رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design
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 رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

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مُساهمةموضوع: رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design    رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design  Emptyالأربعاء 13 يوليو 2022, 11:31 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم
رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان
The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design
By
David Forrest
A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
University of Glasgow
Department of Geography & Topographic Science

رسالة دكتوراه بعنوان The Application of Expert Systems to Small Scale Map Design  T_a_o_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
TITLE i
ABSTRACT . ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .iv
LIST OF FIGURES . ix
LIST OF TABLES . xi
INTRODUCTION . 1
CHAPTER ONE
An introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems 5
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE .5
Intelligence . 6
Problem Solving 7
EXPERT SYSTEMS 11
What are expert systems? 11
The Role of Expert Systems 15
Expert system structure .16
Heuristics 20
Applications of Expert System .22
Expert systems for whom? 26
PATTERN RECOGNITION 27
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING .28
CONCLUSION .29
CHAPTER TWO
Building Expert Systems .30
CONCEPTUAL MODELS 30
KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING .31
Problem Identification 32
Knowledge Elicitation 33
THE KNOWLEDGE BASE 35
Knowledge Representation .36
THE INFERENCE ENGINE 40
Mechanisms of expert systems .40
Expert System Shells 42V
THE USER INTERFACE . 42
DESIGNING THE USER INTERFACE 49
CHAPTER THREE
The Application of Expert Systems in Design, Cartographic Design and
Mapping 51
EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR CARTOGRAPHY .51
EXPERT SYSTEMS IN COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN .53
'Design' Expert Systems 54
EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR COMPUTER AIDED CARTOGRAPHY 57
Systems covering broad areas of design and symbolisation 58
Expert systems for specific aspects of Computer Aided Cartography . 76
OTHER MAPPING EXPERT SYSTEMS . 83
CHAPTER FOUR
An Expert System for Cartographic Design 84
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION . 84
The need for expert systems in cartography .84
Cartographic expert systems for whom? .85
Choice of Subject 86
KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION . 88
The Cartographic Expert . 88
The map as a source of knowledge 89
THE EXPERTISE . 90
BUILDING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE 90
CHAPTER FIVE
Geographic Information, Representation and Map Design .93
PHENOMENA, DATA and REPRESENTATION . 93
Characteristics of Phenomena 94
Relationship Between Phenomena and Locational Data .96
Level of Measurement . 97
Cartographic Representation 98
Phenomena, Data and Representation . 103
THE DESIGN PROCESS . 104
Description 104
Layout . 105
Data Selection . 107vi
Symbolisation 110
Display 110
Modify 111
CHAPTER SIX
Developing Rules for Map Design: A Functional Specification of a
Cartographic Design Expert System .112
DESCRIPTION .114
What is the topic or theme of the map? 114
What purpose is the map for? .115
Who is the intended map user? 115
Output media? .115
What level of detail is required? 115
LAYOUT .116
Location .116
Format .117
Scale .117
SELECTION .117
RULES FOR GENERAL CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS 119
Point Symbols .120
Line Symbols .128
Area Symbols 133
Surfaces 142
RULES FOR PHENOMENA IN DATABASE . 143
CHAPTER SEVEN
Developing a prototype map design expert system . 147
THE SYSTEM .147
DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT 147
Hardware .147
Software 149
PROLOG 152
PDC Prolog .152
Objects .153
Facts and Rules, Predicates and Clauses 154
Goals .155
Working with lists . 157
The Prolog Database . 159vii
THE INFERENCE MECHANISM .161
KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION .162
THE USER INTERFACE .165
Help, How and Why 168
Database & metadata 169
The database 169
Metadata 170
CHAPTER EIGHT
Description of the MapDesigner System .174
THE BASIC STRUCTURE 174
MODULE 'MAIN' 176
Design_map 177
Other functions 177
Utilities 177
MODULE 'DESCRIPTION' 178
MapJJser & Map_Purpose .178
Map_Topic 178
Output_media 180
Level_of_detail 180
MODULE 'LAYOUT1 181
LatJong 182
Limits .183
Format .184
Scale 185
MODULE 'SELECTION' 186
Selection Index 186
B asejnfojist 186
Theme JnfoJist .188
MODULE 'SYMBOLISATION' .189
Assemble 190
Representation 191
Symbolism .193
First attempt at symbolisation 194
Second attempt at symbolisation .197
Checking selected symbols 207
Levels . 209viii
DISPLAY .210
EXAMPLE RUN OF MAPDESIGNER .213
CHAPTER NINE
Colouring the Political Map 224
CHAPTER TEN
Summary and Conclusions 236
BIBLIOGRAPHY .240
APPENDICES
A MapDesigner module listings
B Knowledge base listings
C Other listings
D Example program runs, frames and maps
E File formats for database
F Meta data
G Related publications by authorix
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 The shifting focus of Al research 6
Figure 1.2 Order of opening nodes in depth-first and
breadth-first search
10
Figure 1.3 Basic components of an expert system 17
Figure 1.4 Stages of image processing 27
Figure 2.1 Basic components of a cartographic expert
system
31
Figure 2.2 The process of developing an expert system 32
Figure 2.3 A semantic network 38
Figure 2.4 An example of a frame for a map 39
Figure 2.5 Major categories of search strategies used by
inference engines
40
Figure 3.1 The Structure of the Map-Aid Expert System 63
Figure 3.2 Flow diagram of the Map Production process 65
Figure 3.3 Evaluation Functions. Problems and Solutions 68
Figure 3.4 Example output from the MAPKEY system 74
Figure 3.5 An example frame from Nautical Chart Design
Expert System
75
Figure 5.1 Examples of symbols for different measurement
levels
98
Figure 5.2a Cartographic representations - points 99
Figure 5.2b Cartographic representations - lines 100
Figure 5.2c Cartographic representations - areas 101
Figure 5.2d Cartographic representations - surfaces 102
Figure 7.1 The Architecture of a Cartographic Design Expert
System
148
Figure 7.2 The MAP frame 163
Figure 7.3 Examples of MAP frame 164
Figure 7.4 An example of the standard text screen layout 166
Figure 7.5 An example of the graphics screen layout 167
Figure 7.6 Meta_data slots and possible values 171
Figure 7.7 Coord_file metadata and possible values 172
Figure 7.8 Data_file metadata and possible values 172
Figure 7.9 Look_up metadata and possible values 172
Figure 8.1 The Main menu 176
Figure 8.2 Map Topic menu 180X
Figure 8.3 The select places menu 183
Figure 8.4 Format menu 184
Figure 8.5 Scale menu 185
Figure 8.6 Example of thematic topic selection - Map_topic = 189
Population
Figure 8.7 Examples of plotting parameters 213
Figure 8.8 Example run of MapDesigner producing a relief 214
(a - r) simple map of Nigeria - 220
Figure 8.9 Map frame for topographic map of Nigeria 221
Figure 8.10 Screen displays for a more detailed relief map 223
Figure 9.1 Automated colour assignment for political map 225
Figure 9.2 Menus for number of colours and colour scheme 232
Figure 9.3 An example of 'politically' coloured zones 233
Figure 9.4 A political map of Nigeria 233
Figure 9.5 Map frame for a political map of Nigeria 234xi
List of Tables
Table 1.1 Generic categories of expert system applications 23
Table 2.1 Knowledge elicitation techniques and information 33
that can be obtained
Table 3.1 Suitability of task for applying expert systems 52
Table 3.2 Role of expert system in map design 53
Table 3.3 Muller's input and output elements 61
Table 3.4 Sets of rules governing the existence and 66
placement of symbols
Table 5.1 The relationship between phenomena and 97
locational data
Table 5.2 Relationship between phenomena, data & 103
representation
Table 5.3 Proposed database contents 108
Table 8.1 Possible values for symbolspec variables 200


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