كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume V - Manufacturing Management
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 كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume V - Manufacturing Management

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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume V - Manufacturing Management
FOURTH EDITION
A reference book for manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Raymond F. Veilleux
Staff Editor
Dr. Louis W. Petro
ConsuIting Editor
Produced under the supervision of the SME Reference Publications Committee incooperationwith the SME Technical Divisions  

كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume V - Manufacturing Management  T_a_m_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :

CONTENTS
VOLUME MANAGEMENT
Symbols and Abbreviations . xi
Section 1-Operations and Strategic Planning
Planning 1-1
Management Control 2-1
Planning and Analysis of Manufacturing Investments . 3-1
Cost Estimating and Control 4-1
Section 2-Managerial Leadership and Its Foundations
Philosophy and Culture of Manufacturing Management . 5-1
Organization . 6-1
Manufacturing Leadership
Section 3-Human Resources
Workforce Development . 9-1
Workforce Management .
Legal Environment for Labor Relations . 11-1
Management Concerns for Occupational Safety and Health 1
Section Interface
Design for Manufacture 13-1
Standards and Certification . 1
Manufacturing 1
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing . 1
Project Management 17-1
Section 5-Resource Utilization
Facilities Planning 1
Equipment Planning 19-1
Production Planning and Control 1
Materials Management 2 1
Section 6-Quality
Quality Management and Planning 1
Achieving Quality . 23-1
Quality Cost and Improvement 24-1
Index .
ix
CO
V-MANUFACTURING
Management of Technology
10-1
12-
4—Manufacturing/Engineering
14-
Just-in-Time 15-
16-
18-
20-
1-
22-
1- 1SYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and / or derived units,
symbols, and abbreviations that are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
A L-M-N-0
Labor Management Relations Act
In the place cited
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
Management by objectives
Material requirements planning
Manufacturing resources planning
National Bureau of Standards
Numerical control
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health
National Labor Relations Act
National Labor Relations Board
National Security Council
In the work cited
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (Act)
American National Standards Institute
American Production and Inventory
Control Society
American Society for Quality Control
LMRA
Loc. cit.
ANSI
APICS
MAP
MBO
MRP
MRP II
ASQC
C-D-E
NBS
Computer-aided design / computer-aided NC
manufacturing
Computer-aided process planning
Computer-integrated manufacturing
Computer-interfaced manufacturing
Computer-integrative management (of the
manufacturing enterprise)
Computer numerical control
Design for assembly
Design for manufacture
Direct numerical control
CAD/ CAM
NIOSH
CAPP
NLRA
NLRB
C1M
CIM I
CIM II NSC
Op. cit.
OSHA
CNC
DFA
DFM
DNC
R-S-T-W
Eq. Equation
Research and development
Return on investment
R&D
ROI
F-G-H-l-J
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Statistical process control
Technical and Office Protocol
SME
Fig. Figure SPC
Fifth-generation management
Failure mode and effects analysis
Flexible manufacturing system(s)
Foot
FGM
FMEA
FMS
ft or '
TOP
WIP Work in process
Alpha
Approximately equal to
Degree
Greater than
Greater than or equal to
Less than
a
GT Group technology
hr Hour
Ibid. In the same place
Inch
Initial Graphic Exchange Specification
International Organization for
Standardization
in. or " <
1GES < Less than or equal to
ISO Mu
Percent
Plus or minus
Sigma (summation)
A
ABC analysis, 21-5
example, 21-6 (Table 21-4)
sample worksheet, 15-18 (Fig. 15-12)
Absenteeism, 10-43
Acceptance testing, technology application,
Access control systems, 18-21
security control, 18-22
Accident investigations, 12-20
checklist, 12-21 (Table 12-5)
personnel, 12-21
Accident prevention programs, 12-16
development of, 12-2
Accident reports (see also Occupational injuries and illnesses), 12-21
Accounting, just-in-time manufacturing, 15-33
Accounting control systems, management conAccounting rate of return, 3-39
example, 3-39 (Table 3-10)
Advanced manufacturing technologies, manuAdult education, 9-19
AEM (see Hitachi assemblability evaluation
Affiliation network, 6-3
Age discrimination (see Discrimination)
Aggregate planning, 20-7
AGVs (see Automated guided vehicles)
AIAG (see Automotive Industry Action Group)
Air conditioning (see HVAC systems)
Air pollution, 18-27
Alcoholism (see Substance abuse) 1
American National Standards Institute, 14-2,
American Production and Inventory Control
Society, 10-17
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Engineers, 18-23,
ANSI (see American National Standards InstiAPICS (see American Production and InvenAppraisal costs, quality systems, 15-15 (Table
Arbitration, 11-5
Arborist program, 3-25
sample printout, 3-26 (Fig. 3-13)
Aristotle, 5-2
“As Is” manufacturing system, 8-12
ASHRAE (see American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers)
AS/RS (see Automated storage and retrieval
systems)
Association for Quality and Participation,
Association of Iron and Steel Electrical EngiAutomated assembly systems, 16-10
basic concepts, 16-10 (Fig. 16-5)
Automated guided vehicles, 16-12
Automated storage and retrieval systems,
Automated workcenters, budgeting, 4-6
Automotive Industry Action Group, 21-10
8-20
trol, 2-8
facturing design, 13-5
delivery systems, 9-20
method)
14-7
18-24
tute)
tory Control Society)
15-9), 24-4, 24-5 (Table 24-4)
23-13
neers, 12-1
16-1 1
purchase release form, 21-11 (Fig. 21-10)
Award programs (see Suggestion award proAxiomatic design, 13-12
p m s )
Baselines, planning tool, 8-11, 8-12 (Fig.
Batch manufacturing, cost estimating, 4-8
Behavior problems, 10-20
Behaviorist theory of motivation, 7-8
Benchmark alternatives, 3-14
Bhopal accident, 5-7
Black and Decker, 15-1
Blanket orders, 21-12
Bonus programs, 10-10
Boothroyd-Dewhurst DFA method, 13-19
Boycotts (see Strikes)
Broad span management, 6-10
Budgeting 4-3
automated workcenters, 4-6
management control, 2-6
project planning, 17-6
quality costs, 24-2
Building integrity, 18-20
Business strategy
capital investment analysis example, 3-28
example, 3-5 (Table 3-1)
relationship to manufacturing investment,
relationship to manufacturing strategy,
8-14)
3-4
19-3
C
CACE (see Computer-assisted cost estimating)
architecture, engineering, and construction
design for manufacture, 13-9
electrical/electronics systems, 16-5
market segments and growth, 16-5 (Figs.
16-2 and 16-3)
plant layout, 18-11
standards, 16-6
technical publications, 16-6
electronics, 16-7
mechanical, 16-6
Capability index, 23-9
Capacity planning, 20-11
Capital expenses
equipment, 3-19
project budgeting, 17-6
project planning, 17-6
turing investments), 3-28
example of, 3-28, 3-41
business strategy, 3-29
decision tree, 3-36
dynamic modeling, 3-32
economic translation, 3-32
investment decision, 3-36
manufacturing strategy, 3-29
operational plan, 3-30
CAD, 16-4
systems, 16-6
CAE, 16-6
Capital investment analysis (see also Manufacfinancial analysis, 3-30
traditional, 3-38
CAPP, 16-7
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection, 16-17
Carson, Rachel, 5-8
CASA/SME (see Computer and Automated
Systems Association of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers)
after tax summary, 3-43 (Table 3-17), 3-46
Cash flows, 3-49
3
Cash flows (cont.)
(Table 3-26)
dealing with, 3-50
definition, 3-49
earnings compared with, 3-50 (Tables 3-28
estimating, 3-5 1
investment analysis, 3-39 (Table 3-9),
3-40, 3-45 (Table 3-24), 3-46 (Table
residual value, 3-51
and 3-29)
3-25)
CB (Certification Body) scheme, 14-4
CEE (see Commission for Conformity CertifiCellular manufacturing, 20-26
Ceilings, 18-13
cleaning, 18-14
Certification, 14-7
international, 14-3
self-certification, 14-7
third party, 14-8, 14-9 (Fig. 14-4)
vendor, 21-13
cation of Electrical Equipment)
Chandler, Alfred, 16-22
Changeover reduction, just-in-time manufacChernobyl accident, 5-7
Cicero, 5-2
CIM (see Computer-integrated manufacturing)
CIM wheel, 16-2 (Fig. 16-1)
CIM I (see Computer-interfaced manufacturCIM I1 (see Computer-integrative manageCivil Rights Act of 1964, 11-6
Cleaning equipment, 18-1 5
Closed circuit television,
security control, 18-22
security device, 18-21
turing, 15-8, 15-14, 15-31
ing)
ment)
CNC (see Computer numerical control)
Coaching, 9-18
Cogeneration, 18-25
equipment, 18-26
fuels, 18-26
power demands, 18-25
factor influencing compensation, 10-2
good faith bargaining 11-3, 11-4
Combustible materials, storage, 18-18
Commission for Conformity Certification of
Commodity analysis, just-in-time manufacturCommunication, 7-10, 10-29
Collective bargaining, 11-2, 11-3
Electrical Equipment, 14-4
ing, 15-16 (Figs. 15-10 and 15-11)
barriers to, 7-11
medium, 7-10
model, 7-11 (Fig. 7-7)
organizational setting, 7-10
Communications network, 6-3
Communities
factor in site selection, 18-6
form €orcomparing data, 18-8 (Table 18-4)
Company policies (see Management policies)
Company standards program 14-4
communication, 14-9
development
external, 14-7 (Table 14-3), 14-8 (Table
internal, 14-6 (Fig. 14-2)
external, 14-5
internal, 14-5
organization and personnel, 14-5
14-4)
Comparable worth, factor influencing compenCompensation, 10-1
sation, 10-2
factors influencing, 10-2
hourly rate pay programs, 10-4
salary programs, 10-10Complaints, 10-43
nonunion environment, 10-46
Compound interest, 3-38
tables, 3-52
Computer-aided design (see CAD)
Computer-aided engineering (see CAE)
Computer-aided instruction, 9-18
Computer-aided process planning (see CAPP)
Computer and Automated Systems Association
of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers,
Computer-assisted cost estimating, 4-12
Computer-integrated manufacturing, 2-21,
benefits, 2-25, 16-4 (Table 16-1), 16-21
definition, 2-25, 16-1
design for manufacture, 13-10
forces in shaping, 16-3
graphic representation, 16-2 (Fig. 16-1)
group technology, 16-7
implementation, 16-3, 16-20
issues, 2-25
justifying, 16-20
management control systems, 2-4, 2-1 1
planning for, 16-20
survey conclusions, 2-27
survey observations, 2-26
technologies, 16-4, 16-15
five threads of, 16-27, 16-28 (Fig. 16-20)
eighth-level model, 16-25 (Fig. 16-15)
logic of, 16-23
organizational structure in, 6-7, 6-8 (Table
Computer-interfaced manufacturing (CIM I)
logic of, 16-23
organizational structure in, 6-7
Computer numerical control, 16-13
Computing technology
CIM, 16-15, 16-23 (Fig. 16-11)
control hierarchy, 16-15 (Fig. 16-8)
CNC (see Computer numerical control)
Contingency theory of leadership, 7-3
Continuing education, 9-19
Contracts, 17-17
16-2
16-1
(Table 16-3)
Computer-integrative management (CIM TT)
6-1)
delivery systems, 9-20
intellectual property protection, 17-19
liability under, 17-20
modification, 17-18
procurement, 2 1-12
types of, 17-17, 17-18
flow of authority in, 5-6 (Fig. 5-2)
stockholders, 5-5
transfer of authority in, 5-5
Cost accounting systems
actual, 2-9
allocation of costs, 2-10
computation of product costs, 2-1 1
facilitation of process control, 2-10
full costing, 2-10
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-34
management control, 2-9
standard, 2-9
variable costing, 2-10
definition, 4-2
examples, 4-3 (Table 4-1)
definition, 4-1
management control, 2-15
batch manufacturing, 4-8
computer assisted, 4-12
cost review process, 4-8
Copyrights, 17-19
Corporation, 5-5
Cost centers
Cost control
Cost estimating (see also Cost review process),
4-6
Cost estimating (cont.)
definition, 4-1
economic translation, 3-19
labor costs, 4-7
manufacturing investments, 3-19
material costs, 4-7
products, 24-2
required input, 4-7
Cost estimating grid method, 4-7, 4-9
example 4-8 (Fig. 4-1)
integration with learning curves, 4-1 1
Cost forecasting (see also Cost estimating),
flow shop, 4-8
4-12
parametric estimating systems, 4-12
work progress forecasting algorithms, 4-13
composite, 3-47
financial analysis of investments, 3-38,
inflation, 3-49
Cost of debt, 3-48
Cost of equity, 3-48
Cost overruns, 17-18
Cost recovery, 4-1
automated workcenters, 4-6
budgeting for, 4-3
Cost reduction programs, 10-36
Cost-reimbursement contracts, 17-17
cost-plus-award fee, 17-17
cost-plus-fixed fee, 17-17
cost sharing, 17-17
cost without fee, 17-17
Cost of capital
3-40
Cost review process (see also Cost estimating)
4-8
establishing date, 4-9
cost estimating for, 4-9
CPM (see Critical path method)
CPR (see Current product review)
Critical path method, 17-4, 17-13
Crosby, Phil, 22-10, 23-12
CSMA/CD (see Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with Collision Detection)
Current product review, just-in-time manufacturing, 15-26
charts, 17-9
Data management, CIM, 16-2, 16-15
Davis-Bacon Act of 1931, 10-2
Debt, cost of (see Cost of debt)
Decision analysis, 3-23
Decision data system, plant layout, 18-11
Decision making, group behavior, 7-9
Decision trees, 7-4
decision analysis, 3-25
examples, 3-26 (Fig. 3-13), 3-27 (Fig.
flowchart, 7-5 (Fig. 7-3)
use of in capital investment analysis examDedicated facilities, repetitive manufacturing,
Delegation of authority, 6-1
Demand
forecasting, 20-5
simulation of, 20-27
Deming, Dr. W. Edwards, 22-13
Dental insurance, 10-13
Department of Energy, 18-23
Departmentalization (see Organizational subDesign engineering, just-in-time manufactur-
3-14)
ple, 3-32, 3-36 (Fig. 3-18)
21-17
units)
ing, 15-12, 15-26
Design failure mode and effects analysis (see
Design for assembly, 13-19
Design for manufacture (see also Parts design),
Failure mode and effects analysis)
13-1
advanced manufacturing techniques, 13-5
basics, 13-2
benefits of specialization, 13-7 (Fig. 13-8)
changing needs, 13-5
comparison of methodologies, 13-30,
13-31 (Fig. 13-29)
computer-aided, 13-25
decision categories, 1-10 (Table 1-1)
cost reduction, 13-7
flexibility, 13-8
guidelines, 13-14
imperatives for, 13-1 1
interactions, 13-2 (Fig. 13-1)
objectives, 13-9, 13-11
organizational issues, 13-5, 13-6 (Fig.
methodologies, 13-12
process, 13-2, 13-10 (Fig. 13-12)
quantitative evaluation, 13-19
specialization, 13-6
tools, 13-13 (Fig. 13-14), 13-25
Design process, 13-2
definition, 13-3
13-7)
factors in conceptual phase, 15-24 (Table
15-12)
iterative nature of, 13-4
manufacturability, 13-7
phases, 13-3 (Fig. 13-2)
problem definition, 13-3
problem solving, 13-3
reports, just-in-time manufacturing, 15-25
new product development, 23-2
team members, 23-4 (Table 23-1)
(Table 15-13)
Design review
Design team approach, 13-1 1
DFA (see Design for assembly)
DFM (see Design for manufacture)
Digital interfacing (see Computer-interfaced
manufacturing)
Direct labor costs
definition, 4-2
determination of, 4-4
estimating, 4-7
obtaining estimates for, 3-21
project budgeting, 17-6
estimating, 4-7
obtaining estimates for, 3-22
variances, 2-9
Disaster control, 18-16
preventive planning, 18-16
procedures, 18-19
Disasters, types of, 18-16
Discipline, 10-42
nonunion environment, 10-46
Discrimination
age, 11-7
employment, 11-3, 11-6
forcing employer to, 11-4
handicapped, 11-7
hiring practices, 11-6
national origin, 1 1-7
race, 11-6
religion, 11-7
sex, 11-7
Distributed numerical control, 16-13
example of system integration, 19-12
typical layout, 16-13 (Fig. 16-7)
Distribution, just-in-time manufacturing, 15-33
DNC (see Distributed numerical control)
DOE (see Department of Energy)
Drug addiction (see Substance abuse)
Direct material costs, 4-2INDEX
Dynamic modeling (see also Models)
capital investment analysis example, 3-32
manufacturing systems, 3-6
E
EAP (see Employee assistance programs)
Early manufacturing involvement, just-in-time
Economic spreadsheet, 3-15
Economic translation, 3-14
manufacturing, 15-26
categories, 3-15
example, 3-16 (Fig. 3-10)
benchmark alternatives, 3-14
capital investment analysis example, 3-32
incremental comparison of alternatives,
EEOC (see Equal Employment Opportunity
Emergency planning, 12-22
3-15
Commission)
fires, 12-22
first aid, 12-22
physician for, 12-22
Emergency power, 18-19
EM1 (see Early manufacturing involvement)
Employee assistance programs, 10-15
Employee benefits, 10-11, 11-7
employee assistance programs, 10-15
health awareness programs, 10-13
insurance, 10-12
mandatory, 10-12
miscellaneous, 10-13
pay for not working, 10-12
pensions, 10-13
Employee handbook, 10-45
Employee orientation (see Orientation)
Employee recruitment (see Recruitment)
Employee referrals, 9-5
Employee representation, 11-2
Employee rights, 11-1
interference with union organizing, 11-3
under OSHA, 12-5 (Table 12-2)
union organizing, 11-1
Employee selection (see Selection)
Employee services, 10-16
Employee testing, 11-6
Employer’s rights and responsibilities, 10-42
Energy audits, 18-23
Energy conservation, 18-24
Energy management (see also Utilities), 18-23
conservation, 18-24
standards, 18-23
sources, 18-24
Energy sources, 18-24
Engineering changes, 13-4
occupational safety, 12-12
under OSHA, 12-4 (Table 12-1)
cost of, 13-4 (Fig. 13-4), 13-8 (Fig. 13-11)
minimizing, 13-8
phased product development, 13-6 (Fig.
Engineering economics (see Financial analysis)
Environmental impact, factor in site selection,
Environmental protection, 18-26
Environmental Protection Agency, 18-24,
EPA (see Environmental Protection Agency)
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
Equal Pay Act of 1963, 10-2
Equipment installation, 19-14
Equipment planning, 19-1
Equipment selection (see also Technology se-
13-6)
18-5, 18-7
jurisdictions, 18-27 (Table 18-5)
18-26
11-6
issues, 19-4
lection), 19-4
Equipment selection (cont.)
criteria development, 19-5
example, 19-4, 19-5 (Table 19-2)
process of, 19-6
steps, 19-7 (Fig. 19-4)
Equity, cost of (see Cost of Equity)
Equity theory of motivation, 7-7
Ethics
international business, 5-11
manufacturing managers, 5-10
industrial facilities, 18-18
security measures during, 18-18
Expectancy theory of motivation, 7-8
model, 7-8 (Fig. 7-5)
Expected value, 3-25
Explosives
storage of, 18-18
Expense costs, project budgeting, 17-6
Expense rate, determination of, 4-4, 4-6
Evacuation
F
Facilities planning, 18-1
disaster control, 18-16
energy management, 18-23
housekeeping, 18-12
layout, 18-8
pollution abatement, 18-26
security, 18-19
site selection, 18-1
Factory overhead variance, 2-10
Failure costs, of quality systems, 15-18 (Tables
15-10 and 15-11), 24-5, 24-6 (Table 24-5)
Failure mode and effects analysis, 13-27, 24-4
forms, 13-28 (Figs. 13-26 and 13-27)
job hazards, 12-18 (Fig. 12-8)
new product development, 23-2
Fair employment practices, 11-6
Fair Labor Standards Act, 10-2, 11-5
FARs (see Federal Acquisition Regulations)
FAS (see Flexible assembly systems)
Fasteners, parts design, 13-16
Fault tree analysis, 12-18, 12-19 (Fig. 12-9)
design review, 23-4
examples, 23-5 (Fig. 23-1)
Federal Acquisition Regulations, 17-17
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 18-26
Feigenbaum, A.V., 22-10, 22-14
Fein, Michael, 10-8
FERC (see Federal Energy Regulatory ComFiduciary responsibilities, 5-1
Fiedler’s contingency theory, 7-3
Fifth-generation computers, 16-22
Fifth-generation management (see ComputerFile transfer access method, 16-18
Financial analysis
mission)
ancient cultures, 5-2
model, 7-4 (Fig. 7-2)
integrative management)
capital investment analysis example, 3-30,
3-31 (Fig. 3-17)
investments, 3-38
comparison of, 18-17 (Fig. 18-4)
classification of, 18-18 (Fig. 18-5)
emergency planning for, 12-22
prevention, 18-17
facilities and equipment, 12-23
training, 12-22
definition, 4-2
Fire detection devices, 18-17
Fire suppression systems, 18-17
Fires
First aid, 12-22
Fixed costs
Fixed-price contracts, 17-18
Flexible assembly systems, tool for processdriven design, 13-24
Flexible automation, 13-8
Flexible benefit programs, 10-1 1
Flexible budgets, 2-3, 2-4
Flexible manufacturing system, 16-9
schematic, 16-9 (Fig. 16-4)
specification, 8-16 (Fig. 8-18)
subsystems, 8-19 (Fig. 8-19)
Flood plains, 18-19
Floors, 18-13
cleaning, 18-14
Flow shops, cost estimating, 4-8
FLSA (see Fair Labor Standards Act)
FMEA (see Failure mode and effects analysis)
FMS (see Flexible manufacturing system)
Forecasting, 20-1
seasonality, 20-2
statistics, 20-3
theory, 20-1
firm-fixed price, 17-18
fixed price level of effort, 17-18
Ford, Henry, 5-8, 15-10, 21-17
Forecasting, just-in-time manufacturing,
15-12, 15-27
Fourth-generation management (see Computerinterfaced manufacturing)
Franklin, Benjamin, 5-4
Free enterprise system, 5-3
Fringe benefits (see Employee benefits)
FTA (see Fault tree analysis)
FTAM (see File transfer access method)
Functional network, 6-2
G
G&A (See General and administrative costs)
Gages, capability studies, 23-1 1
Galbreath, John Kenneth, 5-4
Gantt charts, 17-9
GE (see General Electric)
General and administrative costs
example, 15-26 (Fig. 15-20), 17-9 (Fig.
17-4), 17-15 (Fig. 17-7)
definition, 4-2
determination of, 4-5
project budgeting, 17-6
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-1
model, 1-11 (Fig. 1-11)
planning at, 1-9
General Electric
General Motors, role in development of MAP,
GM (see General Motors)
Goal setting theory of motivation, 7-8
Grievances, 10-43
Grounds, 18-14
Groundwater protection, 18-28
Group behavior, 7-9
19-7
GPSS, 3-7
decision making, 7-9
disadvantages, 7-10
Homan’s model, 7-9 (Fig. 7-6)
standards of conduct, 7-9
Group technology, 13-25, 16-7
benefits, 16-8
manufacturing strategy, 19-3
work flow patterns, 20-26
Guards, 18-22
H
Handicapped worker discrimination (see Discrimination)
1-3INDEX
Harley-Davidson, just-in-time manufacturing,
Harrington, Joseph, Jr., 16-1,16-27
Hazard communication standard, 12-4
Hazardous wastes, 18-28
Hazards (see also Occupational safety), 12-16
analysis of, 12-16
failure mode and effect analysis, 12-18
fault tree analysis, 12-18,12-19 (Fig.
workplace, 12-17(Fig. 12-7)
15-1
(Fig. 12-8)
12-9)
control methods, 12-20
control of, 12-18
cost effectiveness evaluations, example,
12-17(Fig. 12-6)
evacuation, 18-18
inspections for, 12-20
components, 10-14
evaluation, 10-14
goals, 10-14
starting, 10-14
Health awareness programs, 10-13
Health insurance, 10-13
Heat recovery systems, 18-25
Heating (see HVAC systems)
Herzberg, Frederick, theory of motivation, 7-7
Hiring practices, 11-6
Hirshleifer, Jack, 3-23
Hitachi assemblability evaluation method,
Holidays, 10-12
Homan’s model of human behavior, 7-9 (Fig.
Hourly rate pay programs, 10-4
Housekeeping (see also Maintenance), 18-12
design considerations, 18-14
equipment, 18-15
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-4,15-21
management policies, 10-41
staff, 18-14
supplies, 18-14
types of facilities, 18-12
Human resources
management control, 2-13
project planning, 17-5
HVAC systems, 18-24,18-25
legislation, 9-7(Table 9-1)
13-19
7-6)
I
IBM, planning at, 1-9, 1-12(Fig. 1-12)
IDEF model, 8-8, 8-13
examples, 8-9(Fig. 8-9),8-14(Fig. 8-16),
nomenclature, 8-8 (Fig. 8-8)
IEC (see International Electrotechnical Commission)
IEC System for Conformity Testing to Standards for Safety for Electrical Equipment,
IECEE (see E C System for Conformity Testing to Standards for Safety for Electrical
Equipment)
IGES (see Initial graphics exchange standard)
IMPROSHARE (IMproved PROductivity
through SHARing) plans, 10-8
Indirect labor costs
8-15(Fig. 8-17)
14-4
definition, 4-2
budgeting, 4-5
Indirect manufacturing costs
definition, 4-2
determination of, 4-5
obtaining estimates for, 3-19
Industrial facilities
cleaning, 18-14
ceilings, 18-13
Industrial facilities {cont.)
dedicated for repetitive manufacturing,
floors, 18-13
grounds, 18-14
housekeeping, design considerations, 18-14
roadways, 18-14
roofs, 18-13
types of, 18-12
walls, 18-13
21-17
Industrial Revolution, 5-3
Industrial safety (see Occupational safety)
Industrial Technology Institute, 3-7
Influence network, 6-3
Information definition model (see IDEF model)
Information resource management, component
Initial graphics exchange standard, 16-6
Inspection (see Quality inspection)
Insurance
factor in disaster control, 18-19
fringe benefits, 10-12
Intellectual property protection, 17-19
copyrights, 17-19
licenses, 17-19
patents, 17-19
trade secrets, 17-20
trademarks, 17-20
Internal rate of return, 3-40
calculation examples, 3-41 (Tables 3-13
International Business Machines (see IBM)
International Electrotechnical Commission,
International Organization for Standardization,
of CIM, 16-2
and 3-14),3-44(Table 3-19)
14-3
14-3
definition of standards, 23-15
role in development of MAP, 19-8
guidelines, 9-8(Fig. 9-5)
problems in, 9-7
techniques, 9-6
types of, 9-6
Inventory control
documentation, 21-15
Inventory costs, obtaining estimates for, 3-22
Inventory management, 21-1
demand, 21-2
just-in-time, 21-6
replenishment, 21-2
safety stock, 21-2,21-3 (Table 21-1)
seasonal demand graph, 21-3(Fig. 21-3)
theoretical basis, 21-3
use of forecasting in, 21-1
warnings, 21-6
Interviews
Inventory planning, 20-9
IRM (see Information resource management)
Ishikawa diagram, 23-14 (Fig. 23-8),24-11,
IS0 (see International Organization for Stan-
24-12(Fig. 24-12)
dardization)
J
JIT (see Just-in-time manufacturing)
Job analysis, 9-1
linear model of, 9-5 (Fig. 9-3)
purpose of, 9-2
task analysis, 9-4
task inventory, 9-3
tools and techniques for, 9-2
development of, 9-3
examples, 9-3(Fig. 9-l),9-4(Fig. 9-2)
purpose of, 9-2
Job enrichment, 10-28
Job descriptions
Job shop production, 20-24
Job posting, 9-5
Juran Institute, 22-10
Juran model for quality costs, 22-12 (Fig.
Juran trilogy, 22-11
Just-in-time inventory, 21-6
22-13)
continuing improvement process, 21-7
(Fig. 21-6)
definition, 21-6
example of RFQ, 21-10(Fig. 21-9)
manufactured parts, 21-6
purchased parts, 21-6
reliability of supply, 21-7
visual control, 21-8
Just-in-time manufacturing, 2-18, 15-1, 16-4,
control implementation, 20-20
improvements resulting from, 2-18 (Table
management control systems, 2-4,2-11
planning requirements, 20-20
program phases, 15-11
conceptual design, 15-23
diagnostic review, 15-11
implementation planning, 15-24
20-19, 22-13
2-4)
set-up reduction, 20-21
signal methods, 20-20
steps in program, 2-19(Fig. 2-5)
themes and modules, 15-2
education, 15-4
housekeeping, 15-4
organization, 15-3
planning, 15-3
process flow, 15-7
pull system, 15-9
quality improvement, 15-5
set-up and changeover reduction, 15-8
supplier network integration, 15-10
uniform plant load, 15-7
work scheduling, 10-17
K
Kanban, 20-20
Kitting, 13-8
Knowledge-based pay, 10-10
1
Labor costs (See Direct labor costs)
Labor efficiency variance, 2-10
Labor Management Relations Act, 11-1
enforcement, 11-4
rights under Section 7,11-1
Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure
Act (see Labor Management Relations Act)
Labor market
factor in site selection, 18-2,18-6
factor influencing compensation, 10-2
calculation of, 4-3
components of, 4-2
Labor rate variance, 2-10
Labor relations legislation, 11-1
Landrum-Griffin Act (see Labor Management
Leader behavior, 7-2
team development, 9-13,9-16
Leadership (see Manufacturing leadership)
Learning curves 4-10
effects of, 4-12
integrating into cost estimate grid, 4-11
Military standard 1567A, 4-11
Labor overhead rate
Relations Act)
paramiters and types, 4-10 (Fig. 4-2)
(Table 4-5)
1-4Learning curves (cont.)
realization factors, 4-1 1
civil rights, 11-6
labor, 10-2, 10-3 (Table 10-1)
hiring practices, 9-7 (Table 9-1)
labor management relations, 1 1-1
occupational safety, 12-1, 12-2
wage and hour, 11-5
Legislation
Liability (see Product liability)
Licenses, 17-19
Life insurance, 10-13
Lifecycle costs, 24-8
Limited access zones, 18-20
Line/staff management, 6-9
LMRA (see Labor Management Relations Act)
Locke, John, 5-3
LOH (see Labor overhead rate)
Long-term disability insurance, 10-13
Lost sales, due to quality problems, 24-8 (Fig.
24-6)
Machine loading, 20-12
Machinery and Allied Products Institute
Macroeconomic analysis, site selection, 18-2
Magna Carta, 5-2
Maintenance (see also Housekeeping), 19-15
method (see MAPI method)
benefits of, 19-15
development of program, 19-16
principles, 19-15
security systems, 18-22
Management by objectives, 7-8
Management control, 2-1
assessment, 2-13
characteristics, 2-5
concepts, 2-4
definition, 2-1
direct labor control, 10-32
feedback function, 2-4
indirect labor control, 10-33
levels, 2-5, 2-12
operation of, 2-5
overview of systems and technologies, 2-16
process control, 2-8
tools and techniques, 2-6
financial control, 2-6
operational control, 2-6
Management control systems, 2-2
evolution of, 2-3
factors in, 2-7 (Table 2-1)
models, 2-2 (Figs. 2-1 and 2-2), 2-3 (Fig.
2-3)
Management environments, 10-44
Management information systems
nonunion, 10-44
union, 10-48
data requirements, 17-10 (Table 17-1)
plant layout, 18-1 1
project planning and control, 17-9
Management of technology, 8-1
action plan, 8-12 (Fig. 8-13)
concepts, 8-1
lifecycle, 8-1, 8-2 (Fig. 8-1)
management action model, 8-4
Management plans
communications, 17-8
project planning, 17-7
project organization, 17-7
staffing, 17-7
tools, 8-11
Management policies
disaster control, 18-19
employee relations, 10-4 1
Management policies (cont.)
housekeeping, 10-41
nonunion environment, 10-45
security policy, 18-19
standards, 14-4
occupational safety, 12-11, 12-12 (Fig.
Manufacturability, 13-7
Manufacturing automation protocol (see MAP)
Manufacturing automation protocol and techniManufacturing cells, 16-9
Manufacturing control (see Management conManufacturing costs, types of, 4-1
Manufacturing design (see Design for manuManufacturing investments (see also Capital
12-5)
cal and office protocol (see MAP/TOP)
schematic, 20-21 (Fig. 20-26)
trol)
facture)
investment analysis), 3-1
analysis and planning, 3-1, 3-38
part of strategy, 3-4
through decision analysis, 3-23
through economic translation, 3-14
analysis example, 3-28
Manufacturing leadership, 7-1
approaches to, 7-1, 7-3 (Fig. 7-1)
essential components, 7-12
theories of, 7-2
situational theories, 7-3
trait theory, 7-2
CIM 11, 16-19
Manufacturing machinery
auxiliary, 16-11
controls, 16-13
ethics, 5-10, 5-12
organization, 6-10
philosophy of, 5-1
CIM, 16-8
Manufacturing management
Manufacturing message format service, 16-18
Manufacturing model, example, 13-5 (Fig.
Manufacturing policy
13-5)
model, 1-6
process of determining, 1-8 (Fig. 1-9)
Manufacturing processes, planning and conManufacturing resource planning (MRP 11),
trolling, 16-14
2-16, 16-24, 22-13
content, 2-17
long-range planning, 15-10
management control systems, 2-4
model, 2-17 (Fig. 2-4)
results, 2-18 (Table 2-3)
work scheduling, 10-17
Manufacturing resource planning systems,
Manufacturing strategy
16-14
capital investment analysis example, 3-29
group technology, 19-3
interrelationship matrix, 19-4 (Fig. 19-2)
relationship to business strategy, 19-3
relationship to capability and capacity, 19-3
relationship to manufacturing investment,
(Fig. 19-1)
3-4
Manufacturing systems, 3-5
development of decision tree for, 3-6
dynamic modeling of, 3-6,3-35 (Table 3-8)
estimate of performance, 3-7
high resolution, 3-8
rough-cut, 3-7
evolution of, 3-5
functionality of, 3-5
operational planning for, 3-6
Manuplan
capital investment analysis example, 3-33
modeling manufacturing systems, 3-7, 3-9
Table 3-6), 3-34 (Table 3-7)
(Fig. 3-2)
MAP, 19-8, 16-23
MAP/TOP, 16-15, 16-23
application view, 16-18
building blocks, 16-19 (Fig. 16-10)
future options, 16-19
network protocols, 16-16
MAPI method, 3-39
Maslow-Alderfer theory, 7-6
Master production scheduling (see also SchedAlderfer’s approach, 7-6 (Fig. 7-4)
uling), 2-16, 20-7, 21-18
authorization of 20-10
example, 20-10 (Fig. 20-10)
function of, 20-10
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-27
Material costs (see Direct material costs)
Material handling, receiving areas, 2 1-16
Material handling systems, 19-8
estimation of costs, 19-1 1
evaluation of performance, 19-10
flow development, 19-8
identifying alternatives, 19-9 (Table 19-3)
implementation of plan, 10-11
integration of subsystems, 19-11
system methodology, 19-9 (Fig. 19-5)
Material requirements planning, 2-16, 16-24,
20-14
database integration, 20-17
modular implementation, 20-18
typical systems, 20-14
Material review board, 23-5
Material safety data sheets, 12-4
Materials management, 21-1
Matrix departmentalization, 6-5
Matrix management, 17-7
example, 17-8 (Fig. 17-3)
MBO (see Management by objectives)
McClelland theory of motivation, 7-7
Measurement systems, capability studies,
Milestones, project planning, 17-4
Military standard 1567A, 4-11
Mill, John Stuart, 5-3
MMFS (see Manufacturing message format
Modeling software, 3-7, 20-28
Models (see also IDEF model)
23-1 1
METASAN, 3-7
service)
analysis of investments, manufacturing sysJuran model for quality costs, 22-12 (Fig.
management action model, 8-4, 8-4 (Fig.
manufacturing systems, 3-6
technology planning, 8-5 (Fig. 8-4)
technology selection, 8-2, 8-3 (Fig. 8-2)
tems, 3-35 (Table 3-8)
22-13)
8-3)
Monte Carlo technique, 3-24
Motivation, 7-6, 10-20
behaviorist/goal setting theories, 7-8
content theories, 7-6
job design, 10-23, 10-25 (Fig. 10-7)
process theories, 7-7
programs, 10-24
relationship to ability problems, 10-21
using personal goals, 10-22
Motivational programs, 10-24
MPS (see Master production scheduling)
MRP (see Material requirements planning)
MRP I1 (see Manufacturing resource planning)
Multiple processing units, fifth-generation
computers, 16-22
1-5INDEX
Narrow span management, 6-9
National Bureau of Standards, 14-2
National Council of Industrial Safety (see NaNational Electrical Code, 14-3
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
National Labor Relations Act (See Labor ManNational Labor Relations Board, 11-4
authority of, 11-5
certification of unions, 1 1-5
National Safety Council, 12-1, 12-2
NBS (see National Bureau of Standards)
NEC (see National Electrical Code)
Negligence, 24-7
Net present value, 3-40
definition of a standard, 23-15
tional Safety Council)
Health, 12-2, 12-3
agement Relations Act)
calculation examples, 3-40 (Table 3-1l),
tables, 3-52
3-43 (Table 3-18), 3-46 (Table 3-27)
Network Dynamics, Inc., 3-7
Network techniques, 17-4
New product development, 23-2
NIOSH (see National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health)
NLRB (see National Labor Relations Board)
Nodal management, 16-28
Noise abatement, 18-28
cycle of development, 23-2
OSHA sound level limits, 18-28 (Table
18-6)
Nonunion environments, managing in, 10-44
Normative theory of leadership, 7-4
Occupational injuries and illnesses (see also
employer liabilities, 12-25
forms for reporting, 12-8 (Fig. 12-3), 12-10
accountability for, 12-12
economic considerations, 12-11
historical development, 12-1
legislation, 12-1
management policy toward, 12-11
management strategies for, 12-11
organizations for, 12-1, 12-2, 12-13, 12-25
(Table 12-6)
training, 12-14
Accident reports), 12-7
(Fig. 12-4)
Occupational safety (see also Hazards), 12-1
methods, 12-14
OSHA requirements, 12-15 (Table
12-4)
violations and penalties, 12-7, 12-8
Occupational Safety and Health Act, 12-2
types of violations, 12-7
Occupational Safety and Health Administraauthority, 12-2, 18-26
citations, 12-7
contesting penalties, 12-8
hearings, 12-11
noise abatement, 18-28
penalties, 12-7
poster, 12-6 (Fig. 12-2)
recordkeeping requirements, 12-5
regional offices, 12-3 (Fig. 12-1)
training requirements, 12-15 (Table 12-4)
workplace inspections, 12-7
tion, 12-2
Occupational Safety and Health Review ComOccupational safety professional, 12-13
mission, 12-2, 12-3
Occupational safety professional (cont.)
duties and responsibilities, 12-13 (Table
Offshore buying offices, 21-15
Omark Industries, just-in-time manufacturing,
Open systems interconnect, 16-16, 16-24
seven-layer model, 16-17 (Fig. 16-9)
12-3)
15-1
application layer, 16-18
data link layer, 16-16
network layer, 16-18
physical layer protocols, 16-16
presentation layer, 16-18
session layer, 16-18
transport layer, 16-18
Opportunity assessment, 8-5, 8-8
Opportunity identification, 8-5, 8-6
tasks, 8-8 (Fig. 8-7)
process, 8-7
result, 8-7
storyboard, 8-7 (Fig. 8-6)
tasks, 8-6 (Fig. 8-5)
OPT (see Optimized production technology)
Optimization
product function, 13-10, 13-1 1
product/process concept, 13-10, 13-11
Optimized production technology, 10-17
Order entry, just-in-time manufacturing,
Order pointdorder quantities, 21-3
reorder pointheorder quantity logic, 2 1-3
statistical calculations of, 21-4
Organization (see also Project organization),
assessment in just-in-time manufacturing,
management, 6-9
views of, 6-1
Organization charts, 6-2
formal, 6-2
15-12, 15-27
6-1
15-12
chart of command, 6-2
chart of roles and tasks, 6-2
functional network, 6-2
affiliation network, 6-3
communications network, 6-3
influence network, 6-3
informal, 6-3
Organizational management, 6-9
broad span, 6-10
centralizatiorddecentralization, 6-9
line and staff, 6-9
narrow span, 6-9
evaluation of, 6-9
situational approach, 6-9
traditional approach, 6-8
management changes, 22-11
quality management, 22-10
quality planning, 22-1, 22-2 (Fig. 22-1)
advantages, 6-4
disadvantages, 6-4
functional division, 6-3, 6-5 (Fig. 6-2)
geographical division, 6-5, 6-6 (Fig. 6-5)
matrix departmentalization, 6-5, 6-7 (Fig.
numberhit size, 6-3
planning, 1-3
process division, 6-5 (Fig. 6-3)
product division, 6-5, 6-6 (Fig. 6-4)
time division, 6-3
Organizational structure design, 6-8
Organizational structures
Organizational subunits, 6-3
6-6)
Organized labor (see Unions)
Orientation, 9-9
example of checklist, 9-11 (Fig. 9-7)
items to include in, 9-10 (Fig. 9-6)
OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Health
OSHAct (see Occupational Safety and Health
OSI (see Open systems interconnect)
OST system of planning, 1-11
model, 1-13 (Fig. 1-13)
Ouchi, William, 7-1 1
Overhead costs, project planning, 17-7
Overtime pay, 11-5
Overtime, scheduling, 10-19
Administration)
Act)
P
Parametric estimating systems, 4- 12
Pareto, Vilfredo, 21-5
Partnership, 5-5
Parts classification, 13-26
Parts design (see also Design for manufacture)
compliance features, 13-17 (Fig. 13-16)
ease of fabrication, 13-16
elimination of adjustments, 13-18
elimination of parts, 13-15, 13-19
fasteners in, 13-16
flexible components, 13-18
minimization of assembly directions, 13-16
minimization of handling, 13-17 (Fig.
13-17), 13-18 (Figs. 13-18 and 13-19)
minimization of variation, 13-15
modular design, 13-15
multifunctionality, 13-16
multiuse, 13-16
Patents, 17-19
Path/goal model, 7-4
Payback period, 3-39
Payoff matrix, 3-24
PDES (see Product definition exchange speciPensions, 10-13
Performance action team, 23-13
Performance improvement, 10-36
Performance measures
example, 3-24 (Table 3-4)
fication)
comparison of, 19-2 (Table 19-1)
production operations, 20-25
purchasing department, 2 1-11
suppliers, 21-1 1
traditional vs. JIT, 2-11, 2-12 (Table 2-2)
Performance review, 10-38
appraisal sheet, 10-40 (Fig. 10-10)
Performance standards, 10-29
setting standards, 10-30
hourly employees, 10-30
salaried employees, 10-31
Personnel planning, 20-1 1
PERT, 17-5, 17-13
Charts, 17-9
examples, 17-5 (Fig. 17-21, 17-14 (Fig.
17-6)
Peters, Thomas J . , 7-11, 16-24, 22-10
Piecework (see Production incentive plans)
Planning (see Project planning or Strategic
Plant layout, 18-8
Planning)
computer-aided, 18-11
economic impact, 18-8
fundamentals, 18-8
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-32 (Table
types of, 18-9
planning, 15-18) 18-11
fixed position, 18-10
function or process, 18-9, 18-10 (Fig.
product process, 18-10 (Fig 18-3)
18-2)
Plato, 5-2
PLCs (see Programmable logic controllers)
1-6PMIS (see Project management information
Pollution abatement systems, 18-26
Prevention costs, of quality systems, 15-15
(Table 15-8), 24-4, 24-5 (Table 24-3)
Preventive maintenance (see Maintenance)
PRICE (see Programmed Review of Information for Costing and Evaluation)
Principle of least commitment, 13-1 1
Pritsker & Associates, 3-7
Private property, 5-3
Problem solving, 10-34
systems)
permits and reports, 18-27
finding causes, 10-35
problem definition, 10-35
problem recognition, 10-35
analytical definition, 23-7
capability index, 23-7
conceptual definition, 23-5
specification, 23-8
studies, 21-13, 23-10
Process costing, 2-9
Process-driven design, 13-24
Process capability, 23-5
flexible manufacturing, 13-9
tools for, 13-24
facility specific, 13-24
process specific, 13-24
Process flow
flowchart, 15-19 (Figs. 15-13 and 15-14)
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-7, 15-18,
15-32
Process planning, 8-9
Procurement, 21-8
contracts, 21-12
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-30
offshore, 21-14
repetitive manufacturing, 21-17
vendor relationships, 21-9
vendor quality and certification,*21-13
vendor selection, 21-8
Product definition exchange specification, 16-6
Product design (see Design for manufacture)
Product development (see New product develProduct improvement, 24-2
baseline for analysis, 24-6 (Table 24-7)
Product liability, 17-20, 24-7
incompetence, 17-20
negligence, 17-21
strict liability, 17-21
Production control, 20-1
capacity planning, 20-10
forecasting, 20-1
the production plan, 20-9
Production incentive plans, 10-4
large group, 10-7
small group, 10-6
Production planning, just-in-time manufacturProductivity improvement, 10-34
Professional codes, 5-1 1
5-13 (Fig. 5-3)
opment)
ing, 15-13, 15-27
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 5-12,
Profit and loss statement, example, 3-48 (Fig.
Profit-sharing programs, 10-7
Profitability index, 3-40
calculation examples, 3-40 (Table 3-12),
Program evaluation and review technique (see
PERT)
Programmable logic controllers, 16-14
Programmed Review of Information for Costing and Evaluation, 4-12
Programmed instruction, 9-18
Project closeout, 17-12
Project control, 17-8
3-20)
3-43
Project control (cont.)
project execution, 17-15
tools for, 17-8, 17-14
Project management, 17-1
CIM 11, 16-30
close out, 17-12
directing, 17-10
execution and control, 17-8
implementation example, 17-12
legal environment, 17-17
planning, 17-3
reporting, 17-12
also Management information systems)
software, 17-10, 17-11 (Table 17-2)
report format, 17-16 (Fig. 17-8)
difficulties, 17-3
responsibilities, 17-1
to client, 17-2
to line management, 17-2
to project team, 17-2
to suppliers, 17-2
Project management information systems (see
Project manager, 17-1
Project organization
example, 17-13
project planning, 17-7
Project planning, 17-3
budgeting, 17-6
management plan, 17-7
objectives, 17-3
resource requirements, 17-5
capital, 17-6
human, 17-5
services, 17-6
task planning, 17-4
project control, 17-1 1
project planning, 17-8
comparison with push system, 15-9 (Fig.
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-9
linked, 15-10 (Fig. 15-8)
overlapped, 15-10 (Fig. 15-8)
production planning, 20-1 1
Purchase orders, 21-12
Purchasing (see also Procurement)
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-14, 15-28
sample worksheet, 15-16 (Fig. 15-10)
Project reviews
Public image, of businesses, 5-8
Pull system
15-7)
Q
QFD (see Quality function deployment)
Quality, 23-1
Quality assurance (see Quality control)
Quality assurance team, 23-13
Quality audits, 22-14, 23-16
elements and procedures, 23-18
types of, 23-17
Quality circles, 10-24, 23-13
Quality control (see also Total quality control)
documentation, 21-14
just-in-time manufacturing systems, 15-5
(Table 15-4), 15-14
management control, 2-14
new product development, 23-2
off-line, 13-22
standards, 22-4 (Table 22-l), 23-17 (Table
suppliers, 21-14
table of contents, 22-8 (Fig. 22-9), 22-9
(Fig. 22-10)
American Society for Quality Control definition, 22-3
23-3)
Quality control manual, 22-7
Quality costs, 24-1
applications, 24-1
budgeting, 24-2
cost estimating, 24-2
departmental improvement, 24-2, 24-4
(Table 24-2)
baseline for analysis, 24-6 (Table 24-7)
data collection, 22-14
models, 22-12 (Figs. 22-13 and 22-14)
relationship with quality system, 24-2 (Fig.
reporting, 24-9, 24-10 (Fig. 24-8)
suppliers, 24-3
Quality function deployment, 23-4
example, 23-6 (Fig. 23-2)
Quality improvement, 24-9
continuous, 24-9
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-5, 15-31
problem solving, 24-9, 24-10 (Fig. 24-9),
24-11 (Figs. 24-10 and 24-11), 24-12
(Fig. 24-12)
number of inspectors, 22-11 (Table 22-2)
sampling, 21-15
monitoring results, 22-14
organization for, 22-10
statements and examples, 22-5 (Fig. 22-2)
forms, 22-9 (Fig. 22-11)
mission, policy, and plans, 22-3
new product development, 23-3
organizational hierarchy, 22-1, 22-2 (Fig.
personal objectives, 22-10 (Fig. 22-12)
plans, 22-7
24-1)
Quality inspection, 21-15, 22-10
Quality management (see also Quality planning)
Quality mission, 22-4
Quality planning, 22-1
22-1)
annual plans, 22-9
control of processing, 22-8
special programs, 22-8
Quality policy, 22-5
company-wide, 22-6
specific areas, 22-7
statements and examples, 22-5 (Figs. 22-3
and 22-4), 22-6 (Figs. 22-5, 22-6, and
22-7), 22-7 (Fig. 22-8)
appraisal costs, 15-15 (Table 15-9), 24-4,
24-5 (Table 24-4)
Crosby 14-step program, 23-12
descriptions of, 2-11 (Table 2-5)
external failure costs, 24-6 (Table 24-6)
internal failure costs, 24-5, 24-6 (Table
management control, 2-20
manufacturing focus, 24-4
prevention costs, 15-15 (Table 15-8), 24-4,
24-5 (Table 24-3)
Quality standards, (see Standards)
Queueing network theory, 3-7
Quality programs, 23-12
24-5)
R
Race discrimination (see Discrimination)
Realization factors, 4-11
Recalls, 24-8
Receiving, 21-15
Recordkeeping requirements
first aid treatment, 12-23
under OSHA, 12-5
Recruitment, 9-5
external methods, 9-6
internal methods, 9-5
example 3-25 (Table 3-5)
Regret matrix, 3-25
Regulation, discouragement of, 5-8
1-7INDEX
Reorder pointheorder quantity (see Order Point/
Repetitive manufacturing, 21-17
dedicated facilities, 21-17
line supply, 21-18
purchasing, 2 1-18
scheduling, 21-18
economic dimensions, 9-18
Order Quantity)
Retraining, 9-17
Return on investment measure (see ROI meaRight to strike (see Strikes)
Rights of employees (see Employee rights)
Risk analysis, 3-23
Roadways, 18-14
sure)
Robots, 16-12
flexible automation, 13-8
trends, 16-12 (Table 16-2)
Robust design, 13-20
assessment of, 13-23
identifying robust concepts, 13-21, 13-22
(Fig. 13-21)
minimizing source of variation, 13-22,
13-23 (Fig. 13-23)
optimization, 13-21 (Fig. 13-20)
variation tolerance, 13-23
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 5-8
ROI measure, 2-4
security, 18-20
ROP/ROQ (see Order poindorder quantity)
Rucker plan, 10-8
Roofs, 18-13
S
S&R (see Standardization and rationalization)
Safety (see Occupational safety)
Safety and health committees (see also Occupational safety), 12-13
Safety inspections (see Workplace inspections)
St. Thomas Aquinas, 5-2
Salary programs, 10-10
Sales planning, 20-7
Sampling, 21-15
Scanlon plan, 10-7
Scheduling (see also Master production scheduling), 20-22
determining priorities, 20-22
production, 15-13, 15-28, 20-27
shifts, 10-18
definition, 8-12
planning tool, 8-11
use in opportunity assessment, 8-8
Scenarios
Schneiderman’s quality model, 22-12 (Fig.
Schonberger, Dr. Richard J., 22-14
Seasonality analysis, forecasting, 20-2, 20-3
(Table 20-2)
Security, 18-19
22-14)
during evacuation, 18-18
implementation, 18-21
levels, 18-20
maintenance, 18-22
planning, 18-20
priorities, 18-20
Security control centers, 18-22
Security devices, 18-21
maintenance, 18-22
security control, 18-22
Selection, 9-6
decision guidelines, 9-9
steps in process, 9-6 (Fig. 9-4)
Semifixed costs, definition, 4-2
Services (see also Employee services)
factor in site selection, 18-6
providing for in project planning, 17-6
Set-up reduction, just-in-time manufacturing,
Sex discrimination (see Discrimination)
Shift scheduling, 10-18
Shop orders
15-8, 20-21
definition, 4-2
examples, 4-3 (Table 4-1)
forecasting, 20-5
work authorization, 20-23
Shop rules, 10-41
Shortages, inventory, 21-5
Sick leave, 10-12
Signal methods, 20-20
SIMAN, 3-7
SIMSCRIPT, 3-7
Simulation, 3-7, 20-27
demand, 20-27
production, 20-27
Simulation software, 3-7
Simultaneous engineering, 13-11
Site selection, 18-1
community in site analysis, 18-6
labor force, 18-6
services, 18-6
site characteristics, 18-7
taxes, 18-7
transportation, 18-7
economic analysis, 18-2
environmental considerations, 18-5
labor force, 18-2
planning, 18-2
taxes, 18-4
transportation considerations, 18-2
utilities, 18-4
Skill-based pay, 10-9
Smith, Adam, 5-3, 16-22
Social obligations of businesses, 5-6
Social Security Act of 1935, 10-2, 10-12
Social systems, evolution, 5-2
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
S U I T U E W Y , 18-5
(Table 18-l), 18-3 (Fig. 18-1)
SLAM 11, 3-7
resource for information on CIM, 10-17
professional code, 5-12, 5-13 (Fig. 5-3)
Sole proprietorship, 5-4
flow of authority in, 5-5 (Fig. 5-1)
Spare parts, forecasting demand for, 20-6
SPC (see Statistical process control)
Specialization
benefits of, 13-7 (Fig. 13-8)
manufacturing design, 13-6
Staffing, project planning, 17-7
Standardization and rationalization, 13-15,
13-25
Standards (see also Performance standards),
14-1, 23-15
advantages of, 23-16
classification, 23-15
definitions, 14-1, 23-15
development, 14-2
CAD, 16-6
external standards, 14-7 (Table 14-3),
14-8 (Table 14-4)
internal standards, 14-6
energy management, 18-23
environmental protection, 18-26
external, 14-5
history, 14-1
internal, 14-4
international, 14-3 (Table 14-2)
quality control, 22-4 (Table 22-1)
relationship to quality, 23-15
Standards of conduct
Statistical process control, 22- 13
Statistics, use in forecasting, 20-3
Stockholders, 5-5
Storage, 21-15
warehouse facilities, 21-16
Storyboarding, planning tool, 8-11
Strategic management
definition, 1-2
model, 1-6, 1-7 (Fig. 1-8)
Strategic planning
basics, 1-1
definition, 1-3
detailed, 1-7
examples, 1-9
factors affecting need for, 1-13, 1-14 (Figs.
implementation difficulties, 1-19
levels, 1-5 (Fig. 1-4)
model, 1-4, 1-5 (Fig. 1-5), 1-6
organizational focus, 1-3
paradoxes of, 1-18
perspective on, 1-2 (Fig. 1-1)
phases in evolution of, 1-15 (Figs. 1-16 and
pitfalls, 1-19
principles of, 1-7
reasons for, 1-3
relationship to quality function, 22-12
scope, 1-4
fine-tuning, 1-13
management considerations, 1-11
attitude toward planning, 1-11
system process, 1-11
profiles in, 1-14, 1-15 (Fig. 1-18)
Strategic quality planning, model, 24-2 (Fig.
Strikes
businesses, 5-1 1
group behavior, 7-9
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-6
Stockouts, 21-5
1-14 and 1-15)
1-17)
schools of thought, 1-15
Strategic planning process
24-2)
factor in unionization, 10-47
illegal, 11-4
right to, 11-1, 11-2
Substance abuse, 10-43
Suggestion award programs, 10-27
variations, 10-27
Supervisory manual, 10-45
Supplier network integration, just-in-time manSuppliers (see Vendors)
Support services (see Services)
Systems integration, 19-12
example, 19-12
ufacturing, 15-10
T
Taft-Hartley Act (see Labor Management ReTaguchi methods, 13-20, 13-22
lations Act)
loss function, 13-22, 13-23 (Fig. 13-22),
24-8
Task analysis, component of job analysis, 9-4
Task inventory, component of job analysis, 9-3
Task planning (see Project planning)
Taxes, factor in site selection, 18-4, 18-7
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 2-3, 16-22
Team development, 9-10
stages of growth, 9-10, 9-12 (Fig. 9-8)
ending, 9-16
forming, 9-12
14-1) norming, 9-13
producing, 9-16
(Table 23-3) storming, 9-15
types of, -14-2-(Tadle14-1), 14-3 (Fig.
typical standards for quality control, 23-17
1-8Technology application, 8-2, 8-18
acceptance testing, 8-20
detailed design, 8-19
implementation, 8-20
preliminary design, 8-19
support, 8-20
tasks, 8-18 (Fig, 8-20)
Technology control assessment, management
Technology planning, 8-1, 8-5
model, 8-5 (Fig. 8-4)
opportunity assessment, 8-8
opportunity identification, 8-6
criteria matrix, 19-10 (Table 19-4)
makebuy decision, 8-17
model, 8-2, 8-3 (Fig. 8-2)
procedure, 8-13 (Fig. 8-15)
review, 8-13
system building blocks, 8-17 (Fig. 8-19)
system specification, 8-14
system verification, 8-16
technology planning update, 8-18
equipment selection, 19-6
schematic of process, 19-6 (Fig. 19-3)
model, 1-13 (fig. 1-13)
planning at, 1-11
Theory Z, 7-11
TI (see Texas Instruments)
Time fences, production planning, 20-10
Time study method, work measurement, 10-30
'To Be" manufacturing system, 8-12
definition, 8-13
IDEF models, 8-14 (Fig. 8-16), 8-15 (Fig.
implementation, 8-18
Token Passing on a Bus protocols, 16-17
Tooling costs, definition, 4-2
Total quality control (see also Quality control),
TQC (see Total quality control)
Trade secrets, 17-20
Trademarks, 17-20
Trading companies, 2 1-14
Training, 9-17
control, 2-13
Technology selection (see also Equipment
selection), 8-1, 8-12
Technology transfer
Test equipment costs, definition, 4-2
Texas Instruments
8-17)
22-13, 22-14
manufacturing control systems, 2-4, 2-20
economic dimensions, 9-18
first aid, 12-22
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-4 (Table
occupational safety, 12-14
purchasing, 15-28
strategies, 9-18
vendors for just-in-time manufacturing,
resources, 9-19
15-3)
15-30
Training programs, 23-14
Trait theory of leadership, 7-2
Transaction analysis, sample, 3-21 (Fig. 3-12)
Transportation
costs, 18-2 (Table 18-l), 18-3 (Table 18-1)
factors in site selection, 18-2
Trend-seasonal forecast model, 20-5 (Table
Trends, forecasting, 20-3
20-4)
Umbrella agreements, 2 1-12
Underwriters Laboratories, 14-8 (Fig. 14-3)
Unemployment compensation, 10-12
Unfair labor practices, 11-3
Unfair labor practices (cont.)
management, 1 1-3
unions, 11-4
Uniform plant load, just-in-time manufacturUnion Carbide, Bhopal accident, 5-7
Union elections, 1 1-2
Union environment, managing in, 10-48
Union shop, 11-1
Unionization
communicating facts about, 10-47
management response to, 10-46
certification by NLRB, 1 1-5
discrimination against members, 11-3
factor in site selection, 18-3
financial obligations to, 10-47
illegal assistance to, 11-3
interference with organizing, 11-3
management response to organizing drive,
occupational safety, 12-1
right to organize, 11-1
Unsafe conditions (see Hazards)
Utilities, factor in site selection, 18-4, 18-7
ing, 15-7
Unions
10-46
Work flow patterns, 20-25
cellular/focused layouts and example,
20-26 (Fig. 20-30)
process queues, 20-27
traditional/functional layouts and example,
Work hours, 10-18
legislation, 11-5
overtime pay, 11-5
20-25, 20-26 (Fig. 20-29)
Work progress estimating systems, 4-12
Work sampling, performance standards, 10-3 1
Work scheduling, 10-17
computerized factory systems, 10-17
Worker's compensation, 10-12, 12-23
administration of, 12-25
factor in site selection, 18-3
benefits under, 12-25
coverage, 12-24
history of, 12-23, 12-24
objectives of, 12-24
Workforce development, 9-1
Workforce management, 10-1
Workplace inspections
safety inspections, 12-20
under OSHA, 12-7
V
Vacations, 10-12
Value analysis (see Value engineering)
Value engineering, 13-28, 17-7
Variable budgets, management control, 2-6
Variable costs, definition, 4-2
VE (see Value engineering)
Vendors
just-in-time manufacturing, 15-26
certification, just-in-time manufacturing,
certification of, 21-13
long-term considerations, 21-10
quality assurance, 2 1-14
relationships with, 21-9
scheduling, 2 1-12
selection of, 21-8
training for just-in-time manufacturing,
15-30
15-30
Ventilation (see W A C systems)
Wagner Act (see Labor Management Relations
Act)
Walls
cleaning, 18-14
exterior, 18-13
interior, 18-13
Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of 1936,
Warehousing facilities, 21-16
Warranties
10-2
controls, 2 1-17
express, 24-7
implied, 24-7
Waste treatment, 18-27
Water pollution, 18-27
Waterman, Robert J., 7-1 1
Weber, Max, 5-3
Western Electric Corp., quality assurance
Work authorization, 20-23
Work breakdown structure. 17-4
team, 23-13
examples, 17-4 (Fig. 17-1), 17-13 (Fig.
17-5)
X
XCELL
modeling manufacturing systems, 3-8
summary printout, 3-13 (Fig. 3-8)
Z
Zero defects program, 23-13
Zoning ordinances, factor in site selection  


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