كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume VI - Design for Manufacturability
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume VI - Design for Manufacturability

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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume VI - Design for Manufacturability
FOURTH EDITION
A reference book for manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Ramon Bakerjian, CMfgE
Handbook Editor
Philip Mitchell
Staff Editor
Produced under the supervision of the SME Reference Publications Committee in cooperation with the SME Technical Divisions  

كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume VI - Design for Manufacturability  T_a_m_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
VOLUME VI-DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURABILITY
Symbols and Abbreviations . xi
Design for Manufacturability . 1.1
Concurrent Engineering . 2-1
Management Involvement in DFM 3-1
Team Building and Training . 4-1
Justification of DFM . 5-1
Quality Tools in DFM 6-1
Computer-aided Technologies 7-1
Design for Assembly : 8-1
Preliminary Design Issues . 9-1
General Product Design 10-1
Machining . 11-1
Forming . 12-1
Finishing and Coating . 13-1
Fastening and Joining 14-1
Materials 15-1
Design for Electronics Assembly . 16-1
Appendix A-DF'M Case Studies A-1
Appendix B-DFM Products and Services . B-1
Index . 1-1
ixSYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary ancUor derived units, symbols,
and abbreviations that are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
A-B
ABC
AI
AIS
AMA
ANOVA
ANSI
APICS
AQS
ASIC
ASM
ASME
ASQ
ASQC
ASTD
ASTM
ATE
ATG
ATPG
AVA
BIST
BOM
BON
BP
BPM
B-rep
BTAP
Bump
CA
CAD/CAM
CAE
CAM
CAPP
CAT
CBT
CCB
CE
CFC
CIB
CIE
CIM
CIME
CIM-I
Activity-based costing
Artificial intelligence
Automated infrastructure support
American Management Association
Analysis of variation
American National Standards Institute
American Production and Inventory Control
Society
Advanced quality system
Application-specific integrated circuits
American Society for Metals
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Assured quality level
American Society for Quality Control
American Society for Training and
Development
American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic test equipment
Automated-test generation
Automated-test pattern generation
Added-value analysis
Built-in self test
Bill of materials
Bed-of-nails fixture
Best practices
Ballistic particle manufacturing
Boundary-representation
Board-1evel test access port
Inner-1ead bondhtg
C-D-E
Cyanoacrylates
Computer-aided design/computer-aided
manufacturing
Computer-aided engineering
Computer-aided manufacturing
Computer-aided process planning
Computer-aided test
Computer-based training
Change Control Board
Concurrent engineering
Chlorofluorocarbon
Computer-integrated business
Computer-integrated enterprise
Computer-integrated manufacturing
Computer-integrated manufacturing enterprise
Computer-interfaced manufacturing
CIM-11
CL fdes
CMI
CMM
CMPP
CNC
COB
COQ
CQI
CRP
CSG
CSM
CTS
DFA
DFD
DFM
DFM/A
DFQ
DFP
DFR
DFT
DFS
DFX
DIP
DNC
DOD
DOE
DOM
DPI
DRF
ECM
ECO
EDI
EDM
EM
en
EPS
Eq.
ES
Computer-integrative management (of the
manufacturing enterprise)
Cutter location files
Continuous measurable improvement
Coordinate measuring machine
Computer managed process planning
Computer numerical control
Chip on board
Cost of quality
Continuous quality improvement
Cost reduction potential
Constructive solids geometry
Continuous strand mat
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Design for assembly
Design for disassembly
Design for manufacturability (manufacture,
manufacturing)
Design for manufacttrrability/assembleability
Design for quality
Direct fiber placement
Design for reliability
Design for test
Design for serviceability
Design for X (anything)
Dual in-line package
Direct numerical control
Department of Defense
Design of experiments
Drawn over mandrel
Design producibility index
Datum reference frame
Electrochemical machining
Engineering change order
Electronic data interchange
Electrical discharge machining
Electrochemical metallizing
Enable
Expanded polystyrene foam
Equation
Expert systems
F-G-H-l-J-K
FAST Function analysis system technique
FDM Fused deposition modeling
FEA Failure effect analysis (also, Finite element
analysis)
FF Flip-flop
FGI Finished goods inventory
FIA Forging Industry AssociationFig.
Flip-chip
FMc
FMEA
FMECA
FMS
FPT
ft or ‘
GD&T, GDT
GIDEP
GT
GTA
GTC
GUI
HDT
HFE
HIP
hr
HVOF
Ibid.
IC
ID
IGES
ILS
in. or “
IPc
IPISD
IRR
ISD
ISO
JIT
KBc
kPa
kpsi, ksi
KSA
Figure
Face-down bonding or controlled-collapse
soldering
Flexible manufacturing cell
Failure mode and effects analysis
Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis
Flexible manufacturing system(s)
Fine-pitch technologies
Foot
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
Government-Industry Data Exchange Program
Group technology
Group technology assistant
Group-technology code
Graphical user interface
Heat-affected zones
Heat deflection temperature
Human factors engineering
Hot isostatically processed
Hour
High-velocity oxygen fuel
In the same place
Integrated circuit(s)
Industrial designer (also, Instructional
designer)
Initial Graphic Exchange Specification
Integrated logistics support
Inch
Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging
Electronic Circuits
Interservice procedures for instructional
systems development
Internal rate of return
Instructional systems development
International Standards Organization
Just-in-time
Knowledge-based computer
kilopascal
kilopounds per square inch
Knowledge, skills, and abilities
L-M-N-O
LBW
LCD
LCM
LED
Loc.cit.
LOM
LSI
m
MAP
MBO
MCM
MIM
::C
MN
MPa
MPIF
MR
MRTIS
Laser beam welding
Liquid crystal display
Liquid composite molding
Light-emitting diode
In the place cited
Laser object manufacturing
Large-scale integration
Meter
Manufacturing automation protocol
Management by objectives
Multichip module
Metal injection molding
Millimeter
Maximum material condition
MegaNewton
Megapascal
Metal Powder Industries Federation
Machinability rating
Manufacturing rating technique-baseline
MRP
MRP H
MRTB
MSI
MTBF
MTP
MTTR
MUX
NASA
NC
NIH
N-m
NIOSH
NLRA
NLRB
NPRD
NPw
NSC
NSF
NUBS
NURBS
NVA
ODD
OEM
OJT
Op.cit.
OSHA
Material requirements planning
Manufacturing resources planning
Manufacturability
Medium-scale integration
Mean time between failures
Master training plan
Mean time to repair
Multiplexer
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
Numerical control
Not-invented-here
Newton-meter
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health
National Labor Relations Act
National Labor Relations Board
Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data handbook
Net present worth
National Security Council
National Science Foundation
Non-uniform B-splines
Non-uniform rational B-splines
Non-value adding
Observed design difficulty
Original equipment manufacturer
On the job training
In the work cited
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (Act)
P-Q-R-S-T-W
PA
PAW
PCB
PCD
PCM
PDES
PDES/STEP
PDSA
PDT
PET
PGA
PIM
PLCC
PM
POR
PPM
PTH
PWA
PWB
QA
QC
QFD
QFP
R&D
RDBMS
RIM
rms
ROI
Producibility assessment
Producibility assessment worksheet
Printed-circuit board
Polycrystalline diamond
Photochemical machining
Product Data Exchange Standard
Product Data Exchange Standard/Standard for
the Exchange of Product
Plan –Do– Study–Act
Product development team
Polyethyleneterephthalate
Pin-grid array
Powder injection molding
Plastic-leaded chip carrier
Powder metallurgy
Power on reset
Parts per million
Plated throughhole
Printed-wire assembly
Printed-wire board
Quality assurance
Quality control
Quality function deployment
Quad-flat packages
Research and development
Relational database management system
Reaction injection molding
Root mean square
Return on investment
xiiRTM
RTV
SAE
Scc
SE
SGC
SLA
SLS
SM
SMC
SMD
SME
SMT
so
SOIC
SPC
SPI
SQL
MUM
SS1
TAB
TAP
TCK
TCM
TDI
TDO
TDu
THT
TIR
TMS
TOP
Resin transfer molding
Room temperature vulcanizing
Society of Automotive Engineers
Stress corrosion cracking
Simultaneous engineering
Solid ground curing
Stereolithography apparatus
Selective laser sintering
Surface mounted
Sheet molding compound
Surface-mount devices
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (also,
Subject matter expert)
Surface-mount technology
Small outline
Small-outline integrated circuits
Statistical process control
Society of the Plastics Industry
Structured query language
Structural reaction injection molding
Small-scale integration
Tape-automated bonding
Test access port
Test clock
Test-cost model
Test-data input
Test-data output
Total defects per unit
Throughhole technology
Total indicator rtmout or total indicator
readout
Training management system (also, Test-mode
select)
Technical and office protocol
TPM
TQC
TQM
TRST
TRTA
TTZ
UCL
UUT
VA
VE
VLSI
WEDM
WIP
WPF
XCON
Y-TZP
Totrd productive maintenance
Total quality control
Total-quality management
Test reset
Training requirements and task analysis
Transformation toughened zirconia
Upper control limit
Unit under test
Value added
Value engineering
Very large scale integration
Wire electric discharge machining
Work in process
Weighted producibility factor
Expert configure
Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia
polycrystals
SYMBOLS
Alpha
Approximately equal to
Beta
Degree
Greater than
Greater than or equal to
Less than
Less than or equal to
Mu
Omega
Percent
Plus or minus
Sigma (summation)
INDEX
modification of existing design, 9-17
new designs, 9-18
manufacturability rating, 10-17
ManufacturabilityRating Technique-Baseline, 10-18, 10-19 (Fig. 10-5)
measurement of manufacturability, 10-18
process level approach, 10-17
requirements and functions, 9-3I
scope and limitations, 10-23
systems, 9-30
Continuous casting, 9-17 (Fig. 9-5)
Continuous improvement process, 5-3 (Fig. 5-
Corporate objectives, 4-3
Corrosion resistance, 15-35 (Table 15-4)
Cost-efficient printed wire boards, 16-12
costs
2), 10-15
adhesive, 14-22
assembly, 1-13
commitment, 10-2
and coverage, 16-36
design, 8-4 (Fig. 8-4)
design for, 2-10
deveiopment, 1-15
direct, 5-4
estimating, 5-7, 5-9
for use. 5-1
general, 5-6
guide, 16-5
hidden, 5-8 (Table 5-1)
indirect, 5-5
manufacturing 10-4
minimizing, 7-6
part. 10-5
part fabrication. 1-14
performance and, 15-4
product structure, 5-6 (Fig. 5-6)
aualitv. 1-15
df quility, 6-17, 6-19
relevant, 5-10
selling, 5-6
surface finish, 7-28
tooling, 5-6
traditional design, 1-5
volume behavior patterns
weighted, 9-29 (Table 9-
Courseware development, 4-
Creative climates, 8-5
Creative problem solving
in assembly, 9-15
forced random stimulatio
group techniques, 9-10
attribute lists, 9-11
types of, 5-4
5-8 (Fig. 5-7)
1 )
8
,9-9
brainstorming, 9-10, 9-11 (Table 9-7)
modem synectics, 9-13
morphological analysis, 9-12
traditional synectics, 9-12
idea-generation, 9-9 (Table 9-4)
individual techniques, 9-8
in material selection, 9-15
metaphors, 9-10 (Table 9-6)
process outline, 9-14 (Table 9-9)
in process selection, 9-15, 9-16
role playing (Table -5)
defined, 9-1
development of, 9-5
Creative thinking
creative environment, 9-5
lateral thinking, 9-6
vertical thinking, 9-6
methodologies, 9-2 (Table 9-1)
roadblocks, 9-3
cultural, 9-4
emotional, 9-3
habitual, 9-5
perceptual, 9-3
Cue discrimination. 4-14
D
Data interchange, 2-15
Data management, 2-12
Datum reference frame, 10-56
Defect model, 10-12
Deming Cycle
explained, 6-2
in design stage, 6-30
in production operation stage, 6-35
in transition stage, 6-32
Deming Process Management Cycle, See:DemDepartment of Defense, 10-32
Design for assembly
analysis, 8-2
applying the process, 8-7
assembly time, 8-12
costs, 8-4 (Fig. 8-4)
and creative climates, 8-5
design efficiency, 8-13
DFA metrics, 8-12
eliminating cables, 8-12
eliminating reorientation, 8-11
facilitating parts handling, 8-11
importance of, 8-3
levels of assembly, 8-12
management aspects, 8 4
modular assembly, 8-9
and part counts, 8-7
part numbers, 8-12
principles of, 8-7
product goals, 8-7
product serviceability, 8-13
recyclability, 8-15
redesign approaches, 8-14
self-fastening features, 8-9, 8-10
sheet metal parts, 8-8
and site selection, 8-5
stack assemblies, 8-10
standard part usage, 8-10
tool selection, 8-6
Design for disassembly, 10-62
Design for life cycle, 2-9
Design for maintainability, 2-10, 2-1 1 (Fig.
Design for quality
ing Cycle
2-1 1)
benchmarking, 2-7
quality function deployment, 2-5
Taguchi quality engineering, 2-6
Dcsign for recyclability, i0-62
Design for reliability, 2-10
Design for serviceability, 2-10
Design for variability, 16-18
Design freedom, 1-7
Design of experiments, 2-8, 6-23, 10-54
Design philosophy, 1-5, 1-7
Design reviews, 10-14
Design synthesis, 9-38
Design teams, 1-11
Design time, 1-7
Digital product models, 2-12
DoD, See: Department of Defense
DOD, See: Department of Defense
E
Ease of orientation, 16-16
Elecmcal producibility assessment, 10-35 (Fig.
Electrochemical metallizing, 13-11
Electronic assembly
automation, 16-20
balancing technology, 16-7
10-10)
components, 16-8
design for reliability, 16-37
design for testability, 16-21
employment trends, 16-3
preferred components, 16-8
printed wire assembly, 16-4, 16-14
rules of DFM, 16-15
sales trends, 16-3
standard design-test strategy, 16-29
standard test architecture, 16-30
testability success, 16-28
Elemental standard data, 5-10
Employee input, 1-9
Employment trends, 16-3
Enabling technology
data interchange, 2-15
data management, 2-12
design and analysis, 2-13
digital product models, 2-12
process design, 2-14
Engineering changes, 10-57
Environmental design, 1-7
Error measurement analysis, 10-55
F
Factory design, 1-5
Fasteners
assembly point of view, 14-1
bolted joints, 14-6
clamps, 14-6
failure, 14-3 (Fig. 14-6)
stored energy, 14-6, 14-7
typesof, 14-6
drive system comparisons, 144 (Table 14-1)
flexibility, 14-4 (Fig. 14-3)
and painting, 13-7
proprietary nature, 14-3
selection, 14-3
selection hierarchy, 14-4 (Fig. 14-2)
serviceability, 14-5, 14-6
system selection, 14-4
Fault activation, 16-23 (Fig. 16-18)
Fault propagation, 16-23 (Fig. 16-19)
Fault-tree analysis, 16-41
Fiber composites, 15-24
Field service, 8-I4
Finance, 10-3
Fine blanking, 12-24
Finishing, 10-11
First shipment, 10-2
Flexible components, 7-5
Flexible manufacturing systems, 11-52
cells, 11-45
arrangement, 11-50
evaluation of, 11-51
investment evaluation, 11-48
obstacles, 11-50
planning, 11-49
compound angle holes, 11-56
dimensioning, 11-54
Ereedom of design, 11-53
long boring tools, 11-56
reverse idler gear, 11-56
shifter rail holes, 11-55
simultaneous engineering, 11-53
tool commonization, 11-57
tooling 11-55
workholding, 11-53
Force transducers, 9-28 (Fig. 9-13), 9-29 (Fig.
Forgings
9-14)
cold forging, 12-70
application, 12-70
high volume, 12-73INDEX
materials available, 12-72
part shapes, 12-71 (Table 12-9)
shape capabilities, 12-70
size limitations, 12-71
size ranges, 12-72 (Table 12-11)
steels, 12-73 (Table 12-13)
strengths of, 12-72
tolerance capability, 12-73(Table 12-12)
tolerances, 12-71, 12-73 (Table 12-12)
design considerations, 12-59
equipment consideration, 12-61
general trends, 12-61 (Table 12-5)
hot forging, 12-60 (Table 12-4)
materials consideration, 12-61, 12-62
shape consideration, 12-60
size consideration, 12-60
basic shapes, 12-67 (Fig. 12-77)
close to finish, 12-65
close tolerance. 12-66 (Table 12-8)
in controlled impact hammers, 12-68
in forging presses, 12-67
hot die for in0 12-68
isothermal% r & g , 12-68
open-die. 12-62. 12-64 (Fig. 12-75)
continuous improvements, 12-63
materials, 12-63
value-added, 12-63
seamless rolled rings, 12-64
selection of, 12-58
for steels, 12-63 (Table 12-7)
impression die forgings, 12-59
(Table 12-6)
near net shape, 12-65
types of, 12-59
Forming
bending, 12-44
anchors, 12-48
approaches, 12-45
clamping, 12-47
compound bends. 12-47
design considerations, 12-46 "
equipment, 12-48
field welds. 12-48
lubricants, 12-48
material, 12-46
optimum radii, 12-47
pipe'hanger locations, 12-48
pipe rack spacing, 12-48
post-bend treatment, 12-47
pressure dies, 12-47
pushway lengths, 12-47
alloy characteristics, 12-75
configured shapes, 12-80
design, 12-85
drawings, 12-85
dross, 12-81
framework, 12-74
junction designs, 12-79
model development, 12-77
slag, 12-81
solidification shrinkage, 12-77
tolerances, 12-85
tooling, 12-83
variable shaper, 12-82
computer-aided design. 12-55
cost estimating, 12-57
numerical control, 12-57
sheet metal parts, 12-55
comer radii, 12-24
cross-sections, 12-25
edge roll, 1-24
edge surface, 12-24
hole diameters, 12-25
materials, 12-24
progressive tooling, 12-25
semipiercing, 12-25
castings, 12-74
fineblanking, 12-24
size of parts, 12-24
thickness, 12-24
tolerances, 12-24
impression die, 12-59
near net, 12-65
open die, 12-62
purpose of, 12-58
seamless rolled rings, 12-64
types of, 12-59
metal forming, 12-1
finishing, 12-19, 12-23
lubricants, 12-18
preferred conditions, 12-8
preferred die conditions, 12-11
stamping design, 12-1
tolerances, 12-14
tooling, 12-1, 12-14
weld flanges, 12-13
metal spinning, 12-42
advantages, 12-42
geometries, 12-44
materials, 12-44
surface finishing, 12-43
tolerances, 12-43
precision forming, 12-36
backward extrusion, 12-41
bending, 12-42
coining, 12-41
design implications, 12-36
drawing, 12-41 .
forward extrusion, 12-41
metal flow 12-39
nosing/flaring, 12-42
shear forming, 12-42
upsetting, 12-39
roll forming, 12-26
assembly, 12-35
bending radius, 12-26
discontinued bend lines, 12-28
flat elements, 12-30
material, 12-33
material handling, 12-35
packaging, 12-35
secondary operations, 12-3I
tolerances, 12-33
tube fabricating and bending, 12-48
attachments, 12-52
bend configuration, 12-48
endfonning, 12-49
Four-uoint binding. 15-32 (Fig. 15-28)
Functional design efficiency, 9-26
Functional efficiency techniques, 9-22
Function trees, 9-33 (Fig. 9-17), 9-35 (Figs.
9-19, 9-20), 9-36 (Fig. 9-21)
forgings, 12-58
cold, 12-70
G
Gage design, 10-51
Gaging, 10-51, 10-59
Geometric tolerancing, 10-41
Green strength, 7-17
Grinding, 10-23
Group technology, 7-26, 7-30
Gundrilling, 11-23 (Table 11-8)
H
Heat treating, 13-12, 13-18
HFE, See: Human factors engineering
Human factors, 4-1 1, 10-65
Human factors engineering, 4-11 .
Human performance improvement, 4-7
Hydraulic ports, 7-28 (Fig. 7-25)
1
Inactive-state controller cells, 16-34 (Fig. 16-
Industry preferred components, 16-8
Injection molding, 15-40
Inspection, 2-9
Instructional systems development, 4-16
Intangibles, 5-I 1
Intelligent tutors, 4-20
Interactive videodisc, 4-I9
Inventory, 1-14, 7-29, 10-6
Inventorykad time cycle, 7-29
Investment casting, 7-13
26)
J
Joining, 10-11, 13-7
Just-in-time, 1-3, 4-7
1
Laser machining, 11-33, 11-35, 11-36
Laser sintering, 7-21
Lateral thinking, 9-6, 9-7
Learning concepts, 4-I2
Level of activity, 5-2
Liquid composites molding, 15-15
~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Machining, 11-1
cost estimates, 11-10 (Fig. 11-7)
dimensional tolerances, I 1-5 (Fig, 1 1-5),
drilling, 11-18
11-9
boring, 11-23 (Table 11-8)
boring errors, I 1-26
drill depth, 11-18, 11-21
gundrilling, 11-23 (Table 11-8)
hole depth. 11-18, 11-21
hole tolerances, 11-13, 11-14, 11-15,
reaming, 11-23 (Table 11-8)
tapped holes, 11-21
true position hole tolerances. 11-18 (Ta-
11-18, 11-19, 11-20
ble ll-4), 11-19 (Table 11-5)
gear design, 11-27
general considerations, 11-1
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, 1 1-
grinding, 11-21
honing, 11-22
27
blind holes, 11-22, 11-23
fixturing, 11-25
hole lengths, 11-23
keyways, 11-24
material hardness, 11-24
splines, 11-24
stock removal, 11-23
surface finish, 11-23
tandem lands. 11-23, I 1-26
tolerances, 11-23
lubrication, 11-31, 11-32
1-3INDEX
additives for, 11-34
material considerations, 11-2, 11-3, 11-4,
metalworking fluid selection, 11-28
milling, 11-16
nontraditional machining, 11-33
abrasive flow, 11-36
abrasive waterjet, 11-36
electrochemical, 11-40
laser, 11-33, 11-35, 11-36
photochemical, 11-4I
ultrasonic machining, 11-39
waterjet, 11-36
plastics, 15-1I
steel shapes, 11-6, 11-7
surface finish, 11-7, 11-10
surface roughness, 11-9
tolerances, 11-9, 11-1 1 (Fig. 11-9), 11-13
11-5
(Table 11-2). 11-14, 11-15
effects on grinding cost, 11-21
grinding, I 1-24 (Table 11-9)
hole, 11-19, 11-20
automatic screw machines, 1 1-12
automatic tracer lathes, 1 1-I2
Swiss automatic lathes, 11-16
turret lathes, 11-12
turning, 11-9
Maintenance, 10-66
Management
architecture, 3-3
backing, 8-4
commitment, 16-20
fear of, 9-4
frameworks, 3-1
goals, 3-5 (Table 3-1)
interests, 3-4, 3-7, 3-8, 3-14
introspective, 4-9
material, 3-8
perspectives, 3-15
process, 6-2
support, 1-9
Manuals, 4-5
Manufacturability Rating Technique-Baseline,
Manufacturing sites, 8-5
Marketing, 10-3
Masking, 13-2
Material handling, 10-7
Material selection, 10-25
Material thickness, 10-71
Mechanical producibility assessment, 10-36
Metal forming, 12-1
10-18
(Fig. 10-11)
conditions for punched holes, 12-8
cam-pierce operations, 12-10
guidelines, 12-8 (Fig. 12-16)
hole geometry factors, 12-9
hole location, 12-9
hole size specification, 12-9
surfaces, 12-9, 12-10 (Figs. 12-18 and
tooling inventory, 12-9
active surfaces, 12-18
cleaning, 12-19
coatings, 12- 19
hard-to-lubricate surfaces, 12-19
inactive surfaces, 12-19
normal surfaces, 12-18
structure of, 12-20
water-based, 12-22
stamping design, 12-1
benefits of deep drawing, 12-4
closed comer conditions, 12-6
comer radii, 12-3, 12-4 (Fig. 12-7)
deep draws, 12-3 (Fig. 12-5)
die-lock, 12-5, 12-6 (Fig, 12-11)
12-19)
finishing, 12-23
lubricants, 12-18
die side thrust, 12-6
draw dies, 12-2 (Fig. 12-3)
drawing conditions, 12-3
edge waviness, 12-2
elongation, 124
flanged holes, 12-7
flange dies, 12-4, 12-5 (Fig. 12-8)
preferred conditions, 12-2
recessed holes, 12-7
return flanges, 12-7
safe drawing conditions, 12-3
springback, 12-5
typical die form, 12-2 (Fig. 12-1)
tolerances, 12-I4
tooling design, 12-14
coatings, 12-17
finishing, 12-17
lead times, 12-15
materials, 12-16
quality, 12-14
sharp comers, 12-17
standardizing, 12-17
'tool life, 12-16
with wire EDM, 12-16 (Fig. 12-31)
die comers, 12-11, 12-13 (Fig. 12-25)
flanged tabs, 12-12, 12-13 (Fig. 12-26)
notches, 12-12
trim lines, 12-11 (Fig. 12-22)
trim pad strength, 12-11
walls, 12-11, 12-12 (Fig. 12-24)
weld flanges, 12-13, 12-14 (Fig. 12-28)
Metal injection molding, 15-40
Metal spinning, 12-42
advantages, 12-42
dimensional tolerance guide, 12-43 (Table
geometries, 12-44
materials, 12-44
shapes, 1 2 4 (Fig. 12-59)
surface finish, 1243
tolerances, 12-43
costs, 12-14
trim die conditions, 12-11
12-3)
Metrologists, 10-52
Model construction, 7-6
Modeling, 7-6, 10-12
Modular design, 7-5
Moisture traps, 13-8 (Fig. 13-7)
Molded composite gears, 15-27
MRTl3, See: Manufacturability Rating TechMultifunctional parts, 7-4
Mockups, 7-5
nique-Baseline
Near net shapes, 10-10
Needs analysis, 10-24
Neural networks, 9-55, 9-56 (Fig. 9-49), 9-57
Nonstandard routings, 10-7
Nontraditional machining, 11-33
abrasive flow, 11-36
applications, 11-37
capabilities, 11-37, 11-39 (Table 11-18)
design recommendations, 11-38
dimensional factors, 11-38
economic production quantities, 11-38
special considerations, 11-38
suitable materials, 11-38
electrochemical machining, 11-40
applications, 11-40
design recommendations, 11-41 ,
dimensional factors, 1 1-41
economic production quantities, 11-41
special considerations, 11-41
suitable materials, 11-41
capabilities, 11-33
distortion, 11-36
edge finish, I 1-36
edge profile, 11-35
kerf, 11-35
part design, 11-35
process, 11-33 ,
rates, 11-36
tolerances, 11-36
advantages, 11-42
applications, 11-44
holding tabs, 11-44
hole size, 11-42
metal thickness, 11-42
slot width, 11-42, 11-43
tolerances, 11-43
ultrasonic machining, 1 1-39
applications, 11-39
design recommendations, I 1-40
dimensional factors, 11-40
economic quantities, 11-39
materials, 11-40
special considerations, 1 1-39
surface finish, 11-39 (Table 11-19)
allowable geometries, 11-37
materials, 11-37
surface finish, I 1-37
tolerances, 11-36
laser machining, 11-33, 11-35, I 1-36
photochemical machining, 11-41
waterjet, 11-36
0
Order management, 10-8
P
Package density, 16-5
Package design, 10-71
Package types, 16-6
Packaging, 10-11
Painting, 13-1
of castings, 13-6
cleaning, 13-2
color match, 13-8
curing, 13-3
design specifications, 13-4
electric field, 13-3 (Fig. 13-2)
electrostatics, 13-3, 13-5
field distribution, 13-4 (Fig. 13-3)
hanging orientation, 13-6 (Fig. 13-5)
lines, 13-1, 13-2 (Fig. 13-1)
masking, 13-2
metals for, 13-9
paint lines, 13-1
pretreatment, 13-2
terminology, 13-8
unloading, 13-4
Part classification, 10-25
Part counts, 8-7
Parts handling, 8-11
Part variations, 7-4
Pattern matching, 9-54
Photochemical machining, 11 41
Physical prototyping, 10-54
Pintle screws, 9-29 (Table 9-11)
Plane elements, 6-6 (Fig. 6-3), 6-7 (Fig. 6-4)
Plant modernization, 4-9
Plastics, 15-1
@-Off, 13-2
1-4INDEX
adhesive bonding, 15-13
automated shape cutting, 15-11
classifications, 15-3
processing methods, 15-3
typical properties, 15-3
decorative process, 15-14
design consideration, 15-5
chemical exposure, 15-5
draft angles, 15-6
ejector pins, 15-8
electrical exposure, 15-5
fillets, 15-8
flammability ratings, 15-6
gates, 15-8
moisture exposure, 15-5
optical products, 15-6
parting lines, 15-8
radii, 15-8
recyclability 15-9
temperature exposure, 15-5
undercuts, 15-7
wall thickness, 15-7
weatherability, 15-6
failure analysis, 15-1
machining, 15-11
material selection, 15-4
prototyping, 15-3
shrinkage, 15-9
causes of, 15-10
effects of, 15-10
shrinkage prediction, 15-10
types. 15-9
supplier checklist, 15-2
surface preparation, 15-13
acid etch, 15-14
corona discharge, 15-14
flame treatment, 15-13
plasma process, 15-14
welding thermoplastics, 15-12
Poke-yoke, 6-18 (Fig. 6-12) .
Powder coating, 13-10
Powder forgings, 15-40
Powder metallurgy, 15-40
advantages, 15-41
compared to other processes, 15-41
design, 15-43
gears, 15-44, 15-45 (Fig. 15-35)
limitations of, 15-41
materials, 15-42
metal injection molding, 15-40
powder forging, 15-40
shapes, 15-43
tooling, 15-43
backward extrusion, 12-41
bending, 12-42
coining, 12-42
cold extrusion, 12-38 (Table 12-2)
design implications of, 12-36
drawing, 12-41
flaring, 12-42
forward extrusion, 12-41
metal flow, 12-39
nosing, 12-42
shear forming, 12-42
upsetting, 12-39
Precision forming, 12-36
Predetermined time standards, 5-9
Printed wire assembly, 16-4, 16-13, 16-14
Priority assessment, 5-13 (Fig. 5-10)
Problem solving methodologies, 9-2 (Table 9-1)
Problem visualization, 9-3 (Fig. 9-1)
Process advice, 7-33 (Fig. 7-31)
Process design, 2-14
Process-driven designs, 7-6
Process flexibility, 10-2
Process-level approach, 10-17
Process management, 6-2
Process view of DFM, 6-4 (Fig. 6-2)
Producibility, 10-24
Producibility assessment, 10-32
Producibility assessment tools, 10-27
Producibility metrics, 10-30
Product cost model, 2-11 (Fig. 2-12)
Product development teams, 2-15
Product goals, 8-7
Product structure, 10-8
Product usability, 10-65
Project decisions, 10-1
Prototyping, 7-9, 10-54, 15-3
Purchasing, 10-3, 10-52
PWA, See: Printed wire assembly
(Fig. 12-44), 12-32 (Fig. 1245)
bending radius, 12-26
design interaction, 12-34
flat elements, 12-30
flat strip, 12-27 (Fig. 12-36)
lines, 12-31
material handling, 12-35
materials, 12-33
operations, 12-35 (Table 12-1)
packing, 12-35
residual stresses, 12-27 (Fig. 12-37)
springback, 12-30 (Fig. 12-42)
strip edge, 12-33 (Fig. 12-46)
tolerances, 12-33
Q
QFD, See: Quality function deployment
Quality
basic concepts, 6-2
Deming Cycle, 6-2, 6-30, 6-33, 6-35
process view, 6-3
terms drefined, 6-2
in factory design, 1-5
impact of design on, 10-15
as a goal, 3-7 (Table 3-2)
planning, 6-30
and producibility, 10-30
in production operations, 6-36
benchmarking, 6-27
plan elements, 6-6
pianning methods, 6-6
process documentation, 6-14
quality function deployment, 6-10, 6-11
statistical methods, 6-19
in transition, 6-32
costs, 1-15, 5-2
t d s , 6-6
(Fig: 6-8)
Quality function deployment, 2-5, 6-10, 6-11
(Fig. 6 4 , 6-12 (Fig. 6-9), 6-13 (Fig. 6-10),
6-14
Rapid prototyping, 7-9
ballistic particle manufacturing, 7-21
benefits of, 7-9
constrained polymers, 7-24,7-25 (Fig. 7-20)
desktop modeling, 7-26
fused deposition modeling, 7-22, 7-23 (Fig.
laminated object manufacturing, 7-24, 7-15
(Fig. 7-19)
materials, 7-24
polymers, 7-24
selective laser sintering, 7-21
simultaneous irradiation, 7-24
solid ground curing, 7-18
stereolithography, 7-10
three-axis desktop modeling, 7-26
7-17)
Raw materials, 10-10
Recyclability, 8-15, 15-9
Reliability calculation, 16-26
Reorientation, 8-11
Resins, 7-17
Resource planning, 2-17
Ring torque terminal configuration, 7-28 (Fig.
Robustness assessment, 10-9
Roll forming, 12-26
assembly, 12-35
bend lines, 12-28, 12-29(Fig. 12-40), 12-31
7-26)
5
Safety, 1-5, 10-16, 10-65
Sales trends, 16-3
Self-fastening features, 8-9, 8-10
Serviceability, 8-13, 10-68
Setup errors, 10-60
Shaft coupling design, 9-41
Shape cutting, 15-11
Sheet metal parts, 8-8
Shipping, 10-11
Simulation, 10-12
Site selection, 8-5
Skill transfer, 4-14
Solids with booleans, 7-8 (Fig. 7-8)
SPC,See: Statistical process control
Spinning, 12-42
Spray metal tooling, 7-13
Springback, 12-5, 12-30 (Fig. 12-42)
Stack assemblies, 8-10
Standard components, 7-2
Standard test architecture, 16-30
Standard test strategy, 16-29
Statistical process control, 1040, 13-2
Stereolithography
draw parameters, 7-17
guidelines, 7-16
and investmcnt casting, 7-13
metal arc spray, 7-15 (Fig. 7-13)
processing constraints, 7-16
resin selection, 7-16
safety, 7-17
and spray metal tooling, 7-13
sweep volume model, 7-12 (Fig. 7-7)
viscosity, 7-17
Strategic planning, 5-5 (Fig. 5-2)
Stress relieving, 12-23
Supplier certification, 10-73
Supplier checklists, 15-2
Suppliers, 2-3, 10-52
Surface mount technology, 16-15
Software, 5-8
Standard parts, 7-2
T
Taguchi analysis, 10-14
Taguchi methodology, 6-25
Taguchi quality engineering, 2-6
Target costs, 5-7
Team building, 4-1
Team operation, 2-16
Team personnel, 10-16
Testability, 2-9, 16-21
Test access port, 16-33
Test migration, 16-36INDEX
Time to Market, 1-3, 1-6
Tolerance zone systems, 10-47 (Fig. 10-22)
Tool design, 10-51
Tooling, 7-13, 10-30, 12-9, 12-51(Fig. 12-68),
15-43
Training
computer-based, 4-20
conventional, 4-15 (Table 4-2)
fidelity, 4-14
human performance improvement, 4-7
improved, 4-14
systems based, 4-14, 4-15 (Table 4-2)
team, 4-2
tools, 4-1
attachments, 12-52
future, 4-8 (Fig. 4-3)
Tube fabricating and bending, 12-48
brackets, 12-53 (Fig. 12-71)
saddle tube, 12-52 (Fig. 12-69), 12-53
tube-bracket interface, 12-54 (Fig. 12-
(Fig. 12-70)
72)
bend configuration, 12-48
end forming, 12-49
alternatives, 12-52
and bend tangents, 12-52
statistical process control, 12-50
tolerances, 12-49
tooling configuration, 12-51 (Fig. 12-68)
tool wear, 12-50
vertical bending, 1249 (Fig. 12-65)
wall thinning, 12-49 (Fig. 12-65)
U
Universal producibility assessment, 10-38 (Fig.
10-13)
V
Vertical thinking, 9-6, 9-7
w
Warehousing, 10-7, 10-11
Waste generation, 10-16
Weighted producibility factors, 10-31 (Table
10-51
Welding
a r ~ ,14-25
and assembly, 14-24
electrochemical metallizing, 13-13
joint location, 14-28
laser beam, 14-29
applications, 14-29
beam quality, 14-32
equipment selection, 14-31
joint design, 14-29, 14-35 (Fig. 14-29)
material, 14-29, 14-30
power, 14-32
wavelength, 14-3I
weld quality, 14-31
manipulation, 14-28 (Fig. 14-22)
projection, 14-25, 14-26 (Fig. 14-20)
projection shape, 14-26 (Fig. 14-20)
robotic, 14-25, 14-30 (Fig. 14-23)
surfaces, 13-9 (Fig. 13-8)
thermoplastics, 15-12
Wire assembly, 16-4, 16-13, 16-14
Wire EDM,12-16 (Fig. 12-31)
Spot, 14-24
Y
Y I 4 S M . 10-43


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