كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming

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كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming   كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming Emptyالإثنين 04 يوليو 2022, 1:36 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming
Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology
Akira Azushima

كتاب Tribological Technology in Sheet Metal Forming T_t_i_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Direct Observation of Lubrication Behavior . 1
1.1 Direct Observation in Drawing Between Flat Dies 1
1.1.1 Apparatus for Direct Observation and Experiments 2
1.1.2 Effect of Average Pressure on Coefficeint
of Friction . 3
1.1.3 Friction Model in Lower Average Contact Pressure 7
1.1.4 Effect of Surface Topography of Workpiece 12
1.2 Direct Observation in Sheet Drawing 16
1.2.1 Apparatus for Direct Observation . 17
1.2.2 Micro-plasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication . 18
1.3 In Lubro 3D Measurement of Oil Film Thickness
at Interface 21
1.3.1 In Lubro Fluorescence Microscopy 22
1.3.2 In Lubro Measurement of Oil Film Thickness
in Drawing Between Flat Dies 24
1.3.3 In Lubro Measurement of Oil Film Thickness
in Sheet Drawing . 28
References 32
2 Friction Behavior in Drawing Between Flat Dies . 35
2.1 New Tribo-simulator Controlled by Computer 36
2.1.1 New Tribo-simulator 36
2.1.2 Experimental and Results 38
2.2 Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Additive on Coefficient
of Friction . 39
2.2.1 Experimental . 39
2.2.2 Results and Discussion 39
2.3 Effect of Yield Stress on Coefficient of Friction . 42
2.3.1 Experimental . 42
2.3.2 Results and Discussion 42
viiviii Contents
2.4 Effect of Bulk Deformation of Specimen on Coefficient
of Friction . 43
2.4.1 New Testing Method for Elongation Control
of Specimen . 43
2.4.2 Experimental . 44
2.4.3 Results and Discussion 45
2.5 Effect of Back Tension on Coefficient of Friction . 46
2.5.1 New Testing Method for Back Tension Control
and Experimental . 46
2.5.2 Results and Discussion 47
References 49
3 Friction Behavior in Flat Sliding 51
3.1 Apparatus and Characteristic of Flat Sliding 51
3.2 Effect of Surface Topography on Coefficient of Friction
of Steel Sheet 53
3.2.1 Experimental . 53
3.2.2 Results 55
3.2.3 Discussion . 59
3.3 Effect of Contact Length of Die on Coefficient of Friction
of Steel Sheet 60
3.3.1 Experimental . 60
3.3.2 Results 61
3.3.3 Discussion . 66
3.4 Friction Behavior in Flat Sliding of Plated Steel Sheet . 68
3.4.1 Experimental . 68
3.4.2 Results and Discussion 69
3.5 Friction Behavior in Flat Sliding of Aluminum Alloy Sheet . 71
3.5.1 Experimental . 72
3.5.2 Results and Discussion 72
References 74
4 Friction Behavior in Repeatedly Flat Sliding . 75
4.1 Apparatus and Characteristics 75
4.2 Effect of Yield Stress on Coefficient of Friction . 78
4.2.1 Experimental . 79
4.2.2 Results 79
4.2.3 Discussion . 82
4.3 Friction Behavior of Flat Sliding of Plated Steel Sheet . 84
4.3.1 Experimental . 85
4.3.2 Results and Discussion 85
References 89Contents ix
5 Friction Behavior in Tension-Bending . 91
5.1 Surface Behavior of Specimen with Dull Surface in Sliding
Under Tension-Bending . 92
5.1.1 Apparatus . 92
5.1.2 Experimental . 93
5.1.3 Results and Discussion 94
5.2 Surface Behavior of Specimen with Smooth Surface
in Sliding Under Tension-Bending 97
5.2.1 Experimental . 97
5.2.2 Results and Discussion 98
5.3 Direct Observation of Micro-contact Behavior at Interface
in Sliding Under Tension-Bending 102
5.3.1 Apparatus . 103
5.3.2 Experimental . 104
5.3.3 Results and Discussion 104
5.4 Coefficient of Friction by Tribo-simulator Controlled
by Computer 106
5.4.1 Apparatus . 107
5.4.2 Experimental . 108
5.4.3 Results and Discussion 108
References 110
6 Friction Behavior in Ironing 111
6.1 Coefficient of Friction by Fundamental Tribo-simulators . 112
6.1.1 Experimental . 112
6.1.2 Results 113
6.1.3 Effect of Chemical Composition on Coefficient
of Friction by SRV Test 115
6.2 Coefficient of Friction of Commercial Oils by New
Tribo-simulator 117
6.2.1 New Tribo-simulator 118
6.2.2 Coefficient of Friction of Commercial Oils
by New Tribo-simulator . 121
6.2.3 Coefficient of Friction of Surface Coated Die
by New Tribo-simulator . 124
References 126
7 FEM Analysis of Friction Behavior in Deep Drawing . 127
7.1 Measurement of Punch Load in Deep Drawing . 128
7.1.1 Experimental . 128
7.1.2 Results and Discussion 130
7.2 FEM Analysis of Punch Load in Cylindrical Cup Deep
Drawing 132
7.2.1 Analytical Method 132
7.2.2 Results and Discussion 136
7.3 Effect of Friction Behavior on Formability in Deep Drawing 138x Contents
7.3.1 Measurement of Formability in Semi-spherical
Cup Deep Drawing . 138
7.3.2 FEM Analysis of Formability in Semi-spherical
Cup Deep Drawing . 143
7.3.3 FEM Analysis of Fracture in Semi-spherical Cup
Deep Drawing 145
References 150
8 Tribological Numerical Modeling in Sheet Drawing 151
8.1 Coefficient of Friction 152
8.1.1 Method to Obtain Coefficient of Friction Using
Tribo-simulator . 152
8.1.2 Method to Obtain Coefficient of Friction Using
Normal and Drawing Forces 152
8.1.3 Coefficient of Friction Calculated from Normal
and Drawing Forces Measured 153
8.2 New Coefficient of Friction 155
8.3 Tribological Numerical Modeling for Coefficient
of Friction in Sheet Drawing . 155
8.3.1 Lubrication Models . 155
8.3.2 Mixed Lubrication of Hydrodynamic Lubrication,
Hydrostatic Lubrication and Boundary Lubrication 160
8.4 Inlet Oil Film Thickness . 161
8.5 Tribological Numerical Modeling in Sheet Drawing . 165
8.5.1 Formulation of Area Ratio of Boundary
Lubrication Region . 165
8.5.2 Coefficient of Friction in Tribological Numerical
Modeling 165
8.6 Numerical Calculation of Coefficient of Friction 166
8.6.1 Calculation Conditions 166
8.6.2 Calculation Results and Discussion 166
8.7 Remarks 167
References 168
9 Simulation of Seizure in Sheet Metal Forming . 169
9.1 Simulation of Seizure in Flat Sliding Test 170
9.1.1 Introduction of Some Data in Chap. 3 170
9.1.2 Experimental . 171
9.1.3 Results and Discussion 173
9.1.4 Remarks . 175
9.2 Simulation of Seizure in Repeatedly Flat Sliding Test 176
9.2.1 Introduction to Some Data in Chap. 4 176
9.2.2 Effect of Yield Stress on Seizure by Repeatedly
Flat Sliding 177
9.3 Simulation of Seizure in Ironing 179
9.3.1 New Tribo-simulator 180Contents xi
9.3.2 Evaluation of Commercial Oils for Ironing
by New Tribo-simulator . 182
9.3.3 Evaluation of Commercial Lubricants for Ironing
Using Surface Coated Die by New Tribo-simulator 185
9.3.4 Evaluation of Non-chlorine Lubricant with High
Lubricity for Ironing by New Tribo-simulator . 188
9.3.5 Development of Non-chlorine Lubricant
with High Lubricity for Ironing by New
Tribo-simulator . 190
References 192
10 Lubrication in Hot Stamping . 193
10.1 Development of Tribo-simulator for Lubrication in Hot
Stamping . 194
10.1.1 Test Machine . 194
10.1.2 Property of Infrared Image Furnace 195
10.1.3 Measurement of Coefficient of Friction 197
10.2 Lubrication in Hot Stamping of Aluminum-Coated
22MnB5 Steel . 203
10.2.1 Experimental . 204
10.2.2 Results of Heating 205
10.2.3 Results of Coefficient of Friction Under Dry
Condition 206
10.2.4 Results of Coefficient of Friction Under
Lubricated Condition 209
10.2.5 Effect of Surface Coated Die on Coefficient
of Friction Under Dry Conditions . 213
10.2.6 Thermal Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated
Conditions . 216
10.2.7 Development of New Lubricant for Hot Stamping
of Al-Coated 22MnB5 Steel 223
10.2.8 Adhesion Behavior of Aluminum on Die Surface 227
10.3 Lubrication in Hot Stamping of AA7075 Aluminum Alloy . 231
10.3.1 Experimental . 232
10.3.2 Effect of Composition of Lubricant on Coefficient
of Friction . 233
10.3.3 Effect of Viscosity of Synthetic Ester Oil
on Coefficient of Friction 233xii Contents
10.3.4 Effect of Normal Load on Coefficient of Friction 234
10.3.5 Effect of Extreme Pressure Additive on Coefficient
of Friction . 235
10.3.6 Effect of Solid Lubricant on Coefficient of Friction 237
References 238
Index
Index
A
AA7075 Aluminum alloy, 232, 234–236
Abrasion, 211, 220
Additive, 39–41, 72–74, 108, 109, 111,
115, 117, 130, 132–136, 138, 139,
141, 142, 180, 201, 235, 237
Adhered aluminum, 209, 212, 227–231
Adhered aluminum layer, 209, 212, 221
Adhesion, 71, 183, 184, 209, 215, 216, 227,
231
Adhesion force, 159
Age hardening type aluminum, 232
Aging heat treatment, 232
Aluminum adhesion layer, 212, 221
Aluminum adhesion thickness, 216
Aluminum-coated HSS, 203
Aluminum coating layer, 209
Aluminum-coated 22MnB5 steel, 203, 213
Amonton-Coulomb’s friction model, 10–12
Ar atmosphere, 204
Asperity, 5, 8–10, 13, 25, 41, 43, 56, 82,
86, 89, 102, 103
Asperity flattening, 8–10, 12, 26, 43, 46,
47, 59, 83, 104–106
Austenite, 193
Average coefficient of friction, 120, 166,
214, 215
Average contact pressure, 2–8, 15–17, 25,
35, 36, 94, 97–101
Average normal pressure, 9–12, 157, 158,
167
B
Back tension, 37, 46–49, 52, 76, 92–100,
104–106, 133
Ball on disk friction test, 115
Base oil, 39–42, 44, 46, 55, 69, 72–74, 85,
93, 97, 104, 108, 130, 132, 141, 142,
153, 154, 171, 235, 236
Bending, 91–93, 96, 97, 99, 102–109, 130,
133, 139, 169
Binary lubricant, 190, 191
Blank holder force, 130–132, 136–138,
141–143, 145, 148, 149
Boundary agent, 41
Boundary-hydrodynamic lubrication, 102
Boundary-hydrostatic-micro-plastohydrodynamic lubrication,
7
Boundary lubrication, 4, 5, 8, 15, 40, 41, 47,
56, 57, 59, 66, 67, 82, 157–160, 167
Boundary lubrication region ratio, 157,
158, 160, 165–167
Boundary shear stress, 157
Bulk deformation, 6, 8–10, 12, 20, 43, 44,
46
C
Chlorine-free lubricant, 180
Chlorine lubricant, 112, 115, 117, 121, 182,
188, 190
Clearance, 130, 131
Closed lubricant pool, 4–6, 86, 89
Coated die, 187, 214–216
Coefficient of friction,
Commercial lubricant, 112, 117, 120, 121,
182, 186, 223–226, 228
Compression load, 194, 195, 197, 198,
200–204, 206, 213, 218, 224, 227
Compression-sliding test, 217, 221
Compression test, 9, 216, 218, 219, 221,
222
Computer simulation, 42, 78
Constant friction factor model, 8, 11, 12
Constitutive equation, 151
Contact length, 55, 60–67, 69, 72, 75, 79,
85, 171, 172, 177
Contour map, 147, 148
Cooling rate, 222, 223
Cylinder cup deep drawing, 127, 128–133,
136
D
Deep drawing, 91, 127–129, 132, 133, 136,
138, 139, 143, 145, 148
Deep drawing test, 35, 127, 129–131,
138–140, 145, 148, 203
Die angle, 3, 17, 97, 153
Die pressure, 197, 199, 202, 203
Die wear, 213
Direct observation, 1, 2, 17–20, 28, 92, 102
Draw bead test, 35
Drawing between flat dies, 1, 2, 15, 25, 35,
43, 44, 47, 51, 133–135, 138, 139,
143, 148, 167
Drawing distance, 197, 200, 209, 210, 213,
214, 218, 219, 221, 222, 224–226,
228–230, 233–238
Drawing force, 3, 9, 14, 152, 153, 155, 203
Drawing load, 3, 38, 39, 42, 45, 47, 69, 85,
92, 97, 200
Drawing ratio, 130, 139–146, 148, 149
Drawing speed, 3, 8, 17, 18, 20, 38, 39, 42,
44, 47, 69, 85, 108, 153, 154, 166,
167, 194, 195, 197, 200, 202–204,
213, 224, 227, 232
Drawing tension, 197
Drawing test between flat dies, 35, 169
Dry condition, 152, 197, 198, 203, 206,
207, 209, 211–213, 216–223,
227–229, 231
Dull surface, 53, 55–64, 66–68, 92, 93, 96,
102, 104, 128, 138, 170–175
E
EDX analysis, 208, 209, 211, 212, 214,
215, 220, 228, 231
EDX image, 220
EG steel, 68–71, 85–88
Elastic-plastic body, 135, 143
Elongation, 39, 42, 44–46, 72, 94, 97–99,
104, 108
Elongation strain, 94–96
Energy equation, 163
Equilibrium equation, 155
Erichsen tester, 128–130, 136
Extreme pressure additive, 111, 112,
115–118, 120, 179, 182, 190,
235–237
Extreme pressure agent, 41, 235, 237
F
FEM analysis, 51, 127, 132, 133, 136–138,
143–145, 147, 148, 150–152, 155,
168, 170, 176
Flat die drawing, 38, 39, 42, 69, 85
Flat die drawing test, 2
Flat die sliding
Flat die sliding test
Flattening asperity, 66, 67
Flat tool drawing, 8, 9, 25
Flat tool sliding
Flow stress, 152, 203
Fluid film, 155
Fluorescence dye
Fluorescence microscope, 23
Formability, 127, 138–141, 143
Forward tension, 119, 120, 122, 125,
181–183, 187
Fracture, 140, 143, 145, 148
Frictional force, 10, 127, 138, 158–160
Frictional shear stress, 10, 159, 161
Friction factor, 12
Friction pick up, 39
Front tension, 118, 119, 181, 194
Furnace temperature, 194, 196, 198, 200,
202, 205
H
Hardened martensite, 193
Hard film, 213
Hat bending test, 216
Heating time, 195, 196
Heat transfer, 216, 218, 219, 221–223
Heat transfer coefficient, 216
High Speed Steel (HSS), 2, 204Index 241
Hot flat drawing test, 193, 194, 213, 216,
223, 224, 227, 232, 233
Hot forging, 223–226, 228
Hot stamping, 193–195, 203, 206, 209,
211–213, 216, 218, 223–227,
231–233, 235, 236
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 17, 20, 57, 58,
102, 155–158, 160, 167
Hydrophilic polymer, 224, 225, 228
Hydrostatic-boundary lubrication, 5, 6, 15
Hydrostatic lubrication, 22, 40, 47, 53, 57,
59, 83, 89, 159, 160, 173, 175
Hydrostatic pressure, 4–6, 17, 18, 46, 56,
59, 89, 159
I
Indentation, 18
Infrared image furnace, 194, 195, 197, 204,
232
Inlet oil film thickness, 161–167
In-site direct observation
Ironing, 111, 112, 114, 115, 117–120, 124,
126, 131, 169, 179–182, 185, 186,
188, 190
J
Junction growth, 41
L
Lateral load, 3, 51–53, 75–77, 79, 170, 176,
177
Limiting breaking blank holder force, 141,
142, 144, 146
Limiting breaking height, 140
Limiting forming height, 141, 142, 144, 146
Lubricant viscosity, 39–41, 53, 56, 59, 61,
62, 64, 69, 95, 96, 130, 132, 162, 163
Lubricated condition, 152, 197, 200, 203,
204, 209, 211, 212, 216–224,
227–231, 233
M
Martensite, 221
Mean coefficient of friction, 134, 135, 198,
199, 201–204, 207, 210, 214, 224,
226, 228–230, 233, 235–238
Mean pressure, 39–41, 43, 47, 51, 53–59,
61–66, 104–110, 133–135, 171–175
Micro-Plasto Hydrostatic Lubrication
(µPHL), 1, 7, 17, 18, 28
Micro-roughening, 4, 7
Mineral base oil, 74
Mineral salt, 224, 225
Mixed lubrication, 40, 41, 47, 53, 56–58,
82, 157–161, 165
22MnB5 steel, 205, 212, 223, 227
Multiple regression analysis, 117
N
Newtonian fluid, 162
Newton-Raphson method, 163
Non-chlorine lubricant, 112, 115–119, 121,
181, 182, 188–190
Non-dimensional mean pressure, 47, 51,
53, 170
Normal contact pressure, 2, 4
Normal force, 3, 4, 14, 152, 155
Normal load, 3, 5, 9, 10, 38, 39, 42, 44, 47,
51–53, 55, 61, 69, 72, 75–77, 79–83,
85–88, 92, 112, 114, 115, 119–126,
157–160, 170, 171, 173, 176–178,
180–185, 187, 188, 232, 235
Numerical modeling, 155
Numerical simulation, 35, 39, 102
O
Oil film thickness, 8, 21–26, 28, 31, 32, 40,
57, 64, 67, 155, 156, 162, 164–166,
174
Oil pocket, 5, 46, 47, 159, 175
Optical microscope photograph, 173–175
Optical surface photograph, 207, 208, 211
P
Paraffinic base oil, 3, 8, 38–42, 44–47, 53,
55, 60, 69, 72, 73, 77, 85, 108, 128,
130, 139, 153, 171, 177
Permeation behavior, 19, 20
Physical simulation, 169
Plastic contact area, 157–159
Plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (PHL), 17
Poiseuille flow, 156
Poisson ratio, 135, 136, 143
Pressure coefficient of lubricant, 108
Profile meter, 24
Proof stress, 2, 3, 38, 39, 53, 72, 97, 104,
108
Punch load, 127–132, 136–138
Punch stroke, 128–132, 136–138, 140, 145
Pyramidal indentation, 18, 20, 29–32242 Index
Q
Quenching, 222, 223
R
Real contact area, 1, 3–5, 7–12, 15, 17, 19,
20, 25–28, 40, 41, 56, 59, 66, 67, 77,
82, 83, 86, 87, 89, 102, 159, 176, 225
Real contact area ratio, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14–16,
83, 84, 94–96, 165, 166, 178, 179
Recess, 56, 82
Reynolds equation, 20, 22, 83, 155, 162,
163
Rigid body, 155
Rigid-plastic body, 155
Root mean square roughness, 165
Runge-Kutta method, 163
S
Scale, 195, 196
Scale layer thickness, 195, 197
Scale thickness, 199, 200
Seizure, 57, 64, 66, 67, 72, 73, 77, 83, 84,
86, 87, 89, 111, 115, 169–176,
178–184, 186–192, 199, 201,
232–235
Seizure resistance, 118, 175, 180–183,
185–190
Semi-angle of die, 161
SEM image, 215, 216
Semi-spherical cup deep drawing, 138–141,
143, 145, 146, 148, 149
SEM micrograph, 208, 209, 211, 212, 220
Shearing, 169
Shear stress, 5, 155–160, 167, 227
Sheet drawing, 1–3, 7, 13, 15, 17, 20, 25,
28, 29, 43, 44, 47, 51, 133, 148,
151–153, 155, 156, 158–161,
163–168
Sheet metal forming, 2, 11, 13, 21, 22, 24,
35, 36, 38, 42, 43, 51, 75, 78, 85, 89,
91, 102, 106, 111, 133, 143, 151,
152, 161, 169, 170, 172, 174–176,
178–180, 182, 184, 186, 188, 190,
192
SKD11 die, 124, 125, 188
SKD61 die, 180, 195, 197, 204, 213, 217,
223, 227, 232
SKD61 roll, 119, 124, 186, 188, 195
Sliding distance, 53, 75, 77, 115, 120–126,
181, 183–189, 195, 196, 198, 200,
206, 207, 210, 218, 219, 222, 224,
227, 229
Sliding under tension-bending, 92, 95, 97,
101, 103, 133–135, 138, 143, 148,
167
Smooth surface, 1, 2, 13, 16, 17, 55, 57–61,
63–67, 97, 102, 104–106, 170–176,
212
Sold lubricant
Split-die technique, 152
Springback, 193
SRV friction tester, 112, 114, 115, 117
Stress-strain curve, 136, 143
Stylus surface profile meter, 24
Surface appearance, 66, 67, 79, 92, 93, 97,
99, 104
Surface asperity, 21, 94–96, 99, 101, 102,
212
Surface coated die, 124–126, 176, 180, 186,
188, 213
Surface failure, 80–82, 178
Surface photograph, 15, 16, 93, 120, 121
Surface profile, 8, 24, 68, 85, 97, 99, 100,
128, 204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 221
Surface roughening, 99, 101, 102, 106
Surface texture, 217, 221
Surface topography, 13, 25, 43, 53
Surface treated steel, 68
Swellable mica, 224, 227
Synthetic ester oil, 232–238
T
Tangential load, 55, 61, 72, 152, 171, 173
Temperature coefficient of viscosity, 163
Temperature profile, 205, 218, 219, 223
Tensile strength, 39, 42, 44, 46, 53, 55, 60,
68, 70–72, 77, 79–82, 97, 104, 108,
139, 170, 171, 177, 178
Tension bending, 91–93, 95–97, 99,
101–104, 106–109, 127, 130,
133–135, 138, 139, 143, 148, 167
Tension bending type simulator, 92, 93, 97
Tension load, 92, 194, 195, 198, 200, 204
Ternary lubricant, 190, 192
Thermal coated resistance
Thermal transfer, 216
Thermal transfer coefficient, 216
Thermocouple, 217
Thin-film boundary lubrication, 9, 56, 173,
175, 176
Thiophene compound, 23, 25
3D-oil film thickness, 22, 25
3D-surface profile, 13, 55, 60, 79, 171, 177
3D-surface topography, 25, 26, 28Index 243
Tool wear, 213
Trapped lubricant, 15, 17, 20, 26, 27, 30, 31
Tribological numerical modeling, 151, 155,
165–168
Tribo-simulator, 2, 8, 35–39, 42–44, 46, 51,
78, 92, 106, 107, 109, 112, 117–121,
124, 126, 127, 133, 138, 143, 148,
152, 155, 169, 180–183, 185, 188,
190, 193, 194, 202, 203, 213, 223,
232
U
Uncoated die, 214–216, 223
Uncoated HSS, 203
V
VC-SKD11 die
Vertical load, 123, 152, 183
Viscosity of lubricant, 19, 20, 55, 57, 60,
128, 129, 139, 154, 162, 163, 171
W
Water base lubricant, 224, 225
Water-soluble graphite, 232
Water soluble polymer, 232
Y
Yield criterion equation, 10, 11
Yield stress, 2, 10, 35, 42–44, 46, 53, 55,
60, 77–79, 85, 86, 119, 121, 128,
135, 139, 143, 156, 162, 164, 166,
170, 171, 177, 178, 181, 183, 186,
203
Young’s modulus


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