 315–318
design for impact strength of, 206–208
fatigue loading, selection for, 318–323
fatigue strength, increasing, 327–328
initial tightening tension, 301–305, 319–321
pressure vessel flange bolts, selection of, 325–326
static loading, selection for, 312–318
tension of, with external joint-separating force,
308–312
and thread-bearing stress, 295–297
types of, 300
Bonderizing, 259
Bonding, adhesive, 344–346
Boundary lubrication, 381, 409–411
Bracket(s)
bolts for attachment of, 315–316
deflection of redundantly supported, 145–147
Brake(s), 530
band, 550–552
cone, 537–539
design considerations, 605–606
disk, 535–536
energy absorption/cooling with, 536–537
long-shoe drum, 542–548
materials for, 553–554
short-shoe drum, 539–542INDEX I-3
Brasses, 60
Brazing, 344
Brinell hardness test, 52–55, 213
British Comets, 4
British Gravitational units, 12–14
British thermal unit, 17
British thermal units per second, 18
Brittle fracture, 163, 204
Brittle materials, 163, 186, 219
Bronzes, 60, 265
Buckingham, Earle, 466
Buckling, 148–150, 157–158
columns, 148–158
eccentric loading, secant formula for, 155–156
of helical compression springs, 357
local, 157–158
of power screws, 298
Building codes, 184
Butt welds, 335, 343
C
Cadmium, 260, 280
Camshafts
power requirement, 19–20
torque requirement, 17–18
Cantilever beams, 138–139, A-46
Capacitive sensors, 584–585
Carbide, 258
Carbon fiber reinforcement, 63
Carbon nanotube–based piezoresistors, 588–589
Carbon nanotube–based rotary bearings, 582–583
Carbon steels, 57–58, A-12, A-16–A-18
Carburizing, 59, 246
Carburizing steel, A-23
Cardan joint, 527
Case-hardening steels, 59
Castigliano, Alberto, 133
Castigliano’s method
elastic deflections determined by, 133–144
redundant reactions by, 144–147
Cast iron, 56–57
cavitation of, 265
endurance limit of, 213
fretting of, 268–269
mechanical properties/uses of (table), A-13–A-14
surface factor for, 220, 221
Cathode, 257
Cavitation, 264–265
Cellulosics, 63
Chains
inverted-tooth, 563–564
roller, 561–563
Change, 10
Charpy test, 52, 205
Chemical surface-hardening treatments, 246
Chilling, 57
Chordal action, 562
Chrome plating, 244
Chromium, 258
Chrysler Corporation, 565
Clearance fits, A-50
Clutch(es)
cone, 537–539
design considerations, 605–606
disk, 530–535
function of, 530
materials for, 553–554
Coating, 70, 73
Coining, 245
Cold rolling, 245
Column buckling, 148–158
end conditions, column length and, 150–151
equivalent stresses, 156–157
J.B. Johnson parabola for, 151–155
Column loading (of power screws), 298–299
Comb-drive actuators, 576
Comb-drive sensors, 584, 585
Combined stresses, 96–99
Compatibility, of materials, 8
Completely reversed loading, fatigue strength for, 222, 231–233
Components, mechanical, 1
Composites, 65–66
engineering, 65, 67, A-37
material, 65–66
Compound springs, 200–201
Compression, 77, 78
Compression springs, helical see Helical compression springs
Concentration, stress see Stress concentration factors
Cone clutches/brakes, 537–539
Configuration factor, 166, 248
Conic threaded fasteners, 286
Connecting rods, determining diameter, 152–153
Conservation of energy, 19–23
Constant-force springs, 377
Constant-life fatigue diagram, 224, 227, 228
Contact modulus, 272
Contact ratio (CR), 447–449, A-76–A-80
Copolymerization, 61
Copper alloys, 60, 216, A-29
Copper, corrosion of, 260
Corrosion, 255–265
crevice, 259
with cyclic stress, 264–265
design for control of, 259–261
and electrode/electrolyte heterogeneity, 258–259
with static stress, 262–264
Corrosion engineering, 255
Cost(s)
of machined parts, 56
of materials, 45
of safety factor, 185
Coulomb, C. A., 176
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 179
Countershaft, internal loads in transmission, 35–37I-4 INDEX
Couplings
fluid, 565–568
shaft, 526–529
CR see Contact ratio
Crack
length, 165, 246–250
propagation, 164, 167, 247, 252
Cracks, stress-corrosion, 262–264
Crevice corrosion, 259
Critical sections, 37–39
Critical stress intensity factor, 164
Crossed helical gears, 481, 490
Cross-linked plastics, 62
Curved surfaces, contact stresses with, 272–278
Cyaniding, 59
Cyclic stress, and corrosion, 264
Cylindrical threaded fasteners, 286
D
Damper, 192
Damping, 194
Dashpot, 192
Dedendum, 442
Deflection, 119
beam, 130–132
Castigliano’s method for determining, 133–144
caused by linear/bending impact, 194–201
caused by torsional impact, 201–204
formulas for, 128–129
and redundant reactions, 144–147
of springs, 348–353
torsional, 129
DeMoivre, 187
Density, and strength, 67–68
Design, 1–12
ecological objectives of, 7–8
overall considerations in, 10–12
process, 68
safety considerations in, 2–7
societal objectives of, 8–10
Design overload, 183
“Design stress,” 182
Diallyl phthalate (allyl), 64
Dimensionally homogeneous equations, 12
Dimensions, primary/secondary, 12
Direct shear loading, 79–80
Disk brakes, 535–536
Disk clutches, 530–535
Disk sander shaft, safety factor of, 238–240
Displacement-based actuators
electrochemical actuators, 579
piezoelectric actuators, 578
shape memory alloy, 579
thermomechanical actuators, 577–578
Distortion (plastic strain), 163
Double shear, 39, 80
Drum brakes
long-shoe, 542–548
short-shoe, 539–542
Ductile (nodular) iron, 57, A-15
Ductile materials, 163
fatigue strength of, 218–219, 223
machinability of, 57
Ductility, 49, A-23, A-45
Durability (of materials), 8
Duranickel alloys, 60
Dynamic loading see Fatigue; Impact
E
Eccentricity ratio, 155
Eccentric loading
columns, 155–156
welds, 337–342
Ecological issues, 7–8
Economic issues, 279–280
Eddy current proximity sensors, 585–586
Efficiency (of power screws), 291–292
Elastic instability/stability, 148–150
Elasticity, modulus of, 46
Elastic limit, notation convention for, 46
Elastic region (true stress–strain curve), 51
Elastic strains, 119 see also Strains
Elastic stress–strain relationships, 126–127
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 412, 464
Electrical insulators, 260
Electrical resistance strain gages, 121
Electrochemical actuators, 579
Electrochemical reaction, 255–258
Electrolytes, 257, 261
Electromagnetic actuator, 574–575
Electromagnetic (EM) microactuators, 574–575
Electron beam welding, 333
Electroplating, 244, 257, 280
Electroslag welding, 333
Electrostatic actuator, 575–576
Elongation (at fracture), 48
End-quench test, Jominy, 58
Energy
conservation of, 19–23
and work, 16–18
Energy absorption capacity
bolt design modification to increase, 206–208
of brakes, 536–537
effect of stress raisers on, 199–200
of materials, 51–52, 198
Engineering, 1
Engineering model, 16
Engineering stress–strain curve, 47–49
Engineering values, 46
English Engineering units, 12–14
Epoxies, 64, 345–346INDEX I-5
Equations
characteristic, 103
dimensionally homogeneous, 12
equilibrium, 24–34
Equiangular rosettes, 122–124
Equilibrium
and load determination, 24
and redundant reactions, 144
and residual stresses, 117
Euler, Leonhard, 148
Euler column buckling, 148–158
F
“Fail-safe” design, 4
Failure, 161–190 see also Fatigue; Surface damage
analysis, 250, A-53
and axial stress, 79
definition of, 163
distortion, 163
fracture, 164–174
mode, A-45
theories of, 174–182
Fasteners, threaded see Threaded fasteners
Fatigue, 210–212
life prediction, 240–243
S-N formula, 230, A-74–A-75
surface fatigue failures, 278–279
and surface treatments, 243–245
in welded joints, 342–343
Fatigue life prediction, 240–243
Fatigue loading
bolt selection for, 318–327
screw selection for, 318–323
spring design for, 360–368
Fatigue strength, 212–240
for completely reversed loading, 222, 231–233
concentrated stress, effect of, 231–232
definition of, 213
increasing bolted-joint, 327–328
mean stress, effect of, 222–231, 233–240
for reversed bending/reversed axial loading, 217–218
for reversed biaxial loading, 219–220
for reversed torsional loading, 304–305
for rotating bending, 212–217
and safety factors, 182–183
and surface size, 220–222
surface treatments, effect of, 243–245
Fatigue zone, 210
FCAW (flux-cored arc welding), 333
Ferrite, 258
Ferrous materials, endurance limit of, 213
Fiber-reinforced plastics, 63
Fillet welds, 335–337
Finishing, 70, 73, 74
Finite element analysis, 158–159
steps of, 158–159
Fits, A-50–A-52
Flame cutting, 117
Flame hardening, 59
Flat belts, 555–557
Flexural bearings, 580–581
Fluid couplings, 565–568
Fluoroplastics, 63
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 333
Flywheel, 18
Foot-pound force, 17
Force
units of, 14
work done by, 17
Force-based actuators
electromagnetic actuator, 574–575
electrostatic actuator, 575–576
optomechanical actuators, 576
Force flow
critical sections, location of, 37–39
with redundant ductile structures, 41–43
Formability, 73
Föttinger, H, 565
Fracture(s), 163–164, 210–212
Fracture mechanics, 164–174
of thick plates, 167–168
of thin plates, 165–167
Fracture toughness, 164
Free-body analysis of loads, 24
acceleration, automobile undergoing, 26–27
constant speed, automobile at, 25–26
internal loads, determination of, 30–31
power train components, automotive, 27–28
with three-force member, 31–34
transmission components, automotive, 28–30
Free-body diagram method, 600–603
Free-spinning locknuts, 306
Fretting, 268–269
Friction
with power screws, 290
with rolling-element bearings, 415
viscous, 388
Fusion (welding), 330
G
Galling, 267
Galvanic action, 255, 259, 261
Galvanic corrosion, 260
Galvanic series, 256
Garter springs, 377
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 332
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 332–333
Gas welding, 333
Gears, 438
bevel (see Bevel gears)
design considerations, 603–605
helical (see Helical gears)I-6 INDEX
Gears (contd.)
materials for, 475
spur (see Spur gears)
terminology, A-76–A-80
worm (see Worm gears)
Gear system, 597
Glass fiber reinforced plastics, 63
GMAW (gas metal arc welding), 332
Goodman lines, 227, 228
Government standards, 4–5
Graphene-based nanoelectromechanical resonators, 595
Gray iron, 56, A-13
Greases, 379
Grinder, torsional impact in, 202–204
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding), 332–333
Guest, J. J., 177
Guest’s law, 177
H
Hall effect sensors, 586
Hammer peening, 263
Hardness, and machinability, 56
Hardness tests
Brinell, 52–55
Jominy end-quench test, 58
penetration, 52–55
Rockwell, 52–55
Hastelloys, 60–61
Hazard, 5–6
Helical compression springs, 348–368
buckling analysis of, 356–357
end designs of, 355–356
fatigue loading, design procedure for, 360–368
static loading, design procedure for, 357–360
stress/strength analysis for, 353–355
Helical extension springs, 368–369
Helical gears, 482–490, 605 see also Spur gears
angle of, 482, 483
bending stress with, 489, 490
crossed, 481, 490
force analysis with, 486–489
geometry of, 482–486
meshing, 487–489
pitch of, 482, 483, 485, 486
surface fatigue stress with, 490
Helical threads, 282, 283
Hencky, H., 177
Hertz, Heinrich, 273, 276
Hertz contact stresses, 273, 276, 464, 466
Hierarchy of needs, 10
High-carbon steels, 57
High-molecular-weight polyethylene, 61
High-performance interferometers, 591
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels, 58
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 161
Hooke’s joint, 527
Hooke’s law, 46
Hoop tension, 39
Horsepower, 18, 19
HSLA (high-strength low-alloy) steels, 58
Hubs, 512
Hueber, M. T., 177
Hydra-Matic transmission
basic components, 598
design features, 600
power flow and gear ratios, 598, 599, 600
Hydraulic control system, 597
Hydraulic springs, 347
Hydrodynamic bearings
design charts for, 393–399
design of, 404–409
Hydrodynamic drives, history of, 565
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 380–383, 390–392
Hydrodynamic torque converters, 555, 568–571
Hydrogen embrittlement, 244
Hydrostatic lubrication, 381
I
Impact, 192–208
bending, 194–196, 200–201
linear, 194–201
static loading vs., 192–194
torsional, 201–204
Impact factor, 186, 194
Impact loading, with roller bearings, 430–431
Impulsive loading see Impact
Inconel alloys, 61
Induced stresses, 94–96
Induction hardening, 59, 246
Inductive sensors, 585–586
Industry standards, 4–5
Inertia, moments of, A-7
Inertia welding, 333
Ingenuity, 3–4
Instability, elastic, 148–150
Insulators, 260
Interference fits, A-50
Interference points, 447–449
Interference theory of reliability prediction, 188–190
Internal loads
in free-body analysis, 30–31
in transmission countershaft, 35–37
International Standards Organization (ISO), 282, 386
Inverted-tooth chains, 563–564
Iron, 257 see also Cast iron
Iron-based superalloys, 59, A-25
ISO see International Standards Organization
ISO screw threads, 282–283
Izod test, 52, 205
J
Jacks, screw-type, 286
Johnson, J. B., 151–152
Johnson column formula, 151–155INDEX I-7
Joinability, 73, A-42
Joint(s)
increasing fatigue strength of bolted, 327–328
riveted, 41–43
shear load capacity of bolted, 314–315
universal, 526–529
welded (see Welded joints)
Jominy, Walter, 58
Jominy end-quench test, 58
Joule, 17
Joule heating, 577
Joules per second, 18
K
Keyways (keyseats), 512, 525
Kilowatt, 18
L
Laplace, P., 187
Laser beam welding, 333
Leaf springs, 369–374
Leonardo da Vinci, 415, 438
Lewis, Wilfred, 454
Lewis equation, 454–456
Life cycle, total, 4
Life quality index (LQI), 9–10
Limit
elastic, 46
proportional, 46
Linear actuators see Power screws
Linear cumulative-damage rule, 240–241
Linear impact, 197–200
Linearly elastic stress–strain relationships, 126–127
Linear plastics, 62
Linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), 585
Loads/loading, 24–43
axial (see Axial loads/loading)
with beams, 34–37
direct shear, 79–80
dynamic, 192, 193
eccentric, 155–156, 337–342
fatigue, 318–327, 360–368
and force flow, 37–39
with free bodies (see Free-body analysis of loads)
impact (see Impact)
pure bending, 82–88
and redundant ductile structures, 41–43
redundant supports, division between, 39–41
static, 192, 193
torsional loading, 80–82
transverse shear, 88–94, 298
Local buckling, 157–158
Locknuts, 306–307
Lock washers, 306
Long-shoe drum brakes, 542–548
internal long shoe, 548–550
nonpivoted long shoe, 542–548
pivoted long shoe, 548
Low-carbon steels, 57
Low-molecular-weight polyethylene, 61
LQI (Life quality index), 9–10
Lubricant(s)
supply of, 399–401
types of, 379
Lubrication see also Viscosity
boundary, 381, 409–411
elastohydrodynamic, 412, 464
hydrodynamic, 380–383, 390–392
hydrostatic, 381
mixed-film, 381, 410
self-, 410
M
Machinability, 56
Machine component problems, methodology for solving, 14–16
Machine components, 597
Magnesium, 260
fretting of, 268–269
notch sensitivity of, 232
Magnesium alloys, 60, 216
mechanical properties of, A-30
temper designations for, A-28
Magnesium bronze, 265
Malleable iron, 57
Manufacturing, 69–71, 74
Margin of safety, 186
Maslow, Abraham, 10
Material properties, 68–75
Materials, 45–75 see also specific materials
anisotropic, 182
for brakes/clutches, 553–554
brittle, 163, 179
for clutches/brakes, 553–554
compatibility of, 8
composites, 61, 65–66
corrosion of (see Corrosion)
database, property, 45
ductile, 163
ecological factors in selection of, 8
energy absorption capacity of, 51–52, 198
engineering stress–strain curve for, 47–49
ferrous, 213
for gears, 475
“handbook” data on strength properties of, 55
isotropic, 182
machinability of, 56
names of (table), A-37–A-39
nonferrous (see Nonferrous metals/materials)
penetration hardness tests, 52–55
properties of, 69–70
relative durability of, 8
for rivets, 330
for screws/nuts/bolts, 301I-8 INDEX
Materials (contd.)
selection charts for, 66–68
selection factors, 70–73
selection of, 68
selection procedure, 73–75
for sliding bearings, 402–403
for springs, 347
static tensile test for, 46–47, 50–51
strength charts for, 67–68
and stress concentration factors, 104–107
true stress–strain curve for, 50–51
value of, 45
Maximum-distortion-energy failure theory
(maximum-octahedral-shear-stress failure theory), 177–179
Maximum-normal-stress failure theory, 176
Maximum-shear-stress failure theory, 176–177
Maxwell, James Clerk, 177–178
Mean stress, and fatigue strength, 222–231, 233–240
Mechanical engineering, 1
Medium-carbon steels, 57
Melamine, 64
MEMS sensors, 583, 584
Metal-inert gas (MIG) welding, 332
Metal plates, corrosion of, 261–262
Metals see also specific metals
corrosion of, 255–258
database for properties of, 45
physical properties of (table), A-11
tensile properties of (table), A-12
Microactuators, 573–579
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, flexural
bearings in, 580–581
Micro/nanoscale machine elements
description, 572
low-cost production, 572
Microreyn, 383
Microscale piezoelectric actuator, 578
MIG (metal-inert gas) welding, 332
MIL-HDBK-5J, 45, 164, 218, A-53–A-67
Millipascal-second, 383
Miner rule, 240
Mises, R. von, 177
Mixed-film lubrication, 381, 410
Mode I, 164
Modern gear-cutting machines, 605
Modulus of elasticity, 46
Modulus of resilience, 52, 200
Modulus of rupture, 201
Modulus of toughness, 52, 200
Mohr, Otto, 96
Mohr circle
combined stresses, 96–99
and failure prediction, 176–177
for induced stresses, 94–96
for strain, 120–122, 126–127
stress state representation, 99–100
three-circle diagram, 104
three-dimensional, 126–127
for two parallel cylinders, 276
Mohr theory
and fatigue strength, 220
modified, 179–180
Monomers, 61
Moore rotating-beam fatigue-testing machine, 212–213
N
Nanoscale actuators, 573–579
Nanoscale flexural bearings, 581
National Bureau of Standards, 255
Necking, 48
Needle bearings, 608
Needle roller bearings, 417, 420, 421
Newton • meter, 17
Newton’s law of viscous flow, 383
Newton’s second law, 12–14
Nickel alloys, 60–61, 216, A-31
Nickel-based superalloys, 60–61
Nickel, corrosion of, 258
Nickel plating, 244
Nitriding, 59, 246
Nodular (ductile) iron, 57
Nominal mean stress method, 236
Non-feedback tunneling sensors, 592
Nonferrous alloys, 59–61
Nonferrous metals/materials
for columns, 157
electroplating, 244
endurance limit of, 213
Normal distribution, 187–188, A-71–A-73
Notched impact tests, 205
Notches, 231, 417
Notch sensitivity factor, 232
Nuts
locknuts, 306
with power screws, 286–289
and thread-bearing stress, 295–297
Nylon (polyamide), 63
O
Ocvirk’s short bearing approximation, 392
Oil bath, 399
Oil collar, 399
Oil grooves, 400
Oil holes, 400
Oil lubricants, 379, 399–401
Oil pump, 400–401
Oil ring, 399, 400
Oldham coupling, 527
“The One-Hoss Shay,” (Oliver Wendell Holmes), 161–163
Optical heterodyne interferometers, 590–592
Optical sensors, 590–592INDEX I-9
Optomechanical actuators, 576
OSHA, 4–5
Overdesign, 161
Overhauling power screws, 290
Overload, design, 183
Oxide coatings, 259
P
Packaging, 8
Paints, 260
Palmgren rule, 240
Parallel loading (welds), 334–337
Parallel plate actuators, 575–576
Parallel plate capacitive sensors, 584, 585
Parkerizing, 259
Pascal-seconds, 383
Passivation, 258, 261
Pearlite, 258
Performance
requirement, 68, 69
service, 70–71
Petroff’s equation, 388–389
Phase transformations, 117
Phenolic, 65
Phenylene oxide, 63
Phosphate coatings, 259
Photoelastic patterns, 453
Piezoelectric actuators, 578
Piezoelectric bimorph actuator, 578
Piezoelectric sensors, 589–590
Piezoresistive sensors, 586–590
Pillow block, 312–314
Pinion, 440
Piston ring, tangential deflection of, 139–144
Pitch cones, 491
Pitch diameter, 443, 485, 498, 499
Pitting, 278, 464, 466
Plain carbon steels, 57–58
Planes, principal, 95
Plane strain/stress, 164
Planet bearings, 607
Plasma arc welding, 333
Plastic distortion, 163
Plastics, 61–65
applications of, A-36
designation of, 62
mechanical properties of, A-34
reinforcement of, 63
thermoplastics, 63–64, A-35
thermosets, 63–65
Plastic strain-strengthening region (true stress-strain curve), 51
Plates
corrosion of metal, 259–262
local buckling/wrinkling in, 157
stress concentration factors of, 110
thick, fracture mechanics of, 167–168
thin, fracture mechanics of, 165–167
Plating, 244, 257
Pneumatic springs, 347
Pole deflection, preventing, 144–145
Polyamide (nylon), 63
Polycarbonate, 64
Polyester, 64, 65
Polyethylenes, 61, 62, 64
Polyimide, 64
Polymerization, 61
Polymers, 61–62
Polyphenylene sulfide, 64
Polypropylene, 64
Polystyrene, 64
Polysulfone, 64
Polyurethane, 64, 65
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 64
Poncelet, 210
Power, 18–19
camshafts, 19–20
Power screws, 286–294
axial load with, 295
column loading of, 298–299
efficiency of, 291–292
friction coefficients, values of, 290
overhauling, 290–291
purpose of, 286
rolling contact in, 292–294
self-locking, 290–291
with square thread, 289, 291
thread angle in normal plane, values of, 290
thread bearing stress with, 295–297
thread forms for, 286
thread shear stress with, 297–298
thread sizes for, 286
thrust collar with, 289
torque applied to nut in, 286–289
torsional stresses with, 295
transverse shear loading with, 298
Power train, automotive, 27–28
Power transmission, 555–571
by belt, 555–557
by chain, 561–563
by gear (see Gears)
by hydrodynamic drive, 565
Press, screw, 298
Pressure, and viscosity, 264–265
Pressure vessel flange bolts, selection of, 325–326
Prevailing-torque locknuts, 306
Primary dimensions, 12
Primers, 260
Principal planes, 95
Processing, 8
Professional engineering, 1
Proportional limit, 46I-10 INDEX
Pure bending loading, 82–88
with curved beams, 83–88
with straight beams, 82–83
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 64
R
Racks, 445
Radial tension, 88
Rectangular strain rosettes, 124–126
Recycling, designing for, 7–8
Redundant ductile structures, 41–43
Redundant reactions, 144–147
Redundant supports, 39–41
Reinforcement
of plastics, 63
web, 40
Reliability, 161, 186–187
interference theory of reliability prediction, 188–190
and normal distributions, 187–188
Rene alloys, 61
Residual stresses, 109–115
and axial loading, 109–113
and bending, 113–115
and heat, 115–117
in steel, 117
and torsional loading, 113–115
Residual stress method, 235
Resilience
modulus of, 52, 200
Resistance welding, 333
Resonance-based mass sensors, 594
Resonance-based strain sensors, 594–595
Reversed bending, fatigue strength for, 231–233
Reversed loading
fatigue life prediction with, 240–243
fatigue strength for axial, 217–218
fatigue strength for biaxial, 222
fatigue strength for completely, 222, 231–233
fatigue strength for torsional, 218–219
Reyn, 383
Reynolds, Osbourne, 383
Reynolds equation for one-dimensional flow, 392
Reynolds equation for two-dimensional flow, 392
Rigidity, test for, 46
Riveted joints, 41–43
Rivets, 329–330
blind, 330–331
cost-effectiveness of, 330
materials for, 330
standards for, 329
threaded fasteners vs., 330
tubular, 330–331
Rockwell hardness test, 52–55
Rods
connecting, 152–155
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 128
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of stress raiser on, 199–200
straight, impacted in compression/tension, 197–198
Roller chains, 561–563
Rolling-element bearings, 413–437 see also Ball bearings
and axial loading, 431
catalogue information for, 425–427
cylindrical, 417, 418, 420
design of, 421–424
dimensions of, 425–427
fitting of, 424
friction with, 415
history of, 415
life requirement for, 429–430
needle, 417, 420, 421
rated capacities of, 427, 428
reliability requirement for, 430
selection of, 429–434
and shock loading, 432
sliding bearings vs., 413, 415
spherical, 417, 418, 421
surface damage to, 273–279
tapered, 417, 419, 421
thrust load, mounting for, 436–437
types of, 415–421
Rotating bending, fatigue strength for, 212–218
Rotating machine components, power transmitted by, 18–19
Rubber, energy absorption capacity of, 199
Rupture, modulus of, 201
Rust, 257
S
Sacrificial anode, 257, 260
Safety/safety factors, 2–7, 182–184
awareness of, 2
definition of, 182–184
estimation of, for steel pan, 181–182
and ingenuity, 3–4
and margin of safety, 186
nontechnical aspects, 6–7
selection of numerical value for, 184–185
techniques/guidelines for ensuring, 4–6
SAW (submerged arc welding), 333
Saybolt seconds, 384
Scoring, 266
Screw(s), 299–301 see also Power screws
ball-bearing, 289
fatigue loading, selection for, 318–323
fatigue strength, increasing, 327–328
static loading, selection for, 312–318
tamper-resistant, 301
types of, 300
Screw press, 298
Scuffing, 267
Secant formula, 155–156
Secondary dimensions, 12
Sections, properties of, A-7–A-9INDEX I-11
Self-locking power screws, 290
Self-locking screws, 305–308
Self-loosening (of screws), 305–308
Self-lubrication, 410
Sems, 299
Sensors micro and nanoscale, 583–760
Shaft(s), 511–529
bearings for, 511–512
definition of, 511
deflections in, 130–133
design considerations with, 519–523
dynamics of rotating, 515–518
fatigue with, 236–238
joining of, 523–526
mounting parts onto rotating, 512–514
rigid couplings for, 526
stresses in, 96–99
torque-transmitting connections with, 523–526
torsional stress/deflection of, 202–204
transmission countershaft, internal loads, 35–37
universal joints with, 527–528
Shape memory alloys (SMA), 579
Shear modulus of elasticity, and viscosity, 383, 384
Shear/shear loading
direct, 79–80
double, 39, 80
in load analysis, 34–37
and sign convention, 35
sign convention for, 80
Shear strains, 120, 121
Shear stresses
in beams, 88–94
and bending stresses, 92–94
and distortion, 163
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 331
Shock see Impact
Shock absorber, 192
Short-shoe drum brakes, 539–542
Shot peening, 245–246, 263
Significant strength


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