كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics

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كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics    كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics  Emptyالسبت 16 يوليو 2022, 1:26 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Springer Handbook of Robotics
Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib

كتاب Springer Handbook of Robotics  S_h_b_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


XLIII
Contents
List of Abbreviations . LXIII
1 Robotics and the Handbook
Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib 1
1.1 A Brief History of Robotics 1
1.2 The Robotics Community 3
1.3 This Handbook . 4
Video-References . 5
Part A Robotics Foundations
2 Kinematics
Kenneth J. Waldron, James Schmiedeler 11
2.1 Overview . 12
2.2 Position and Orientation Representation . 12
2.3 Joint Kinematics . 21
2.4 Geometric Representation 25
2.5 Workspace . 27
2.6 Forward Kinematics . 28
2.7 Inverse Kinematics 29
2.8 Forward Instantaneous Kinematics 31
2.9 Inverse Instantaneous Kinematics . 32
2.10 Static Wrench Transmission . 33
2.11 Conclusions and Further Reading 33
References . 33
3 Dynamics
Roy Featherstone, David E. Orin 37
3.1 Overview . 38
3.2 Spatial Vector Notation . 39
3.3 Canonical Equations 45
3.4 Dynamic Models of Rigid-Body Systems . 47
3.5 Kinematic Trees 51
3.6 Kinematic Loops . 58
3.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 61
References . 63
4 Mechanism and Actuation
Victor Scheinman, J. Michael McCarthy, Jae-Bok Song . 67
4.1 Overview . 68
4.2 System Features . 68
4.3 Kinematics and Kinetics 69
4.4 Serial Robots . 72
4.5 Parallel Robots . 73
4.6 Mechanical Structure 75
4.7 Joint Mechanisms . 76XLIV Contents
4.8 Actuators . 78
4.9 Robot Performance 85
4.10 Conclusions and Further Reading 87
Video-References . 87
References . 87
5 Sensing and Estimation
Henrik I. Christensen, Gregory D. Hager . 91
5.1 Introduction . 91
5.2 The Perception Process 92
5.3 Sensors . 94
5.4 Estimation Processes 98
5.5 Representations . 109
5.6 Conclusions and Further Readings . 111
References . 111
6 Model Identification
John Hollerbach, Wisama Khalil, Maxime Gautier . 113
6.1 Overview . 113
6.2 Kinematic Calibration . 115
6.3 Inertial Parameter Estimation 122
6.4 Identifiability and Numerical Conditioning . 127
6.5 Conclusions and Further Reading 135
Video-References . 136
References . 137
7 Motion Planning
Lydia E. Kavraki, Steven M. LaValle 139
7.1 Robotics Motion Planning 139
7.2 Motion Planning Concepts 140
7.3 Sampling-Based Planning 141
7.4 Alternative Approaches . 144
7.5 Differential Constraints . 148
7.6 Extensions and Variations 151
7.7 Advanced Issues . 154
7.8 Conclusions and Further Reading 157
Video-References . 158
References . 158
8 Motion Control
Wan Kyun Chung, Li-Chen Fu, Torsten Kröger . 163
8.1 Introduction to Motion Control . 164
8.2 Joint Space Versus Operational Space Control . 166
8.3 Independent-Joint Control . 167
8.4 PID Control . 169
8.5 Tracking Control 172
8.6 Computed-Torque Control 174
8.7 Adaptive Control . 177
8.8 Optimal and Robust Control 181
8.9 Trajectory Generation and Planning . 183
8.10 Digital Implementation . 187Contents XLV
8.11 Learning Control . 190
Video-References . 191
References . 191
9 Force Control
Luigi Villani, Joris De Schutter 195
9.1 Background 195
9.2 Indirect Force Control . 198
9.3 Interaction Tasks . 205
9.4 Hybrid Force/Motion Control 211
9.5 Conclusions and Further Reading 216
Video-References . 217
References . 218
10 Redundant Robots
Stefano Chiaverini, Giuseppe Oriolo, Anthony A. Maciejewski . 221
10.1 Overview . 221
10.2 Task-Oriented Kinematics 224
10.3 Inverse Differential Kinematics . 227
10.4 Redundancy Resolution via Optimization . 232
10.5 Redundancy Resolution via Task Augmentation 233
10.6 Second-Order Redundancy Resolution 236
10.7 Cyclicity . 237
10.8 Fault Tolerance 237
10.9 Conclusion and Further Reading . 239
Video-References . 239
References . 240
11 Robots with Flexible Elements
Alessandro De Luca, Wayne J. Book 243
11.1 Robots with Flexible Joints . 244
11.2 Robots with Flexible Links 263
Video-References . 279
References . 279
12 Robotic Systems Architectures and Programming
David Kortenkamp, Reid Simmons, Davide Brugali 283
12.1 Overview . 283
12.2 History 285
12.3 Architectural Components 289
12.4 Case Study – GRACE 296
12.5 The Art of Robot Architectures 298
12.6 Implementing Robotic Systems Architectures . 299
12.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 302
Video-References . 302
References . 302
13 Behavior-Based Systems
François Michaud, Monica Nicolescu 307
13.1 Robot Control Approaches 308
13.2 Basic Principles of Behavior-Based Systems 310XLVI Contents
13.3 Basis Behaviors 313
13.4 Representation in Behavior-Based Systems . 313
13.5 Learning in Behavior-Based Systems 314
13.6 Applications and Continuing Work . 318
13.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 322
Video-References . 322
References . 323
14 AI Reasoning Methods for Robotics
Michael Beetz, Raja Chatila, Joachim Hertzberg, Federico Pecora . 329
14.1 Why Should a Robot Use AI-Type Reasoning? . 330
14.2 Knowledge Representation and Processing . 330
14.3 Reasoning and Decision Making . 338
14.4 Plan-Based Robot Control 346
14.5 Conclusions and Further Reading 351
Video-References . 351
References . 352
15 Robot Learning
Jan Peters, Daniel D. Lee, Jens Kober, Duy Nguyen-Tuong,
J. Andrew Bagnell, Stefan Schaal 357
15.1 What Is Robot Learning . 358
15.2 Model Learning 360
15.3 Reinforcement Learning 372
15.4 Conclusions 385
Video-References . 386
References . 386
Part B Design
16 Design and Performance Evaluation
Jorge Angeles, Frank C. Park 399
16.1 The Robot Design Process . 400
16.2 Workspace Criteria . 401
16.3 Dexterity Indices . 405
16.4 Other Performance Indices . 408
16.5 Other Robot Types . 411
16.6 Summary . 416
References . 416
17 Limbed Systems
Shuuji Kajita, Christian Ott . 419
17.1 Design of Limbed Systems 420
17.2 Conceptual Design . 420
17.3 Whole Design Process Example . 423
17.4 Model Induced Design 427
17.5 Various Limbed Systems 434
17.6 Performance Indices 437
Video-References . 439
References . 440Contents XLVII
18 Parallel Mechanisms
Jean-Pierre Merlet, Clément Gosselin, Tian Huang . 443
18.1 Definitions . 443
18.2 Type Synthesis of Parallel Mechanisms 445
18.3 Kinematics . 446
18.4 Velocity and Accuracy Analysis . 447
18.5 Singularity Analysis . 448
18.6 Workspace Analysis 450
18.7 Static Analysis . 451
18.8 Dynamic Analysis 452
18.9 Design 452
18.10 Wire-Driven Parallel Robots 453
18.11 Application Examples . 455
18.12 Conclusion and Further Reading . 455
Video-References . 456
References . 456
19 Robot Hands
Claudio Melchiorri, Makoto Kaneko 463
19.1 Basic Concepts . 464
19.2 Design of Robot Hands 465
19.3 Technologies for Actuation and Sensing 470
19.4 Modeling and Control of a Robot Hand . 473
19.5 Applications and Trends 477
19.6 Conclusions and Further Reading 478
Video-References . 478
References . 479
20 Snake-Like and Continuum Robots
Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset, Gregory S. Chirikjian . 481
20.1 Snake Robots – Short History 481
20.2 Continuum Robots – Short History . 485
20.3 Snake-Like and Continuum Robot Modeling 487
20.4 Modeling of Locomotion for Snake-Like
and Continuum Mechanisms . 491
20.5 Conclusion and Extensions to Related Areas 492
Video-References . 492
References . 493
21 Actuators for Soft Robotics
Alin Albu-Schäffer, Antonio Bicchi . 499
21.1 Background 500
21.2 Soft Robot Design 502
21.3 Modeling Actuators for Soft Robotics 508
21.4 Modeling Soft Robots . 511
21.5 Stiffness Estimation . 513
21.6 Cartesian Stiffness Control 515
21.7 Periodic Motion Control . 518
21.8 Optimal Control of Soft Robots . 521
21.9 Conclusions and Open Problems . 524XLVIII Contents
Video-References . 525
References . 526
22 Modular Robots
I-Ming Chen, Mark Yim . 531
22.1 Concepts and Definitions . 531
22.2 Reconfigurable Modular Manipulators 533
22.3 Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robots 535
22.4 Conclusion and Further Reading . 539
Video-References . 540
References . 540
23 Biomimetic Robots
Kyu-Jin Cho, Robert Wood 543
23.1 Overview . 544
23.2 Components of Biomimetic Robot Design . 544
23.3 Mechanisms 545
23.4 Material and Fabrication . 561
23.5 Conclusion . 567
Video-References . 568
References . 570
24 Wheeled Robots
Woojin Chung, Karl Iagnemma 575
24.1 Overview . 575
24.2 Mobility of Wheeled Robots 576
24.3 Wheeled Robot Structures 582
24.4 Wheel–Terrain Interaction Models . 586
24.5 Wheeled Robot Suspensions . 589
24.6 Conclusions 592
Video-References . 592
References . 593
25 Underwater Robots
Hyun-Taek Choi, Junku Yuh 595
25.1 Background 595
25.2 Mechanical Systems . 596
25.3 Power Systems . 599
25.4 Underwater Actuators and Sensors 601
25.5 Computers, Communications, and Architecture . 606
25.6 Underwater Manipulators 614
25.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 617
Video-References . 617
References . 618
26 Flying Robots
Stefan Leutenegger, Christoph Hürzeler, Amanda K. Stowers, Kostas Alexis,
Markus W. Achtelik, David Lentink, Paul Y. Oh, Roland Siegwart . 623
26.1 Background and History 624
26.2 Characteristics of Aerial Robotics . 625
26.3 Basics of Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics 629
26.4 Airplane Modeling and Design . 641Contents XLIX
26.5 Rotorcraft Modeling and Design 647
26.6 Flapping Wing Modeling and Design 653
26.7 System Integration and Realization 659
26.8 Applications of Aerial Robots . 662
26.9 Conclusions and Further Reading 666
Video-References . 666
References . 667
27 Micro-/Nanorobots
Bradley J. Nelson, Lixin Dong, Fumihito Arai . 671
27.1 Overview of Micro- and Nanorobotics . 671
27.2 Scaling 674
27.3 Actuation at the Micro- and Nanoscales 675
27.4 Imaging at the Micro- and Nanoscales 676
27.5 Fabrication . 678
27.6 Microassembly . 681
27.7 Microrobotics 687
27.8 Nanorobotics . 692
27.9 Conclusions 704
Video-References . 704
References . 705
Part C Sensing and Perception
28 Force and Tactile Sensing
Mark R. Cutkosky, William Provancher . 717
28.1 Overview . 717
28.2 Sensor Types . 718
28.3 Tactile Information Processing . 725
28.4 Integration Challenges 730
28.5 Conclusions and Future Developments 731
Video-References . 731
References . 731
29 Inertial Sensing, GPS and Odometry
Gregory Dudek, Michael Jenkin 737
29.1 Odometry 737
29.2 Gyroscopic Systems 739
29.3 Accelerometers 742
29.4 IMU Packages 743
29.5 Satellite-Based Positioning (GPS and GNSS) 744
29.6 GPS-IMU Integration 749
29.7 Further Reading . 750
29.8 Currently Available Hardware 750
References . 751
30 Sonar Sensing
Lindsay Kleeman, Roman Kuc 753
30.1 Sonar Principles . 754
30.2 Sonar Beam Pattern . 756
30.3 Speed of Sound 758L Contents
30.4 Waveforms . 758
30.5 Transducer Technologies 759
30.6 Reflecting Object Models 760
30.7 Artifacts 761
30.8 TOF Ranging 762
30.9 Echo Waveform Coding 765
30.10 Echo Waveform Processing 767
30.11 CTFM Sonar . 769
30.12 Multipulse Sonar 772
30.13 Sonar Rings and Arrays . 773
30.14 Motion Effects . 775
30.15 Biomimetic Sonars 778
30.16 Conclusions 779
Video-References . 780
References . 780
31 Range Sensing
Kurt Konolige, Andreas Nüchter 783
31.1 Range Sensing Basics . 783
31.2 Sensor Technologies . 785
31.3 Registration 794
31.4 Navigation and Terrain Classification and Mapping 804
31.5 Conclusions and Further Reading 807
References . 807
32 3-D Vision for Navigation and Grasping
Danica Kragic, Kostas Daniilidis . 811
32.1 Geometric Vision 812
32.2 3-D Vision for Grasping . 820
32.3 Conclusion and Further Reading . 822
Video-References . 822
References . 822
33 Visual Object Class Recognition
Michael Stark, Bernt Schiele, Aleš Leonardis 825
33.1 Object Classes 825
33.2 Review of the State of the Art 826
33.3 Discussion and Conclusions 837
References . 838
34 Visual Servoing
François Chaumette, Seth Hutchinson, Peter Corke . 841
34.1 The Basic Components of Visual Servoing . 842
34.2 Image-Based Visual Servo 843
34.3 Pose-Based Visual Servo 851
34.4 Advanced Approaches . 854
34.5 Performance Optimization and Planning . 856
34.6 Estimation of 3-D Parameters 858
34.7 Determining s and Matching Issues 859
34.8 Target Tracking . 859Contents LI
34.9 Eye-in-Hand and Eye-to-Hand Systems Controlled
in the Joint Space . 860
34.10 Under Actuated Robots . 861
34.11 Applications 863
34.12 Conclusions 863
Video-References . 863
References . 863
35 Multisensor Data Fusion
Hugh Durrant-Whyte, Thomas C. Henderson 867
35.1 Multisensor Data Fusion Methods 867
35.2 Multisensor Fusion Architectures . 880
35.3 Applications 885
35.4 Conclusions 889
Video-References . 889
References . 890
Part D Manipulation and Interfaces
36 Motion for Manipulation Tasks
James Kuffner, Jing Xiao 897
36.1 Overview . 898
36.2 Task-Level Control . 900
36.3 Manipulation Planning . 904
36.4 Assembly Motion 911
36.5 Unifying Feedback Control and Planning 918
36.6 Conclusions and Further Reading 920
Video-References . 923
References . 923
37 Contact Modeling and Manipulation
Imin Kao, Kevin M. Lynch, Joel W. Burdick 931
37.1 Overview . 931
37.2 Kinematics of Rigid-Body Contact . 932
37.3 Forces and Friction 936
37.4 Rigid-Body Mechanics with Friction . 939
37.5 Pushing Manipulation 942
37.6 Contact Interfaces and Modeling . 943
37.7 Friction Limit Surface 946
37.8 Contacts in Grasping and Fixture Designs . 949
37.9 Conclusions and Further Reading 950
Video-References . 951
References . 951
38 Grasping
Domenico Prattichizzo, Jeffrey C. Trinkle . 955
38.1 Models and Definitions . 956
38.2 Controllable Twists and Wrenches . 961
38.3 Compliant Grasps 965
38.4 Restraint Analysis . 967LII Contents
38.5 Examples . 975
38.6 Conclusion and Further Reading . 985
Video-References . 986
References . 986
39 Cooperative Manipulation
Fabrizio Caccavale, Masaru Uchiyama . 989
39.1 Historical Overview 990
39.2 Kinematics and Statics 991
39.3 Cooperative Task Space 995
39.4 Dynamics and Load Distribution . 996
39.5 Task-Space Analysis . 998
39.6 Control 999
39.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 1003
Video-References . 1004
References . 1004
40 Mobility and Manipulation
Oliver Brock, Jaeheung Park, Marc Toussaint . 1007
40.1 Grasping and Manipulation 1009
40.2 Control 1013
40.3 Motion Generation 1017
40.4 Learning 1021
40.5 Perception . 1025
40.6 Conclusions and Further Reading 1029
Video-References . 1029
References . 1030
41 Active Manipulation for Perception
Anna Petrovskaya, Kaijen Hsiao 1037
41.1 Perception via Manipulation . 1037
41.2 Object Localization 1038
41.3 Learning About an Object . 1049
41.4 Recognition 1054
41.5 Conclusions 1057
Video-References . 1058
References . 1058
42 Haptics
Blake Hannaford, Allison M. Okamura 1063
42.1 Overview . 1064
42.2 Haptic Device Design 1068
42.3 Haptic Rendering 1071
42.4 Control and Stability of Force Feedback Interfaces . 1073
42.5 Other Types of Haptic Interfaces 1075
42.6 Conclusions and Further Reading 1079
References . 1079
43 Telerobotics
Günter Niemeyer, Carsten Preusche, Stefano Stramigioli, Dongjun Lee . 1085
43.1 Overview and Terminology . 1085Contents LIII
43.2 Telerobotic Systems and Applications . 1087
43.3 Control Architectures 1090
43.4 Bilateral Control and Force Feedback 1095
43.5 Emerging Applications of Telerobotics . 1101
43.6 Conclusions and Further Reading 1104
Video-References . 1104
References . 1105
44 Networked Robots
Dezhen Song, Ken Goldberg, Nak-Young Chong 1109
44.1 Overview and Background 1109
44.2 A Brief History . 1110
44.3 Communications and Networking . 1112
44.4 Properties of Networked Robots . 1115
44.5 Cloud Robotics . 1121
44.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 1125
Video-References . 1126
References . 1126
Part E Moving in the Environment
45 World Modeling
Wolfram Burgard, Martial Hebert, Maren Bennewitz . 1135
45.1 Historical Overview 1136
45.2 Models for Indoors and Structured Environments 1137
45.3 World and Terrain Models for Natural Environments . 1141
45.4 Dynamic Environments . 1149
45.5 Summary and Further Reading . 1149
Video-References . 1150
References . 1150
46 Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard, Sebastian Thrun . 1153
46.1 SLAM: Problem Definition . 1154
46.2 The Three Main SLAM Paradigms . 1157
46.3 Visual and RGB-D SLAM . 1166
46.4 Conclusion and Future Challenges . 1169
Video-References . 1170
References . 1171
47 Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance
Javier Minguez, Florant Lamiraux, Jean-Paul Laumond . 1177
47.1 Nonholonomic Mobile Robots: Where Motion Planning
Meets Control Theory 1178
47.2 Kinematic Constraints and Controllability . 1179
47.3 Motion Planning and Small-Time Controllability . 1180
47.4 Local Steering Methods and Small-Time Controllability 1181
47.5 Robots and Trailers 1184
47.6 Approximate Methods 1186
47.7 From Motion Planning to Obstacle Avoidance 1187LIV Contents
47.8 Definition of Obstacle Avoidance 1187
47.9 Obstacle Avoidance Techniques 1188
47.10 Robot Shape, Kinematics, and Dynamics in Obstacle Avoidance 1194
47.11 Integration Planning – Reaction . 1196
47.12 Conclusions, Future Directions, and Further Reading 1198
Video-References . 1199
References . 1199
48 Modeling and Control of Legged Robots
Pierre-Brice Wieber, Russ Tedrake, Scott Kuindersma 1203
48.1 A Brief History of Legged Robots . 1204
48.2 The Dynamics of Legged Locomotion 1204
48.3 Stability Analysis – Not Falling Down 1209
48.4 Generation of Dynamic Walking and Running Motions 1214
48.5 Motion and Force Control . 1222
48.6 Towards More Efficient Walking 1225
48.7 Different Contact Behaviors . 1227
48.8 Conclusion . 1228
References . 1228
49 Modeling and Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots
Claude Samson, Pascal Morin, Roland Lenain 1235
49.1 Background 1236
49.2 Control Models . 1238
49.3 Adaptation of Control Methods for Holonomic Systems 1240
49.4 Methods Specific to Nonholonomic Systems 1241
49.5 Path Following in the Case of Nonideal Wheel-Ground Contact 1255
49.6 Complementary Issues and Bibliographical Guide . 1261
Video-References . 1263
References . 1263
50 Modeling and Control of Robots on Rough Terrain
Keiji Nagatani, Genya Ishigami, Yoshito Okada 1267
50.1 Overview . 1268
50.2 Modeling of Wheeled Robot in Rough Terrain 1270
50.3 Control of Wheeled Robot in Rough Terrain . 1274
50.4 Modeling of Tracked Vehicle on Rough Terrain 1276
50.5 Stability Analysis of Tracked Vehicles 1278
50.6 Control of Tracked Vehicle on Rough Terrain 1279
50.7 Summary . 1281
Video-References . 1281
References . 1282
51 Modeling and Control of Underwater Robots
Gianluca Antonelli, Thor I. Fossen, Dana R. Yoerger . 1285
51.1 The Expanding Role of Marine Robotics in Oceanic Engineering 1285
51.2 Underwater Robotics 1287
51.3 Applications 1302
51.4 Conclusions and Further Reading 1303
Video-References . 1304
References . 1304Contents LV
52 Modeling and Control of Aerial Robots
Robert Mahony, Randal W. Beard, Vijay Kumar 1307
52.1 Overview . 1307
52.2 Modeling Aerial Robotic Vehicles 1309
52.3 Control 1316
52.4 Trajectory Planning 1324
52.5 Estimating the Vehicle State 1328
52.6 Conclusion . 1330
Video-References . 1331
References . 1331
53 Multiple Mobile Robot Systems
Lynne E. Parker, Daniela Rus, Gaurav S. Sukhatme . 1335
53.1 History 1336
53.2 Architectures for Multirobot Systems . 1337
53.3 Communication 1339
53.4 Networked Mobile Robots 1340
53.5 Swarm Robots . 1351
53.6 Modular Robotics 1354
53.7 Heterogeneity 1357
53.8 Task Allocation . 1359
53.9 Learning 1361
53.10 Applications 1362
53.11 Conclusions and Further Reading 1366
Video-References . 1366
References . 1367
Part F Robots at Work
54 Industrial Robotics
Martin Hägele, Klas Nilsson, J. Norberto Pires, Rainer Bischoff . 1385
54.1 Industrial Robotics: The Main Driver for Robotics Research
and Application . 1386
54.2 A Short History of Industrial Robots . 1386
54.3 Industrial Robot Kinematics 1392
54.4 Typical Industrial Robot Applications 1393
54.5 Safe Human–Robot Collaboration . 1405
54.6 Task Descriptions – Teaching and Programming 1409
54.7 System Integration 1414
54.8 Outlook and Long-Term Challenges 1416
Video-References . 1418
References . 1418
55 Space Robotics
Kazuya Yoshida, Brian Wilcox, Gerd Hirzinger, Roberto Lampariello . 1423
55.1 Historical Developments and Advances of Orbital Robotic Systems . 1424
55.2 Historical Developments and Advances of Surface Robotic Systems. 1430
55.3 Mathematical Modeling . 1437
55.4 Future Directions of Orbital and Surface Robotic Systems 1452
55.5 Conclusions and Further Reading 1457LVI Contents
Video-References . 1457
References . 1458
56 Robotics in Agriculture and Forestry
Marcel Bergerman, John Billingsley, John Reid, Eldert van Henten . 1463
56.1 Section Scope 1464
56.2 Challenges and Opportunities 1465
56.3 Case Studies 1467
56.4 Conclusion . 1487
Video-References . 1488
References . 1489
57 Robotics in Construction
Kamel S. Saidi, Thomas Bock, Christos Georgoulas . 1493
57.1 Overview . 1494
57.2 Offsite Applications of Robotics in Construction 1499
57.3 Onsite Applications of Single Task Construction Robots 1504
57.4 Integrated Robotized Construction Sites . 1511
57.5 Currently Unsolved Technical Problems 1514
57.6 Future Directions 1516
57.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 1516
Video-References . 1517
References . 1517
58 Robotics in Hazardous Applications
James Trevelyan, William R. Hamel, Sung-Chul Kang 1521
58.1 Operation in Hazardous Environments:
The Need for a Robotics Solution 1521
58.2 Applications 1523
58.3 Enabling Technologies 1537
58.4 Conclusions and Further Reading 1544
Video-References . 1545
References . 1546
59 Robotics in Mining
Joshua A. Marshall, Adrian Bonchis, Eduardo Nebot, Steven Scheding 1549
59.1 Modern Mining Practice . 1550
59.2 Surface Mining . 1552
59.3 Underground Mining 1562
59.4 Challenges and Industry Acceptance 1568
59.5 Challenges, Outlook, and Conclusion 1569
Video-References . 1571
References . 1572
60 Disaster Robotics
Robin R. Murphy, Satoshi Tadokoro, Alexander Kleiner 1577
60.1 Overview . 1578
60.2 Disaster Characteristics and Impact on Robots 1581
60.3 Robots Actually Used at Disasters 1582
60.4 Robots at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident . 1588
60.5 Lessons Learned, Challenges, and Novel Approaches 1591Contents LVII
60.6 Evaluation . 1598
60.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 1600
Video-References . 1601
References . 1601
61 Robot Surveillance and Security
Wendell H. Chun, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos 1605
61.1 Overview . 1605
61.2 Application Domains 1607
61.3 Enabling Technologies 1608
61.4 Active Research 1617
61.5 Conclusion . 1622
Video-References . 1623
References . 1623
62 Intelligent Vehicles
Alberto Broggi, Alex Zelinsky, Ümit Özgüner, Christian Laugier . 1627
62.1 The Motivation and Approaches to Intelligent Vehicles 1628
62.2 Enabling Technologies 1632
62.3 Road Scene Understanding . 1635
62.4 Advanced Driver Assistance . 1639
62.5 Driver Monitoring 1645
62.6 Towards Fully Autonomous Vehicles 1647
62.7 Future Trends and Prospects . 1650
62.8 Conclusions and Further Reading 1651
Video-References . 1651
References . 1652
63 Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery
Russell H. Taylor, Arianna Menciassi, Gabor Fichtinger, Paolo Fiorini,
Paolo Dario 1657
63.1 Core Concepts 1658
63.2 Technology . 1662
63.3 Systems, Research Areas, and Applications . 1667
63.4 Conclusion and Future Directions 1675
Video-References . 1676
References . 1676
64 Rehabilitation and Health Care Robotics
H.F. Machiel Van der Loos, David J. Reinkensmeyer, Eugenio Guglielmelli . 1685
64.1 Overview . 1686
64.2 Rehabilitation Therapy and Training Robots 1692
64.3 Aids for People with Disabilities . 1703
64.4 Smart Prostheses and Orthoses 1711
64.5 Augmentation for Diagnosis and Monitoring . 1713
64.6 Safety, Ethics, Access and Economics 1715
64.7 Conclusions and Further Readings . 1716
Video-References . 1717
References . 1718LVIII Contents
65 Domestic Robotics
Erwin Prassler, Mario E. Munich, Paolo Pirjanian, Kazuhiro Kosuge 1729
65.1 Mobile Domestic Robotics 1730
65.2 Enabling Technologies 1747
65.3 Smart Homes 1754
Video-References . 1757
References . 1757
66 Robotics Competitions and Challenges
Daniele Nardi, Jonathan Roberts, Manuela Veloso, Luke Fletcher . 1759
66.1 Introduction . 1760
66.2 Overview . 1760
66.3 Competitions Inspired by Human Competitions 1762
66.4 Task-Oriented Competitions 1769
66.5 Conclusion and Further Reading . 1780
Video-References . 1781
References . 1781
Part G Robots and Humans
67 Humanoids
Paul Fitzpatrick, Kensuke Harada, Charles C. Kemp, Yoshio Matsumoto,
Kazuhito Yokoi, Eiichi Yoshida . 1789
67.1 Why Humanoids? 1789
67.2 History 1792
67.3 What to Immitate? 1794
67.4 Locomotion 1795
67.5 Whole-Body Activities 1801
67.6 Morphological Communication . 1809
67.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 1813
Video-References . 1813
References . 1813
68 Human Motion Reconstruction
Katsu Yamane, Wataru Takano . 1819
68.1 Overview . 1819
68.2 Models and Computations 1820
68.3 Reconstruction for Understanding . 1825
68.4 Reconstruction for Robots 1829
Video-References . 1830
References . 1831
69 Physical Human–Robot Interaction
Sami Haddadin, Elizabeth Croft 1835
69.1 Classification . 1836
69.2 Human Safety 1839
69.3 Human-Friendly Robot Design . 1847
69.4 Control for Physical Interaction 1853
69.5 Motion Planning for Human Environments . 1859
69.6 Interaction Planning 1862Contents LIX
69.7 Conclusions and Challenges 1867
Video-References . 1868
References . 1869
70 Human–Robot Augmentation
Massimo Bergamasco, Hugh Herr 1875
70.1 Concept and Definitions 1876
70.2 Upper Limb Wearable Systems . 1877
70.3 Lower Limb Wearable Systems 1882
70.4 Whole Body Wearable Systems . 1889
70.5 Control of Human–Robot Augmentation Systems 1892
70.6 Conclusions and Further Developments . 1902
Video-References . 1902
References . 1902
71 Cognitive Human–Robot Interaction
Bilge Mutlu, Nicholas Roy, Selma Šabanović 1907
71.1 Human Models of Interaction 1908
71.2 Robot Models of Interaction 1914
71.3 Models of Human–Robot Interaction 1916
71.4 Conclusion and Further Reading . 1927
Video-References . 1927
References . 1928
72 Social Robotics
Cynthia Breazeal, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Takayuki Kanda . 1935
72.1 Overview . 1936
72.2 Social Robot Embodiment 1936
72.3 Social Robots and Social-Emotional Intelligence . 1938
72.4 Socio-Cognitive Skills . 1941
72.5 Human Social Responses to Social Robots . 1944
72.6 Social Robots and Communication Skills 1946
72.7 Long-Term Interaction with Robot Companions 1950
72.8 Tactile Interaction with Social Robots . 1954
72.9 Social Robots and Teamwork . 1958
72.10 Conclusion . 1959
72.11 Further Reading . 1960
Video-References . 1960
References . 1961
73 Socially Assistive Robotics
Maja J. Matarić, Brian Scassellati 1973
73.1 Overview . 1973
73.2 The Need for Socially Assistive Robotics . 1974
73.3 Advantages of Embodied Robots over Virtual Agents 1975
73.4 Motivation, Autonomy, and Companionship 1977
73.5 Influence and the Dynamics of Assistive Interaction . 1978
73.6 Personalization and Adaptation to Specific Needs and Abilities 1978
73.7 Creating Long-Term Engagement and Behaviour Change 1979
73.8 SAR for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Therapy . 1980
73.9 SAR Supporting Rehabilitation . 1982LX Contents
73.10 SAR and Eldercare . 1985
73.11 SAR for Alzheimer’s Dementia and Cognitive Rehabilitation 1986
73.12 Ethical and Safety Considerations 1987
References . 1988
74 Learning from Humans
Aude G. Billard, Sylvain Calinon, Rüdiger Dillmann 1995
74.1 Learning of Robots 1995
74.2 Key Issues When Learning from Human Demonstrations 1998
74.3 Interfaces for Demonstration . 2000
74.4 Algorithms to Learn from Humans . 2002
74.5 Conclusions and Open Issues in Robot LfD 2008
Video-References . 2009
References . 2009
75 Biologically Inspired Robotics
Fumiya Iida, Auke Jan Ijspeert . 2015
75.1 General Background . 2016
75.2 Methodology . 2017
75.3 Case Studies 2021
75.4 Landscape of Bio-Inspired Robotics Research and Challenges 2026
75.5 Conclusion . 2028
Video-References . 2028
References . 2029
76 Evolutionary Robotics
Stefano Nolfi, Josh Bongard, Phil Husbands, Dario Floreano 2035
76.1 Method . 2036
76.2 First Steps 2036
76.3 Simulation and Reality 2040
76.4 Behavior as a Complex Adaptive System 2041
76.5 Evolving Bodies 2044
76.6 Seeing the Light . 2046
76.7 Computational Neuroethology . 2049
76.8 Evolution and Learning . 2054
76.9 Evolution of Social Behavior 2057
76.10 Evolutionary Hardware . 2060
76.11 Closing Remarks . 2061
Video-References . 2061
References . 2062
77 Neurorobotics: From Vision to Action
Patrick van der Smagt, Michael A. Arbib, Giorgio Metta . 2069
77.1 Definitions and History . 2070
77.2 The Case for Vision 2071
77.3 Vertebrate Motor Control 2075
77.4 The Role of Mirror Systems 2082
77.5 Conclusion and Further Reading . 2089
References . 2090Contents LXI
78 Perceptual Robotics
Heinrich Bülthoff, Christian Wallraven, Martin A. Giese 2095
78.1 Perceptual Mechanisms of Object Representations . 2097
78.2 Perceptual Mechanisms of Action Representation 2103
78.3 Perceptual Validation of Robotics 2107
78.4 Conclusion and Further Reading . 2108
Video-References . 2109
References . 2109
79 Robotics for Education
David P. Miller, Illah Nourbakhsh 2115
79.1 The Role of Robots in Education . 2116
79.2 Educational Robot Tournaments . 2117
79.3 Education Robot Platforms . 2120
79.4 Education Robot Controllers and Programming Environments 2123
79.5 Robotic Technologies for Student Learning 2127
79.6 Educational Evaluation of Robot Programs 2129
79.7 Conclusions and Further Reading 2131
Video-References . 2131
References . 2131
80 Roboethics: Social and Ethical Implications
Gianmarco Veruggio, Fiorella Operto, George Bekey . 2135
80.1 A Methodological Note 2137
80.2 Specificity of Robotics . 2138
80.3 Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Robots . 2138
80.4 Roboethics Foreshadowed in the Literature 2139
80.5 And Expressed in Real Robotics 2139
80.6 Ethics in Science and Technology 2140
80.7 Ethical Issues in an ICT Society . 2143
80.8 Human Principles and Rights 2144
80.9 Legal Issues in Robotics . 2146
80.10 Roboethics Taxonomy . 2147
80.11 Roboethics Enforced: From Ideals to Rules 2156
80.12 Conclusions and Further Reading 2157
Video-References . 2158
References . 2159
Erratum to: Physical Human–Robot Interaction
Sami Haddadin, Elizabeth Croft E1
Acknowledgements 2161
About the Authors 2163
Index 2197LXIII
List of Abbreviations
Symbols
k-NN k-nearest neighbor
0-D zero-dimensional
1-D one-dimensional
2-D two-dimensional
2.5-D two-and-a-half-dimensional
3-D three-dimensional
3-D-NDT three-dimensional normal distributions
transform
4-D four-dimensional
4WD four wheel drive
6-D six-dimensional
6R six-revolute
7R seven-revolute
A
A&F agriculture and forestry
AA agonist–antagonist
AAAI American Association for Artificial
Intelligence
AAAI Association for the Advancement of
Artificial Intelligence
AAL ambient assisted living
ABA articulated-body algorithm
ABF artificial bacterial flagella
ABRT automated bus rapid transit
ABS acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene
AC aerodynamic center
AC alternating current
ACARP Australian Coal Association Research
Program
ACBS automatic constructions building system
ACC adaptive cruise control
ACFV autonomous combat flying vehicle
ACM active chord mechanism
ACM active cord mechanism
ACT anatomically correct testbed
ADAS advanced driving assistance system
ADC analog digital conveter
ADCP acoustic Doppler current profiler
ADL activities for daily living
ADSL asymmetric digital subscriber line
AFC alkaline fuel cell
AFC armoured (or articulated) face conveyor
AFM atomic force microscope
AFV autonomous flying vehicle
AGV autonomous guided vehicle
AGV automated guided vehicle
AHRS attitude and heading reference system
AHS advanced highway system
AI artificial intelligence
AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics
AIM assembly incidence matrix
AIP air-independent power
AIP anterior intraparietal sulcus
AIP anterior interparietal area
AIS artificial intelligence system
AIST Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
and Technology
AIST Japan National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology
AIST National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology
(Japan)
AIT anterior inferotemporal cortex
ALEX active leg exoskeleton
AM actuator for manipulation
AMASC actuator with mechanically adjustable
series compliance
AMC Association for Computing Machinery
AMD autonomous mental development
AMM audio-motor map
ANN artificial neural network
AO Arbeitsgemeinschaft für
Ostheosynthesefragen
AOA angle of attack
AP antipersonnel
APF annealed particle filter
APG adjustable pattern generator
API application programming interface
APOC allowing dynamic selection and changes
AR autoregressive
aRDnet agile robot development network
ARM Acorn RISC machine architecture
ARM assistive robot service manipulator
ARX auto regressive estimator
ASAP adaptive sampling and prediction
ASCII American standard code for information
interchange
ASD autism spectrum disorder
ASIC application-specific integrated circuit
ASIC application-specific feature transform
ASIMO advanced step in innovative mobility
ASK amplitude shift keying
ASL autonomous systems laboratoryLXIV List of Abbreviations
ASM advanced servomanipulator
ASN active sensor network
ASR automatic spoken-language recognition
ASR automatic speech recognition
ASTRO autonomous space transport robotic
operations
ASV adaptive suspension vehicle
ASyMTRe automated synthesis of multirobot task
solutions through software
reconfiguration
AT anti-tank mine
ATHLETE all-terrain hex-legged extra-terrestrial
explorer
ATLANTIS a three layer architecture for navigating
through intricate situations
ATLSS advanced technology for large structural
systems
ATR automatic target recognition
AuRA autonomous robot architecture
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
AUV autonomous aquatic vehicle
AUVAC Autonomous Undersea Vehicles
Application Center
AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle
Systems International
AV anti-vehicle
B
B/S browser/server
B2B business to business
BCI brain-computer interface
BE body extender
BEMT blade element momentum theory
BEST boosting engineering science and
technology
BET blade element theory
BFA bending fluidic actuator
BFP best-first-planner
BI brain imaging
BIP behavior-interaction-priority
BLE broadcast of local eligibility
BLEEX Berkely exoskeleton
BLUE best linear unbiased estimator
BML behavior mark-up language
BMS battery management system
BN Bayesian network
BOM bill of material
BOw bag-of-word
BP behavior primitive
BP base plate
BRICS best practice in robotics
BRT bus rapid transit
BWSTT body-weight supported treadmill
training
C
C cylindrical joint
C/A coarse-acquisition
C/S client/server
CA collision avoidance
CACC cooperative adaptive cruise control
CAD computer-aided drafting
CAD computer-aided design
CAE computer-aided engineering
CALM communication access for land mobiles
CAM computer-aided manufacturing
CAN controller area network
CARD computer-aided remote driving
CARE coordination action for robotics in
Europe
CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority
CASALA Centre for Affective Solutions for
Ambient Living Awareness
CASPER continuous activity scheduling,
planning, execution and replanning
CAT collision avoidance technology
CAT computer-aided tomography
CB computional brain
CB cluster bomb
CBRNE chemical, biological, nuclear,
radiological, or explosive
CC compression criterion
CCD charge-coupled device
CCD charge-coupled detector
CCI control command interpreter
CCP coverage configuration protocol
CCT conservative congruence transformation
CCW counterclockwise
CC&D camouflage, concealment, and deception
CD collision detection
CD committee draft
CD compact disc
CDC cardinal direction calculus
CDOM colored dissolved organic matter
CE computer ethic
CEA Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique
CEA Atomic Energy Commission
CEBOT cellular robotic system
CEC Congress on Evolutionary Computation
CEPE Computer Ethics Philosophical Enquiry
CES Consumer Electronics Show
CF carbon fiber
CF contact formation
CF climbing fiber
CFD computational fluid dynamicsList of Abbreviations LXV
CFRP carbon fiber reinforced prepreg
CFRP carbon fiber reinforced plastic
CG center of gravity
CG computer graphics
CGI common gateway interface
CHMM coupled hidden Markov model
CHMM continuous hidden Markov model
CIC computer integrated construction
CIE International Commission on
Illumination
CIP Children’s Innovation Project
CIRCA cooperative intelligent real-time control
architecture
CIS computer-integrated surgery
CLARAty coupled layered architecture for robot
autonomy
CLEaR closed-loop execution and recovery
CLIK closed-loop inverse kinematics
CMAC cerebellar model articulation controller
CMCs ceramic matrix composite
CML concurrent mapping and localization
CMM coordinate measurement machine
CMOMMT cooperative multirobot observation of
multiple moving target
CMOS complementary
metal-oxide-semiconductor
CMP centroid moment pivot
CMTE Cooperative Research Centre for Mining
Technology and Equipment
CMU Carnegie Mellon University
CNC computer numerical control
CNN convolutional neural network
CNP contract net protocol
CNRS Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique
CNT carbon nanotube
COCO common objects in context
COG center of gravity
COM center of mass
COMAN compliant humanoid platform
COMEST Commission mondiale d’éthique des
connaissances scientifiques et des
technologies
COMINT communication intelligence
CONE Collaborative Observatory for Nature
Environments
COP center of pressure
CoP center of pressure
COR center of rotation
CORBA common object request broker
architecture
CORS continuous operating reference station
COT cost of transport
COTS commercial off-the-shelf
COV characteristic output vector
CP complementarity problem
CP capture point
CP continuous path
CP cerebral palsy
CPG central pattern generation
CPG central pattern generator
CPS cyber physical system
CPSR Computer Professional for Social
Responsibility
CPU central processing unit
CRASAR Center for Robot-Assisted Search and
Rescue
CRBA composite-rigid-body algorithm
CRF conditional random field
CRLB Cramér–Rao lower bound
CSAIL Computer Science and Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation
CSMA carrier-sense multiple-access
CSP constraint satisfaction problem
CSSF Canadian Scientific Submersile Facility
CT computed tomography
CTFM continuous-transmission frequency
modulation
CU control unit
cv-SLAM ceiling vision SLAM
CVD chemical vapor deposition
CVIS cooperative vehicle infrastructure
system
CVT continuous variable transmission
CW clockwise
CWS contact wrench sum
D
D distal
D/A digital-to-analog
DAC digital analog converter
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency
DARS distributed autonomous robotic systems
DBN dynamic Bayesian network
DBN deep belief network
DC disconnected
DC direct current
DC dynamic constrained
DCS dynamic covariance scaling
DCT discrete cosine transform
DD differentially driven
DDD dangerous, dirty, and dreary
DDF decentralized data fusion
DDP differential dynamic programmingLXVI List of Abbreviations
DDS data distribution service
DEA differential elastic actuator
DEM discrete element method
DFA design for assembly
DFRA distributed field robot architecture
DFT discrete Fourier transform
DGPS differential global positioning system
DH Denavit–Hartenberg
DHMM discrete hidden Markov model
DHS US Department of Homeland Security
DIRA distributed robot architecture
DIST Dipartmento di Informatica Sistemica e
Telematica
DL description logic
DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und
Raumfahrt
DLR German Aerospace Center
DMFC direct methanol fuel cell
DMP dynamic movement primitive
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNF dynamic neural field
DOD Department of Defense
DOF degree of freedom
DOG difference of Gaussian
DOP dilution of precision
DPC dynamic partially constrained
DPLL Davis–Putnam algorithm
DPM deformable part model
DPN dip-pen nanolithography
DPSK differential phase shift keying
DRIE deep reactive ion etching
DSM dynamic state machine
DSO Defense Sciences Office
DSP digital signal processor
DSRC dedicated short-range communications
DU dynamic unconstrained
DVL Doppler velocity log
DWA dynamic window approach
DWDM dense wave division multiplex
D&D deactivation and decommissioning
E
e-beam electron-beam
EAP electroactive polymer
EBA energy bounding algorithm
EBA extrastriate body part area
EBID electron-beam induced deposition
EC externally connected
EC exteroception
ECAI European Conference on Artificial
Intelligence
ECD eddy current damper
ECEF earth-centred, earth-fixed
ECER European Conference on Educational
Robotics
ECG electrocardiogram
ECU electronics controller unit
EDM electrical discharge machining
EE end-effector
EEG electroencephalography
EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
EHC enhanced horizon control
EHPA exoskeleton for human performance
augmentation
EKF extended Kalman filter
ELS ethical, legal and societal
EM expectation maximization
emf electromotive force
EMG electromyography
EMIB emotion, motivation and intentional
behavior
EMS electrical master–slave manipulator
EO electrooptical
EO elementary operator
EOA end of arm
EOD explosive ordnance disposal
EP exploratory procedure
EP energy packet
EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de
Lausanne
EPP extended physiological proprioception
EPS expandable polystyrene
ER electrorheological
ER evolutionary robotics
ERA European robotic arm
ERP enterprise resource planning
ERSP evolution robotics software platform
ES electrical stimulation
ESA European Space Agency
ESC electronic speed controller
ESL execution support language
ESM energy stability margin
ESM electric support measure
ETL Electro-Technical Laboratory
ETS-VII Engineering Test Satellite VII
EU European Union
EURON European Robotics Research Network
EVA extravehicular activity
EVRYON evolving morphologies for human–robot
symbiotic interaction
F
F5 frontal area 5
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAO Food and Agriculture OrganizationList of Abbreviations LXVII
FARS Fagg–Arbib–Rizzolatti–Sakata
FARSA framework for autonomous robotics
simulation and analysis
fastSLAM fast simultaneous localization and
mapping
FB-EHPA full-body EHPA
FCU flight control-unit
FD friction damper
FDA US Food and Drug Association
FDM fused deposition modeling
FE finite element
FEA finite element analysis
FEM finite element method
FESEM field-emission SEM
FF fast forward
FFI Norwegian defense research
establishment
FFT fast Fourier transform
FIFO first-in first-out
FIRA Federation of International Robot-soccer
Association
FIRRE family of integrated rapid response
equipment
FIRST For Inspiration and Recognition of
Science and Technology
Fl-UAS flapping wing unmanned aerial system
FLIR forward looking infrared
FMBT feasible minimum buffering time
FMCW frequency modulation continuous wave
fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging
FMS flexible manufacturing system
FNS functional neural stimulation
FOA focus of attention
FOG fiber-optic gyro
FOPEN foliage penetration
FOPL first-order predicate logic
FOV field of view
FP fusion primitive
FPGA field-programmable gate array
FR false range
FRI foot rotation indicator
FRP fiber-reinforced plastics
FRP fiber-reinforced prepreg
fs force sensor
FSA finite-state acceptor
FSK frequency shift keying
FSR force sensing resistor
FSW friction stir welding
FTTH fiber to the home
FW fixed-wing
G
GA genetic algorithm
GAPP goal as parallel programs
GARNICS gardening with a cognitive system
GAS global asymptotic stability
GBAS ground based augmentation system
GCDC Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge
GCER Global Conference on Educational
Robotics
GCR goal-contact relaxation
GCS ground control station
GDP gross domestic product
GenoM generator of modules
GEO geostationary Earth orbit
GF grapple fixture
GFRP glass-fiber reinforced plastic
GI gastrointestinal
GIB GPS intelligent buoys
GICHD Geneva International Centre for
Humanitarian Demining
GID geometric intersection data
GIE generalized-inertia ellipsoid
GIS geographic information system
GJM generalized Jacobian matrix
GLONASS globalnaya navigatsionnaya
sputnikovaya sistema
GLS global navigation satellite system
GMAW gas-shielded metal arc welding
GMM Gaussian mixture model
GMSK Gaussian minimum shift keying
GMTI ground moving target indicator
GNC guidance, navigation, and control
GO golgi tendon organ
GP Gaussian process
GPCA generalized principal component
analysis
GPRS general packet radio service
GPS global positioning system
GPU graphics processing unit
GRAB guaranteed recursive adaptive bounding
GRACE graduate robot attending conference
GraWoLF gradient-based win or learn fast
GSD geon structural description
GSN gait sensitivity norm
GSP Gough–Stewart platform
GUI graphical user interface
GV ground vehicle
GVA gross value added
GZMP generalized ZMP
H
H helical joint
HAL hybrid assistive limb
HAMMER hierarchical attentive multiple models
for execution and recognitionLXVIII List of Abbreviations
HASY hand arm system
HBBA hybrid behavior-based architecture
HCI human–computer interaction
HD high definition
HD haptic device
HD-SDI high-definition serial digital interface
HDSL high data rate digital subscriber line
HE hand exoskeleton
HF hard finger
HF histogram filter
HFAC high frequency alternating current
HHMM hierarchical hidden Markov model
HIC head injury criterion
HIII Hybrid III dummy
HIP haptic interaction point
HJB Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman
HJI Hamilton–Jacobi–Isaac
HMCS human–machine cooperative system
HMD head-mounted display
HMDS hexamethyldisilazane
HMI human–machine interaction
HMI human–machine interface
HMM hidden Markov model
HO human operator
HOG histogram of oriented gradient
HOG histogram of oriented features
HPC high-performance computing
HRI human–robot interaction
HRI/OS HRI operating system
HRP humanoid robotics project
HRR high resolution radar
HRTEM high-resolution transmission electron
microscope
HSGR high safety goal
HST Hubble space telescope
HSTAMIDS handheld standoff mine detection system
HSWR high safety wide region
HTAS high tech automotive system
HTML hypertext markup language
HTN hierarchical task network
HTTP hypertext transmission protocol
HW/SW hardware/software
I
I/O input/output
I3CON industrialized, integrated, intelligent,
construction
IA interval algebra
IA instantaneous allocation
IAA interaction agent
IAB International Association of Bioethics
IACAP International Association for Computing
and Philosophy
IAD interaural amplitude difference
IAD intelligent assisting device
IARC International Aerial Robotics
Competition
IAS intelligent autonomous system
IBVS image-based visual servo control
IC integrated chip
IC integrated circuit
ICA independent component analysis
ICAPS International Conference on Automated
Planning and Scheduling
ICAR International Conference on Advanced
Robotics
ICBL International Campaign to Ban
Landmines
ICC instantaneous center of curvature
ICE internet communications engine
ICP iterative closest point
ICR instantaneous center of rotation
ICRA International Conference on Robotics
and Automation
ICT information and communication
technology
ID inside diameter
ID identifier
IDE integrated development environment
IDL interface definition language
IE information ethics
IED improvised explosive device
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers
IEKF iterated extended Kalman filter
IETF internet engineering task force
IFA Internationale Funk Ausstellung
IFOG interferometric fiber-optic gyro
IFR International Federation of Robotics
IFREMER Institut français de recherche pour
l’exploitation de la mer
IFRR International Foundation of Robotics
Research
IFSAR interferometric SAR
IHIP intermediate haptic interaction point
IIR infinite impulse response
IIS Internet Information Services
IIT Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
IJCAI International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence
IK inverse kinematics
ILLS instrumented logical sensor system
ILO International Labor Organization
ILQR iterative linear quadratic regulator
IM injury measure
IMAV International Micro Air Vehicles
IMTS intelligent multimode transit systemList of Abbreviations LXIX
IMU inertial measurement unit
INS inertia navigation system
INS inertial navigation system
IO input output
IO inferior olive
IOSS input-output-to-state stability
IP internet protocol
IP interphalangeal
IPA Institute for Manufacturing Engineering
and Automation
IPC interprocess communication
IPC international AI planning competition
IPMC ionic polymer-metal composite
IPR intellectual property right
IR infrared
IRB Institutional Review Board
IREDES International Rock Excavation Data
Exchange Standard
IRL in real life
IRL inverse reinforcement learning
IRLS iteratively reweighted least square
IRNSS Indian regional navigational satellite
system
IROS Intelligent Robots and Systems
IS importance sampling
ISA industrial standard architecture
ISA international standard atmosphere
ISAR inverse SAR
ISDN integrated services digital network
ISE international submarine engineering
ISER International Symposium on
Experimental Robotics
ISM implicit shape model
ISO International Organization for
Standardization
ISP Internet service provider
ISR intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance
ISRR International Symposium of Robotics
Research
ISS international space station
ISS input-to-state stability
IST Instituto Superior Técnico
IST Information Society Technologies
IT intrinsic tactile
IT information technology
IT inferotemporal cortex
ITD interaural time difference
IU interaction unit
IV instrumental variable
IvP interval programming
IWS intelligent wheelchair system
IxTeT indexed time table
J
JAEA Japan Atomic Energy Agency
JAMSTEC Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science
and Technology
JAMSTEC Japan Marine Science and Technology
Center
JAUS joint architecture for unmanned systems
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
JDL joint directors of laboratories
JEM Japan Experiment Module
JEMRMS Japanese experiment module remote
manipulator system
JHU Johns Hopkins University
JND just noticeable difference
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPS jigsaw positioning system
JSC Johnson Space Center
JSIM joint-space inertia matrix
JSP Java server pages
K
KAIST Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology
KERS kinetic energy recovery system
KIPR KISS Institute for Practical Robotics
KLD Kullback–Leibler divergence
KNN k-nearest neighbor
KR knowledge representation
KRISO Korea Research Institute of Ships and
Ocean Engineering
L
L/D lift-to-drag
LAAS Laboratory for Analysis and
Architecture of Systems
LADAR laser radar
LAGR learning applied to ground robots
LARC Lie algebra rank condition
LARS Laparoscopic Assistant Robotic System
LASC Longwall Automation Steering
Committee
LBL long-baseline system
LCAUV long-range cruising AUV
LCC life-cycle-costing
LCD liquid-crystal display
LCM light-weight communications and
marshalling
LCP linear complementarity problem
LCSP linear constraint satisfaction program
LDA latent Dirichlet allocation
LED light-emitting diodeLXX List of Abbreviations
LENAR lower extremity nonanthropomorphic
robot
LEO low Earth orbit
LEV leading edge vortex
LfD learning from demonstration
LGN lateral geniculate nucleus
LHD load haul-dump
LIDAR light detection and ranging
LIGA Lithographie, Galvanoumformung,
Abformung
LIP linear inverted pendulum
LIP lateral intraparietal sulcus
LiPo lithium polymer
LLC locality constrained linear coding
LMedS least median of squares
LMS laser measurement system
LOG Laplacian of Gaussian
LOPES lower extremity powered exoskeleton
LOS line-of-sight
LP linear program
LQG linear quadratic Gaussian
LQR linear quadratic regulator
LSS logical sensor system
LSVM latent support vector machine
LtA lighter-than-air
LtA-UAS lighter-than-air system
LTL linear temporal logic
LVDT linear variable differential transformer
LWR light-weight robot
M
MACA Afghanistan Mine Action Center
MACCEPA mechanically adjustable compliance and
controllable equilibrium position
actuator
MAP maximum a posteriori
MARS multiappendage robotic system
MARUM Zentrum für Marine
Umweltwissenschaften
MASE Marine Autonomous Systems
Engineering
MASINT measurement and signatures intelligence
MAV micro aerial vehicles
MAZE Micro robot maze contest
MBA motivated behavioral architecture
MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research
Institute
MBE molecular-beam epitaxy
MBS mobile base system
MC Monte Carlo
MCFC molten carbonate fuel cell
MCP magazining, cleaning, plotting
MCP metacarpophalangeal
MCS mission control system
MDARS mobile detection assessment and
response system
MDL minimum description length
MDP Markov decision process
ME mechanical engeneering
MEG magnetoencephalography
MEL Mechanical Engineering Laboratory
MEMS microelectromechanical system
MEP motor evoked potential
MESSIE multi expert system for scene
interpretation and evaluation
MESUR Mars environmental survey
MF mossy fiber
MFI micromechanical flying insect
MFSK multiple FSK
MHS International Symposium on Micro
Mechatronics and Human Science
MHT multihypothesis tracking
MIA mechanical impedance adjuster
MIME mirror image movement enhancer
MIMICS multimodal immersive motion
rehabilitation with interactive cognitive
system
MIMO multiple-input–multiple-output
MIP medial intraparietal sulcus
MIPS microprocessor without interlocked
pipeline stages
MIR mode identification and recovery
MIRO middleware for robot
MIS minimally invasive surgery
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MITI Ministry of International Trade and
Industry
MKL multiple kernel learning
ML machine learning
MLE maximum likelihood estimate
MLR mesencephalic locomotor region
MLS multilevel surface map
MMC metal matrix composite
MMMS multiple master multiple-slave
MMSAE multiple model switching adaptive
estimator
MMSE minimum mean-square error
MMSS multiple master single-slave
MNS mirror neuron system
MOCVD metallo-organic chemical vapor
deposition
MOMR multiple operator multiple robot
MOOS mission oriented operating suite
MOOS motion-oriented operating system
MORO mobile robot
MOSR multiple operator single robot
MP moving plateList of Abbreviations LXXI
MPC model predictive control
MPF manifold particle filter
MPFIM multiple paired forward-inverse model
MPHE multiphalanx hand exoskeleton
MPSK Mary phase shift keying
MQAM Mary quadrature amplitude modulation
MR magnetorheological
MR multiple reflection
MR multirobot task
MRAC model reference adaptive control
MRDS Microsoft robotics developers studio
MRF Markov random field
MRHA multiple resource host architecture
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MRSR Mars rover sample return
MRTA multirobot task allocation
MSAS multifunctional satellite augmentation
system
MSER maximally stable extremal region
MSHA US Mine Safety and Health
Administration
MSK minimum shift keying
MSL middle-size league
MSM master–slave manipulator
MST microsystem technology
MT momentum theory
MT multitask
MT medial temporal area
MTBF mean time between failures
MTI moving target indicator
MVERT move value estimation for robot teams
MWNT multiwalled carbon nanotube
N
N&G nursery and greenhouse
NAP nonaccidental property
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency
NASDA National Space Development Agency of
Japan
NASREM NASA/NBS standard reference model
NBS National Bureau of Standards
NC numerical control
ND nearness diagram navigation
NDDS network data distribution service
NDGPS nationwide different GPS system
NDI nonlinear dynamic inversion
NDT normal distributions transform
NEMO network mobility
NEMS nanoelectromechanical system
NEO neodymium
NERVE New England Robotics Validation and
Experimentation
NESM normalized ESM
NIDRR National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research
NiMH nickel metal hydride battery
NIMS networked infomechanical systems
NIOSH United States National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health
NIRS near infrared spectroscopy
NIST National Institute of Standards and
Technology
NLIS national livestock identification scheme
NLP nonlinear programming problem
NMEA National Marine Electronics Association
NMF nonnegative matrix factorization
NMMI natural machine motion initiative
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NN neural network
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration
NOAH navigation and obstacle avoidance help
NOC National Oceanography Centre
NOTES natural orifice transluminal surgery
NPO nonprofit organization
NPS Naval Postgraduate School
NQE national qualifying event
NRI national robotics initiative
NRM nanorobotic manipulator
NRTK network real-time kinematic
NTPP nontangential proper part
NTSC National Television System Committee
NURBS nonuniform rational B-spline
NUWC Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Division Newport
NZDF New Zealand Defence Force
O
OAA open agent architecture
OASIS onboard autonomous science
investigation system
OAT optimal arbitrary time-delay
OBU on board unit
OC optimal control
OCPP optimal coverage path planning
OCR OC robotics
OCT optical coherence tomography
OCU operator control unit
OD outer diameter
ODE ordinary differential equation
ODE open dynamics engine
ODI ordinary differential inclusion
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development
OKR optokinetic response
OLP offline programmingLXXII List of Abbreviations
OM optical microscope
OM occupancy map
ONR US Office of Naval Research
OOF out of field
OOTL human out of the loop control
OPRoS open platform for robotic service
OR operating room
ORCA open robot control architecture
ORCCAD open robot controller computer aided
design
ORI open roboethics initiative
ORM obstacle restriction method
OROCOS open robot control software
ORU orbital replacement unit
OS operating system
OSC operational-space control
OSIM operational-space inertia matrix
OSU Ohio State University
OTH over-the-horizon
OUR-K ontology based unified robot knowledge
OWL web ontology language
OxIM Oxford intelligent machine
P
P prismatic joint
P&O prosthetics and orthotic
PA point algebra
PACT perception for action control theory
PAD pleasure arousal dominance
PAFC phosphoric acid fuel cell
PAM pneumatic artificial muscle
PaMini pattern-based mixed-initiative
PANi polyaniline
PANTOMEC pantograph mechanism driven
PAPA privacy, accuracy, intellectual property,
and access
PAS pseudo-amplitude scan
PAT proximity awareness technology
PB parametric bias
PbD programming by demonstration
PBVS pose-based visual servo control
PC polycarbonate
PC personal computer
PC principal contact
PC passivity controller
PC proprioception
PC Purkinje cell
PCA principal component analysis
PCI peripheral component interconnect
PCIe peripheral component interconnect
express
PCL point cloud library
PCM programmable construction machine
PD proportional–derivative
PDE partial differential equation
PDGF power data grapple fixture
PDMS polydimethylsiloxane
PDOP positional dilution of precision
PDT proximity detection technology
PEAS probing environment and adaptive
sleeping protocol
PEFC polymer electrolyte fuel cell
PEMFC proton exchange membrane fuel cell
PerceptOR perception for off-road robotics
PET positron emission tomography
PF particle filter
PF parallel fiber
PFC prefrontal cortex
PFH point feature histogram
PFM potential field method
PGM probabilistic graphical model
PGRL policy gradient reinforcement learning
pHRI physical human–robot interaction
PI policy iteration
PI possible injury
PI propositional integral
PI proportional–integral
PIC programmable intelligent computer
PID proportional–integral–derivative
PIT posterior inferotemporal cortex
PKM parallel kinematics machine
PKM parallel kinematic machine
PL power loading
PLC programmable logic controller
PLD programmable logic device
PLEXIL plan execution interchange language
PLSA probabilistic latent semantic analysis
PLZT lead lanthanum zirconate titanate
PM permanent magnet
PMC polymer matrix composite
PMMA polymethyl methacrylate
PneuNet pneumatic network
PnP prespective-n-point
PNT Petri net transducer
PO partially overlapping
PO passivity observer
POE local product-of-exponential
POI point of interest
POM polyoxymethylene
POMDP partially observable Markov decision
process
POP partial-order planning
PPS precise positioning system
PPy polypyrrole
PR positive photoresist
PRM probabilistic roadmap
PRM probabilistic roadmap methodList of Abbreviations LXXIII
PRN pseudo-random noise
PRoP personal roving presence
ProVAR professional vocational assistive robot
PRS procedural reasoning system
PS power source
PSD position sensing device
PSD position-sensitive-device
PSK phase shift keying
PSPM passive set-position modulation
PTAM parallel tracking and mapping
PTU pan–tilt unit
PUMA programmable universal machine for
assembly
PVA position, velocity, and attitude
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PVD physical vapor deposition
PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride
PWM pulse-width modulation
PwoF point-contact-without-friction
PZT lead zirconate titanate
Q
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
QD quantum dot
QID qualifier, inspection and demonstration
QOLT quality of life technology
QOS quality of service
QP quadratic programming
QPSK quadrature phase shift keying
QRIO quest for curiosity
QSC quasistatic constrained
QT quasistatic telerobotics
QZSS quasi-zenith satellite system
R
R revolute joint
R.U.R. Rossum’s Universal Robots
RA rectangle algebra
RAC Robotics and Automation Council
RAIM receiver autonomous integrity monitor
RALF robotic arm large and flexible
RALPH rapidly adapting lane position handler
RAM random access memory


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