محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections

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محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections    محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections  Emptyالجمعة 08 يوليو 2022, 11:32 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم
محاضرة بعنوان
Orthographic Projections
By
Dr. Akhilesh Kumar Maurya

محاضرة بعنوان Orthographic Projections  O_p_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Orthographic Projections
NOTATIONS
Types of views
View comparison
PLANES
PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method)
rojection systems
1. First angle system
2. Third angle system
Views arrangement
Methods of Orthogonal Projection
1. Natural Method: Revolve the object with respect to observer
2. Glass box method: The observer moves around the object
Glass box : Revolution of the planes of projection
Relative orientation of views
Summary : Problem solving steps
Steps for Orthographic Views
iew selection procedures
1. Orient the object to the best position relative to a glass box.
2. Select the front view.
3. Select adjacent views.
Suggestions: Orient the object
1. The object should be placed in its natural position. NO !
2. The orthographic views should represent the true size and true shape of an object (as much as possible).
Suggestions: Select the front view
1. The longest dimension of an object should be presented
as a width (in a front view).
First choice Inappropriate Second choice Good
Use more spaceInappropriate
2. The adjacent views project from the selected front view
should be appeared in a natural position.
Suggestions: Select the front view3. It has the fewest number of hidden lines.
Good Inappropriate
Suggestions: Select the front viewSuggestions: Select an adjacent view
Inappropriate
Inappropriate
1. Choose the view that has the fewest number of hidden lines.2. Choose the minimum number of views that can represent
the major features of the object.
Necessary
Necessary
Hole’s information is placed on
a separated view.
Suggestions: Select an adjacent view
All information is placed
on a single view.3. Choose the views that are suitable to a drawing sheet.
Good
Suggestions: Select an adjacent view
Poor
Not enough space
for dimensioning.
Choose another adjacent view. Change orientation of the Good
selected views.Summary
View selection has 3 steps
Orient
the object
Select
front view
Select
adjacent viewsObject that requires only one-view
Flat (thin) part having a uniform thickness such as
a gasket, sheet metal etc.
Adjacent views
provide only a
part’s thickness !
1 Thick
Cylindrical-shaped part.
ExampleRepeat !
Infer from CL
Object that requires only one-view
Example Example
Flat (thin) part having a uniform thickness such as
a gasket, sheet metal etc.
Cylindrical-shaped part.Identical adjacent view exists.
Repeat !
Object that requires only two-view
The 3rd view has no significant contours of the object.
(provides no additional information)
ExampleObject that requires only two-view
Identical view exists.
Example 1
The 3rd view has no significant contours of the object.
(provides no additional information)Object that requires only two-view
Identical view exists.
Example 2
The 3rd view has no significant contours of the object.
(provides no additional information)Example-1
■ Identify surfaces
perpendicular or inclined to
the view
■ Surfaces parallel to the view
would not be visible in that
view.
■ First draw horizontal and
vertical reference planes
(easily identifiable on
drawing)
■ Start drawing from the
reference planes.
Steps to draw projectionsTop view
Horizontal
reference
plane (HP)
Vertical reference
plane (VP)HP
VP
Front view Side view
Top view
Midpoint
Front view Side view
Top view
Front View
Top View
L.h.side View
For T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections
Example-2for T.v.
Orthographic Projections
Front View
Top View
L.h.side View
X Y
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Example-3for T.v.
Orthographic Projections
Front View
Top View
L.h.side View
X Y
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Example-4front View
Top View
L.h.side View
X Y
For T.v.
Orthographic Projections
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Example-5for T.v.
Orthographic Projections
Front View
Top View
L.h.side View
X Y
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Example-6example-7
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Fv and Tv of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections Example-8
All Views Identical
For T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
14
Orthographic Projectionsx Y
All Views Identical
For T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projectionsfor T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Fv and Tv of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections
Top View
Example-11450
For T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Fv and Tv of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Example-12 Orthographic Projectionslsv
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Fv and Lsv of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections
Example-13for T.v.
Pictorial Presentation Is Given
Draw Three Views of This Object
By First Angle Projection Method
Orthographic Projections
Front View
Top View
L.h.side View


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