كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems

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كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems    كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems  Emptyالإثنين 18 يوليو 2022, 1:54 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems
Steven Daly
BEng, BA (Hons), IEng, Cert Ed, MIMI, LAE, MSAE

كتاب Automotive Air-conditioning and Climate Control Systems  A_a_c_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Introduction: An overview of the automotive air-conditioning market,
training and qualifications ix
1 Air-conditioning fundamentals 1
1.1 History of automotive air-conditioning systems 1
1.2 Introduction to heating and ventilation 6
1.3 The basic theory of cooling 26
1.4 Vapour compression refrigeration 39
1.5 Alternatives cycles 42
1.6 The air-conditioning system 57
1.7 The expansion valve system 58
1.8 The fixed orifice valve system (cycling clutch orifice tube) 59
1.9 Dual air-conditioning 61
2 Air-conditioning components 62
2.1 The compressor 62
2.2 The condenser 77
2.3 The receiver-drier/accumulator 81
2.4 The expansion valve/fixed orifice valve 84
2.5 The evaporator 89
2.6 Anti-frosting devices 91
2.7 Basic control switches 93
3 Air-conditioning electrical and electronic control 95
3.1 Electrical principles 95
3.2 Sensors and actuators 113
3.3 Testing sensors and actuators 159
3.4 Oscilloscope waveform sampling 172
3.5 Multiplex wiring systems 183
3.6 OBD and EOBD 188
3.7 How to read wiring diagrams 194
3.8 Automotive A/C manual control system (case study 1) 205
3.9 Automotive A/C auto temp control system (case study 2) 221
3.10 Automotive climate control system (case study 3) 238vi Contents
4 Diagnostics and troubleshooting 264
4.1 Initial vehicle inspection 264
4.2 Temperature measurements 266
4.3 Pressure gauge readings and cycle testing 267
4.4 A/C system leak testing 277
4.5 Sight glass 282
5 Service and repair 283
5.1 Servicing precautions 283
5.2 Refrigerant recovery, recycle and charging 288
5.3 System oil 310
5.4 System flushing 312
5.5 Odour removal 316
5.6 Retrofitting 317
5.7 Replacement and adjustment of compressor components 318
5.8 Fixed orifice valve remove and replace 335
6 The environment 337
6.1 Global warming 337
6.2 The ozone layer 338
7 Legislation 341
7.1 Historical perspective 341
7.2 US perspective 344
Appendices 352
Index 35
A/C modules and displays, 195, 196, 197
A/C registrations, 7
Absorption refrigeration, 57
Accumulator, 32, 54, 55, 56, 67, 69, 79, 88, 89,
93, 98, 99, 203, 213, 258, 280, 282, 288, 299,
300, 302, 305
Air distribution, 26, 27, 32, 34, 48, 60, 106, 152,
154–6, 164, 195, 196, 198, 207, 215, 219, 220,
252, 253, 284, 294
Air distribution unit, 27
Air filtration, 24, 25
Air inlets, 27
Air mix type, 22
Air outlets, 24, 27, 232
Air quality sensor, 136, 231, 233, 235
Air recirculation, 28, 120, 144, 197, 202, 255, 258
Air-conditioning, 6, 12, 15, 25, 33, 37, 38, 43, 64–6,
68, 69, 72, 73, 90, 230–2, 325, 326, 331, 336
Amp clamp, 122, 159, 208
Ampere, 104, 105
Armature, 138, 143, 144, 146, 150, 305, 308, 309,
312, 319, 321
Atoms, 100, 102, 103, 127, 326
Blower motor switch, 198, 206
Box type expansion valve, 91, 92
Break-out box, 139, 158, 168, 211
British Standard, 191
Brushless motor, 146
CAD, 16
CAE, 16
CAM, 16
CAN, 157, 175, 176, 179, 180–3, 186, 230, 231, 235,
238, 242–4
Carbon filter, 26
CCS system, 63, 64
CFD, 5, 16–19, 24
Charging cylinder, 277, 278
Circuit diagram, 188, 190, 222
CITB, 12
City and Guilds, 12
Climate, 6, 7, 12, 30, 38, 123, 125, 132, 167, 196,
197, 236, 242, 324
Clutch, 15, 65, 69, 79, 80, 81, 97, 98, 99, 140, 155,
164, 170, 171, 187, 200, 203–6, 209, 210, 211,
215, 216, 219, 221–3, 233, 235, 246, 258, 268,
304, 305, 307, 312, 313, 314
CO2, 6, 12, 14, 45, 52, 53, 56, 57, 175, 282, 297, 324,
327, 328, 329, 336
Colour coding, 190, 275
Commutator, 142, 143, 144, 146
Comparator, 283
Compound circuit, 100, 111, 112
Compressor cycling switch, 98, 209, 212
Compressor design, 56
Condenser, 12, 15, 51, 52, 54, 57, 66, 67, 69, 79,
83–7, 92, 93, 95, 99, 117, 138, 200, 203, 212,
213, 217, 253, 254, 262, 267, 270, 278, 279,
287, 290, 293, 298, 300, 306
Conduction, 40, 41
Continuity, 139, 160, 164, 210
Control valve, 21, 69, 72, 141, 200
Convection, 30, 40, 41, 48, 325
Cooler, 38, 41, 53–7, 69, 83
Data bus, 178, 179, 180, 181, 195, 215, 217, 244
Data link connector, 167, 186, 248
Data list, 139, 158, 197, 211, 249
DC motors, 148, 164
De-ice switch, 98
Demisting, 24, 28, 30, 54
Desiccant, 87, 89, 268, 270, 271, 299, 305
Design of an evaporator, 96
Diagnostic information, 182, 183, 267
DIN Standard, 139, 188, 221, 222, 241
Dry bulb, 49
Duty cycle ratio, 148, 149, 150, 154, 174, 217
ECC system, 229, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241
Electromotive force, 104, 141
Electronic leak detection, 264
Index360 Index
Engine coolant temperature sensor, 183, 211
Engine cooling fan, 205, 210
Enthalpy, 41, 51, 53, 54, 55, 59, 60
Environment, 6, 15, 38, 43, 53, 88, 146, 159, 236,
251, 264–6, 303, 326, 331, 335
EOBD, 3, 6, 182, 183, 185, 186, 259
EPR valve, 254
Evaporative cooling, 15, 61
Evaporator, 11, 15, 27, 30, 49, 50–7, 64–7, 69, 72,
74, 79–98, 117, 149, 154, 196, 203, 209, 213,
216, 217, 219, 222, 223, 226, 233, 235, 238,
242, 244, 250, 253, 254, 262, 263, 267, 271,
284, 290, 300, 303, 307
Evaporator sensor, 97
Excelsior cone, 15, 61
Exchanger, 20–2, 25, 27, 28, 30, 34, 36, 37, 41, 51,
53–6, 59, 60, 63, 83, 154, 196, 200, 202, 205,
207
Expansion valve system, 67, 69
Externally regulated compressor, 82
Fan, 18, 23, 24, 27, 30, 37, 48, 63, 64, 67, 83, 99, 110,
118, 124, 138, 148, 156, 176, 177, 191, 195,
197, 200, 203, 204, 210–12, 215–20, 222, 225,
226, 231, 235, 293, 306
Fault code, 37, 64, 156, 158, 159, 165, 167, 183, 187,
195, 197, 251, 252
Fault diagnostics, 165
Fixed orifice valve, 67, 69, 92, 93, 95, 252
Flux, 81, 134, 137, 140–2
Freon, 63, 324, 325, 326, 327, 330
Frequency, 24, 57, 63, 132, 134, 147, 148, 149, 150,
151, 153, 154, 159, 163, 171, 172, 173, 178,
217, 265, 324
Fully automatic control system, 156
Fusible plug, 87, 88
Gas cooler, 53–5, 57
Gas refrigeration, 59
Gateway, 181, 182
Germicidal lamp, 25
Global warming potential, 43, 44, 327, 328,
335
Greenhouse effect, 324
Growth, 7–11, 14
Handling refrigerant, 269, 279
Harness multiplug, 82
Heat, 15, 20–5, 28, 30, 33–43, 49, 51–67, 69, 83, 85,
86, 90–6, 99, 105, 109, 118, 124, 144, 149, 154,
177, 178, 196, 200, 202, 205, 207, 208, 217,
219, 220, 237, 253, 254, 263, 270–7, 299, 300,
302, 307, 324, 326
Heat exchanger, 15, 20–22, 25, 28, 34, 36, 37, 41,
51, 53, 54–6, 59, 60, 63, 83, 154, 196, 200, 202,
205, 207
Heat intensity, 38, 40
Heater assembly, 20, 22, 25, 132
Heater control module, 110, 194, 200, 202, 204,
207, 208, 210, 211
Heating, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24, 26, 29, 30, 33–7, 40, 41,
54, 56, 59, 63, 64, 120, 141, 195, 196, 202, 207,
229, 230, 231, 232, 238, 243, 277, 303
Humidity sensor, 135
ICE, 215, 217–19, 222, 226
Inductive speed sensor, 134
Institute of the Motor Industry, 12, 13
Insulators, 40, 103
Kyoto protocol, 328
Leak detector, 265, 266
Legislation, 6, 12, 16, 20, 44, 264, 327, 329
Linear potentiometer, 128, 129
Liquid charging, 278
MACS, 13
Magnetic clutch, 64, 68, 69, 82, 205, 252, 303
Manual control system, 155, 195, 198
Market, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15, 187, 189, 195, 214, 282, 293,
297, 329
Market growth, 7, 10
Matrix, 20, 196
Mineral oil, 43, 44, 83, 267, 297, 299, 305
Movement of electrons, 103
MS-CAN, 182, 186
Multimeter, 159, 160, 161
Multiplex wiring system, 97, 151
Natural flow ventilation, 15
Negative temperature coefficient, 97, 106, 109
Network, 115, 148, 155, 157, 164, 176, 178, 179,
181, 184, 198, 201, 231, 241, 244Index 361
OBD, 3, 6, 164, 165, 182, 183, 195, 259
Oil replacement, 44, 298
Oscilloscope, 82, 119, 131, 139, 158, 159, 163, 165,
169, 170, 175, 211, 225, 258, 259, 266
Ozone depletion potential, 44, 326
Ozone layer, 43, 325, 327
PAG, 43, 44, 47, 56, 83, 250, 266, 267, 297–9, 308,
318, 319, 322
Parallel flow condenser, 86
Peltier module, 63, 64
Permanent magnet, 128, 131–4, 143, 144, 146,
147, 219
Photoelectric, 103, 121
Piezoelectric, 103
Pollen filter, 24, 25, 148, 198, 214, 230, 235, 245
Position sensor, 127, 128, 148, 152, 182, 211, 219,
223
Positive temperature coefficient, 35, 106, 120
Potential difference, 101, 102, 104–6, 110, 112, 126,
162, 163, 211
Power distribution, 158
Power probe, 139, 157, 164, 208, 210, 211
Pressure gauge readings, 255, 260, 286, 293
Pressure relief valve, 79, 88
Pressure sensor, 99, 100, 124, 125, 126, 127, 135,
235, 246
Pressure switch, 64, 67, 88, 98, 99, 195, 200, 203,
204, 209, 210, 212, 213, 215, 216, 219, 222,
223, 252, 266, 278, 303
Protocol, 165, 178, 181, 183, 186
PTC element, 35, 120
R12, 42–7, 51, 83, 84, 89, 254, 257, 258, 261–4,
267, 270, 271, 275, 282, 295, 297, 298, 299,
324, 326, 330
R134a, 6, 15, 42–8, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 83, 84, 87, 89,
213, 228, 250, 254, 256, 257, 258, 261, 262,
263, 267, 270, 271, 275, 279, 282, 295, 297,
299, 305, 306, 322, 324, 326, 329, 336
R744, 2, 53, 54, 56
Radiation, 40, 41, 109, 124, 195, 217, 326
Receiver drier, 15, 52, 66, 86–8, 91, 125, 126, 127,
130, 217, 278, 280, 288, 299, 300, 302
Recirculation air actuator, 207, 208
Recirculation damper, 215, 219
Recycled refrigerant, 271, 272
Refrigerant charging, 226
Refrigerant identifier, 282, 283, 332
Refrigerant loss, 46, 324
Refrigerant recovery, 13, 274, 308, 331, 335
Relative humidity, 15, 30, 48, 49, 50
Relay, 64, 97, 98, 137, 138, 139, 140, 149, 158, 161,
164, 178, 184, 186, 200, 203, 204, 205, 207,
209, 210, 211, 216, 219, 221–3, 226, 229,
239, 246
Resistance, 35, 97, 103, 105, 107–20, 126, 127, 128,
129, 135, 139, 140, 144, 157, 159, 160, 161,
163, 170, 181, 205, 211, 244, 245, 297, 326
Resistor pack, 176, 177, 195, 198, 204, 206
Resistors in parallel, 110, 112, 115, 116
Resistors in series, 107, 108, 113, 123
Retrofitting, 297, 333, 335
Rheostat, 215, 217, 222, 225
Saturated vapour, 51, 54, 55, 67, 92
Schematic, 153, 188, 189, 195, 206, 222, 241, 243
Semiconductors, 103
Sensible heat, 39, 40
Serial tester, 139, 158, 159, 164–6, 168, 175, 258
Serial testing, 211
Service connectors, 44, 275, 278, 280
Service operation, 264, 273
SID, 215, 217
Sight glass, 87, 261–3, 267, 268, 277, 278
Solenoid operated water control valve, 155
Solenoids, 178
Solidworks, 16
Specific heat capacity, 39
Specification, 16, 19, 34, 57, 58, 119, 155, 156, 169,
170, 195, 305, 312
Speed sensor, 132, 134, 149, 171, 211, 215
Stepper motor, 144, 146, 147, 150, 151, 154, 164,
196, 206, 215, 219, 229, 233, 236
Strain gauge, 126
Sub cooled, 83
Substitutes, 44, 331
Sun load sensor, 121, 122, 124
Superheated, 51, 53, 55, 66, 92, 95
Swash plate, 71, 72, 73, 75, 82
Symbols DIN, 190
System flushing, 299
System oil, 258, 282, 287, 298
Technical data, 165, 225, 298
Temperature blend door, 28, 29, 32
Temperature comparisons, 253
Thermostatic expansion valve, 87, 90, 254362 Index
Tracer dye, 213, 250, 258, 262, 267, 290, 299
Training providers, 12
UK registrations, 9
UV, 89, 109, 195, 229, 252, 264, 265, 267,
299
Vacuum, 22, 31, 32, 42, 63, 70, 126, 175, 264, 266,
273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 287–90, 305
Vane type compressor, 76, 77, 81
Vapour charging, 278
Variable capacity compressor, 69
Variable orifice valve, 92, 199
Variable reluctance, 147, 151, 164, 172
Velocity, 17, 31
Voltage, 35, 37, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64, 82, 97–113, 117,
119–34, 136, 139, 141, 144, 146, 148, 150, 154,
158–80, 182, 184, 189, 200, 202, 204, 206, 207,
209, 210, 211, 217–19, 222, 223, 225, 226, 234,
236, 237, 242, 244, 245, 249
Watt, 104
Waveform, 82, 119, 130, 150, 154, 169, 170, 177,
178, 244, 245, 266
WDS, 166, 167, 178, 180
Wet bulb, 49, 50
Wiggle test, 159, 163, 252Plate 1 System layout for A/C and heat pump operation


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