كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume II - Forming
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume II - Forming

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Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume II - Forming
Fourth Edition
A reference bookf o r manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Charles Wick, CMfgE
Editor-in-Chief
John T. Benedict
Senior Staff Editor
Raymond F. Veilleux
Associate Editor

كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume II - Forming  T_a_m_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
VOLUME II-FORMING
Symbols and Abbreviations xi
Sheet Metal Formability . 1-1
Die and Mold Materials . 2-1
Lubricants . 3-1
Sheet Metal Blanking and Forming . 4-1
Presses for Sheet Metal Forming 5-1
Die Design for Sheet Metal Forming 6-1
Expanding. Shrinking and Stretch Forming 7-1
Roll Forming 8-1
Spinning 9-1
Bending and Straightening . 10-1
Shearing 11-1
Punching 12-1
13-1
Swaging . 14-1
Hot Forging . 15-1
Casting 16-1
Drawing. Extruding and Upsetting
Powder Metallurgy . 17-1
Special Forming Methods 19-1
Safety in Forming 20-1
Plastics Forming . 18-1
Index I-1
ixSYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and/or derived units,
symbols, and abbreviations which are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
A
A Ampere
ABS Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or
Adjustable-bed stationary press
a-c Alternating current
ADC Allyl diglycol carbonate
AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
AK Aluminum killed
Al Aluminum
Alnico Nickel-iron-aluminum-cobalt magnetic alloys
amp Ampere
AMSA American Metal Stamping Association
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AOD Argon-oxygen decarburization
AS As sintered
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASP Antisegregation process
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
B-C
BDC
BET
Bhn
BLS
BMC
BOD
BOF
BSA
BS1
Btu
c
CAD/CAM
CAOHC
CCL
CH,
CIP
CL
CNC
co
co,
COD
CPM
Cps
Bottom dead center
Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
Brinell hardness number
Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulk molding compound
Biological oxygen demand
Basic-oxygen furnace
Benzene sulfonic acid
British Standards Institute
British thermal unit
Celsius, Coulomb, Carbon or Constant
Computer-aided design/ computer-aided
manufacturing
Council for Accreditation in Occupational
Hearing Conservation
Carbon tetrachloride
Methane
Cold isostatic pressing
Centerline
Computer numerical control
Cobalt
Carbon dioxide
Chemical oxygen demand
Crucible Particle Metallurgy
Cycles per second
Cr Chromium
Cr-Ni Chrome-nickel
CRS Cold-rolled steel
CRT Cathode ray tube
Cu Copper
CU20 Copper oxide
CVD Chemical vapor deposition
D-E
DAP
dB
d-c
deg or 0
deg/ft
deg/m
diam
DIN
DR
EDM
EDPT
EHF
EP
Eq.
ESR
ETFE
Diallyl phthalate
Decibel
Direct current
Degree
Degree per foot
Degree per meter
Diameter
Deutscher Normenausschuss (German
standards organization)
Draw ratio
Electrical discharge machining
Examination, diagnosis, prescription and
treatment
Electrohydraulic forming
Epoxy or Extreme pressure
Equation
Electroslag remelting
Ethylene tetrafluoroethy lene copolymer
F
FA
FDA
Fe
Fe~04
FEP
Fig.
FLD
fpm
fps
ft
ft’
ft-lb
Fahrenheit
Furfuryl alcohol
Food and Drug Administration
Iron
Iron oxide
Fluorinated ethylene propylene
Figure
Forming limit diagram
Foot per minute
Foot per second
Foot
Cubic foot
Foot-pound
g Gram or Gravity value
GCA Grid-circle analyzer
g/cc Gram per cubic centimeter M
g/cm’ Gram per cubic centimeter
g/m’ Gram per cubic meter
GPa Giga pascal
H-1
H,
HAZ
HERF
Hg
HIP
H,O
hp
HRS
HSLA
HVF
Hz
IACS
ID
in. or “
in.2
in./ft
in./in.
in./in. /s
in./s
ipm
ips
Hydrogen gas
Heat-affected zone
High-energy-rate forming
Mercury
Hot isostatic pressing
Water
Horsepower
Hot-rolled steel
High strength, low alloy
High-velocity forming
Cycles per second
International Annealed Copper Standard
(Electrical Conductivity)
Inside diameter
Inch
Square inch
Inch per foot
Inch per inch
Inch per inch per second
Inch per second
Inch per minute
Inch per second
J-K-L
J Joule
JIC Joint Industry Conference
kA
KE
kg
kg/m2
kg/s
kJ
kN
kN/m
kPa
ksi
kV
kW
Kiloampere
Kinetic energy
Kilogram
Kilogram per square meter
Kilogram per second
Kilojoule
Kilonewton
Kilonewton per meter
Kilopascal
1000 pounds per square inch
Kilovolt
Kilowatt
lb Pound
lbf Pound force
lb/s Pound per second
LDR Limiting draw ratio
LED Light-emitting diode
LIM Liquid injection molding
LP Liquid petroleum
m
mz
max
MDI
MF
Mg
MHz
MIG
mil
min
MJ
mm
mm2
m/ min
mm/ m
mm/ min
mm/ mm
mm/mm/s
mm/s
MN
Mn
Mo
MoS,
MPa
MPIF
m/s
Meter or Mass
Square meter
Maximum
Manual data input
Freon MF, Freon-11, CCIJF, trichlorofluoromethane
Magnesium
Megahertz
Metallic inert gas
0.001 in.
Minute or Minimum
Megajotde
Millimeter
Square millimeter
Meter per minute
Millimeter per meter
Millimeter per minute
Millimeter per millimeter
Millimeter per millimeter per second
Millimeter per second
Meganewton
Manganese
Molybdenum
Molybdenum disulfide
Megapascal
Metal Powder Industries Federation
meter per second
N-O
N
N2
NaOH
NASA
NbC
NC
NEMA
NFPA
Ni
Ni-Mo
NiO
NIOSH
N/mm’
No.
o*
OBI
OBS
OD
OSHA
Oz
Newton
Nitrogen
Sodium hydroxide
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
Niobium carbide
Numerical control
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association
National Fire Protection Association
Nickel
Nickel-molybdenum
Nickel oxide
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health
Newton per square millimeter
Number
Oxygen
Open-back inclinable press
Open-back stationary press
Outside diameter
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
Ounce
P
P
Pa
Pc
PCTFE
PET
PETN
PM
PP
ppm
PPO
Ps
psi
psia
psig
PTFE
PUR
Pvc
PVD
Phosphorus, Poise or Crossover point
Pascal
Programmable controller
Polychlorotrifluoroethy lene
Polyethylene terephthalate
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
Powder metallurgy
Polypropylene
Parts per million
Polyphenylene oxide
Polystyrene
Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch, absolute
Pounds per square inch, gage
Polytetrafluoroethy lene
Polyurethane
Polyvinyl chloride
Physical vapor deposition
R-S
Rorr
R
A, B. Cor H
rad
RDX
RIM
rms
rpm
ss
SA
SAE
SAN
sec
sfm
Si
S1
SMC
Sn
S02
spm
Radius
Rockwell hardness—A, B, C or H scales
Radius
Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine
Reaction injection molding
Root mean square
Revolution per minute
Second
Sulfur
Shape analysis
Society of Automotive Engineers
Styrene acrylonitrile
Second
Surface feet per minute
Silicon
International System of Units
Sheet molding compound
Tin
Sulfur dioxide
Strokes per minute
T
Ta Tantalum
TAN-E Total acid number—electrometric
TBN-E Total base number—electrometric
TDC Top dead center
TF Freon TF, Freon-1 13, CC 1F2-CC 1F2,
dichloro-tetrafluoroethane
TFE Teflon, tetrafluoroethy lene
Ti Titanium
TiC Titanium carbide
TiCL
TIG
TIR
TL
TMC
TMEH
TNT
tons/ in.:
TSA
Titanium tetrachloride
Tungsten inert gas
Total indicator reading
Trim line
Thick molding compound
Tool and Manufacturing Engineers
Handbook
Trinitrotoluene
Tons per square inch
Talene sulfonic acid
u-v-w
UNS Unified numbering system
USP United States Pharmacopoeia
v Vanadium, Volt or Velocity
VAD Vacuum-arc degassing
VAR Vacuum-arc remelting
V-Process A licensed vacuum molding method
w Watt or Tungsten
We-co Tungsten carbide with cobalt binder
WS2 Tungsten sulfide
x-Y-z
XSA Exlene sulfonic acid
Y203 Yttrium oxide
YPE Yield point elongation
Zn Zinc
Zr Zirconium
INDEX
-
A
ABS (adjustable-bed stationary) press (see
Presses)
Accuracy
cold and warm extrusion, 13-26
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-42
electrohydraulic forming, 19-3, 19-11
electromagnetic forming, 19-3
explosive forming, 19-2
gap-frame presses, 5- I I , 5- I2 (Fig. 5-5)
high-velocity forging, 19-3
hot extrusion, 13-12
hot forging, 15-8
peen forming, 19-3, 19-29
roll forming, 8-4
shearing, 11-3
spinning, 9-9 (Table9-1)
straight-side presses, 5-13, 5-14 (Fig. 5-7),
Additives (see Plastics)
Adjustable-bed knee (horning) press (see
Adjustable-bed stationary (ABS) press (see
Air presses (see Presses, pneumatic)
Alignment, die set, 6-3
Alloy steel (see Steel, alloy)
Aluminum and alloys (see also Aluminum
expanding, 7-2
forging lubricant, 15-53, (Table 15-20)
forging of, 15- 1 1(Table 15-3, 15-16(Table
formability, 1-16, 1-17 (Table 1-7), 4-37
forming limit diagram, 1-17 (Fig. l - f 3 )
hot extrusion, 13-15 (Fig. 13-15)
laser cutting, 12-10(Table 12-4)
plasma arc cutting, 12-7(Table 12-1), 12-8
powder metallurgy, 17-42
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
rod coils, for cold drawing, 13-4
shear strength, 11-16 (Table 11-3)
shearing, 11-3 (Table l l - f ) ,11-4
spinning, 9- 12, 9- I 7
stretch forming, 7-14
stretch forming dies, 7-21
superplastic forming, 1-20, 1-21 (Table
swaging, 14-4, 14-16
tolerances, punched hole, 4-63 ( Table4-13)
Aluminum bronzes
dies and molds
5-15
Presses)
Presses)
bronzes)
15-8)
(Fig. 4-39)
(Table 12-2)
1-8)
alloys, 2-3 1 (Table2-14)
applications, 2-30
die design, 2-30
machining and finishing, 2-3 I
Ampco alloys (see Aluminum bronzes)
Analytical methods (see Forming)
Androforming
applications, 7-23
machines, 7-23 (Fig. 7-31)
tooling, 7-24 (Fig. 7-32)
normal, 1-5 (Fig. 1-3), 1-10, 4-48
planar, 1-5, 4-48
strain ratio, 1-4
Anisotropy
Annealing (see Heat treatment)
Antimonial lead (see Lead)
Antioch process (see Plaster molding)
Arbor presses (see Presses, manual)
ASEA Quintus presses (see Presses)
Assembly
Automation
electromagneticforming, 19-21(Fig.19-18)
swaging, 14-7 (Fig. 14-9)
Automat ion (cant.)
cold and warm forming, 13-57
cold extrusion, 13-35
forging, 15-40
8
Back rolls (see Forging equipment)
Bar, cold drawing (see Drawing)
Bar bending (see Bending)
Beading
dimensions, 4-57 (Table4-11)
process, 4-57
typical shape, 4-56 (Fig. 4-66)
Beads, draw, 6-35
Bend allowance (see Bending)
Bending
bend allowance, 8-15, 10-3, 10-4(Table10-
I), 10-5 (Fig. 10-2)
dies (see Press brakes)
dies, sheet metal, 6-29 (Fig. 6-54)
equipment (see Press brakes)
force required, 10-3, 10-6 (Table 10-2),10-
9 (Fig. 10-5)
calculation, 10-5
equation, 10-5, 10-8
nonferrous metal, 10-8 (Table l0-3)
wiping, 10-8
fiber deformation, 10-2
neutral axis, 10-2
methods, 10-14
air, 10-15
bottom, 10-15
rotary, 10-16
nomenclature, 10-1
pipe bending
hydraulic machine, 10-42
induction bending, 10-40
induction machine, 10-41
wall thinning, 10-42
double-pinch, four-roll machine, 10-23
initial-pinch machine, 10-22
machine selection, 10-23 (Table 10-4)
pinch-pyramid machine, 10-22
press brakes, 10-22
roll benders, 10-22
vertical press, 10-23
principle, 4-5 (Table4-2), 10-26
roll bending
machine types, 10-20
special equipment, 10-21
three-roll machine, 10-20
two-roll machine, 10-21
metal flow
plate bending
theory, 10-2, 10-25
tube bending
automated bending, 10-38
CAD/CAM, 10-39, 10-40 (Fig. 10-53)
compression bending, 10-29
design guidelines, 10-28, 10-33
draw bending, 10-29
equipment, 10-30
lubrication, 10-35
mandrel, 10-34, 10-36(Table 10-8)
material selection, 10-25
metal flow, 10-27
methods, 10-29
minimum radius, 10-28
neutral axis, 10-27
power presses, 10-31
press bending, 10-29
principle, 10-26
ram benders, 10-31
roll benders, 10-31
rotary bending machines, 10-3I , 10-32
stretch bending, 10-30
theory, 10-25
Bending, tube bending (conr.)
tools, 10-33
troubleshooting, 10-37
workpiece configuration, 10-25
types of bending
contour, 10-11
flange, 10-11
straight, 10-10
types of equipment, 10-1
expanding, 7-2
roll forming, 8-1 (Fig. 8-1)
Benelex, dies, 2-36
Beryllium
coppers, dies and molds, 2-3 1
forging lubricant, 15-54
forging of, 15-1I (Table 15-3), 15-17
powder metallurgy, 17-42
resistivity, 19-20(Table 19-5)
Billet preparation, hot extrusion, 13-24
Bismuth alloy dies, 2-32, 2-33 (Table 2-15)
Blank development (see Drawing)
Blankholding (see Drawing)
Blanking
Bend radii
blank design, 4-23
die design, 6-23 (Fig. 6-42)
force calculation, 4-17
force required, 4-18 (Table 4-5)
forces, 6-22
bulging, 4- I4
fracture, 4-14
reaction, 4-14
layout, 4-39, 4-40 (Fig. 4-44)
overview, 4-3
principle, 4-4 (Table4-2)
process, 4-13, sequence; 4-14 (Fig. 4-3),
6-20
scrap, 4-40 (Fig. 4-45)
slugs, cold extrusion, 13-39
steel rule dies, 6-25
terminology, 4-12
theory, 4- I7
tolerances, 4-62
zones, 4- I5 (Fig. 4-5)
deformation, 4-16
penetration, 4-16
Borax coatings, cold drawing, 13-1I
Brakes, mechanical press (see Clutches and
Brass
brakes)
forming pipe, 6-31, 6-32 (Fig. 6-61)
hot forging, 15-16
leaded, swaging, 14-4
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
shear strength, 11-16(Table 11-3)
swaging, 14-4
Briquetting, 17-18 (see also Compacting)
Bronze (see also Copper)
powder metallurgy, 17-46(Table 17-16)
resistivity, 19-20(Table 19-5)
shear strength, 11-16(Table 11-3)
hydrostatic, 4-54
mechanical, 4-54
principle, 4-8 (Table 4-2)
Bull blocks, cold drawing, 13-4
Burr height (see Tolerance control)
Bushings
Buttons (steels), die, 6-9, 6-13 (Table 6-2 and
Bulging
die set guide-pin, 6-3 (Fig. 6-3)
punch guide, 6-5
Fig. 6-21)
C
CAD/CAM
casting, 16-9 (Fig. 16-2)
cold and warm extrusion dies, 13-38
i-1INDEX
CAD/CAM (cont.)
hot extrusion dies, 13-22
hot forging, 15-51
sheet metal forming dies, 6-18
tube bending, 10-39
forming die, 6-31 (Fig. 6-57)
transfer die, 6-45 (Fig. 6-84)
automatic cold and warm forming, 13-57
cold and warm extrusion, 13-27
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-43
dieing machines, 5-76
die-set transfer presses, 5-87
electrohydraulic, 19-4 (Table 19-1), 19-12
electromagnetic forming, 19-5 (Table 19-
explosive forming, 19-4 (Table 19-1)
fine-blanking presses, 5-82
fluid-cell presses, 5-79
fluid-forming presses, 5-80
force, torque, and energy, press, 5-25,5-26
forging hammers, 15-2 (Table 15-13)
forging presses, 15-2 (Table 15-14)
four-slide machines, 5-83
gap-frame presses, 5-1 1 (Table 5-2 and
high-velocity forging, 19-5 (Table /9-11),
hot extrusion, 13-1I
hydraulic presses, 5-68
lamination presses, 5-76
peen forming, 19-29
portal presses, 5-89
punch presses, 12-2
rubber-pad forming presses, 5-79
spinning machines, 9-19
straight-side presses, 5-12
transfer presses, 5-84
Capstan, cold drawing, 13-4
Carbides
cemented tungsten
Cams
Capacities
I ) , 19-22
(Tuble5-6)
Table 5-3)
19-26
applications, 2-2 1
design considerations, 2-25
finishing, 2-28
grade classifications, 2-24, 2-25 (Table
production, 2-21
properties, 2-22 (Table2-10)
selection, 2-24
shrink allowances, 2-26 (Table2-13)
troubleshooting, 2-29
cold and warm extrusion tooling, 13-35
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-56
cold drawing dies, 13-10
forming dies, sheet metal, 6-29 (Fig. 6-54)
hot extrusion die inserts, 13-24
steel-bonded, 2-19
swaging dies, 14-19
2-11)
Carbon steel (see Steel, carbon)
Cast iron
dies and molds, 2-3, 2-4 (Table2-2)
expanding, 7-2
expanding shoes, 7-7
press frames, 5- 10
spinning chucks, 9-23
swaging dies, 14-19
Cast steels, dies and molds, 2-3,2-5 ( lhhle2-3)
Casting (see also Sand-mold, Metal-mold, and
Plaster and ceramic-mold casting)
basic elements, 16-2 (Fig. 16-1)
computer operations, 16-3
general characteristics, 16-1
modeling, 16-6, 16-10 (Fig. 16-3)
nomenclature, 16-7
process selection, 16-2, 16-3 (Table 16-1),
16-4( Table 16-2)
Casting (cont.)
process summary, 16-6 ( Table 16-3)
Centrifugal casting (see Metal-mold casting)
Ceramic-mold casting (see Plaster a n d
Ceramics
ceramic-mold casting)
cold drawing dies, 13-10
expanding shoes, 7-8
hot extrusion die inserts, 13-24
stretch forming dies, 7-22
swaging dies, 14-I9
C-frame presses (see Presses)
Chamfering (pointing), cold drawing, 13-4
Checklist, die design, 6-14
Chromium plating
cold drawing dies, 13-10
roll forming guides, 8-1 1
roll forming rolls, 8-19, 8-28 (Table8-1)
tool steels, 2-18
Chucks, spinning, 9-22, 9-23 (Fig. 9-31)
Circular forms, producing on four-slide, 6-5 1
Circular grid analysis (see Formability)
Cleaning
cold drawing, 13-3
cold extrusion, 13-39
lubricant removal, 3-18
punches, 12-21
die cutting, 6-20, 6-21 (Fig. 6-38), 6-22
draw dies, 6-33 (Table 6-8)
Clearance
(Table6-3)
Clickers (see Steel rule dies)
Closed-die forging, 15-4, 15-9 (see also
lmpression-die forging)
Clutches and brakes, mechanical press
brake-system monitoring, 5-45
constant-energy drives, 5-37
eddy-current clutches and brakes, 5-37
friction clutches and brakes, 5-36, 5-37
full-revolution clutches, 5-35, 5-36
part-revolution clutches, 5-35
positive clutches, 5-36 (Fig. 5-26)
two-speed clutch, 5-37 (Fig. 5-28)
wet clutch, 5-37
cold drawing, 13-3, 13-1 1
hot extrusion dies, 13-24
slugs, cold extruded, 13-39
vapor deposition, 2- 18
Coil rods, cold drawing, 13-4
Coil width
(Fig. 5-27)
Coatings
blanking, 4-40
roll forming, 8-3
dies, sheet metal, 6-38 (Fig. 6-70)
materials, 4-56
pressure, 4-56
principle, 4-8 (Table 4-2)
slugs, cold extrusion, 13-39
Coiling and uncoiling, cold drawing, 13-4
Coining
Cold drawing of bar, wire and tube (see
Cold-flow forming (see Upsetting, cold and
Columbium
Drawing)
warm)
forging lubricant, 15-54
forging of, 15-18
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
Combination dies, 6-40 (Fig. 6-74)
Compacting, powder metallurgy, 17-18
Composition
aluminum bronzes, 2-3 1 (Table2-14)
bismuth alloys, 2-33
carbon and alloy steels, 2-2 (Table 2-1)
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-25 (Table
steels, cold and warm extrusion, 13-28
2-11)
Composit io n (con1. )
tool steels, 2-7 (Table2-5)
zinc alloys (Kirksite), 2-32
Compound dies, sheet metal, 6-39 (Fig. 6-72)
Compression molding (see Plastics forming)
Compression operations (see Coining, Sizing,
Compression spinning (see Shear forming and
Computer (see also Machine controls)
and Swaging)
Spinning)
analysis (see Formability)
casting, 16-3
designing forming dies, 6- I8
forging, 15-51
modeling (see Formability)
roll forming tooling, 8-21
Conform extrusion (see Extrusion, cold and
Controlled-flow heading (see Upsetting, cold
Cookie-cutter dies (see Steel rule dies)
Coolants
warm, continuous)
and warm)
spinning, 9-28
swaging, 14-21
Cooling, hot swaging machines, 14-12, 14-13
Connections (pitmans)
four-point suspension, 5- I5
press slides, 5-14
single-point suspension, 5- I5
two-point suspension, 5- 15
Controls (see Machine controls)
Copper (see also Beryllium coppers)
forging lubricant, 15-53
forging of, 15- 1 1 (Table 1-53),15- 16( lable
hot extrusion, 13-I5
powder metallurgy, 17-45
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
rods for cold drawing, 13-4
shear strength, 11-16 (Table 11-3)
spinning, 9- 12
swaging, 14-4
Cork dies, 2-36
Corrosion resistance
(Fig. f4-17)
15-9)
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-24
powder metallurgy parts, 17-I3
Corrugating principle, 4-9 (Table4-2)
Counterbalances, press slide
air, 5-18
hydraulic press, 5-72
safety, 5-19
spring, 5- I8
Counterblow hammer (see Hammers, forging)
Cup drawing (see Drawing)
Curling principle, 4-9 (Table 4-2)
Cushion, die (see Die cushions)
Cutoff
dies, 8-22
machines (see Shearing)
principle, 4-3 (Table 4-2),4-13
slugs, cold extrusion, 13-39
tooling, cold and warm upsetting (heading),
tooling, four-slides, 6-49, 6-50 (Fig. 6-89)
laser, 12-8, 12-9 (Fig. 12-11), 12-10 (Table
plasma arc, 12-6, 12-7 (Table 12-1), 12-8
13-51 (Fig. 13-55)
Cutting
12-3 and Table 12-4)
(Fig. 12-8 and Table 12-2)
D
Datum (see Tolerance control)
Deep drawing (see Drawing)
Deflection
gap-frame presses, 5-12 (Fig. 5 - 3 , 5-13
(Table5-4)
1-2INDEX
Deflection (cunt.)
press bed or slide, 5-10
straight-side presses, 5-12, 5-14 (Fig. 5-7)
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-25 (Table
PM parts, 17-11, 17-12 (Table 17-6)
cold and warm extrusion tooling, 13-35
cold and warm upsetting (heading) tooling,
cold drawing dies, 13-8
forging machine dies, 15-48
hot extrusion dies, 13-22
impression forging dies, 15-46
PM parts, 17-10
roll formed parts, 8-1 (Fig. 8-1)
sheet metal forming dies, 6-1
Demarest process (see Forming)
Density
2-11)
Design
13-52
bending and flanging, 6-29 (Fig. 6-54)
checklist, 6-14, 6-18
drawing, 6-31, 6-33 (Fig. 6-62)
four-slide (multislide), 6-46, 6-48 (Fzg.
process planning, 6- I5
progressive, 6-42, 6-43 (Fig. 6-79)
transfer, 6-44, 6-45 (Fig. 6-84)
use of CAD/CAM, 6-18
Detectors, misfced, 6-9, 6-1 I (Fig. 6-17)
Device, press safety (see Safety, press)
Diamond dies, cold drawing, 12-10
Die and mold materials
Androforming, 7-24
carbon and low-alloy steels, 2-1,2-2 (Table
cast irons and steels, 2-3, 2-4 (Table 2-2)
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-21
cold drawing of bar, wire and tube, 13-10
cold and warm extrusion, 13-35, 13-36
6-87)
2-11
(Table 13-8)
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-56
(Table 13-12)
electrohydraulic forming, 19-13
electromagnetic forming, 19-22
expanding shoes, 7-7
explosive forming, 19-10
high-velocity forging, 19-27
hot extrusion, 13-22 (Table 13-4)
hot forging
forging machine dies, 15-49
impression dies, 15-48
open dies, 15-45
nonferrous metals, 2-30
other nonmetallic materials, 2-35
plastics, 2-33
powder metallurgy, 17-24
roll forming
cutoff dies, 8-23
forming rolls, 8-18
selection, 2-1
stainless and maraging steels, 2-6
steel-bonded carbides, 2-19
stretch forming, 7-21
tool steels, 2-6, 2-7 (Table2-4)
Die buttons, 6-9,643 (Table6-2and Fig. 6-21)
Die casting (see Metal-mold casting)
Die changing, 5-9, 13-19 (Fig. 13-17), 13-61
Die cushions
air pressure requirements, 5-20
draw dies, 6-33 (Fig. 6-62)
hydropneumatic, 5-20 (Fig. 5-13)
pneumatic, 5-19 (Fig. 5-12)
straight-side hydraulic presses, 5-68
cold and warm extrusion, 13-35, 13-37
Die design
(Fig. 13-38)
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-52
(Fig. 13-56)
Die design ( c w z t . )
cold drawing of bar, wire and tube, 13-8,
electrohydraulic forming, 19-12
electromagnetic forming, 19-22
explosive forming, 19-10
forging, 15-46
hot extrusion, 13-21 (Fig. 13-20)
roll forming, 8-17
sheet metal forming, 6-1
components, 6-3 (Fig. 6-1)
contours for drawing, 6-3 1
cutting dies, 6-20 (Fig. 6-37)
design checklist, 6-14, 6-18
draw dies, 6-32, 6-34
forming dies, 6-29 (Fig. 6-54)
four-slide (multislide), 6-46, 6-48 (Fig.
locating stampings, 6-14 (Fig. 6-24)
multiple-operation, 6-39
process planning, 6-15,6- I6 (Fig. 6-26)
progressive dies, 6-42, 6-43 (Fig. 6-7Y)
transfer dies, 6-44, 6-45 (Fig. 6-84)
use of C A D / C A M , 6-18
forging dies, 15-55, 15-57(Table 15-22and
forming dies, 6-56
13-9 (Table 13-2)
6-87)
Die failure
Table 15-23)
Die forger hammer (see Hammers, forging)
Dieing machines (see Presses)
Die pull, cold drawing of bar, wire and tube,
Dies
cold and warm extrusion, 13-35, 13-36
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-51,
cold drawing of bar, wire and tube, 13-8,
drawing, 2-20 (Fig.2-2),2-26 (Table2-12),
electrohydraulic forming, 19-12
electromagnetic forming, 19-22
explosive forming, 19-10
extrusion, 2-29
forging, 15-44
high-velocity forging, 19-26
hot extrusion, 13-20, 13-21 (Fig. 13-20)
ironing, 4-5 1
materials (see Die and mold materials)
powder metallurgy, 17-23
press brake, 2-14 (Table2-8), 10-16
roll forming cutoff, 8-14, 8-22 (Fig. 8-35)
sheet metal forming, 6-1
13-3
(Tahje 13-8)
13-52 (Fig. 13-56)
13-9 (Table 13-2)
4-42 (Fig. 4-51)
components, 6-3 (Fig. 6- I )
cutting, 6-20 (Fig. 6-37)
design checklist, 6-14, 6-18
drawing, 6-3 1 , 6-33 (Fig. 6-62)
forming, 6-29 (Fig. 6-54)
four-slide (multislide), 6-46, 6-49 (Fig.
multiple-operation, 6-39
process planning, 6-15
progressive, 6-42, 6-43 (Fig. 6-7Y)
rectangular parts, 6-34
transfer, 6-44, 6-45 (Fig. 6-84)
use o f C A D / C A M , 6-18
6-88)
stretch forming, 7-21
swaging, 14-8 (Fig. 14-10), 14-17 (Fig.
four-slide (multislide), 6-47
sheet metal forming, 6-3 (Fig. 6-1)
steel rule dies, 6-27
Die-set transfer press (see Presses)
Die-setting presses (see Presses)
Dimpling, principle, 4-9 (Table 4-2)
Dinkers (see Steel rule dies)
14-24)
Die sets
Distortion
spinning, 9- 10
tool steels, 2-12 (Table2-7)
Double-action press (see Presses, number of
Draw beads
slides)
deep drawing, 4-39 (Fig. 4-43)
definition, 6-2
Drawbenches, 13-6, 13-7 (Fig. 13-7)
Drawing
bar, wire and tube, 13-1, 13-2 (Fig. 13-1)
continuous machines, 13-5 (Fig. 13-5)
die pull, 13-3
dies, 13-8, 13-9 (Table 13-2)
draft and area reduction, 13-1
drawbenches, 13-6, 13-7 (Fig. 13-6)
lubricants, 13-10
other methods, 13-8
percentage of elongation, 13-3
bull blocks, 13-4 (Fig. 13-4)
blank development, 4-48, 6-35
blank diameter, 4-49, 4-50
blankholder force, 4-34, 4-38 (Fig.4-40),
comparison with spinning, 9-8
compound, 3-6
4-47 (Fig. 4-57)
cup drawing, 1- 10,4-38 (Fig.4-40 and Fig.
4-41)
cup draw length, 4-34 (]able4-8)
deep drawing, 4-7 (Table 4-2), 4-39 (Fig.
dies, sheet metal, 6-31, 6-33 (Fig. 6-62)
4-43)
clearances, 6-33 (Table 6-8)
design rules, 6-18
draw beads, 6-36
large parts, 6-34, 6-38 (Fig. 6-69)
progressive, 6-42
reverse redrawing, 6-33,6-35 (Fig.6-66)
transfer, 6-44
earing, 1-5, 4-47, percent, 4-48
forming, 1-3
limits, 4-4 I
lubricants, 3-7 ( Table 3-5),3-8 (Table3-6)
metal flow (see Metal flow)
parameters, 4-48
percent draw, 1-31
process, 4-33
redrawing, 4-34, 6-33
4-9)
number of operations, 4-34,4-37 (Table
percent reduction, 4-34,4-35 (Fig.4-37)
reverse, 4-4 1 (Fig. 4-49)
shell diameter, 4-36 (Fig. 4-38)
speed (see Press speed)
stress, 4-46 (Fig. 4-54)
stretch/draw separation, 1-31
Drives, press (see Press drives)
Ductile (nodular) irons, dies and molds, 2-3
E
Earing (see Drawing)
Edges, die-cut, 6-21 (Fig. 6-39)
EDM (see Electrical discharge machining)
Electrical discharge machining (EDM),cemented tungsten carbide, 2-29
Electrohydraulic forming
accuracy, 19-3, 19-1I
advantages, 19-4 (Table 19-i),19-1 1
applications, 19-12, 19-14 (Fig. 19-8)
characteristics, 19-4 (Table 19-1)
description, 19-10 (Fig. 19-5)
die materials, 19-13
equipment, 19-12, 19-I5 (Fig. 19-9)
exploding bridge wires, 19-11 (Table 19-4)
limitations, 19-4 (Table 19-1), 19-1I
materials formed, 19-12
spark discharge, 19-10
1-3INDEX
Electrohydraulic forming (cant.)
tooling design requirements, 19-I2
workpiece sizes, 19-3, 19-4 (Table IY-I),
19-12
Electromagnetic forming
accuracy, 19-3
advantages, 19-4 (Table IY-I), 19-18
applications, 19-20
characteristics, 19-5 ( Table 19-1)
drivers, 19-18
equipment, 19-22
field shapers, 19-22, 19-24 (Fig. 19-21)
forming dies, 19-22
forming techniques, 19-24
limitations, 19-4 ( Table IY - I ) , 19-I8
materials formed, 19-I8
safety, 19-24
theory, 19-16 (Fig. IY-12 and Fig. 19-13)
workcoils, 19-18, 19-22, 19-23(Fig. lY-20)
workpiece s i ~ e s ,19-3, 19-5 (Table IY-I),
cold and warm extrusion, 13-27
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-43
cold drawing of bar, wire and tube, 13-3
stretch forming
19-22
Elongation limits
aluminum alloys, 7-14
stainless steels, 7-14
titanium and alloys, 7-15
Embossing
principle, 4-7 (Table4-2)
process, 4-56
End flare, roll forming, 8-4, 8-16, 8-30 (Table
Energy requirements, mechanical presses,
Epoxies, dies and molds, 2-34 (Fig. 2-15)
Equations
air consumption, pneumatic presses, 5-74
air pressure, pneumatic cushions, 5-20
area reduction, in cold drawing bar, rod
bend allowance, 10-3
blanking or punching force, 4-17
coil width, blanking, 4-40
compressor powcr, pneumatic presses, 5-74
die closure time, mechanical presses, 5-46
die pull, in cold drawing bar, rod and wire,
draft, in cold drawing bar, rod and wire,
draw forming ratio, 1-3I
drawing
8-3)
5-25, 5-29
and wire, 13-2
13-3
13-2
blank diameter, 4-48, 4-49, 4-50
cup height, 4-46
earing, 4-48
final reduction, 4-47
force required, 4-42
rectangular shell, 4-44
round shell, 4-44
strain hardening, 1-5, 1-8
strain rate hardening, 1-5, 1-15
strain ratio, 1-4, 1-5
bar, rod and wire, 13-3
elongation percentage, in cold drawing
engineering strain, 1-7
engineering stress, 1-7
expanding
force requirements, 7-6
springback, 7-3
flanging pad force, 4-28
flywheel energy, mechanical presses, 5-29
force required, bending, 10-5, 10-8
force required, straightening, 10-45 (Fig.
force required, wiping, 10-8
forging
10-60)
hammer energy, 15-42
Equations, forging (cont.)
forming ratio, 1-31
forming severity, 1-32
height reduction in upsetting, 13-46
ironing, 4-54
minimum radius, tube bending, 10-28
noise reduction, 20-22
number of stock diameters in upset, 13-45
percent draw, 1-31
powder metallurgy, die dimensions, 17-25
pressure requirements, hot extrusion,
punching
compressive stress in a punch, 12-13
form height, 12-I8
punch center distance, 12-I7
scallop height, 12-I6
redrawing percent reduction, 4-34
roll forming
bend allowance, 8-15
number of passes, 8-14
safety distance, mechanical presses, 5-45
section modulus, tubing, 10-30
shape analysis, 1-26
shearing, force requirements, 11-15
spinning
press force, 15-41
13-24 (Table 13-5)
cost and time, 9-8
formability index, 9-I3
stock requirement, 4-22
strain calculation, 1-22
strain measurement, 1-22
strain rate sensitivity, 1-15, 1-20
strain, stretch flange, 4-29
stretch forming, force requirements, 7-22
stripping force, 4-22
swaging
Expanding
dimensional changes, 14-2
machine capacity, 14-7
advantages, 7-1, 7-3 (Fig. 7-2)
applications, 7-3, 7-4 (Fig. 7-4)
combined with shrinking, localized, 7-12
fluid (hydrostatic), 7-9, 7-10 (Fig. 7-12 )
machines
(Fig. 7-17)
hot, 7-8
cone angle, 7-6
controls and accessories, 7-7
force requirements, 7-5
numbers of forming shoes, 7-7
operation, 7-4, 7-5 (Fig. 7-5)
elongation, 7-2
physical properties, 7-2, 7-3 (Fig. 7-3)
springback, 7-3
materials, 7-2
methods, 7-1
multiple panels, 7-8, 7-9 (Fig. 7-11)
tooling, 7-7 (Fig. 7-59, 7-8 (Fig. 7-10)
workpiece sizes, 7-3
Explosive forming
accuracy, 19-2
advantages, 19-4 (Table IY-I), 19-9
applications, 19-9
characteristics, 19-4 (Tab/e 19-1)
combustible gas, 19-9(Fig. fY-3 and Table
equipment and tooling, 19-10 (Fig. 19-4)
high-explosive, 19-6, 19-7 (Table 19-2)
limitations, 19-4 (Table IY-I), 19-9
workpiece skes, 19-3 (Table 19-1)
Extrolling (see Extrusion, cold and warm,
Extrusion (see also Plastics forming)
carbide punches and dies, 2-29
cold and warm
19-3)
continuous)
advantages, 13-26 (Table 13-7)
applications, 13-29
Extrusion, cold and warm (cont.)
backward, 13-29, 13-30 (Fig. 13-27)
combination, 13-3I (Fig. 13-31)
continuous, 13-32, 13-33 (Fig. 13-34)
forward, 13-30 (Fig. 13-29)
impact, 13-3I , 13-32 (Fig. 13-32)
limitations, 13-27
materials extruded, 13-27
presses, 13-33
pressure requirements, 13-40 (Fig.
radial, 13-3I
safety considerations, 13-41
shapes and sizes produced, 13-27
slug production, 13-38
slug treatment and lubrication, 13-39
speeds, 13-4I
tooling and die design, 13-35, 13-36
13-43)
(Table 13-8)
hot
advantages, 13-11, 13-12 (Fig. 13-9)
billet piercing and loading, 13-19, 13-20
billet preparation, 13-24
butt separating and unloading, 13-19
dies, 13-21 (Fig. 13-20)
direct, 13-13 (Fig. 13-10)
heating, stretching, and pulling, 13-20
history, 13-1I
hydrostatic, 13-14, 13-15 (Fig. 13-13),
indirect, 13-13, 13-14(Fig. 13-12)
limitations, 13-12
lubrication, 13-25
materials extruded, 13-15
presses, 13-16, 13-17 (Fig. 13-16 and
pressure requirements, 13-24 (Table
safety considerations, 13-25
stem speeds, 13-25 (Table 13-6)
tooling, 13-20, 13-2I (Fig. 13-20)
tooling materials, 13-22 (Table 13-4)
(Fig. 13-18)
13-20, 13-21 (Fig. 13-fY)
Table 13-3), 13-20
f3-5)
metal separation, 4-12
P M parts, 17-39
F
Feedback, swaging, 14-1
Feeding
chines, 13-6I
automatic cold and warm forming macold and warm extrusion presses, 13-35
hot extrusion presses, 13-I9
misfeed detectors, 6-9, 6-1 I (Fig. 6-17)
presses
blanks and stampings, 5-55 (Fig. 5-40),
coil lines, 5-6 I , 5-62 (Fig. 5-49)
5-56 (Fig. 5-41), 5-84
coil stock, 5-57 (Fig. 5-24,5-’58 (Fig.
5-45). 5-85
spinning machines, 9-21
swaging machines
hand, 14-15
power, 14-15, 14-I6 (Fig.14-22)
Feed rates
spinning, 9-26, 9-27 (Table 9-7)
swaging, 14-19
43 (Table 17-46)
Ferro-Tic, 2-I9
Ferrous metals, powder metallurgy, 17-8, 17-
Fine blanking
advantages, 4-24
applications, 4-25
cycle, 4-25
limitations, 4-25
materials, 4-25
presses, 5-82, 5-83 (Fig. 5-72)
1-4INDEX
Fine blanking (cont.)
Finishing
process, 4-26
dies and molds
aluminum bronze, 2-3 I
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-28
steel-bonded carbide, 2-19
tool steel, 2- I8
zinc-based alloys, 2-32
plastics parts, 18-59
PM parts, 17-35
Fire precautions, powder metallurgy, 17-5I
Fire protection (see Safety)
Flanging
dies, sheet metal, 6-29
edge strain, 4-30 (Table 4-7)
force, 4-28
formability, 4-30 (Fig. 4-29)
hemming (see Hemming)
problems
splitting, 4-29 (Fig. 4-26)
wrinkling, 4-29
recoil, 4-28, 4-29 (Fig. 4-24)
springback, 4-30,4-31 (Fig. 4-31) (see also
Flanging, recoil)
tooling, 4-28
types, 4-26
hole, 4-7 ( Table4-2), 4-3 I (Fig. 4-32)
jogged, 4-6 (Table4-2)
reverse, 4-6 (Table4-2)
shrink, 4-6 (Table4-2), 4-26,4-27 (Fig.
straight, 4-6 (Table 4-2), 4-26, 4-27
stretch, 4-6 ( Table4-2),4-26,4-27 (Fig.
4-20)
(Fig. 4-20 and Fig. 4-21)
4-20)
Flexible-die forming presses (see Presses)
Floating plugs, cold drawing (see Plugs, floatFloturning (see Shear forming and Spinning)
Flow, metal (see Metal flow)
Flow turning, principle, 4-8 (Table 4-2) (see
Fluid cell (see Forming)
Fluid expanding (see Expanding)
Force requirements
1%)
also Shear forming and Spinning)
blanking or punching, 4-17, 4-18 (Table
4-5), 4-20 (Fig. 4-9), 4-21 (Fig. 4-10),
drawing, 4-43 (Fig. 4-52), 4-45 (Fig. 4-53)
expanding, 7-5
forging press, 15-41 (Fig. 15-48)
hot extrusion, 13-16
hydraulic presses, 5-66, 5-67 (Fig. 5-58)
ironing, 4-53
mechanical presses, 5-25, 5-26 (Table 5-6)
shear, 4-22
shearing, 11-15
spinning, 9-26, 9-27 (Table 9-5)
stretch forming, 7-22
stripping, 4-20, 4-22, calculation, 4-22
common tests for, 15-10
index, 15-43 (Table 15-16)
influencing factors, 15-10 (Table 15-2)
Forgeability index (see Forgeability)
Forgeability tests (see Forgeability)
Forging (see also Forging, high-velocity and
4-22, 6-22
rectangular shell, 4-44
round shell, 4-42
Forgeability
Swaging)
advantages, 15-8
applications, 15-9 (Table 15-1)
automation, 15-40 (Fig. 15-47)
computer applications, 15-51
cost considerations, 15-44
defects in workpieces, 15-55, 15-56 (Table
15-21)
Forging (conr.)
die failure, 15-55, 15-57 (Table 15-22 and
energy calculations, 15-42
equipment
Table 15-23)
auxiliary equipment, 15-39
forging machines, 15-30
forging rolls, 15-34
hammers, 15-19
hot formers, 15-32
hydraulic presses, 15-26
mechanical presses, 15-23
radial forging machine, 15-36
ring rolling machine, 15-38
screw presses, 15-29
selection, 15-11 (Table 15-4, 15-19
wedge rolling, 15-35
force calculations, 15-41 (Fig. 15-48)
glossary of terms, 15-I
lubricants
application, 15-54
requirements, 15-5 1
selection, 15-52, 15-53 ( Table 15-20)
types, 15-52 (Table 15-19)
materials forged, 15-9, 17-32
number of blows, 15-43
PM parts, 17-32
processes
electric upsetting, 15-8 (Fig. 15-11)
Gatorizing, 15-6
impression-die, 15-4 (Fig. 15-2)
incremental forging, 15-7
isothermal forging, 15-6
open-die, 15-4
orbital forging, 15-6
radial forging, 15-5 (Fig. 15-3)
ring rolling, 15-6 (Fig. 15-7)
roll forging, 15-7
wedge rolling, 15-7
safety, 15-57
speed, 15-43, 15-44 (Table 15-17)
tolerances, 15-8
tooling
forging machine, 15-48
impression dies, 15-45 (Fig. 15-53)
open dies, 15-44 (Fig. 15-50)
radial forging, 15-5 1
ring rolling, 15-5 I
roll forging, 15-50
trimming and punching dies, 15-50
wedge rolling, 15-51
workpiece temperature, 15-12 (Table 15-4)
forging machines, 15-30
forging rolls (reducer rolls, back rolls, gap
rolls), 15-34
furnaces and heaters, 15-39
hammers, 15-19
high-velocity, 19-25
hot formers, 15-32
hydraulic presses, 15-26
material handling, 15-39
mechanical presses, 15-23
radial forging, 15-36
ring rolling, 15-38
screw presses, 15-29
wedge rolling, 15-35
advantages, 19-5 (Table 19-1), 19-25
applications, 19-25 (Table 19-6)
limitations, 19-5 (Table l9-1), 19-25
machines, 19-25, 19-26 (Fig. 19-22)
tooling, 19-26
application of, 15-31
capacities, 15-3 I
description, 15-30
Forging equipment
Forging, high-velocity (see also Forging)
Forging machines (see also Forging, equipment)
Forging machines (writ.)
operation, 15-30
Forging rolls (see Forging, equipment)
Forging temperatures
aluminum alloys, 15-16 (Table 15-8)
beryllium, 15-17
carbon and alloy steels, 15- I2 ( Table 15-4)
columbium, 15-I8
copper alloys, 15-16 ( Table 15-9)
magnesium alloys, 15-17 (Table 15-10)
molybdenum, 15-18
stainless steel, 15-15(Table15-6 and Table
superalloys, 15-18 (Table 15-12)
tantalum, 15-I8
titanium alloys, 15-7 (Table 15-11)
tool steels, 15-13(Table 15-5)
tungsten, 15-18
aluminum, 1-I6
aluminum, steel, 4-37 (Fig. 4-39)
analytical methods
15-7)
Formability
application, 1-32 (Fig. 1-38)
circular grid, 1-22, 1-28
computer, 1-23, 1-25 (Fig. 1-26), 1-27
forming limit diagram, 1-23, 1-28
modified forming limit diagram, 1-29,
shape analysis, 1-24, 1-26(Table 1-10),
1-30 (Fig. 1-33)
1-30, 1-32
application, 1-32, 1-33 (Fig. 1-39)
classification, 1- 13 (Table 1-3)
definitions of terms, 1-1
description, 1 - 1
drawing, 1-3, 6-35
drawing sheet metal, 6-34, draw beads,
evaluation
6-35
circle grid, 1-28, 1-29 (Fig. 1-31)
forming limit diagram, 1-28, 1-29 (Fig.
modified FLD, 1-29
shape analysis, 1-30, 1-32
deformation, 1-12
die design, 1-I2
lubrication, 1-12
part design, 1-1 2
high-strength steel, 1-13
low-carbon steel, I- 13
map, 1-23
modeling, 1-27
nonferrous metal, 1-16, I-18
prediction, 1-27, 1-28
sheet steel, 1-13
spinning, 9-13, 9-14 (Fig. 9-18)
stretch/draw separation, 1-31
stretching, 1-5, 1-10, 1-1 1
tests
1-32)
factors
Erichsen, 1-18
Fukui, 1-19
hemispherical punch, 1-19
Olsen, 1 - 1 8
Swift, 1-18
variables, 1-2 (Table 1-1)
zinc, 1-17
Androtorming (see Androforming)
automatic, cold and warm
advantages, 13-57
applications, 13-57 (Fig. 13-47)
limitations, 13-57
machines, 13-60
materials formed, 13-57
shapes and sizes formed, 13-57
Forming
bending (see Bending)
bulging (see Bulging)
1-5INDEX
Forming (conr.)
compression (see Stretch forming and
creep, 4-57
deformation, 1-7
Demarest process, 4-59
die design for sheet metal, 6-1
dieless, 4-58
drawing (see Drawing)
flanging (see Flanging)
fluid cell, 4-58, 5-79, 5-80 (Fig. 5-67)
fluid forming, 4-59
high-energy-rate forming (HERF), 19-1
limit diagram, 1 - 1 1 (Fig. 149, 1-17, 1-23
limits, 1-10
metal flow, 1-12
modes, 1-9 (Fig. l-5),1-10 (Fig. 1-6)
Shrinking)
bending, 1-9, 1-10
cup drawing, 1-9
straightening, 1-9, 1-10
stretching. I -10
overview, 4-3
peen, 19-28
ratio, 1-31
roll (see Roll forming)
rubber die, 4-58
rubber pad
Guerin process, 4-58, 5-78
marforming, 4-58, 5-78
sheet metal, 1-9
stretch (see Stretch forming)
stretching (see Formability)
superplastic, 1-20, 4-59
advantages, 1-2I
key factors, 4-59
limitations, 1-21
process selection, 1-21
typical process, 4-59, 4-60 (Fig. 4-70)
turret press, 12-17
Formulas (see Equations)
Four-slide
machines (see Presses)
dies, 6-46, 6-48 (Fig. 6-87)
Fractures (see Rupturing)
Furnaces
die casting, 16-35
forging, 15-39, 15-40 (Fig. 15-45)
heat treating, 2-17
sintering, 17-21
G
Gage numbers (see Thickness)
Gages, die (see Stops)
Gap-frame presses (see Presses)
Gap rolls (see Forging equipment)
Gatorizing, 15-6 (see also Forming, superplastic)
Gibbing (see Guiding, press slide)
Glossary (see Nomenclature)
Grain flow, forging operations, 15-1 (Fig. 15-
I ) , 15-8 (see also Metal flow)
Gravity drop hammer (see Hammers, forging)
Grindability
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-28
steel-bonded carbides, 2-20
tool steels, 2-12 (Table 2-7)
Guards, press 5-48 (Fig.5-33),5-49 (Fig.5-34)
Guerin process
blanking and piercing, 4-58
drawing, 4-58
presses, 5-78
tooling, 4-58 (Fig. 4-67)
Guides, stock, 6-5, 6-9 (Fig. 6-13)
Guiding, press slide
accuracy (see Parallelism and Runout)
gibbing, 5-16, 5-17 (Fig. 5-9)
H
Hammers, forging (see also Forging equtpment)
description, 15-19
die forger, 15-21, 15-23 (Fig. 15-15)
gravity drop, 15-19, 15-20 (Fig. 15-12)
high-energy-rate, 15-23, 19-25
horizontal counterblow (Impacter), 15-23
opcn-die, 15-23, 15-24 (Fig. 15-16)
operation, 15-19
power drop, 15-20, 15-22 (Fig. 15-14)
power-lift, 15-19, 15-2 1 (Fig. 15-13)
selection, 15- 1 I ( Table 15-4, 15-19 ( Tuhle
vertical counterblow, 15-21
Hardboards, dies, 2-36, 6-26
Hardening, work, spinning, 9- 12
Hardness
15-13)
cemented tungsten carbides, 2-22 (Table
powder metal parts, 17-13
spinning, 9-12
spun parts, 9-9
stainless and maraging steels, 2-6
steel-bonded carbides, 2-2 I
steel rules for dies, 6-27
steels after cold extrusion, 13-26
stretch-draw formed parts, 7-18
stretch formed parts, 7- 13
swaged parts, 14-2, 14-3
tool steels, 2-12 (Table2-7)
2-10), 2-25
Hardwoods, dies, 2-35 (see also Hardboards
and Wood, densified)
Hastelloys (see Superalloys)
Heading (see Upsetting)
Heading machines (see Forging machines and
Heating
hot extrusion, 13-20, 13-24
spinning, 9-7
Heat treatment
aluminum, before hot extrusion, 13-24
annealing
Machine t001s)
cold drawing of bar, wire and tube,
spinning, 9-12
steels, cold extrusion, 13-28, 13-39
swaging, 14-3
before cold drawing, 13-3
PM parts, 17-33
steel-bonded carbides, 2-2 1
swaging dies, 14-19
tooling, cold and warm extrusion, 13-35
tool steels, 2-10, 2-16 (Table 2 4 )
Heels, die set, 6-5, 6-9 (Fig. 6-14)
Helical extrusion (see Extrusion, cold and
Hemming
13-2
warm, continuous)
die, 4-32 (Fig. 4-34)
principle, 4-9 (Table 4-2)
quality, 4-33
tooling, 4-32
types of hems, 4-32 (Fig. 4-33)
High-energy-rate forging (see High-velocity
High-energy-rate forming
forging)
advantages, 19-2
characteristics, 19-4 (Table 19-1)
description, 19-1
electrohydraulic forming, 19-10
electromagnetic forming, 19-16
explosive forming, 19-6
high-velocity forging, 19-25
limitations, 19-2
materials formed, 19-2
selection criteria, 19-3
workpiece sizes and tolerances, 19-2
High-velocity forging
accuracy, 19-3
advantages, 19-25
applications, 19-25 (Table 19-6)
characteristics, 19-5 (Tuble 19-1)
limitations, 19-25
machines, 19-25, 19-26(Fig. 19-22and Fig.
tooling, 19-26
workpiece sizes, 19-5 (Table 19-1)
19-23)
High-velocity forming (see High-energy-rate
History
forming)
casting, 16-I
hot metal extrusion, 13-1I
powder metallurgy, 17-1
Holders, pilot, die set, 6-9, 6-1 1 (Fig. 6-16)
Hooker process (see Extrusion, cold and warm,
Horning (adjustable-bed knee) press (see
Hot formers (see also Forging, equipment)
application, 15-32
capacity, 15-32
description, 15-32, 15-34 (Fig. 15-33)
operation, 15-32
Hydraulic presses
cold and warm extrusion, 13-34
forging (see Presses, forging)
hot extrusion, 13-16
sheet metal forming (see Presses)
impact)
Presses)
Hydroform (see Presses)
Hydrospinning (see Shear forming and Spinning)
Hydrostatic extrusion (see Extrusion, hot)
I
Impact extrusion (see Extrusion, cold and
Impacters (see Hammers, forging)
Impregnation, PM parts, 17-34
lmpression-die forging
applications, 15-8
description, 15-4
tooling, 15-45
warm)
Inclinable press (see Presses)
lncoloys (see Superalloys)
lnconels (see Superalloys)
Incremental forging (see Forging, processes)
Injection molding (see Molding and Plastics
forming)
inspection
forgings, 15-55
mechanical presses, 5-53 (Fig. 5-39)
sand castings, 16-28
Investment casting (see Plaster and ceramicIron, cast (see Cast iron)
Ironing
after drawing, 6-35
computation, 4-5 I
force required, 4-53 (Fig. 4-64)
thickness reduction, 4-52 (Fig. 4-63)
principle, 4-7 (Table 4-2),4-5 I (Fig. 4-62)
process, 4-51
tooling, 2-30, 4-5 1
Ironworker (see Shearing)
Isostatic pressing
cold, PM parts, 17-36
hot, PM parts, 17-36
mold casting)
Isothermal forging (see Forging, processes)
J
Jaws, stretch forming, 7-21 (Fig. 7-30)
Joggling (see Flanging)
1-6INDEX
K
Kickback (see Feedback)
Kicker (shedder) pins, die, 6-5
Kicker tools, four-slide, 6-5 1, 6-52 (Fig. 6-95)
Kirksite (see also Zinc alloy)
dies and molds, 2-32
expanding shoes, 7-7
stretch forming dies, 7-21
Knockouts, die, 6-4 (Fig. 6-7)
L
Lamination presses (see Presses)
Lancing, principle, 4-5 (Table 4-2)
Lead
antimonial, dies, 2-32
hot extrusion, 13-I5
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
shear strength, 11-16 (Table 11-3)
spinning, 9- 12
swaging, 14-I6
Lime coatings, cold drawing, 13-1I
Linex extrusion (see Extrusion, cold and warm,
Loading/ unloading
automatic cold and warm forming macold and warm extrusion presses, 13-35
cold a n d warm upsetting (heading)
hot extrusion presses, 13-19
punching machines, 12-10, 12-1 I (F;g.
spinning machines, 9-21
swaging machines, 14-16 (Fig. 14-23)
Locating stampings in dies, 6-14 (Fig. 6-24)
Lost-wax process (see Investment casting)
Lubricants
continuous)
chines, 13-6 I
machines, 13-5 1
12-13)
additives, 3-1 1 , 3-12 (Table 3-9)
application methods
airless spray, 3-16
air spray, 3- 15
dip, 15-54
drip, 3- 13
electrostatic, 3- 16
flooding, 3- I6
manual, 3-13
roller, 3-14
spray, 3- 15, 15-54
swab, 15-54
alkaline cleaners, 3- I8
cleaner selection, 3- 18
solvent cleaners, 3- I8
types of cleaners, 3-18
cleaning
cold and warm extrusion, 13-39
cold drawing, 13-10
dry-film, 3-6 (Table 3-4, 3- I0
formulations, 3-8
compounded oil, 3-9
emulsions, 3-10
eutectic salts, 3-10
extreme-pressure oil, 3-9
glass, 3-10
liquids, 3-9
mineral oil, 3-9
natural oil, 3-9
solutions, 3-10
synthetic oil, 3-9
hot extrusion, 13-25
hot forging, 15-5I , 15-52 (Table 15-19)
ingredients, 3-7
metalforming, 3- I
oil-based, 3-7 (Table 3 - 9 , 15-52
properties, 3-6 (Table 3-4)
punching, 12-19
Lubricants (conr.)
purging, P M parts, 17-22
quality control
standards, 3-19
testing, 3-19
roll forming, 8-28 (Table8-1)
selection, 3-4 (Table 3-1), 15-52
factors, 3-5 (Table3-3)
high-pressure, 3-5 (Table3-2)
solid-film, 3-2
solids
lamellar inorganic solid, 3-10
metallic film, 3-1 I
nonlamellar solids, 3- I I
organic solids, 3-1 I
soap, 3-10, 3-1 1 (Table 3-8)
solvent-based, 3-8
special, 3-8, 3-9 (Table 3-7)
spinning, 9-27, 9-28 (Table 9-8)
stretch forming, 7-22
swaging, 14-2 I
synthetic, 3-7, 15-52
troubleshooting
lubricity, 3-2 1
mixture, 3-20
viscosity, 3-20
types, 3-6, 15-52
waste disposal
biodegradability, 3- 17
treatment, 3-17
water-based, 3-7, 3-8 (7able 3-6), 15-52
Lubrication, metalforming
cold and warm extrusion, 13-39
cold drawing, 13-3
formability role, 1-1 2
hot extrusion, 13-25
ironing, 3-2 (Fig. 3-2)
mechanical presses, 5-5 1 , 5-52 (Fig. 5-38)
parameters
active, 3-3
coated, 3-6
inactive, 3-3
normal, 3-3
surface properties, 3-3
bound a ry-fi 1m, 3-2
film theory, 3-1
mixed-film, 3-2
solid-film, 3-2
thick-film, 3-1
thin-film, 3-2
regimes, I -12
tube bending, 10-35
principles
LKder's lines (see Surface integrity)
M
Machinability
steel-bonded carbides, 2-20
tool steels, 2-12 (Table 2-7)
Machine controls
automatic cold and warm forming machines, 13-62
expanding, 7-7
fine-blanking presses, 5-82
hydraulic presses, 5-71
mechanical presses, 5-38, 5-39 (Fig. 5-29)
portal presses, 5-89
punch presses, 12-4 (Fig. 12-7)
spinning machines, 9-19, 9-20 (Fig. 9-27)
stretch forming, 7-20
transfer presses, 5-86
Androforming, 7-23 (Fig.7-31)
automatic cold and warm forming
Machines (see Machine tools)
Machine tools (see also Presses)
controls, 13-62
noise reduction, 13-62
Machine tools, automatic cold and warm
forming (con?.)
operation, 13-60
safety considerations, 13-63
tooling, 13-63
tooling changeover, 13-61
workpiece transfer, 13-6I
bull blocks, cold drawing, 13-4
cold and warm upsetting (heading)
progressive (transfer) headers, 13-5 1
single-stroke headers, 13-50
cold drawing, 13-5 (Fig. 13-5), 13-7 (Fig.
cone-type expanding, 7- I, 7-2 (Fig. 7-1)
expanding, 7-4, 7-5 (Fig. 7-5)
forging, 15-18, 19-25, 19-26 (Fig. 19-22)
notching, 12-12 (Fig. 12-16)
presses (see Presses)
punching, 12-I
roll forming, 8-5 (Fig. 8-11)
shearing, 11-4
slitting, 11-10 (Fig. 11-10)
spinning, 9-1, 9-16 (Fig. 9-26)
stretch forming, 7-15
swaging, 14-7, 14-8 (Fig. 14-10)
dies and molds
aluminum bronzes, 2-3 I
cemented tungsten carbides, 2-28
steel-bonded carbides, 2-20
zinc-based alloys, 2-32
plastics parts, 18-59
PM parts, 17-35
slugs for cold extrusion, 13-38
Magnesium and alloys
forging lubricant, 15-53
forging of, 15- 1 1 (Table 15-3, 15-I7 ( Table
hot extrusion, 13-15
powder metallurgy, 17-42
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
stretch forming, 7-15
13-6)
Machining
15-10)
Magnetic pulse forming (see Electromagnetic
forming)
Maintenance
forming dies, 6-56 (Table6-9)
mechanical presses, 5-52
PM presses, 17-31
punch presses, 12-20
roll forming machine, 8-30
tool (see Tool maintenance)
Management, safety program, 20-2
Mandrels (see also Chucks)
cold drawing, 13-10
spinning, 9-22, 9-23 (Fig. 9-31)
swaging, 14-19 (Fig. 14-27)
Manual (arbor) presses (see Presses, manual)
Maraging steels (see Steel, maraging)
Marforming
presses, 5-78
process, 4-58
tooling, 4-58 (Fig. 4-68)
dies and molds, 2-36
stretch forming dies, 7-21
automatic cold and warm forming, 13-57
cold and warm extrusion, 13-26, 13-28
cold and warm upsetting (heading), 13-42,
dies and molds
cemented tungsten carbide, 2-22 (Fig.
tool steels, 2-10 (Fig. 2-1)
expanding, 7-1, 7-3 (Fig. 7-2),7-8
hot extrusion, 13-12, 13-15
hot forging, 15-9, 15-10 (Table 15-2)
roll forming, 8- 1, 8-3, 8-4, 8- 14
Masonite
Material requirements
13-46
2-4)
1-7INDEX
Material requirements (cont.)
shearing, 11-4
spinning, 9-12
stretch-draw forming, 7-18
stretch forming, 7-13
swaging, 14-7 (Fig. 14-8)
Materials, die and mold (see Die and mold
Mechanical presses
materials)
cold and warm extrusion, 13-34
forging (see Presses, forging)
sheet metal forming (see Presses,
mechanical)
Meehanite
expanding shoes, 7-7
stretch forming dies, 7-22
Metal flow (see also Formability)
control, draw beads, 4-39 (FIg. 4-43)
drawing, 4-31
cylindrical cup, 4-37
rectangular shell, 4-38
wrinkling, 4-38
drawing sheet metal, 6-34
forming, 1-12
roll forming, 8-16
spinning, 9-9
swaging, 14-1, 14-2 (Fig. 14-1)
Metal-mold casting
centrifugal casting, 16-48
advantages, 16-50
equipment, 16-50, 16-51 (Fig. 16-32
and Fig. 16-33)
methods, 16-50, 16-5 I
speeds, 16-52 (Fig. 16-35)
automation, 16-34
cold chamber, 16-31, 16-32 (Fig. 16-
critical speed, 16-33, 16-35(Table 16-16)
design, 16-40
die materials, 16-38, 16-39( Table 16-17)
die production, 16-39
dies, 16-35, 16-37 (Fig. 16-21 and Fig.
draft required, 16-42 (Fig. 16-26)
ferrous metal, 16-39, 16-40 (Table
furnaces, 16-35
high pressure, 16-30
hot chamber, 16-31 (Fig. 16-14)
machines, 16-30
new technology, 16-32
pore-free process, 16-34
process control, 16-36 (Fig. 16-19)
tolerances, 16-42 (Table 16-21), 16-43
(Table 16-22 and Table 16-23)
vacuum die casting, 16-34
wall thickness, 16-41 (Table 16-19)
basic steps, 16-44 (Fig. 16-27)
casting production, 16-46
design, 16-43
equipment, 16-46, 16-47 (Fig. 16-29)
graphite molds, 16-47
low-pressure process, 16-46
mold design, 16-45
semipermanent mold, 16-48
shell molding, 16-49 (Fig. 16-30)
slush casting, 16-46
die casting, 16-30
15), 16-33 (Fig. 16-16)
16-22)
16-18)
permanent mold, 16-42
Metal powders, 17-4
Models for sheet metal formingdies, 6- 17 (Fig.
Molding,injection, PM parts, 17-39
Molybdenum
6-27)
forging lubricant, 15-54
forging of, 15-18
resistivity, 19-20 (Table 19-5)
swaging, 14-4
Motor, press drive, 5-29
adjustable-speed, 5-33
constant-speed, 5-33
Multislide machines (see Four-slide)
N
~ ~~~
Near-net-shaped forging, 15-4, 15-6
Necking, principle, 4-8 (Table 4-2)
Net-shaped-forging, 15-4
Nibbling (see also Notching)
definition, 4- I3
deformation, 4- 16 (Fig. 4-6)
machines (see Punching)
punch center distance, 12-17
scallop height, 12-I6
speed, 12-16
troubleshooting, 12-22 (Table 12-8)
Nickel and nickel alloys
die and mold materials
stainless and maraging steels, 2-6
tool steels, 2-9
hot extrusion, 13-16
shear strength, 11-16 (Table 11-3)
spinning, 9- I2
hot extrusion dies, 13-24
tool steels, 2-18
Nitriding
Nitrogen die cylinders, definition, 6-2
Noise control
automatic cold and warm forming mamechanical presses, 5-46
swaging, 14-3
bending, 10- I
blanking, 4- I2
casting, 16-7
die design, 6-1
formability, 1- 1
hot forging, 15-1
mechanical press safety, 5-4 I
mechanical press terms, 5-89
plastics forming, 18- 1
powder metallurgy, 17-4
press brakes, 10-12
shearing, 1 1 - 1
sheet metal blanking and forming, 4-9
sheet metal forming presses, 5- 1
spinning processes, 9- I
backward extrusion parameters, 13-42
bend allowance, 10-5 (Fig. 10-2)
bending force, 10-9 (Fig. 10-5)
diameter reduction, drawing, 4-35 (Fig.
drawing force, 4-43 (Fig. 4-52), metric,
forging press force, 15-41 (Fig. 15-48)
forward extrusion parameters, 13-41 (Fig.
punching force, 4-19, 4-20 (Fig. 4-9),
metric, 4-21 (Fig. 4-10)
shell diameter, drawing, 4-36 (Fig. 4-38)
thickness reduction, drawing, 4-52
upset dimensioning, 13-44
machines, 12-I2 (Fig. 12-16)
principle, 4-4 (Table 4-2), 4- 13, 12-12
roll forming, 8-2, 8-1 1 (Fig. 8-19)
tooling, 12-12
chines, 13-62
Nomenclature
Nomograph
(Fig. 13-46)
4-37)
4-45 (Fig. 4-53)
13-45)
Notching
0
OBI (open-back inclinable) press (see Presses)
OBS(open-back stationary) press (see Presses)
Oils (see Lubricants)
Open-back inclinable (OBI) press (see Presses)
Open-back stationary (OBS) press (see Presses)
Open-die forging
description, 15-4
hammers, 15-23
tooling, 15-44
Open-die forging hammer (see Hammers,
Orbital forging (see Forging, processes)
Orbital forming (see Upsetting, cold and warm)
OSHA (see Safety)
Overload protection, press, 5-33, 5-34 (Fig.
Oxidizing, tool steels, 2-18
forging)
5-24)
P
Parallelism, press slide to bed, 5-15
Parting, principle, 4-4 ( Table 4-2), 4- I3
Payoff tray (stand or reel), cold drawing, 13-4
Peen forming
(Fig. 13-3)
accuracy, 19-29
advantages, 19-28
applications, 19-29 (Table 19-7)
description, 19-28 (Fig. 19-27 and Fig.
limitations, 19-28
machines, 19-29, 19-30 (Fig. 19-30 and Fig.
materials formed, 19-29
stress peen forming, 19-28
workpiece siLes, 19-3, 19-29
dies, 6-24 (Fig. 6-44)
principle, 4-4 ( Table 4-2), 4- 13
19-28)
19-31)
Perforating
Perforators (punches), 6-5, 6-10 (Fig. 6-15),
Permanent-mold casting (see Metal-mold
Phosphate coatings
cold drawing, 13-1 I
cold extrusion, 13-39
Physical properties (see Properties)
Piercing (see also Punching)
principle, 4-4 ( Table 4-2), 4-12
tolerances, 4-62
Pilots, die, 6-2, 6-9, 6-1 1 (Fig. 6-16)
Pinch-trimming dies (see Trimming)
Pins, die set, 6-3 (Fig. 6-2)
Pipe bending (see Bending)
Plaster and ceramic-mold casting
6-1 1 (Table 6-1)
casting)
ceramic cores
extruded, 16-65
molded, 16-65
investment casting, 16-55
advantages, 16-58
alloys, 16-57 ( Table 16-25)
aluminum, 16-6 I
automated plant, 16-58, 16-60 (Fig.
cleaning and finishing, 16-60
comparison, 16-59 (Table 16-27)
cost considerations, 16-61
iron, 16-61
pattern production, 16-58
process, 16-56 (Fig. 16-36), 16-58
prototyping, 16-61 (Fig. 16-38)
tolerances, 16-57 (Table 16-26)
plaster molding, 16-52
Antioch process, 16-55
applications, 16-52
burnout, 16-55
foam plaster, 16-54
methods, 16-54
parting agents, 16-54
patterns, 16-53
16-37)
1-8INDEX
Plaster and ceramic-mold casting, plaster
molding (coni.)
tolerances, 16-53 ( Table 16-24)
advantages, 16-65
applications, 16-62
Shaw process, 16-63 (Fig. 16-39)
tolerances, 16-62 (Table 16-28)
Unicast process, 16-63, 16-64 (Fig.
solid-ceramic molding, 16-61
16-40)
Plastics (see also Plastics forming)
additives, 18-8
dies and molds
advantages, 2-33
construction, 2-34 (Fig. 2-15)
limitations, 2-33
plastics used, 2-33
expanding shoes, 7-8
fillers, 18-9, 18-10 (Table 18-3)
laser cutting, 12-8, 12-10 (Table 12-3)
materials, 18-4, molecular structure, 18-5
part design
factors, 18-1 I
material selection, 18-12
threads, 18-12
thermoplastic, 18-5, 18-6 (Table 18-1),
thermoset, 18-5, 18-8 (Table 18-2),
processing methods, 18-14(see also Plastics
principal types
18-15 (Table 18-5)
18-35
forming)
properties, 18-9
thermoplastic, 18-15 (Table 18-5)
thermoset, 18-16 (Table 18-6)
standard tests, 18-13 (Table 18-4)
creep, 18-13
fatigue, 18-14
shrinkage, 18-14
thermal expansion, 18-13
stretch forming dies, 7-21
blow molding
Plastics forming (see also Plastics)
extrusion, 18-54
injection, 18-54
stretch, 18-54
casting, 18-56, 18-58
compression molding
equipment, 18-17
method selection, 18-17 (Table 18-7)
mold construction, 18-18
mold types, 18-18
process, I8- I7
dies, 18-3I
equipment, 18-30
multiscrew extruders, 18-31
process, 18-30
calendering, 18-58
cell casting, 18-59
extrusion, 18-59
film casting, 18-59
extrusion
film and sheet forming, 18-58
forging, 18-58
high-pressure laminates, 18-53
injection molding
advantages, 18-23
automatic injection, 18-26
equipment, 18-23
hot-runner molds, 18-26
limitations, 18-23
liquid injection molding, 18-55
mold design checklist, 18-26
molds, 18-24
process, 18-23
troubleshooting, 18-29
types of gates, 18-25 (Fig. 18-12)
machining and finishing, 18-59
Plastics forming, machining and finishing
(cwnr.)
buffing, 18-65
drilling, 18-64, 18-65(Table 18-23)
embossing, 18-64
filing, 18-62
gear cutting, 18-62
guidelines, 18-59
polishing, 18-65
punching, 18-64
routing, 18-62
sawing, 18-63
threading and tapping, 18-63
turning, 18-59, 18-62
variables, 18-60 (Table 18-21)
nomenclature, 18-I
reaction injection molding
advantages, 18-32
applications, 18-32
limitations, 18-32
materials, 18-32
mold, 18-35
process, 18-33
reinforced reaction injection molding,
typical properties, 18-33 (Table l8-10)
bulk molding compound, 18-38
filament winding, 18-44
hand lay-up, 18-40
high-volume processes, 18-35
low-volume processes, 18-40
production processes, 18-36 (Table
pulforming, 18-39
pultrusion, 18-39
resin injection, 18-43
sheet molding compound, 18-35
thick molding compound, 18-37
vacuum bag, 18-41
wet preform, 18-42
rotational molding, 18-55
structural foam molding, 18-56, comparthermoforming, 18-44
heat transfer rate, 18-48 ( Table 18-17)
machinery, 18-44
mechanical forming, 18-50
pressure forming, 18-50
prestretching, 18-50
radiant heating, 18-45 (Table 18-14)
rigidizing, 18-53
techniques, 18-49
temperature, 18-49 (7able 18-19)
tooling, 18-46
twin sheet forming, 18-51
vacuum, 18-45, 18-49
conditions, 18-22
equipment, 18-19
mold design, 18-22
processes, 18- 19
18-33, 18-34(Table 18-1I )
reinforced plastics, 18-35
18-13)
ison, 18-57 (Table 18-20)
transfer molding, 18- I7 (Table 18-7),I8- I9
Plate bending (see Bending)
Plates, heel and wear, die, 6-5, 6-9 (Fig.6-14)
Plating (see Chromium plating)
Plugs, floating, for cold drawing, 13-4 (Fig.
Pneumatic presses (see Presses, pneumatic)
Pointing (chamfering)for cold drawing, 13-4
Polishing, cemented tungsten carbide, 2-29
Polyester molds, 2-33
Polymers (see Plastics)
Polyurethanes, dies, 2-34
Pore-free casting (see Metal-mold casting)
Porosity, powder metal parts, 17-1I
Post-cut method, roll forming (see Roll
Powder metallurgy
13-4)
forming)
Powder metallurgy (conr.)
advantages, 17-4
blending (see Powder mixing)
compacting, I7- 18, die pressing, 17-I9
definition, 17-1
die design, 17-24
die materials, 17-24
hot extrusion, 13-16
limitations, 17-4
metal powders, 17-4
atomization, 17-5
characteristics, 17-6 ( Table l7-2)
chemical reduction, 17-6
electrolysis, 17-6
ferrous, 17-8
production, 17-5, 17-7 (Table 17-3)
properties, 17-9, 17-10
reduction, 17-5
specifications, 17-8 ( Table 17-4)
types, 17-6 (Table 17-1)
Cost, 17-13
mixing (see Powder mixing)
nomenclature, 17-4
nonferrous metals


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