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  كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing    كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing Emptyالإثنين 27 يونيو 2022, 5:04 pm

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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing
FOURTH EDITION
A reference book for manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Philip E. Mitchell, CMfgT
Handbook Editor
CONTENTS
VOLUME IX—MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING

 كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing T_a_m_18
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface v
Symbols and Abbreviations . xvii
Chapter —Strategy Determination and Production Requirements
Introduction . -
Basic Manufacturing Concepts -
The Production Environment/Lead Times/Inventory Management/Push and Pull Manufacturing
Resource Planning and Scheduling Concepts . -
Serving the Customer/The Planner’s Tool Kit/Manufacturing Resource Planning/
Process Re-engineering
Process Planning and Flow Analysis -
Phase I—Planning/Phase II—Design/Phase III—Implementation/Define Material and Information
Flow/What to Change/Analysis: As-is Conditions/Define the Processes
Problem Definition . -
Constraints/Physical Material Flow/Information Flow/Quality/Resource Limitations/
Handling and Storage
Chapter —Material Handling Analysis
Principles and Economics of Material Handling . -
Overview/Labor Utilization/Inventory Turnover/Facility Utilization/Equipment Utilization/
Material Cost/Synergistic Effect of Integration/System Service Life and Flexibility
Potential Benefits of Material Handling Solutions . -
Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)/Automated Transportation/Controls
Realizing Benefit Potential . -
Determine Objectives for the System/Define and Quantify Current Levels of Resource Functions/
Estimate Future Levels of Resource Functions/Value Economic Requirements/Prepare for
Meeting Economic Requirements/Prepare a Thorough Project Justification/Sell the Project to Top
Management/Manage Carefully Planned Procurement and Implementation/Track the
Savings Targets After Implementation/Summary
Analysis Tools and Methods -
Computer-based Analysis Tools/Computer-based Simulation/Work Simplification/Analyzing Load
Size/Analyzing Plant Layout
Requirements Definition -
Key Considerations/Data Collection/Flow Analysis/Data Analysis/Document Understanding/
Opportunities and Problems/Alternative Solutions
Project Management -
Overview/Planning and Analysis/Design and Development/Procurement/Implementation/Support
and Modification/Summary
Chapter —Product Identification and Tracking
Introduction . -
Identification of Ledgered Stock-keeping Units . -
Unique SKU/Engineering and Purchasing Responsibilities/Numbering Systems/Sizes of Stock Materials/Units of Measure/Nonledgered Parts/Tracing and Tracking/Controlling Changes by Part
Identification
Automated Data Capture (ADC) . -
Considerations for ADC/Linear Bar Codes/Two-dimensional Symbologies/Radio-frequency Data
Communications
iiiiv
Integrating Sensors and Control -
Sortation/Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems/Automated Guided Vehicles
Data Storage and Postprocessing . -
Partially Automated Systems . -
Data Collection Points -
Product Data Management -
Chapter —Storage and Inventory Planning
Introduction . -
Key Storage Planning Phases -
Select a Storage Project Team/Phase I: Define General Storage Design Requirements/Phase II:
Define/Evaluate/Select Storage Strategy
Defining the Material Storage Environment . -
Survey Organization to Develop Goals/Identify Storage Plan Rules that “Must” be Satisfied/
Define Tangible Goals and Evaluation Criteria/Define Intangible Goals and Evaluation Criteria/
Kepner-TregoeTM (KT) Methodology
Storage Plan Goals and Criteria by Business Organization -
Evaluation Criteria
Business Computer Systems Criteria for Storage Functions . -
Computer Software Capabilities
Inventory Storage and Flow Characteristics . -
Inventory Put-away Unit of Measure (UOM)/Storage Capacity by Type/Special Storage
Environment Needs/Special Inventory Vendor and Owner Needs/Special Material Transportation
Needs/Inventory Pick Frequency/Inventory Handling
Calculate Storage Equipment Quantity and Floor Area -
Centralization versus Decentralization Strategies . -
Financial/Service and Transportation/Operations
Inventory Storage Method Alternatives -
Conventional Storage Methods/Bulk (Reserve) Inventory Storage Methods/Forward (Loose)
Inventory Storage Methods/Automated Storage Methods/Temporary Storage Methods/
Inventory Dating Systems (Storage Life)
Storage Planning Summary -
Chapter —Logistics
Introduction . -
Ordering and Receiving Processes -
Determining What, When, and How Much to Order/Placing Traditional Orders/Receiving/
Electronic Data Interchange for Ordering
Shipping to Meet Customer Expectations . -
Lean Manufacturing and JIT/Shipping/Supplier Responsibilities/Trading Partnerships
EDI Service Providers -
Inventory Management -
Conclusion -
Chapter —Maintaining Material Handling Systems and Equipment
Introduction . -
Maintenance Program Objectives/Maintenance Types
Equipment Condition and Performance Analysis -
Determining What Equipment Should be Inspected/Inspection Criteria/Inspection Frequency/Inspection Schedule
Maintenance Suggestions . -
Flexible Wheeled Handling Equipment/Conveyors/Overhead Handling and Lift Devices/Storage
Equipment/Transport Packaging/Automated Material Handling Systemsv
Chapter —Ergonomics and Manual Handling Systems
Introduction . -
Determining Physical Limits -
Psychophysical Assessment Methods/Biomechanical Assessment Methods/Physiological
Assessment Methods/Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment Methods
Reducing MMH Risks -
Administrative Control of Risk Factors/Engineering Control of Risk Factors
Solving MMH Ergonomic Issues -
Work Parameters and Indicators/Selection Guide/Database/Reducing Musculoskeletal Injury Hazard/Supplier Build and Prototype Buy-off/The Need for More Research/Manual Handling Systems
Model Application
Safety Aspects of MMH . -
Chapter —Flexible Wheeled Handling Equipment
The Industrial Fork Lift Truck -
Impact on Industry/Classes of Industrial Trucks
Counterbalanced Lift Trucks -
Typical Applications/Tires/Mast Types and Operations/Hydraulic System and Operation
Reach Trucks -
Attachments to Standard Lift Trucks
Special Lift Trucks . -
Sideloaders in Manufacturing . -
Special Features
Powering Fork Lift Trucks . -
Batteries/Gasoline/Propane/Dual-fuel Lift Trucks/Diesel/Compressed Natural Gas/Exhaust
Treatment/Power Comparison
Lift Truck Attachments . -
Attachments and Safety/Sideshifters/Clamps/Rotators/Load Pushes and Load Push/Pulls/Fork
Positioners/Load Stabilizers/Fork Rotators/Mechanical Attachments
Powered Walkie Lift Trucks -
Economics/Maintenance Factors/Types/Selection
Two-wheel Hand Trucks . -
Terminology/Hand Truck Types/Special Designs/Wheel Selection/Weight and Bearings/
Attachments/Worker Preferences
Hand Pallet Trucks -
Fork Dimensions/Wheels/Pallet Entry Devices/Maintenance/Applications
Floor Trucks . -
Running Gear/Wheel Selection/Frames/Decks/Size and Capacity
Fleet Management . -
Standardizing the Lift Truck Fleet/Tracking Fleet Maintenance Costs/When to Replace Trucks/Lift
Truck Selection/Maintenance/Conduct Operator Training
Purchasing Used Fork Lift Trucks -
Rebuilt Trucks/“As-is” Trucks/Reconditioned Trucks/Where to Buy/Warranties
Chapter —Conveyors for Unit Load Handling
Design Considerations . -
Nonpowered Conveyors . -
Skate Wheel/Gravity Roller/Ball Transfer Tables and Omnidirection Wheels
Powered Conveyors -
Powered Belt/Live Roller/Accumulation/Sortation Equipment
Powered Conveyors for Large Unit Loads -
Multiple Strand Chain/Slat/Flat Top/In-floor Towline/Inverted Power-and-free
Specialty In-floor Conveying Systems -
Inverted Automated Electrified Monorail/Spinning Tube/Walking Beam/Automated Guided
Vehicles/Linear Induction Motors
Software and Controls -
Equipment Control Devices/System Control Software/EmulationJustification -
Costs/Savings/Return on Investment/Dealing with Uncertainty
Conveyor Safety . -
Establishing a Safety Program/Common Hazards/Safety Devices/Training/Noise Considerations
Chapter —Overhead Handling and Lifting Devices
Introduction . -
Equipment Selection
Manual and Powered Overhead Cranes -
Bridge Crane Fundamentals/Major Types of Overhead Cranes/Comparison of Overhead Cranes
Overhead Trolley Conveyors . -
Overhead Trolley Conveyor Selection/Major Types of Overhead Trolley Conveyors/
Comparison of Overhead Trolley Conveyors
Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors -
Power-and-free Conveyor Selection/Major Types of Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors/
Comparison of Overhead Power-and-free Conveyors
Automated Electrified Monorails . -
Automated Electrified Monorail Selection/Aluminum-alloy Track Automated Electrified Monorails/
Comparison of Automated Electrified Monorails/Linear Induction Motor Systems
Drop/Lift Transfers -
Drop/Lift Transfer Selection/Major Types of Drop/Lift Transfers/Comparison of Drop/
Lift Transfers
Conclusion -
Chapter —Storage Equipment
Applications and Planning -
Guidelines . -
Selection Criteria/Layout Plans/Storage Specifications/Other Equipment Considerations
Fixtures and Holding Devices -
Specialty Frames/Baskets/Tubs and Skids with Crane Hairpins/Mobile Storage
Pallets and Racks -
Pallet Racks/High-density Storage Racks/Drive-in Racks/Drive-through Racks/Pushback Racks/Flow
Racks/Cantilever Racks/Steel Pallet Racks/Considerations for Pallet Moving Equipment
Chapter —Transport Packaging
Protective Packaging -
Loose Fill/Wrapping Materials/Fabricated Packaging/Molded Packaging/Selection Guidelines
Corrugated Cartons . -
Design Considerations/Recycled Corrugated Fiberboard/A Film Alternative
Returnable Containers -
Container Design/Application Guidelines/Maximizing the Return-on-investment (ROI)
The Unit Load Base -
Wood Pallets/Plastic Pallets/Corrugated Fiberboard Pallets/Slip-sheets/Pallet Design/Pallet
Standards/Handling without Pallets
Fire Protection and Packaging -
Product Identification . -
Label Requirements/Bar Code Printers/Weighing Systems
Unit Load Forming . -
Palletizing Methods/Load Protecting and Securing
Integrating the Packaging Function . -
Chapter —Automated Material Handling Equipment
Automated Guided Vehicle Systems -
Types of AGV Systems/Guidance Systems/AGV Controls/Battery Requirements/Selection
Criteria/System Sizing/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations/System
Maintenance/Future TrendsAutomated Storage and Retrieval Systems . -
Automated Storage and Retrieval System Types/Pallets/Control Systems/Selection Criteria/
System Sizing/Cycle Time/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations/
System Maintenance/Future Trends
High-density Dynamic Storage Systems . -
Types of Systems/Controls/Selection Criteria/System Sizing/Cost Estimating and Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations and Maintenance/Future Trends
Carousel Storage and Retrieval Systems -
Types of Systems/Control Systems/System Sizing/Cycle Time/Cost Estimating and
Justification/Benefits/Safety Considerations and System Maintenance/Future Trends
Specialized Systems . -
Automatic Item Dispensers/Robotic Order-selection Systems/Tool-dispensing Systems/Controls/
System Sizing/Benefits/Safety Considerations and Maintenance
Industrial Robots -
Types of Robots/Benefits and Applications/Control Systems/System Sizing/Safety Considerations
and Maintenance/Future Trends
Automated Packaging Equipment . -
Types of Equipment
Chapter —Worker Productivity and Ergonomic Assists
Lifting Devices -
Reasons for Use/Lifting Tables/Balancers and Hoists/Manipulators/End Effectors and Tooling/Typical
Interfaces
Enclosed-track Workstation Cranes . -
Configuration/Application
Positioning Devices -
Lifter/Tilter and Dumper/Turntable/Lift and Tilter/Lift and Turntable/Load Leveler/Choosing the
Right Equipment
Chapter —Metalcutting
Introduction . -
Considerations for Automated Machine Loading/Automation Issues
Bandsawing . -
Automating Infeed and Outfeed/Application Examples
Bar Work -
Bar Feeding and Loading Systems/Cut Feeding/Bar Loading of Centerless Grinders
Chucking Work -
Gantry Loading/Gantry Applications for Horizontal Chucking/Gantry Applications Other than
Turning/Robot Loading/Simple Loaders for Lathes/Vertical Chucking
Prismatic Parts -
Pallets and Pallet Loading Systems/Small Pallets for Electrical Discharge Machining
and Other Uses
High-volume Systems . -
Synchronous Transfer Lines/Asynchronous Transfer Lines/Transfer Line Flexibility/Application: Simulating an Engine Plant
Cutting Tool Management -
Computerized Tool Management/Automatic Storage Equipment for Tools/Automated Tool
Delivery and Loading/Application: Machining Cell Tool Management
Chip Management . -
Rapid Accumulation of Chips/Stand-alone Primary Chip Handling/Chip Processing/Continuous
Chip Processing/Stand-alone Chip Wringers/Central Chip Handling Systems/Cold Briquetting
Coolant Filtration Management -
High-pressure Coolant Systems/Space Planning/Future Trends
Chapter —Metal Forming
Introduction . -
Stamping Plants . - Stackers . -
Destackers . -
Washers and Lubricators -
Coil Feeding -
Types of Coil Feeding/Accuracy Control/High-speed Feeding/Feeding Techniques
In-press Transfer Systems -
New Technology Advantages/Transfer Press Size Classification/Transfer Feed Technology/
Material Handling Considerations/Flexible Universal Stations/Press Construction/
Hydraulic Presses
Between-press Transfer Systems . -
Tandem Press Lines
In-die Transfer Systems . -
Design of a Three-axis Transfer Die
Robots . -
Robotic Shuttle Devices/Swing-arm Robot/Pendulum-arm Robot/Robot Selection for
Press-to-press Transfer
Automated Parts Racking -
Conveyors . -
Flexible Handling Systems -
Automation Economics/Automated Material Handling Benefits/Bulk Material Handling/
Just-in-Time/Sheet Metal Operation
Chapter —Plastic Manufacturing
Raw Material Storage and Handling . -
Manual Methods/Semi-automatic Material Conveyance Methods/Automatic and High-volume
Resin Handling Systems/Feeding and Blending Systems/Material Conditioning Systems
Handling of Molded Parts . -
Free-drop Systems for Molded Parts Handling/Conveying Systems for Part Handling/
Robotic Systems for Parts Orientation/Planning and Implementing an Automated Molding Cell
Chapter —Assembly
Introduction . -
Understanding the Application/Sizing the Equipment/Justifying the Automation Project/
Considerations for Parts
Automated Parts Supply Systems . -
Basic Hopper/Movable-wall Hoppers/Hopper-elevator Combination/Bulk Feeder Supply/
Coil Spring Hopper/Wire Form Hoppers/Portable Hoppers/Liners
Parts Orientation Equipment . -
Vibratory Bowl Feeders/Orienting on Linear Vibratory Conveyors/Linear Fiber Vibratory Feeders/
Horizontal Belt Feeders/Centrifugal Feeders/Hopper Elevators/Precision Rolls/
Drum Feeders/Sensing/Part Quality
Oriented Parts Transfer . -
Gravity Tracks/Linear Vibratory Feeders/Belts with Guides/Tube Transfer/Chain Transfer
Oriented Parts Placement . -
Gravity Tracks/Force Feeding into Pockets Using Linear Feeders/Reciprocating Plunger and Jaw
Combinations/Pick-and-place Mechanisms/Robots/Fastener Devices
Assembly Machines and Systems -
Qualification of Parts/Rate Comparisons for Assembly Systems/Operator-assisted Workstation/
Synchronous Assembly—Rotary Index Table/Synchronous Assembly—Carousel/Linear
Asynchronous Assembly/Asynchronous Pallet Loop Systems—Level One/Asynchronous Pallet Loop
Systems—Level Two/Summary
Pneumatic Devices for Automation -
Application Criteria/Grippers/Rotary Actuators/Multimotion Actuators/Powered Slides/Cylinders/
Escapements, Switches, and Sensors
Flexible Automation for Assembly . -
Flexible Parts Feeders/Flexible Assembly SystemsChapter —Finishing, Painting, and Coating
Design Elements -
Product and Carrier Relationship/Conveyance Equipment/Finishing Equipment Considerations/
System Layouts
Planning for an Integrated Paint System -
Chain Monorail System/Tow Chain Conveyor System
Summary . -
Chapter —Moving and Handling Scrap and Waste
Introduction . -
Types of Metal Scrap/Conveyor Utilization
Types of Metal Scrap Handling Conveyors -
Standard Drive Configuration Conveyors/Eccentric-driven Oscillating Conveyors/Rotary-driven
Screw Conveyors/Hydraulic Fluid-driven Conveyors/Pneumatic Conveyors/Hydraulic and Sluice
Fluid-motion Conveyors
Chuting and Distribution Systems -
Electrical Controls -
Application Examples . -
Single-unit Machined Chips and Turnings Collection/In-floor Systems for Machined Chips and
Turnings/Above-floor Stamping Scrap Collection/In-floor Stamping Systems/Die Cast Scrap
Handling Systems
Prepurchase Strategies . -
Economic Justification/Collect Application Information
Appendix A—Industry Associations and Standards
Belgium . A-
Czech Republic A-
England . A-
France . A-
Germany . A-
Italy . A-
Netherlands . A-
Poland . A-
Spain . A-
Sweden A-
Switzerland A-
United Kingdom A-
United States . A- TMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK xvii
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
SYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
D two-dimensional
D three-dimensional
A-B
A Amp (Ampere)
AAR Association of American Railroads
ABC Activity-based costing
ABM Activity-based management
AC Alternating current
ADC Automated data capture
AEM Automated electrified monorail
AGV Automated guided vehicle
AGVS Automated guided vehicle system
AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers
AI Automatic identification
AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APS Advanced planning and scheduling systems
APV Attended program verification
ARA After receipt of approval
AREA American Railroad Engineering Association
AS/RS Automated storage and retrieval systems
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCII American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASN Advance shipping notice
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BOM Bill of material
C-D-E
CAD Computer-aided design
CAT Cross-aisle transfer
cc Cubic centimeter
CCD Charge-coupled device
CEMA Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association
CFM Cubic feet per minute
CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing
CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America
CMM Coordinate measuring machine
CNC Computer numerical control
CNG Compressed natural gas
CO Carbon monoxide
COE Chain-on-edge
CP Carrier present
CS/RS Carousel storage and retrieval system
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and/or derived units,
symbols, and abbreviations that are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
CTD Cumulative trauma disorder
CV Constant velocity
DC Data collection
DC Direct current
DIN European equivalent of the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM)
DLC Deep-lane shuttle car
DLT Deep-lane transfer
DOT Department of Transportation
EAN European Article Numbering
ECN Engineering change notice
EDI Electronic data interchange
EDM Electrical discharge machining
EFT Electronic funds transfer
EIA Electronics Industry Association
ELM Enterprise logistics management
EOAT End-of-arm tool
EOQ Economic order quantity
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPS Expanded polystyrene
ERS Evaluated receipt settlement
ESFR Early-suppression-fast-response sprinkler
ETF Electronic transfer feed
ETV Electric track vehicle
F-G-H
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCS Finite capacity scheduling
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FEA Finite element analysis
FHS Flexible handling system
FIFO First-in first-out
Fig. Figure
FMRC The Factory Mutual Research Corporation
FMS Flexible manufacturing system
fpm Feet per minute
ft Feet
g Gram
gal Gallon
GMA Grocery Manufacturers Association
GMP Good manufacturing practice
gpm Gallons per minute
GPS Global positioning system
GUI Graphical user interface
h Hour
HD/DS High-density dynamic-storage system
HIPO Hierarchical input process output
hp HorsepowerTMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
xviii TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
I-J-K
I/E Inserter/Extractor
I/O Input/Output
ICAM Integrated computer-aided manufacturing
ICE Internal combustion engine
ICM Inverted chain monorail
ID Inside diameter
ID Identification
IMM Injection molding machine
in. Inch
in. Square inch
in. Cubic inch
IPF Inverted power-and-free conveyor
IRR Internal rate of return
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITA Industrial Truck Association
J Joule
JIT Just-in-Time
kg Kilogram
kPa Kilopascal
KT Kepner-Tregoe
L-M-N
L Liter
lb Pound
LCC Life-cycle cost
LH Left-hand
LIFO Last-in last-out
LIM Linear induction motor
LP Liquid petroleum
LPG LP-gas or liquid petroleum gas
LTL Less than a truckload
m Meter
m Cubic meter
MES Manufacturing execution system
MHIA Material Handling Industry of America
MHS Manual handling system
min Minute
MIS Management information system
MLD Movable loading device
MMH Manual material handling
MPS Master production schedule
MRP Material requirements planning
MRP Manufacturing resource planning
MRPII Manufacturing resource planning
MSD Musculoskeletal disorder
MSDS Material safety data sheet
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration
MTBF Mean time between failure
MTTR Mean-time-to-repair
MUD Movable unloading device
N Newton
NC Numerical control
NEMA National Equipment Manufacturers Association
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NICAD Nickel cadmium
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health
NPV Net present value
NWPCA National Wooden Pallet and Container Association
O-P
OCM Overhead chain monorail
OD Outside diameter
ODETTE Organization for Data Exchange by
Teletransmission in Europe
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OHPF Overhead power-and-free conveyor
OPC Operations process chart
OSB Oriented strand board
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTC Overhead trolley conveyor
P&F Power-and-free
P/D Pickup and delivery
PC Personal computer
PCV Positive crankcase ventilation valve
PDF Portable data file
PDM Product data management
PE Polyethylene
PERT/CPM Program evaluation review technique/critical
path method
PFD Process flow diagrams
PI Profitability index
PLC Programmable logic controller
PM Preventive maintenance
PMT Peak metal temperature
PO Purchase order
PP Polypropylene
PPH Parts per hour
PS Polystyrene
psi Pounds per square inch
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
Q-R-S
QC Quality control
RF Radio frequency
RFID Radio-frequency identification
RFQ Request for quotation
RGV Rail-guided vehicle
RH Right-hand
RMI Rack Manufacturers Institute
ROI Return-on-investment
rpm Revolutions per minute
RRFQ Response to request for quote
RSI Repetitive strain injury
RULA Rapid upper limb assessment
S/R Storage and retrieval
S/RM Storage and retrieval machine
SCAC Standard carrier alpha code
SCARA Selective compliance assembly robot arm
SEMCO Statistical equipment maintenance control
sfpm Surface feet per minute
SGV Self-guided vehicle
SKU Stock-keeping unit
SMED Single-minute exchange of dieTMEH VOLUME – MATERIAL AND PART HANDLING IN MANUFACTURING
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK xix
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
SPC Statistical process control
SPD Stationary pulling device
SPI Society of the Plastics Industry
spm Strokes per minute
SSPP Static strength prediction program
STEP Standard for the exchange of product data
T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
TOC Theory of constraints
TP Travel permit
TPA Trading partner agreement or handbook
TWA Time-weighted average
UCC Uniform Code Council
UHMW Ultra-high molecular weight
UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
UN United Nations
UOM Unit of measure
UPC Uniform plumbing code
U.P.C. Universal product code
UPM Use-point manager
U.S. United States
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
UV Ultraviolet
V Volts
VAN Value-added network
VLM Vertical lift module
VTL Vertical turning lathe
VTL Vertical transfer lift
WIP Work-in-process
WMS Warehouse management systems
INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
D codes, -
A
Above-floor stamping scrap collection, -
Absorption, -
Activity-based costing (ABC), - (Fig. - )
Actuators
multimotion, -
rotary, -
Administrative controls, -
A-frame type, -
Aggregate planning, -
Agility, -
AGV
benefits, -
comparison, - (Table - )
controls, -
cycle time, -
guidance system comparison, - (Table
- )
selection, -
system sizing, -
Air cellular packaging, -
Air feeds, -
Air-actuated coil feeder, - (Fig. - )
Aisle throughput, - (eq. )
Analysis tools and methods, -
analysis results, - (Table - )
analyzing load size, -
effect of unit load size on cycle time,
-
large versus small unit loads, -
batch size considerations, -
dual manufacturing and shipping
containers, -
effects of unit load and container
configuration, -
history of change, -
universal container configuration,
-
analyzing plant layout, -
computer-based analysis tools, -
cost analysis tools, -
flow-charting tools, -
layout analysis tools, -
computer-based simulation, -
comparing alternative systems, -
conveyors and monorail systems, -
other material handling systems, -
work simplification, -
methods improvements—what to look
for, -
operations process chart, -
plantwide, -
value- versus nonvalue-added
operations, -
Analytical
data, -
indicators, -
Anchor frame, -
Appliance trucks, -
Applications
for returnable containers, -
parameters for the conveyor selection
process, - (Fig. - )
planning, -
Apron conveyor, -
Area efficiency, -
Area gantry, - , - (Fig. - )
Articulated jib, - , - (Fig. - )
A-side, B-side processing, -
Assemble-to-order, -
Assembling parts, -
Assembly, - to -
asynchronous pallet loop systems, -
flexible, -
linear asynchronous assembly, -
operator-assisted workstation, -
qualification of parts, -
rate comparisons for assembly systems,
-
synchronous assembly—carousel, -
synchronous assembly—rotary index table,
-
vehicles, -
Assembly application, -
Asynchronous pallet loop systems, - , -
(Fig. - )
Attachments for lift trucks, -
clamps, -
fork positioners, -
fork rotators, -
load pushes and load push/pulls, -
load stabilizers, -
mechanical attachments, -
rotators, -
safety, -
sideshifters, -
Auto body side panels ready for transport, -
(Fig. - )
Automated
supply hopper, - (Fig. - )
supply and loading system, - (Fig.
- )
Automated assembly systems, - (Fig. - )
Automated data capture (ADC), - , -
considerations, -
linear bar coding, - , -
costs, -
information needed, -
labeling environment, -
physical characteristics, -
postlabeling environment, -
reading conditions, -
required life expectancy, -
symbology and requirements, -
radio-frequency data communications, -
advantages and limitations, -
data collection, -
data transmittal, -
two-dimensional ( D) symbologies, -
advantages and limitations, -
area efficiency, -
scanning technologies, -
selection criteria, -
symbology structure, -
data elements, -
error detection and correction, -
finder patterns, -
quiet zones, -
shapes and sizes, -
types, -
when to use, -
Automated electrified monorails (AEM), - ,
-
aluminum-alloy track AEMs, -
design, -
performance characteristics, -
carrier assembly, - (Fig. - )
equipment comparison, - (Table - )
linear induction motor systems, -
selection, -
equipment cost, -
flexibility, -
maintainability and reliability, -
operator safety, -
product quality, -
selection parameters, - (Table - )
Automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, -
(Fig. - ), - , - , - , -
AGV controls, -
battery requirements, -
benefits, -
cost estimating and justification, -
future trends, -
guidance, -
inductive, -
inertial navigation, -
laser, -
passive, -
chemical, -
grid, -
metal tape, -
optical, -
maintenance, -
safety, -
selection, -
sizing, -
method one, -
method two, -
types, -
driverless trains, -
fork lift vehicles, -
light-load vehicles, -
module transport vehicles, -
specialized vehicles, -
unit-load vehicles, -
wire-guided pallet trucks, -
Automated machine loading, -
automation issues, -
cycle time and throughput improvement,
-
job enhancement, -
labor reduction, -
quality improvement, -
Automated material handling
equipment, - to -
systems maintenance, -
Automated packaging equipment, -
types, -
case-sealing systems, -
palletizers and depalletizers, -
shrink-wrappers, -
strappers, -
stretch-wrappers, -
Automated palletizers, -
Automated parts racking, -
Automated parts supply systems, -
basic hopper, -
bulk feeder supply, -
coil spring hopper, -
hopper-elevator combination, -
liners, -
movable-wall hoppers, -
portable hoppers, -
wire form hoppers, -
Automated storage and retrieval systems
(AS/RS), -
benefits, -
controls, - INDEX
I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
cost estimating and justification, -
cycle time, -
future trends, -
maintenance, -
pallets, -
safety, -
selection, -
sizing, -
storage racks, -
types, - , - (Table - and Table
- )
deep-lane, -
man-aboard, -
microload, -
miniload, -
unit-load, -
use-point manager, -
vertical lift module, -
Automatic
bar feed, -
fork lift and transfer, - , - (Fig.
- )
identification, -
item dispensers, - , - (Fig. - )
sortation system, - (Fig. - )
Automation
benefits, - , - , - (Table - )
economics, -
justification, -
planning process, - (Fig. - )
program life cycle, - (Fig. - )
solution savings, - (Table - ), -
(Table - )
B
Backflush, -
Backward scheduling, -
Bag trucks, -
Balanced manipulator, - (Fig. - )
Balancer, -
Balancers and hoists - , - (Table - )
Balance-tilt, -
Ball transfer, -
Bandsawing, -
applications, -
automating infeed and outfeed, -
Bar code printers, -
Bar work, -
cut feeding, -
feeding and loading systems, -
additional considerations, -
hydrodynamic bar feeders, -
loader operation, - (Fig. - )
magazine loading, - (Fig. - )
material considerations, -
remnants, -
short bar feeds and bar loaders, -
support, -
loading of centerless grinders, -
hopper and bowl feeding, -
Bar-coded shipping label, - (Fig. - )
Barrel or drum trucks, -
Batteries, -
Bearing
friction, -
sets, -
Bellows-style vacuum cup, - (Fig. - )
Belt
conveyors, - , - (Fig. - )
transfer, - (Fig. - )
Belt-on-roller conveyors, - (Fig. - )
Belts with guides for part movement, -
Benefits
analysis, -
determine objectives, -
economic requirements, -
relating solutions to resources, -
savings potential, -
sizing the investment, -
estimate resource functions, -
of carousels, -
of high-density storage systems, -
of material handling solutions, -
automated storage and retrieval, -
automated transportation, -
controls, -
AS/RS controls, -
automated transportation, -
of robots, -
of specialized systems, -
procurement and implementation, -
project justification, -
cost avoidance, -
incremental volume, -
program versus project justification,
-
return on investment (ROI), -
resource functions, -
sell the project to top management, -
document savings, -
implementation schedule, -
obtain firm costs, -
outside consultants, -
value economic requirements, -
floor area savings valuation, -
inflation, -
inventory savings valuation, -
labor hour savings valuation, -
Between-press transfer systems, -
tandem press lines, -
Bills of material, - , - (Fig. - ), -
Biomechanics, -
Blanking press feeding, - (Fig. - )
Blending systems, -
Blocking systems, -
Bottleneck, -
Bottom-running drag conveyor, - (Fig. - )
Bowl feeders with sensing, -
Bowl size in relation to part length, - (Fig.
- )
Box dumper, - (Fig. - )
Breakeven point, - (eq. ), - (Fig. - )
Bridge crane, -
design, -
fundamentals, -
Bridges, -
Bucket elevator, -
conveyor, - (Fig. - )
Bulk
feeder supply, -
unloading, -
Bumper dunnage, - (Fig. - )
Burst rate, -
Bursting strength, -
Business computer systems
software capabilities, -
bulk (reserve) and forward (loose)
inventory, -
general inventory storage, -
receiving, -
shipping, -
temporary storage—WIP material, -
storage functions, -
C
Cable conveyors, -
Cable hoist-operated lift conveyors, -
Cable link conveyor and carrier assembly, -
(Fig. - )
Cantilever lift (light-duty), - (Fig. - )
Cantilever pallet lift (heavy-duty), - (Fig.
- )
Capacity, -
planning, -
Captive pallets, -
Carousel storage and retrieval systems, -
benefits, -
comparison, - (Table - )
controls, -
cost estimating and justification, -
cycle time, -
future trends, -
safety and maintenance, -
sizing, - , - (eq. )
types, -
horizontal, -
rotary rack, -
twin-bin, -
vertical, -
Carriers, -
structural integrity, -
Cart
design, -
transfer system, - , - (Fig. - )
turning devices, -
Cartesian robot, -
Caster and wheel maintenance, -
Cells, -
Cellulose wadding, -
Cement plant, - , - (Fig. - and Fig.
- )
Centrifugal force, - (eq. )
Centrifuge, which separates chips from coolant,
- (Fig. - )
Chain, -
block, -
conveyor, - , -
transfer, - (Fig. - )
of parts, -
Chain monorail system, - (Fig. - ), -
chain pull basics, -
computing chain pull, -
conveyor component selection, -
drives, -
enclosed and keystone chain, -
horizontal turns, -
lubrication of chain and trolleys, -
power-and-free, -
support steel, -
take-up units, -
track, -
trolley brackets and wheels, -
vertical curves, -
conveyor system design, -
obstruction friction, - INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
trolley wheel friction, -
Chain pull system total, - , - (eqs. to
), -
basics, -
caused by vertical curves, - (eq. )
due to take-up tension, - (eq. )
load, - (eq. )
Chain-on-edge (COE) conveyor, - , - (Fig.
- )
Chain-on-flat configuration, -
Chip management, -
central systems, -
cold briquetting, -
continuous chip processing, - , -
(Fig. - )
rapid accumulation, -
stand-alone wringers, -
Chucking work, -
gantry applications, -
crankshaft machining line, -
grinder, -
lathes, -
multiple CNC lathes, -
turning cell with multiple functions,
-
gantry loading, -
construction and axes of motion, -
grippers, -
interface, -
lathes, -
linear and area gantries, -
machining center, -
other than lathes, -
part weights and sizes, -
payback calculation, -
robot loading, -
built-in gantry loaders and robots, -
lathe-loading applications, -
work stocker tables, -
considerations, - , -
gripper considerations, -
integration and troubleshooting, -
what to expect, -
simple loaders for lathes, -
autoloaders, -
chutes, -
finished parts handling in turning, -
vertical chucking, -
application example, -
benefits, -
limits to the hanging spindle, -
types, -
Chuting and distribution systems, - , -
Clamp for lift truck, -
Classes and types of trucks, - (Table - )
Close pack, -
Closed loop system, -
Code , -
Code , -
Coil feeding, -
accuracy control, -
high-speed feeding, -
techniques, -
types, -
air feeds, -
actuation, -
adaptability, -
circuits, -
electrical roll feed, -
hitch feeds, -
mechanical roll feed, -
Coil spring hopper, - , - (Fig. - )
Combination machines, -
punch
and bending, -
and laser cutter, -
and shear, -
and shearing/bending, -
roll feeder and coil straightener, - (Fig.
- )
Common denominator handling unit, -
Comparison of
AS/RS types, - (Table - and Table
- )
assembly systems, -
in-floor conveyor systems, - (Table - )
mechanical and hydraulic presses, -
(Table - )
nonpowered conveyors, - (Table - )
part identification technologies, - (Table
- )
powered conveyors for assembly, - (Table
- )
sortation conveyors, - (Table - )
tandem press line layout and transfer press,
- (Fig. - )
Compliance labeling, -
Compound factor formula for a complete turn,
- (eqs. to )
Computerized tool management system, -
(Fig. - )
Consolidated operations process chart, - ,
- (Fig. - )
Consumables, -
Container
design, -
for molded parts, - (Fig. - )
Continuous
improvement, -
vertical lift conveyor, -
Control pendant, -
Control system for
a conveyor, - (Fig. - )
AGVs, -
carousels, -
robots, -
Conveyance equipment, -
chain monorail systems, -
floor truck, -
floor-mounted skid, -
guided vehicle (automated and manual),
-
hand-pushed monorail and bridge cranes,
-
pedestal and fixture conveyors, -
power-and-free conveyor systems, -
roller conveyors, -
tow cart systems, -
tow conveyors, -
Conveyance methods for plastic manufacturing,
-
automatic and high volume, -
bulk bag/pressure unload, -
container dumper/pressure unload, -
feeding and blending systems, -
manual, -
robots, -
vacuum, -
Conveyor, -
chain on edge, - (Fig. - )
component selection, -
control panel, -
drives, -
engine slat, - (Fig. - )
flat top, - (Fig. - )
guarding, - (Fig. - )
in-floor, - (Table - )
inverted power-and-free, - (Fig. - )
justification, -
costs, -
dealing with uncertainty, -
return on investment
internal rate of return, -
net present value, -
payback method, -
profitability index, -
savings, -
loudness, - (Fig. - )
maintenance, -
belt conveyors, -
chain conveyors, -
drag, flight, screw, apron, and general
conveyors, -
portable conveyors, -
roller conveyors, -
metal scrap handling, -
eccentric-driven oscillating, -
hydraulic fluid-driven, -
hydraulic and sluice fluid-motion, -
pneumatic, -
rotary-driven screw, -
dumpers and lifters, -
reciprocating, -
standard drive configuration, -
bucket, -
drag, -
hinged steel belt, -
magnetic, -
metal mesh belt, -
pivoting hinge steel belt, -
advantages and disadvantages,
-
side chain drag, -
top- and bottom-running, -
tubular drag, -
troughing belt, -
nonpowered, - (Table - )
painting operations, - (Table - )
pneumatic, -
powered, - (Table - )
safety, -
common hazards, -
devices, -
establishing a program, -
label checklist, - (Fig. - )
noise considerations, -
training, -
sections overlaid on the layout, - (Fig.
- )
selection chart, - (Table - )
sortation, - (Table - )
stamping operations, - (Fig. - )
system design, -
track, -
two-strand, - (Fig. - )
unit load handling, - to -
walking beam, -
Coolant filtration management, -
future trends, -
high-pressure systems, -
space planning, -
Corrugated cartons, -
design, - INDEX
I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
film alternative, -
recycled fiberboard, -
Corrugated fiberboard pallet, - (Fig. - )
Costs
AGVs, - , -
high-density storage systems, -
justification, -
Cotton trucks, -
Counterbalanced lift trucks, -
applications, -
hydraulic system and operation, -
mast types and operations, -
tires, -
Counterbalanced walkie truck, - (Fig. - )
Counterweights, -
Crane, -
design
bridge, -
monorail, -
hairpin, -
service classes, -
Crash, -
Creep, -
Cross-aisle transfer, -
Crossbar
feed motion path, - (Fig. - )
transfer, -
transfer press, - (Fig. - )
Cubing system, -
Cushion tires, -
Cut feeder, -
Cutting tool management, -
automated delivery and loading, -
automatic storage equipment, -
computerized, -
machining cell, -
Cycle time, - (eq. and eq. )
for carousels, -
to get first lot output, - (Fig. - )
Cylinder trucks, - (Fig. - )
Cylinders, -
Cylindrical robot, -
D
Data
collection points, -
storage and postprocessing, -
transmission sensors, -
Decoupled postmold operation, -
Deep-lane
AS/RS cycle time, - (eq. and eq. )
AS/RS width, - (eq. ), - (eq. )
transfer, -
Defining the material storage environment, -
goals and evaluation criteria, - , -
identify rules, -
intangible goals and evaluation criteria, -
Kepner-Tregoe™ (KT) methodology, -
work sheet, -
Dehumidifying system, - (Fig. - )
Dense phase, -
Dependent demands, -
Design considerations, -
for cartons, -
Design elements, -
conveyance equipment, -
chain monorail systems, -
floor truck, -
floor-mounted skid, -
guided vehicle (automated and manual),
-
hand-pushed monorail and bridge
cranes, -
pedestal and fixture conveyors, -
power-and-free systems, -
roller conveyors, -
tow cart systems, -
tow conveyors, -
finishing equipment, -
environment effects on conveyors, -
paint application, -
paint curing, -
product surface preparation, -
of cranes
bridge, -
monorail, -
of pallet, -
product and carrier relationship, -
product features, -
quality-of-finish goals, -
quantity of products per carrier, -
structural integrity of carrier, -
system layouts, -
process specifications, -
quantity process and facility criteria,
-
rough concept layouts, -
Dessicant, -
Destacker, -
double-head, - (Fig. - )
Die cast scrap handling systems, -
Die clearance to transfer mechanism, - (Fig.
- )
Die-handling walkie trucks, -
Diffuse reflector sensor, -
Dilute phase, -
Double pantograph, -
Double-masted unit-load S/R machine, -
(Fig. - )
Drag conveyor, - , -
Drive pusher dog, -
Driverless trains, -
Driving screws, - (Fig. - )
Drop/lift transfers, -
comparison, - , - (Table - )
major types, -
automatic fork lift and transfer, -
cable hoist-operated, -
continuous vertical lift conveyors, -
electric-powered belt, -
electric-powered chain drop/lifts, -
hydraulic-cylinder, -
selection, - , - (Table - )
equipment cost, -
maintainability and reliability, -
operator safety, -
product quality, -
Drop-in holders, -
Drum
and barrel truck, - (Fig. - )
clamp, -
dumper, - (Fig. - )
Dual grippers, - (Fig. - ), -
Dual-roll rotary system, -
Dumper and lifter conveyor, - (Fig. - )
Dunnage, - , - (Fig. - )
Duty cycle, -
Dynamic orientation, -
E
Edge crush, -
Electric hoist with pendant control, - , -
(Fig. - )
Electrical controls, -
Electrical roll feed, -
Electric-powered
belt drop/lifts, -
chain drop/lifts, - (Fig. - ), - ,
- (Fig. - ), - (Fig. - )
Electromagnetic vibratory bowl feeder, -
(Fig. - )
Electronic data interchange (EDI), -
service providers, -
two-way, -
ELVO application, - , - (Fig. - and
Fig. - )
Embedded check codes, -
Enclosed and keystone chain, -
Enclosed track, - (Fig. - )
chain conveyor, -
crane and runway, - (Fig. - )
monorail and carrier assembly, - (Fig.
- )
power-and-free conveyor and carrier
assembly, - (Fig. - )
underhung cranes, -
Enclosed track workstation cranes, - , -
(Fig. - )
application, -
optimizing weight, -
size specification, -
configuration, -
End effectors, - , - (Table - )
Energy expenditure, -
Energy sources for lift trucks, -
batteries, -
compressed natural gas, -
diesel, -
dual-fuel lift trucks, -
exhaust treatment, -
gasoline, -
power comparison, -
propane, -
how LPG works, -
LPG tanks, -
Engine slat conveyor, - (Fig. - )
Engineering controls, -
Engineer-to-order, -
Enterprise logistics management (ELM), -
Environmental effects on conveyors, -
Equipment condition and performance analysis,
-
inspection criteria, -
inspection frequency, -
inspection schedule, -
what should be inspected, -
Equipment selection factors, - (Fig. - )
Equivalent length, -
Ergonomic
aids, -
issues, -
Ergonomics and manual material handling, -
to -
Escapement, - , -
Europallet, -
Evaluated receipt settlement (ERS), -
Explosion-proof (Ex) trucks, - INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
F
Fabricated corrugated fiberboard, -
Faraday cage effect, -
Fastener devices, -
Feeder, - , -
speed, - (eq. )
Feeding system with selection work sheet, -
(Fig. - )
Fiberboard pallets, -
Fiber-orienting track system, - (Fig. - )
Finishing equipment considerations, -
environment effects, -
paint application, -
paint curing, -
product surface preparation, -
Finishing, painting, and coating, - to -
Fire protection
and packaging, -
commodity classes, - (Table - )
Fixtures and holding devices, -
baskets, -
mobile storage, -
specialty frames, -
tubs and skids with crane hairpins, -
Flat top conveyor, - , - (Fig. - )
Fleet management, -
lift truck selection, -
maintenance, -
cutting cost, -
tracking costs, -
operator training, -
program elements, -
environment and safety, -
equipment specific, -
load stability, -
maintenance, -
operator testing, -
standardizing the fleet, -
when to replace trucks, -
Flexible automation for assembly, -
parts feeders, -
bowl feeders with sensing, -
emerging technology, -
flexible parts feeders, -
systems, - (Fig. - )
Flexible handling systems, -
automated material handling benefits, -
automation economics, -
bulk material handling, -
just-in-time, -
sheet metal operation, -
automated forging cells, -
automated material handling cells,
-
transporting, transferring, and
buffering materials, -
adding bending to an FMS line,
-
automated press brakes and bending
machines, -
loading and unloading, -
bending machines, -
choices, -
laser cutters, -
laser machines, -
press brakes, -
punch and laser machine
combinations, -
separation, -
sheets, -
turret punch presses, -
modular, -
automated storage, -
decentralized automated storage,
-
pallet storage, -
process equipment, -
combination machines, -
punch
and bending, -
and laser cutter, -
and shear, -
and shearing/bending,
-
press brakes, -
shears (preshearing), -
turret punch press, -
tooling, -
Flexible wheeled handling equipment, - to
-
maintenance, -
industrial trucks, -
electric, -
annual activities, -
weekly to monthly activities,
-
gasoline, -
checklist, - (Fig. - )
monthly, normal conditions, -
quarterly to annually, normal
conditions, -
weekly, normal conditions, -
nonpowered floor equipment, -
caster and wheels, -
hand push trucks, -
trailers, -
Flexographic printing, -
Flexural strength, -
Flight conveyor, -
Flooded cell batteries, -
Floor trucks, - (Fig. - ), -
decks, -
frames, -
running gear, -
size and capacity, -
wheel selection, -
Floor-mounted skid, -
Flow chart, - , - (Fig. - and Fig. - )
of molding operation, - (Fig. - )
Flow rack, -
Flow shop, -
Folding
machines, -
utility truck, - (Fig. - )
Footprint, - (eq. )
Force feeding, -
Forging, -
Fork lift truck, -
classes, -
impact on industry, -
Forward scheduling, -
Forward-sensor blocking, -
Four-way units, -
Fragility of packaged items, - (Table - )
Free lift, -
Free-drop handling, - (Fig. - )
Free-flowing scrap, -
Free-piston, pneumatic vibratory bowl feeder,
- (Fig. - )
Freestanding jib cranes, -
Friction factors for turns, -
Front/sideloader, -
Full-free masts, -
Full-web stretch-wrapper, -
G
Gantry, -
crane, - , - (Fig. - )
maintenance, -
grippers, -
loader arm wrist and rotation axes, -
(Fig. - )
robot, -
Gatling gun-style bar loader, - , - (Fig.
- )
Gaylord, -
GMA pallet standard, -
Grain trucks, -
Gravimetric feeding, -
Gravity
exit track, - (Fig. - )
flow racks, -
tracks for parts transfer and placement,
- , -
Gripper, - , -
dual, - (Fig. - ), -
fingers, -
tooling, - (Fig. - )
transfer for heavy parts, - (Fig. - )
Guidance systems for AGVs, -
Guide chutes, -
Guided vehicle design, -
H
H arrangement, -
Hairpin crane hook, - (Fig. - )
Hand
platform combination truck, - (Fig. - )
-powered hoists, -
push truck maintenance, -
-pushed monorail and bridge cranes, -
Hand pallet trucks, -
application, -
fork dimensions, -
maintenance, -
pallet entry devices, -
wheels, -
Hand trucks, - (Fig. - )
attachments, -
Eastern style, -
for handling square or round loads, -
(Fig. - )
hand truck types, -
special designs, -
terminology, -
weight and bearings, -
Western style, -
bag, - (Fig. - )
wheel selection, -
worker preferences, -
Handling of molded parts, -
automated molding cell, -
benefits, -
part quality, -
productivity, -
reduce labor, - INDEX
I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
reduce WIP inventory, -
worker safety, -
yield, -
features of automation equipment, -
interfacing requirements, -
ejector control, -
emergency stop circuit, -
“Mold Open” signals and noise,
-
robot cycle, -
signals, -
peripheral equipment, -
robot controls, -
teach pendants and control
points, -
teaching the robot, -
robot drives, -
planning process, -
annual cost of WIP, -
automate from the start, -
floor space, -
identify desired benefits, -
installation and start-up, -
integrated versus decoupled post
mold operations, -
molding time and quality of next
operation, -
air-conditioned molding room,
-
cycle time and labor balance,
-
family of parts, -
visual inspection, -
robot selection, - , -
configurations, -
sprue pickers, -
strokes, hard stops, and
clearances, -
safety, -
below gate blocker, -
gates and proper safety
guarding, -
lockout, -
loss of load, -
physical barrier, -
robot placement, maintenance,
and catwalk design, -
risk assessment, -
conveying systems, -
automated box filling, -
electric track vehicles, -
implementation, -
moving parts
that need cooling, -
to a central location, -
part and runner separators, -
quality control, -
robotics, -
free-drop systems for molded parts, -
advantages and limitations, -
description, -
part orientation, -
robotic systems for parts orientation, - ,
-
downstream secondary operations,
-
assembly operation, -
parts retrieval, -
Helical coil, -
Hierarchical modeling system, - (Fig. - )
High-density dynamic storage systems, -
benefits, -
controls, -
cost estimating and justification, -
future trends, -
safety and maintenance, -
selection, -
sizing, -
types, -
ELVO, -
gravity flow rack, -
modular, -
High-pressure coolant systems, -
High-speed feeding, coil, -
High-speed robot arm and robotic system, -
(Fig. - ), - (Fig. - )
High-volume systems, -
asynchronous
transfer lines, -
chip removal, - (Fig. - )
simulating an engine plant, -
allocation of equipment, -
buffer sizes and logistics, -
manpower optimization, -
material storage, -
operating philosophies, -
preventive maintenance and tool change,
-
simulation, -
building the macromodel, -
determining inefficiencies, -
throughput, -
synchronous transfer lines, -
system equipment, -
transfer line flexibility, - to -
machining modules for high-volume,
-
modular build concepts, -
Hinged belt conveyors, -
Hit-to-hit, -
Hoists, -
Hold condition, -
Hopper, -
elevator, - (Fig. - )
combination, -
liners, -
Horizontal
carousels, - , - (Fig. - )
machining center, - (Fig. - )
turn tow chain track, - (Fig. - )
turning, -
turns for enclosed track conveyors, -
turns for keystone chain, -
twin-bin carousels cycle time, - (eq.
and eq. )
twin-bin or rotary rack carousel size, -
(eqs. to )
Human extenders, -
Human physical limits, -
Hydraulic
-actuated press with transfer mechanism, -
(Fig. - )
cylinder drop/lifts, - , - (Fig. - )
hand pallet truck, - , - (Fig. - and
Fig. - )
presses, -
sideshifter, -
sluice conveyor, - (Fig. - )
transfer press die, - (Fig. - )
Hydrodynamic
bar feeder, -
bar loader, - (Fig. - )
Hydrostatic bar loader, -
Hygroscopic resins, -
I
I arrangement, -
IDEF model, - (Fig. - )
IDEFO, - , - (Fig. - )
Identification of ledgered stock-keeping units,
-
controlling part identification, -
engineering and purchasing responsibilities,
-
nonledgered parts, -
numbering systems, -
sizes of stock materials, -
tracing and tracking, -
unique SKU, -
units of measure, -
Impact printers, -
Index table
for five part qualities, - (Fig. - )
pockets filled by a linear feeder, - (Fig.
- )
In-die transfer systems, -
design of a three-axis transfer die, -
Inductive proximity sensor, -
Industrial robots, -
benefits and applications, -
controls, -
future trends, -
safety and maintenance, -
system sizing, -
types, -
Industrial truck maintenance, - , -
In-floor
and on-floor track, - (Fig. - )
collection system with swivel chute, -
(Fig. - )
handling of oily chips and turnings, -
(Fig. - )
stamping systems, -
systems for machined chips and turnings,
-
towline, -
In-floor conveyors, - (Table - )
Information flow, defined, -
Infrared bell, -
In-plant compounding system, - (Fig. - )
In-press transfer systems, -
flexible universal stations, -
hydraulic presses, -
material handling, -
productivity, - , -
new technology advantages, -
press construction, -
size classification, -
transfer feed technology, -
advances, -
evolution, -
Inserter/extractor, -
Insert-mounted jib crane, -
Inspection, -
system, - (Fig. - )
Integrated
packaging line, - (Fig. - )
postmold operation, -
sheet loading/unloading, - (Fig. - )
Integrating the packaging function, -
Integrating sensors and control, - INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
automated guided vehicles, -
automatic storage and retrieval, -
sortation, -
Interchangeable tracks for vibratory feeder,
- (Fig. - )
Inventory, -
centralization versus decentralization, -
financial, -
geographical location, -
storage (within each site), -
operations, -
FDA guidelines, -
industry trends and benchmarks,
-
ISO standards, -
JIT guidelines, -
special storage and handling, -
warehouse productivity, -
world class-A MRP II, -
service and transportation, -
express transportation, -
inventory service performance, -
JIT customers, -
days on hand, - (eq. )
management, - , -
master schedule
output report, - (Fig. - )
storage and flow characteristics, -
capacity by type, -
handling, -
pick frequency, -
put-away unit of measure (UOM), -
special needs, -
storage methods, -
automated storage and retrieval systems
(AS/RS), -
bulk (reserve), -
carousels, -
conventional, -
dating systems (storage life), -
forward (loose), -
temporary, -
queue
applications, -
methods, -
sizing and modeling, -
vertical modules, -
Inverted
container, - (Fig. - )
power-and-free (IPF) conveyor, - (Fig.
- ), - (Fig. - )
vertical chuckers, - (Fig. - )
ISO pallet, -
J
Jib, -
cranes, -
Job shop, -
Jointed robot, -
Justification, -
costs, -
return on investment, -
net present value, - , - (eq. )
payback, - (eq. )
profitability index, - (eq. )
internal rate of return, - (eq. )
savings, -
uncertainty, -
K
Kanban, -
Kepner-Tregoe™ evaluation work sheets, -
(Table - ), - (Table - )
Keystone chain turns, -
L
Label requirements, -
Labor functional analysis, - (Table - )
Layout
drawn by simulation software, - (Fig.
- )
of assembly operation, - (Fig. - ),
- (Fig. - )
of conveyor system in CAD software, -
(Fig. - )
relationship drawn by analysis software,
- (Fig. - )
License plate codes, -
Life cycle cost, - (Fig. - )
Lift
and tilt table, - (Fig. - )
and tilter, - (Fig. - )
tables, - , - (Table - )
Lift truck attachments, - , - (Fig. - )
clamps, -
fork positioners, -
fork rotators, -
load pushes and load push/pulls, -
load stabilizers, -
mechanical, -
rotators, -
safety, -
slip-sheet handling, - (Fig. - )
Lifting devices, -
balancers and hoists, -
applications and usage, -
controls, -
ergonomic benefits, -
limitations and range of capacity, -
power sources, -
end effectors and tooling, -
complex payload handling, -
grippers, -
simple tooling, -
interfaces, -
manipulators, -
balanced, -
jibs, -
positioning arms, -
torque arms, -
vertical lifters, -
reasons for use, -
cannot be physically handled, -
higher productivity, -
reduction in injury and medical claims,
-
work force reduction, -
tables, -
applications and usage, -
controls, -
ergonomic benefits, -
power sources, -
Light-load vehicles, -
Linear
asynchronous assembly, -
bar codes, -
gantry, - (Fig. - ), -
gantry machine load and unload, - (Fig.
- )
picket fence bar code, -
synchronous assembly, - (Fig. - )
thruster, -
vibratory feeders, - , -
Liquid petroleum gas (LPG), -
Live roller conveyor, - (Fig. - )
Load, - , -
path, -
protecting and securing, -
push/pull models, -
Loading and unloading, -
bending machines, -
choices, -
elevating hopper for ease of loading, -
(Fig. - )
laser
cutters, -
machines, -
press brakes, -
punch and laser machine combinations,
-
separation, -
sheets, -
turret punch presses, -
Logistics, - to -
Loose fill, -
Low-lift
pallet truck, - (Fig. - )
powered walkies, -
LP-gas, -
Lubrication, -
of chain and trolley, -
M
Magnetic
conveyors, - , - (Fig. - )
feeders, and equipment, - (Fig. - )
Maintenance of systems and equipment, - to
-
AGVs, - , -
automated material handling systems, -
intervals, - to - (Fig. - )
carousel, -
chain and trolley, -
conveyors, -
belt, -
chain, -
drag, flight, screw, apron, and general,
-
portable, -
roller, -
costs, - (Fig. - )
flexible wheeled handling equipment, -
industrial trucks, -
electric trucks, - , -
gasoline trucks, - , -
nonpowered floor equipment, -
caster and wheels, -
hand push trucks, -
trailers, -
high-density storage systems, -
overhead handling and lift devices, -
chain blocks, -
grabs, slings, and holding devices, - INDEX
I- TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK
hand hoists, -
mobile cranes, -
power cranes, -
power hoists, -
wall and floor cranes, -
robots, -
specialized systems, -
storage equipment, -
baskets, boxes, bins, -
chutes, hoppers, and silos, -
transport packaging, -
fiber rope, -
pallets, -
pneumatic and hydraulic-cylinder
devices, -
scales, -
skids, -
types, -
lubrication, -
predictive maintenance, -
preventive maintenance, -
proactive maintenance, -
reactive maintenance, -
Maintenance-free battery, -
Make-to-order, -
Make-to-stock, -
Man-aboard AS/RS, -
Management, lift truck, -
lift truck selection, -
maintenance, -
cutting cost, -
tracking costs, -
operator training, -
program elements, -
environment and safety, -
equipment specific, -
load stability, -
maintenance, -
testing, -
standardizing the fleet, -
when to replace trucks, -
Mandrel support of coil, - (Fig. - )
Manipulator
cranes, - , - (Fig. - )
overhead suspended hoist, - (Fig. - )
Manipulators, - , - , - , - (Table
- )
Manual
handling systems selection and design, -
(Fig. - )
material handling, -
turntable, - (Fig. - )
Manual and powered overhead cranes, -
bridge crane, -
building considerations, -
maintainability and reliability, -
operator and safety issues, -
service classes, -
comparison, -
enclosed-track underhung cranes, -
ergonomic manipulator cranes, -
gantry cranes, -
hoists, -
jib cranes, -
patented-rail underhung overhead cranes,
-
structural-beam underhung cranes, -
top-running cranes, -
Manufacture-to-order, -
Manufacture-to-stock, -
Manufacturing
cost flow summary, - (Fig. - )
improvement strategy, - (Fig. - )
resource planning (MRP), - , - (Fig.
- ), - (Fig. - )
strategy analysis, - (Fig. - )
Manufacturing concepts, -
inventory management, -
order policies, -
fixed period order factor, -
order minimum, -
order multiples, -
safety stock, -
scrap factors, -
reducing inventory, -
production environment, -
assemble-to-order, -
engineer-to-order, -
environmental combinations, -
job shop and flow shop, -
lead times, -
manufacture-to-order, -
manufacture-to-stock, -
push and pull manufacturing, -
constraints management, -
just-in-time, -
Mast-type jib cranes, -
Material
conditioning, -
flow
bar chart, - (Fig. - )
defined, -
conventional, - (Fig. - )
handling
analysis, - to -
cells, -
—complicated and simple, - (Fig.
- )
organizational areas of impact, -
(Fig. - )
outline of requirements document, -
(Fig. - )
principles and economics, -
equipment utilization, -
facility utilization, -
inventory turnover, -
stock, -
work-in-process, -
labor utilization, -
direct, -
indirect, -
purchasing, -
supervision, -
material cost, -
synergistic effect of integration, -
system service life and flexibility,
-
planning, - , - (Fig. - )
Matrix codes, -
Mechanical roll feed, -
Meeting the customer, - (Fig. - )
Metal forming, - to -
Metal mesh belt conveyors, -
Metal scrap, -
brass and bronze scrap, -
broken aluminum chips, -
broken steel chips (shoveling chips), -
bushy aluminum chips, -
bushy steel scrap, -
cast iron scrap, -
conveyor utilization, -
die cast scrap, -
stamping scrap, -
Metal scrap handling conveyors, -
eccentric-driven oscillating, -
hydraulic fluid-driven, -
hydraulic and sluice fluid-motion, -
pneumatic, -
rotary-driven screw, -
dumpers and lifters, -
reciprocating, -
standard drive configuration, -
bucket, -
drag, -
hinged steel belt, -
magnetic, -
metal mesh belt, -
pivoting hinge steel belt, -
advantages and disadvantages, -
side chain drag, -
top- and bottom-running, -
tubular drag, -
troughing belt, -
Metalcutting, - to -
Miniload S/R machine, - (Fig. - )
Mix model scheduling, -
Mobile
crane, -
-platform rotary systems, -
robots, -
Modular
high-density dynamic storage system (HD/
DS), - (Fig. - ), - (Fig. - )
systems for sheet metal operations, -
workstation crane, -
Module transport vehicles, -
Molded
packaging, -
part handling, -
Molding cell, -
Monorail assembly, - (Fig. - )
Monorail crane design, -
Movable
loading device, -
unloading device, -
wall hoppers, -
Move time, -
Moving and handling scrap and waste, - to
-
Moving load, - (eq. )
MRPII, - (Fig. - )
Multimotion actuators, -
Multitools, -
N
Narrow-aisle reach truck, - (Fig. - )
Net investment, - (eq. )
Net present value, - , - (eq. )
Net recurring savings, - (eq. )
NIOSH work practices, -
Nip point, -
Nonhygroscopic resins, -
Nonimpact printers, -
Nonpowered conveyors, - (Table - )
ball transfer tables and omnidirection
wheels, -
gravity roller, -
skate wheel, -
Nonpowered floor equipment maintenance, -
Nonsignificant numbering systems, - INDEX
TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS HANDBOOK I-
Nontilt floor truck, -
Number of
aisles, - (eq. )
machines required, - (eq. )
pallets and setup stations, - (eqs. to )
robots required, - (eq. )
vehicles required, - (eq. ), - (eq. )
Numbering systems, -
O
Obstructions, -
Offcut, -
Offset printing, -
On-floor track and drive units, - (Fig. -
)
Open loop control system, -
Operations process chart, - (Fig. - ), -
(Fig. - and Fig. - )
Operator-assisted workstation, -
Order
picking questionnaire, - (Fig. - )
policies, -
preparation lead time, -
Ordering and receiving processes, -
determining what, when, and how much, -
computerized systems, -
pull systems, -
re-order point, -
electronic data interchange (EDI), -
current trends, -
electronic invoicing, -
integrated applications, -
shared data, -
future trends, -
placing orders, -
hardware and software requirements,
-
implementation considerations, -
materials management with EDI, -
to reduce order cycle time, -
order acknowledgment, -
quoting, -
receiving, -
current trends, -
future trends, -
automated inventory update, -
paperless payment, -
traditional process


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