كتاب Mechanical Measurements
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Mechanical Measurements

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كتاب Mechanical Measurements  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mechanical Measurements    كتاب Mechanical Measurements  Emptyالخميس 23 يونيو 2022, 11:20 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mechanical Measurements
Second Edition
S. P. Venkateshan  

كتاب Mechanical Measurements  M_m_2_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Nomenclature
Note: (1) Symbols having more than one meaning are context specific.
(2) Sparingly used symbols are not included in the Nomenclature.
Latin Alphabetical Symbols
a Acceleration, m/s2 or Speed of sound, m/s or Any parameter, appropriate
unit
A Area, m2
c Callendar correction, ◦C or Linear damping coefficient, N · s/m or Gas
concentration, m−3 or Speed of light, 3 × 108 m/s
C Specific heat, J/kg◦C or Capacitance of a liquid system, m2 or Capacitance
of a gas system, m · s2 or Electrical capacitance, F
Cd Coefficient of discharge, no unit
CD Drag coefficient, no unit
C
p Specific heat of a gas at constant pressure, J/kg◦C
CV Specific heat of a gas at constant volume, J/kg◦C
D Diameter, m
d Diameter, m or Degrees of freedom or Piezoelectric constant, Coul/N
E Electromotive force (emf), V or Emissive power, W/m2 or Young’s
modulus, Pa
Eb Total emissive power of a black body, W/m2
Ebλ Spectral emissive power of a black body, W/m2μm
Es Shear modulus, Pa
E˙ Enthalpy flux, W/m2
f Frequency, s−1 or H z or Friction factor, no unit
f D Doppler shift, H z
F Force, N
F A Fuel air ratio, kg( f uel)/kg(air)
g Acceleration due to gravity, standard value 9.804 m/s2
xiiixiv Nomenclature
G Gain, Numerical factor or in d B or Gauge constant, appropriate units or
Bulk modulus, Pa
Gr Grashof number, no unit
h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m2◦C or Head, m or Enthalpy, J/kg
−h
Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2◦C
HV Heating value, J/kg
H HV Higher Heating Value, J/kg
L HV Lower Heating Value, J/kg
I Electrical current, A or Influence coefficient, appropriate unit or Moment
of inertia, m4
Iλ Spectral radiation intensity, W/m2 · μm · ste
J Polar moment of inertia, m4
k Boltzmann constant, 1.39 × 10−23, J/K Number of factors in an experiment, no unit or Thermal conductivity, W/m◦C
−k
A Thermal conductivity area product, W · m/◦C
K Flow coefficient, no unit or Spring constant, N/m
L Length, m
m Fin parameter, m−1 or Mass, kg or Mean of a set of data, appropriate unit
m˙ Mass flow rate, kg/s
M Mach number, no unit or Molecular weight, g/mol or Moment, N · m or
Velocity of approach factor, no unit
n Index in a polytropic process, no unit or Number of data in a sample, no
unit
ni Number of levels for the ith factor, no unit
N Number of data in the population, no unit or Number count in analog to
digital conversion, no unit
NSt Strouhal number, no unit
Nu Nusselt number, no unit
p Pressure, Pa or Probability, no unit
ppmV Gas concentration based on volume, m−3
P Pressure, Pa Perimeter, m Power, W
PD Dissipation constant, W/m
p0 Stagnation pressure, Pa
Pe Peclet number = Re · Pr, no unit
Pr Prandtl number, ν/α, no unit
q Electrical charge (Coulomb), Coul or Heat flux, W/m2
Q Any derived quantity, appropriate unit or Heat transfer rate, W or Volume
flow rate, m3/s etc.
Q˙ P Peltier heat (power), W
Q˙ T Thomson heat (power), W
R Electrical resistance,  or Fluid friction resistance, 1/m · s or radius, m or
Thermal resistance, m2◦C/W
R
g Gas constant, J/kg · K
R Universal gas constant, J/mol · KNomenclature xv
Re Reynolds number
s Entropy, J/K or Entropy rate, W/K or Spacing, m
S Surface area, m2
Stk Stoke number, no unit
Se
Electrical sensitivity, appropriate unit
St Thermal sensitivity, appropriate unit
t Time, s or Temperature, ◦C or K or t - distribution or Thickness, m
tPt Platinum resistance temperature, ◦C
t90 Temperature according to ITS90, ◦C
T Period of a wave, s
T or Temperature, K or Torque, N · m
TB Brightness temperature, K
Tc
Color temperature, K
Tst Steam point temperature, K
Tt Total or Stagnation temperature, K or ◦C
T
tp Triple point temperature, K
T90 Temperature according to ITS90, K
u Uncertainty in a measured quantity, Appropriate units or ratio or percentage
V Potential difference (Volts) or Volume, m3 or Velocity, m/s
VP Peltier voltage, μV
VS Seebeck voltage, μV
VT Thomson voltage, μV
W Mass specific heat product, J/◦C or Weight of an object, N
x Displacement, m
−X
Indicated mean or average value of any quantity X
XC Capacitive reactance, 
X L Inductive reactance, 
Y Expansion factor, no unit
Z Electrical impedance, 
Acronyms
ac Alternating current
ADC Analog to Digital Converter
APD Avalnche Photo Diode
BSN Bosch Smoke Number
DAC Digital to Analog Converter
DAQ Data Acquisition
DAS Data Acquisition System
dc Direct current
DIAL Differential Absorption LIDAR
DOE Design Of Experimentxvi Nomenclature
DPM Digital panel meter
FID Flame Ionization Detector
GC Gas Chromatography
GC IR GC with Infrared spectrometer
GC MS GC with Mass spectrometer
HC Hydro Carbon
IR Infra Red
ISA Instrument Society of America
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LDV Laser Doppler Anemometer
LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging
LVDT Linear Voltage Differential Transformer
MS Mass Spectrometer
NDIR Non Dispersive Infrared Analyzer
NOx Mixture of oxides of nitrogen
Op Amp Operational Amplifier
PC Personal Computer
PRT or PT Platinum Resistance Thermometer
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
SRM Standard Reference Material
USB Universal Serial Bus
Greek Symbols
α Area (fractional) of the tail of the χ 2 distribution or Coefficient of linear
expansion, /◦C or Pitch angle in a multi-hole probe, rad or ◦ or Seebeck
coefficient, μV/◦C or Shock angle in wedge flow, rad or ◦ or Temperature
coefficient of resistance of RTD, ◦C−1
β Constant in the temperature response of a thermistor, K or Diameter ratio
in a variable area meter, no unit or Extinction coefficient, m−1 or Isobaric
coefficient of cubical expansion, 1/K or Yaw angle in a multi-hole probe, rad
or ◦
γ Ratio of specific heats of a gas, C p/CV
δ Thickness, mm or μm or Displacement, m
Change or difference or error in the quantity that follows
ε Strain, m/m or more usually μm/m
ε Emissivity, no unit
ελh Spectral Hemispherical emissivity, no unit
εh Total Hemispherical emissivity, no unit
η Similarity variable in one-dimensional transient conduction
φ Non-dimensional temperature or Phase angle, rad or ◦
κ Dielectric constant, F/m
λ Wavelength, μmNomenclature xvii
μ Dynamic viscosity, kg/m · s or Mean of data or Micro (10−6)
ν Kinematic viscosity, m2/s or Poisson ratio, no unit
π Mathematical constant, 3.14159... or Peltier emf, μV
ρ Density, kg/m3 or Correlation coefficient (linear fit) or the index of correlation
(non-linear fit) or Reflectivity, no unit
σ Stress, Pa (more commonly Mpa or Gpa) or Stefan Boltzmann constant,
5.67×10−8 W/m2K 4 or Thomson coefficient, μV/◦C or Standard deviation,
appropriate unit
σe Estimated standard distribution, appropriate unit
σa Absorption cross section, m2
σs Scattering cross section, m2
σt Total cross section, m2
σx Standard deviation of the x’s
σ
y Standard deviation of the y’s
σ
x y Covariance
θ Temperature difference, ◦C
τ Shear stress, Pa or Time constant, s or Transmittance, no unit
ω Circular frequency, rad/s
ωn Natural circular frequency, rad/s
 Electrical resistance (Ohms)
χ2 Chi squared distribution, appropriate unit
ζ Damping ratio for a second order system, no unitContents
Part I Measurements, Error Analysis and Design of Experiments
1 Measurements and Errors in Measurement 3
1.1 Introduction . 3
1.1.1 Measurement Categories . 4
1.1.2 General Measurement Scheme 5
1.1.3 Some Issues 5
1.2 Errors in Measurement 6
1.2.1 Systematic Errors (Bias) . 6
1.2.2 Random Errors . 6
1.3 Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data 8
1.3.1 Statistical Analysis and Best Estimate
from Replicate Data . 8
1.3.2 Error Distribution . 9
1.3.3 Principle of Least Squares . 12
1.3.4 Error Estimation - Single Sample . 14
1.3.5 Student t Distribution . 19
1.3.6 Test for Normality 22
1.3.7 Non Parametric Tests 30
1.3.8 Outliers and Their Rejection 33
1.4 Propagation of Errors . 43
1.5 Specifications of Instruments and Their Performance 46
2 Regression Analysis . 49
2.1 Introduction to Regression Analysis . 49
2.2 Linear Regression 51
2.2.1 Linear Fit by Least Squares 51
2.2.2 Uncertainties in the Fit Parameters 53
2.2.3 Goodness of Fit and the Correlation Coefficient . 56
2.3 Polynomial Regression 57
2.3.1 Method of Least Squares and Normal Equations . 57
2.3.2 Goodness of Fit and the Index of Correlation or R2 58
2.3.3 Multiple Linear Regression . 60
xixxx Contents
2.4 General Non-linear Fit 63
2.5 χ 2 Test of Goodness of Fit . 66
2.6 General Discussion on Regression Analysis Including
Special Cases 70
2.6.1 Alternate Procedures of Obtaining Fit Parameters . 70
2.6.2 Segmented or Piecewise Regression . 73
3 Design of Experiments . 79
3.1 Design of Experiments 79
3.1.1 Goal of Experiments 79
3.1.2 Full Factorial Design 80
3.1.3 2k Factorial Design . 81
3.1.4 More on Full Factorial Design 84
3.1.5 One Half Factorial Design . 85
3.1.6 Other Simple Design 88
Exercise I . 94
Part II Measurements of Temperature, Heat Flux, and Heat
Transfer Coefficient
4 Measurements of Temperature . 109
4.1 Introduction . 109
4.2 Thermometry or the Science and Art of Temperature
Measurement 109
4.2.1 Preliminaries . 109
4.2.2 Practical Thermometry 114
4.3 Thermoelectric Thermometry 116
4.3.1 Thermoelectric Effects 116
4.3.2 On the Use of Thermocouple for Temperature
Measurement 123
4.3.3 Use of Thermocouple Tables and Practical
Aspects of Thermoelectric Thermometry . 127
4.4 Resistance Thermometry 138
4.4.1 Basic Ideas 138
4.4.2 Platinum Resistance Thermometer
and the Callendar Correction . 139
4.4.3 RTD Measurement Circuits 142
4.4.4 Thermistors 148
4.5 Pyrometry . 158
4.5.1 Radiation Fundamentals . 159
4.5.2 Brightness Temperature and the Vanishing
Filament Pyrometer . 162
4.5.3 Total Radiation Pyrometer . 168
4.5.4 Ratio Pyrometer and the Two-Color Pyrometer 169
4.5.5 Gas Temperature Measurement . 172
4.6 Other Temperature Measurement Techniques . 173Contents xxi
4.6.1 Liquid in Glass or Liquid in Metal Thermometers . 174
4.6.2 Bimetallic Thermometer . 177
4.6.3 Liquid Crystal Thermometers . 182
4.6.4 IC Temperature Sensor 183
4.7 Measurement of Transient Temperature 184
4.7.1 Temperature Sensor as a First-Order
System—Electrical Analogy . 184
4.7.2 Response to Step Input 186
4.7.3 Response to a Ramp Input . 191
4.7.4 Response to a Periodic Input . 194
5 Systematic Errors in Temperature Measurement . 197
5.1 Introduction . 197
5.2 Examples of Temperature Measurement . 197
5.2.1 Surface Temperature Measurement Using
a Compensated Probe . 197
5.2.2 Measurement of Temperature Inside a Solid 198
5.2.3 Measurement of Temperature of a Moving Fluid 199
5.2.4 Summary of Sources of Error in Temperature
Measurement 200
5.3 Conduction Error in Thermocouple Temperature
Measurement 201
5.3.1 Lead Wire Model . 201
5.3.2 The Single Wire Model 201
5.3.3 Heat Loss Through Lead Wire 203
5.3.4 Typical Application and Thermometric Error . 204
5.3.5 Measurement of Temperature Within a Solid 206
5.4 Measurement of Temperature of a Moving Fluid 210
5.4.1 Temperature Error Due to Radiation . 211
5.4.2 Reduction of Radiation Error: Use of Radiation
Shield . 213
5.4.3 Analysis of Thermometer Well Problem 215
6 Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient 221
6.1 Measurement of Heat Flux . 221
6.1.1 Foil-Type Heat Flux Gauge . 221
6.1.2 Transient Analysis of Foil Gauge 226
6.1.3 Thin Film Sensors 229
6.1.4 Cooled Thin Wafer Heat Flux Gauge 230
6.1.5 Axial Conduction Guarded Probe . 231
6.1.6 Slug Type Sensor . 232
6.1.7 Slug Type Sensor Response Including
Non-Uniformity in Temperature 235
6.1.8 Thin Film Heat Flux Gauge—Transient Operation . 238
6.2 Measurement of Heat Transfer Coefficient . 242
6.2.1 Film Coefficient Transducer 242xxii Contents
6.2.2 Cylindrical Heat Transfer Coefficient Probe 243
Exercise II 246
Part III Measurement of Pressure, Fluid Velocity, Volume Flow
Rate, Stagnation, and Bulk Mean Temperatures
7 Measurement of Pressure 261
7.1 Basics of Pressure Measurement 261
7.2 U-Tube Manometer . 262
7.2.1 Well Type Manometer . 265
7.2.2 Dynamic Response of a U Tube Manometer 268
7.3 Bourdon Gauge 273
7.3.1 Dead Weight Tester . 274
7.4 Pressure Transducers . 274
7.4.1 Pressure Tube with Bonded Strain Gauge 275
7.4.2 Bridge Circuits for Use with Strain Gauges . 279
7.4.3 Diaphragm/Bellows Type Transducer 283
7.4.4 Capacitance Type Diaphragm Gauge 288
7.4.5 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer . 290
7.5 Measurement of Pressure Transients 291
7.5.1 Thermal System 291
7.5.2 Pressure Measurement in a Liquid System 292
7.5.3 Pressure Measurement in a Gas System 292
7.5.4 Transient Response of a Bellows Type Pressure
Transducer . 293
7.5.5 Transients in a Force Balancing Element
for Measuring Pressure 295
7.6 Measurement of Vacuum 297
7.6.1 McLeod Gauge . 298
7.6.2 Pirani Gauge . 300
7.6.3 Ionization Gauge . 300
7.6.4 Alphatron Gauge . 302
8 Measurement of Fluid Velocity . 303
8.1 Introduction . 303
8.2 Pitot–Pitot Static and Impact Probes 304
8.2.1 Pitot and Pitot Static Tube 304
8.2.2 Effect of Compressibility 308
8.2.3 Supersonic Flow 311
8.2.4 Orientation Effects and Multi-hole Probes 314
8.3 Velocity Measurement Based on Thermal Effects . 317
8.3.1 Hot Wire Anemometer 317
8.3.2 Constant Temperature or CT Anemometer 319
8.3.3 Useful Heat Transfer Correlation 320
8.3.4 Constant Current or CC Anemometer 321
8.3.5 Practical Aspects . 323Contents xxiii
8.3.6 Measurement of Transients (Velocity Fluctuations) 325
8.3.7 Directional Effects on Hot Wire Anemometer . 326
8.4 Doppler Velocimeter 328
8.4.1 The Doppler Effect 328
8.4.2 Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Meter 330
8.4.3 Laser Doppler Velocity Meter 332
8.5 Time of Flight Velocimeter 335
8.5.1 Simultaneous Measurement of Position
and Velocity . 339
8.5.2 Cross Correlation Type Velocity Meter . 340
9 Volume Flow Rate . 343
9.1 Measurement of Volume Flow Rate . 343
9.2 Variable Area Type Flow Meters 344
9.2.1 Principle of Operation . 344
9.2.2 Correction Factor . 346
9.2.3 Types of Variable Area Flow Meters . 347
9.2.4 Orifice Plate Meter 347
9.2.5 Flow Nozzle . 352
9.2.6 Venturi Meter 354
9.2.7 Effect of Compressibility in Gas Flow
Measurement 356
9.2.8 Sonic Orifice or the Sonic Nozzle . 358
9.2.9 Selection of Variable Area Flow Meters 361
9.3 Rotameter or Drag Effect Flow Meter . 361
9.3.1 Rotameter Analysis . 362
9.4 Miscellaneous Types of Flow Meters 366
9.4.1 Positive Displacement Meters 366
9.4.2 Vortex Shedding Type Flow Meter 367
9.4.3 Turbine Flow Meter . 367
9.5 Factors to Be Considered in the Selection of Flow Meters 369
9.6 Calibration of Flow Meters 369
9.6.1 Methods of Calibration 369
9.6.2 Soap Film Burette 370
9.6.3 Bell Prover System 372
9.6.4 Flying Start—Flying Finish Method with Static
Weighing 373
10 Stagnation and Bulk Mean Temperature 375
10.1 Stagnation Temperature Measurement . 375
10.1.1 Shielded Thermocouple Stagnation Temperature
Probe . 376
10.1.2 Dual Thin Film Enthalpy Probe . 377
10.2 Bulk Mean Temperature . 378
10.2.1 Flow in a Rectangular Duct 380
Exercise III 382xxiv Contents
Part IV Thermo-physical Properties, Radiation Properties
of Surfaces, Gas Concentration, Force/Acceleration,
torque, and Power
11 Measurement of Thermophysical Properties . 391
11.1 Introduction . 391
11.2 Thermal Conductivity . 392
11.2.1 Basic Ideas 392
11.3 Steady State Methods . 393
11.3.1 Guarded Hot Plate Apparatus: Solid Sample 393
11.3.2 Guarded Hot Plate Apparatus: Liquid Sample . 396
11.3.3 Radial Heat Conduction Apparatus for Liquids
and Gases . 397
11.3.4 Thermal Conductivity Comparator 400
11.4 Transient Method 402
11.4.1 Laser Flash Method . 402
11.5 Measurement of Heat Capacity . 404
11.5.1 Heat Capacity of a Solid . 404
11.5.2 Heat Capacity of Liquids 407
11.6 Measurement of Calorific Value of Fuels . 407
11.6.1 Preliminaries . 408
11.6.2 The Bomb Calorimeter 410
11.6.3 Continuous Flow Calorimeter 413
11.7 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids . 414
11.7.1 Laminar Flow in a Capillary 415
11.7.2 Saybolt Viscometer . 418
11.7.3 Rotating Cylinder Viscometer 419
12 Radiation Properties of Surfaces 423
12.1 Introduction . 423
12.1.1 Definitions . 424
12.2 Features of Radiation Measuring Instruments . 427
12.2.1 Components of a Reflectivity Measuring
Instrument . 428
12.3 Integrating Sphere 429
12.3.1 Hemispherical Emissivity 430
12.3.2 Hemispherical Directional Reflectivity . 433
12.3.3 Directional Hemispherical Reflectivity . 434
12.4 Measurement of Emissivity 435
12.4.1 Emissivity Measurement Using an Integrating
Radiometer 436
12.4.2 Measurement of Emissivity by Transient Cooling
in Vacuum . 436
12.4.3 Calorimetric Method of Emissivity Measurement 439
12.4.4 Commercial Portable Ambient Temperature
Emissometer . 442Contents xxv
13 Gas Concentration 445
13.1 Introduction . 445
13.1.1 Methods of Gas Concentration Measurement . 448
13.2 Non-Separation Methods 449
13.2.1 Non-Dispersive Infrared Analyzer (NDIR) . 449
13.2.2 Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) 451
13.2.3 Chemiluminescence NOx Detection . 454
13.3 Separation Methods 456
13.3.1 Gas Chromatography 456
13.3.2 Orsat Gas Analyzer . 459
13.3.3 Particulate Matter—Soot (or Smoke) 460
14 Force/Acceleration, Torque, and Power 467
14.1 Introduction . 467
14.2 Force Measurement . 468
14.2.1 Platform Balance . 468
14.2.2 Force to Displacement Conversion 469
14.2.3 Proving Ring . 473
14.2.4 Conversion of Force to Hydraulic Pressure . 473
14.2.5 Piezoelectric Force Transducer . 474
14.3 Measurement of Acceleration 474
14.3.1 Preliminary Ideas . 475
14.3.2 Characteristics of a Spring–Mass–Damper System . 476
14.3.3 Piezoelectric Accelerometer 485
14.3.4 Laser Doppler Vibrometer . 486
14.3.5 Fiber Optic Accelerometer . 489
14.4 Measurement of Torque and Power . 490
14.4.1 Mechanical Brake Arrangement—Prony Brake 490
14.4.2 Electric Generator as a Dynamometer 491
14.4.3 Measure Shear Stress on the Shaft . 492
14.4.4 Tachometer—Mechanical Device . 495
14.4.5 Non-Contact Optical R P M Meter . 495
Exercise IV . 498
Part V Data Manipulation and Examples from Laboratory
Practice
15 Data Manipulation 505
15.1 Introduction . 505
15.2 Mechanical Signal Conditioning 506
15.2.1 Betz Manometer 506
15.2.2 Optical Measurement of Twist Angle in a Wire 508
15.3 Electrical/Electronic Signal Conditioning 508
15.3.1 Signal Conditioning . 509
15.3.2 Signal Amplification and Manipulation 509
15.3.3 Digital Panel Meter or Digital Voltmeter . 522xxvi Contents
15.3.4 Current Loop . 524
16 Examples from Laboratory Practice 529
16.1 Introduction . 529
16.2 Thermocouple Calibration Using a Data Logger 530
16.3 Calibration of a Digital Differential Pressure Gauge . 533
16.4 Signal Conditioning for Torque Measurement Using Strain
Gauges . 534
16.5 Software 536
Exercise V 538
Appendix A: Bibliographic Notes and References . 539
Appendix B: Useful Tables . 545
Index .
Index
A
Acceleration, 474
Accelerometer, 481
fiber optic, 489
piezoelectric, 485
Accuracy, 6, 46
Acousto optic cell, 449
Aliases, 87
Alphatron gauge, 302
Amplifier
differential, 511
differentiating, 513
instrumentation, 515
integrating, 513
logarithmic, 514
summing, 511
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), 521,
530
Angular velocity, 490
Avalanche Photo Diode (APD), 454
B
Beat frequency, 488
Beer’s law, 452
Bell prover, 372
Bernoulli principle, 305
Best estimate, 8
β, diameter ratio, 347
Betz manometer, 506
Bias, 6
Bit, 522
Black body
cavity, 161
radiation, 159
Bomb calorimeter, 410
Bourdon gauge, 273
Bridge
full, 279, 285, 473
half, 279, 281
quarter, 279
Burst signal, 333
C
Calibration, 5, 6
Callendar correction, 139
Calorific value, 391, 407
Calorimetric method, 392, 404, 439
Capacitance type pressure transducer, 288
Capture efficiency, 461
Chauvenet’s criterion, 34
Chemiluminescence, 454
Chi Squared test, 66
Circular frequency, 476
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 178
Cold junction, 120
Collis and Williams correlation, 320
Compensated probe, 198
Compressibility, 308, 356
Conduction error, 198
Confidence interval, 10
Confounded, 87
Constant head tank, 415
Continuous flow calorimeter, 413
Correlation
coefficient, 56
index of, 58
Count, 522
Covariance, 52
Critical value, 68
Cross section
absorption, 452
extinction, 452, 463
total, 453
Cubical expansion, 175
Cumulative probability, 9
Current loop, 524
D
Damping coefficient, 476
critical, 477
Damping ratio, 270, 480
Dead weight tester, 274, 473
Degrees of freedom, 17, 19, 69
Derived quantity, 4, 43
Design of experiments, 79
Dial gauge, 473
Diaphragm/bellows gauge, 283
Differential absorption, 452
DifferentialAbsorptionLIDAR(DIAL), 451
Diffuse, 424
Digit, 523
Digital data logger, 521, 529
Digital Panel Meter (DPM), 522
Digital voltmeter, 522
Dimensional analysis, 80, 89
Dimensionless, 89
Dimensionless groups, 80
Dixon’s Q test, 41
Dominant factor, 84
Doppler
effect, 328
shift, 328, 487
velocimeter, 328
Laser, 332
ultrasonic, 330
Drag coefficient, 363
Drop resistor, 525
Dual thin film probe, 377
Dynamometer, 490
brake drum, 490
Electric generator, 491
E
Electrical analog, 186
Emissivity, 167, 231, 244, 423, 435
hemispherical, 424
spectral, 160, 163
total, 168
Entropy, 118
Equilibrium, 110
Error estimator, 17
Error propagation, 44
Errors, 5
random, 6
systematic, 6
Euler number, 89
EXCEL, 537
Exhaust gas, 445
Expansion factor, 356
F
Factorial
2k, 81
fractional, 85
full, 80
one half, 85
quarter, 88
Factors, 79
Film coefficient, 242
Filter, 518
high pass, 518
low pass, 518
neutral density, 165
notch, 518
red, 164
twin T, 518
Fin analysis, 203, 208
First-order system, 185
Fit, 50
Fixed point
primary, 113
secondary, 114
Flow coefficient, 347
Flow meter
calibration, 369
drag effect, 361
positive displacement type, 366
turbine, 367
variable area, 344
discharge coefficient, 346
flow nozzle, 352
irrecoverable pressure loss, 355
orifice plate, 347
pressure taps, 348
selection, 361
venturi, 354
variable area type, 378
vortex shedding type, 367
Flue gas, 445
Fluid velocity, 303
Flying start—flying finish, 373
Force balancing element, 295
Force measurement, 468
Fourier number, 403
Full bridge, 534Index 557
G γ
,ratio of specific heats, 357
Gardon gauge, 221
gauge constant, 224
sensitivity, 224
time constant, 228
transient analysis, 226
Gas Chromatography, 456
Gas concentration, 445
Gas thermometer, 111
Gauge factor, 276
Gaussian distribution, 9, 11
Global polynomial, 121
Gold point, 158
Goodness of fit, 56
Graphic User Interface (GUI), 531
Grashof number, 396
H
Heat capacity, 391, 404
liquid, 407
solid, 404
Heat diffusion, 116
Heat flux, 221
Heat flux sensor
axial conduction guarded, 231
slug type, 232, 235
thin film, 229, 238
construction detail, 240
thin wafer, 230
Heat transfer coefficient, 146, 242
convection, 185
cylindrical probe, 243
radiation, 217
Heating Value (HV), 414
High frequency transmitter, 536
High vacuum, 298
Hooke’s law, 471
Hot wire anemometer, 317
constant current, 321
constant temperature, 319
Hypotheses, 3
I
Ice point, 111
Ideal gas scale, 113
Impact probe, 311
Influence coefficient, 80
Integrating radiometer, 436
Integrating sphere, 428
Interaction effect, 81
Interpolation, 121
Intrusive, 4
Ionization gauge, 300
ITS90, 114
J
Joule heating, 116
K
Kelvin relations, 116, 118, 119
Kelvin sensing, 143
King’s law, 317
Kirchoff’s law, 510
Kolmogorov–Smirnov two sample test, 30
L
LABVIEW, 536
Laminar flow, 415
Laser Doppler Vibrometer, 486
LDV, 332
fringe system, 333
reference beam system, 334
Lead wire model, 201
Lead wires, 125
compensating, 126
Least square method, 437
Least squares, 12
Levels, 80
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
(LVDT), 283, 287
Line reversal technique, 172
Low pass filter, 331
M
Mach number, 304
Main effects, 81
Manometer
U-tube, 262
well type, 265
inclined tube, 266
Mass flow rate, 343
MATLAB, 536
McLeod gauge, 298
Mean, 9
Measurements, 3
Monochromator, 427
Multi-hole probe, 314
five hole, 316
three hole, 314558 Index
N
Natural frequency, 477
Newtonian fluid, 414
Non Dispersive Infrared Analyzer (NDIR),
449
Non-intrusive, 4
Non-linear fit, 63
Normal distribution, 9
Normal equations, 52
NTC thermistors, 148
O
Opacity, 463
Operational amplifier, 509
Optical RP M meter, 495
Orsat gas analyzer, 459
Orthogonal set, 84
Outliers, 33
P
Parity plot, 63
Partial pressure, 446
Phase lag, 195
Pierce’s criterion, 36
Pirani gauge, 300
Pitot static tube, 306
Pitot tube, 303, 379
Planck distribution, 159
Platform balance, 468
Platinum 67, 128
Platinum resistance temperature scale, 139
Poisson ratio, 276, 284, 535
Portable emissometer, 442
Prandtl number, 190
Prandtl tube, 307
Pre-amplifier, 536
Precise, 6
Pressure
dynamic, 304
stagnation, 304
static, 304
Pressure coefficient, 316
Pressure transients, 291
Primary quantity, 4
Principal stresses, 492
Prony brake, 490
Propagation of errors, 43
Proving ring, 473
Pyrometer
total radiation, 168
two color, 169
vanishing filament, 163
Pyrometer equation
ideal, 162
practical, 163
Pyrometry, 158
Q
QtiPlot, 71
RR
2
, 58
R2
Ad j, 58
Radiation error, 211
Radiation shield, 213
Rayleigh number, 189
Recovery factor, 376
Reentry, 225
Reference
ice point, 127
Reflectance, 462
Reflectivity
bidirectional, 425
directional hemispherical, 425, 434
hemispherical directional, 427, 433
Regression
linear, 51
multiple linear, 60
polynomial, 57
simple model, 81
Repeatability, 80
Repeatable, 6
Replicate, 80
Resistance
flow, 269, 293
specific, 275, 276
thermal, 185, 292
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD),
138, 378
bridge circuit, 143
dissipation constant, 146
four wire, 139
lead wire compensation, 143
measurement circuits, 142
self-heating, 146
temperature coefficient of resistance, 139
three wire, 139
Resistance thermometer, 138
Platinum, 138
Resolution, 46, 88, 522
Response
dynamic, 268
flat, 168
linear, 6Index 559
non-linear, 6, 149
periodic input, 194
ramp input, 191
steady state, 192, 194
step input, 186
transient, 192, 194, 268
Reynolds number, 59, 89, 217
Rotameter, 361
analysis, 362
Rotating cylinder viscometer, 415, 419
S
Sampling, 460
isokinetic, 461
Saybolt viscometer, 415, 418
Search method, 63
Conjugate Gradient, 63
Levenberg-Marquardt, 64
steepest descent, 63
Second order system, 270
Segmented or piecewise regression, 73
Shear modulus, 470
Shear stress, 492
Shielded thermocouple, 376
Signal conditioning, 534
electronic, 508
mechanical, 506
Single wire model, 201
Slip rings, 536
Soap film burette, 370
Software, 536
Solar flux, 225
Sonic nozzle, 358
Soot, 460
Spectroscope, 172
Specular, 424
Spring balance, 470
Spring constant, 470
Standard error, 21
Standard Reference Material (SRM), 400
Stefan–Boltzmann constant, 168, 211
Steinhart–Hart equation, 150
Stokes number, 461
Stolz equation, 348
Strain gauge, 275
Strouhal number, 367
Student t distribution, 19
Subsonic flow, 308
Supersonic flow, 311
T
Tachometer, 495
Temperature
actual, 162
brightness, 162
bulk mean, 378
color, 169
inside a solid, 198
mixing cup, 379
moving fluid, 199, 210
solid, 206
stagnation, 375
surface, 197
systematic error, 197
transient, 184
true, 171
Test for normality, 22
Box and whisker plot, 22
Jarque–Bera test, 26
Q-Q plot, 24
χ2 test, 27
Thermal conductivity, 392
comparator, 392, 400
guarded hot plate, 392
liquid sample, 396
solid sample, 393
laser flash method, 392, 402
radial heat conduction apparatus, 392,
397
Thermistor, 148
circuit, 153
Thermocouple
bayonet probe, 134
differential, 134
junctions, 133
butt-welding, 134
button, 134
exposed, 133
grounded, 133
separated wire, 134
parallel, 136
series, 135
types, 129
Thermoelectricity
Peltier effect, 116
Seebeck effect, 116
Thomson effect, 116
Thermoelectric power, 128
Thermometer
bimetallic, 177
IC temperature sensor, 183
liquid crystal, 182
liquid in glass, 174
Thermometer error, 205
Thermometer well, 199, 215560 Index
Thermometric error, 134, 204, 208, 216, 218
Thermometric property, 111, 113
Thermometry, 109
Thermophysical properties, 391
Thermopile, 135, 229
Thermostat, 182
Thompson τ test, 39
Time constant, 185
Time Of Flight (TOF), 303
velocimeter, 335
Torque, 490
Transmittance, 463
Trend line option, 68
Triple point of water, 111
U
USB port, 530
V
Vacuum, 297
Variance, 8
Velocimeter
cross correlation, 340
Velocity of approach factor, 347
Vena contracta, 353
Viscosity, 391, 414
Voltage gain, 510
Volume flow rate, 343
W
Wedge probe, 312
Wein’s
approximation, 159
displacement law, 159
Y
Young’s modulus, 178, 180, 284, 471, 535
Z
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 110
Zhukauskas correlation, 216, 318


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