كتاب Pneumatics - Basic Level
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Pneumatics - Basic Level

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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مدير المنتدى
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عدد المساهمات : 17575
التقييم : 31545
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Pneumatics - Basic Level    كتاب Pneumatics - Basic Level  Emptyالجمعة 17 يونيو 2022, 6:48 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Pneumatics - Basic Level
Peter Croser, Frank Ebel

كتاب Pneumatics - Basic Level  P_b_l_10
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Contents
Notes on the layout of the book . 8
Section A: Course
Chapter 1 – Characteristics and applications of pneumatics . 11
1.1 Pneumatics in review 12
1.2 Pneumatics and control system development 18
1.3 Structure and signal flow of pneumatic systems . 19
Chapter 2 – Components of a pneumatic system 23
2.1 Air generation and distribution 24
2.2 Valves . 27
2.3 Processing elements (processors) 33
2.4 Power components . 34
2.5 Systems 35
Chapter 3 – Symbols and standards in pneumatics 39
3.1 Symbols and descriptions of components 40
3.2 Safety requirements for pneumatic systems . 51TP101 • Festo Didactic
Contents
Chapter 4 – Methods for the development of
pneumatic systems .55
4.1 Development of pneumatic systems 56
4.2 Control chain .57
4.3 Design of the circuit diagram .60
4.4 Circuit layout 61
4.5 Designation of individual elements 62
4.6 The life cycle of a pneumatic system .63
Chapter 5 – Development of single actuator circuits .67
5.1 Direct control of a pneumatic cylinder .68
5.2 Example 1: Direct control of a single-acting cylinder .68
5.3 Exercise 1: Direct control of a double-acting cylinder 70
5.4 Indirect control of a pneumatic cylinder .72
5.5 Example 2: Indirect control of a single-acting cylinder 72
5.6 Exercise 2: Indirect control of a double-acting cylinder .74
5.7 Logic functions: AND, OR 76
5.8 Example 3: The logic AND function .76
5.9 Exercise 3: The logic AND function .79
5.10 Example 4: The logic OR function .81
5.11 Exercise 4: The logic OR function .83
5.12 Example 5: Memory circuit and speed control of a cylinder 85
5.13 Exercise 5: Memory circuit and speed control of a cylinder 88
5.14 Exercise 6: The quick exhaust valve .90
5.15 Example 6: Pressure dependent control .92
5.16 Exercise 7: Pressure dependent control 94
5.17 Example 7: The time delay valve .96
5.18 Exercise 8: The time delay valve .99Festo Didactic • TP101
5
Contents
Chapter 6 – Development of multiple actuator circuits . 101
6.1 Control of multiple actuators . 102
6.2 Example 8: Co-ordinated motion 102
6.3 Example 9: Signal overlap 107
6.4 Signal elimination by reversing valves 109
6.5 Example 10: Reversing valve . 109
6.6 Example 11: Reversing valves 112
Chapter 7 – Trouble-shooting of pneumatic systems . 115
7.1 Documentation 116
7.2 The causes and effects of malfunctions 116
7.3 Maintenance . 120
Section B: Theory
Chapter 1 – Fundamentals of pneumatics 123
1.1 Physical fundamentals 124
1.2 Characteristics of air . 126
Chapter 2 – Air generation and distribution 129
2.1 Air preparation 130
2.2 Air compressors 131
2.3 Reservoirs . 134
2.4 Air dryers . 136
2.5 Air distribution . 141
2.6 Service unit . 144TP101 • Festo Didactic
6
Contents
Chapter 3 – Actuators and output devices 155
3.1 Single-acting cylinders .156
3.2 Double-acting cylinders .158
3.3 Rodless cylinders 164
3.4 Cylinder construction .167
3.5 Cylinder performance characteristics 170
3.6 Motors 176
3.7 Indicators .178
Chapter 4 – Directional control valves .179
4.1 Configuration and construction 180
4.2 2/2-way valve .181
4.3 3/2-way valve .181
4.4 4/2-way valve .193
4.5 4/3-way valve .195
4.6 5/2-way valve .197
4.7 5/3-way valve .200
4.8 Flow values of valves 201
4.9 Reliable operation of valves 202
Chapter 5 – Non-return, flow and pressure valves,
valve combinations .203
5.1 Non-return valves 204
5.2 Flow control valves 211
5.3 Pressure valves .216
5.4 Combinational valves 218Festo Didactic • TP101
7
Contents
Chapter 6 – Systems . 223
6.1 Selection and comparison of working and control media 224
6.2 Control theory . 227
6.3 Control system development 231
6.4 Development aspects . 240
6.5 Modern pneumatic drives 241
Section C: Solutions
Solutions 245
List of standards . 264
List of references 265
Index . 267
Physical values and units . 274
Subject Page
2/2-way valve 181
3/2-way valve 181
4/2-way valve 193
4/3-way valve 195
5/2-way valve 197
5/3-way valve 200
Absorption drying 139
Adsorption dryers 138
Actuators 34
Advantageous characteristics of compressed air 15
Air compressor 131
Air distribution 24, 141
Air dryers 136
Air filter 26, 144
Air lubricator 26, 149
Air motor 176
Air reservoir 134
Air preparation equipment 144
Air supply 24, 129
Analogue control 229
Analysis of problem 65
Applications 11
Asynchronous control 230
Binary control 229
Cylinder performance characteristics 170
Chain sequence control 240
Characteristics of air 126
Check valves 204
Circuit diagram 56, 116, 238
A
B
C269
Subject Page
Clamping devices 51
Combinational valves 218
Comparison of media 16, 224
Components 23
Compressor 131
Compressed air regulators 147
Condensate 119, 144
Control chart 234
Control circuits - Systems 35
Control medium criteria 17
Control system development 55, 231
Control theory 227
Coordinated motion 101, 231
Derived elements 40
Derived units 124
Design process 65
Designating the elements 62
Designations 40
Dew point 136
Diagnostics 117
Diaphragm 147
Diaphragm compressor 131
Diaphragm cylinder 157
Diaphragm valve 212
Digital control 229
DIN ISO5599-3 44
Direct control of a pneumatic cylinder 68
Directional control valves 27, 179
Disc seat 180
Displacement-step diagram 103, 232
Distinguishing features 15
Documentation 116, 231
Double-acting cylinder 158
Double piston rod 160
Dry compressed air 129
Dryers 136
Dual pressure valve: AND function 205
D270
Subject Page
Emergency stop 51
End position cushioning 159
Environmental pollution 52
Energy 129
Exhaust silencers 52
Evaluation 65
Fault finding 117
Filters 144
Fitting of valves 201
Flow compressors 132
Flow control elements 180
Flow control valves 30, 211
Flow resistances 141
Fluid muscle 242
Gear motors 177
Gripper, pneumatic 244
Handling technology 242
Idle roller lever valve 192
Implementation 65
Indicators 178
Indirect control of a pneumatic cylinder 72
Input element 58
Junction elements 205
Lettering system 44
Linear actuators 49
Linear motion 155
Logic control 230
Longitudinal slide valve 197
Lubrication 149
E
F
G
H
I
J
L271
Subject Page
Maintenance 120, 147
Malfunctions 51, 118
Manifold mounting of valves 240
Memory control system 227
Methods of actuation 45
Modular systems 240
Motors 176
Mounting of roller valves 201
Mounting of cylinders 169
Multiple actuators 102
Multi-position cylinder 241
Noise pollution 16, 52
Non-return elements 47
Non-return valves 27, 203
Oil mist 53
Oil removal 151
Operational safety 53
Optical indicators 178
Optimum pressures 130
Over-lubrication 149
Pilot control system 227
Pipe material 142
Pipe layout 143
Piston force 170
Piston motors 176
Plastic pipes 142
Pneumatics and control system development 18
Pneumatic elements 23
Pneumatics in review 12
Poppet valves 180
Positional sketch 231
Power components 34, 58
Pressure control valves 27, 48, 215
Pressure level 24, 131
Pressure regulator 24, 130
Pressure regulator with/without vent hole 148
Pressure sequence valve 31, 217
Principles of air 124
Processors: Valves and logic elements 33
Product development 18
M
N
O
P272
Subject Page
Quick exhaust valve 209
Reciprocating compressor 131
Reliable operation of valves 201
Reservoirs 134
Ring main 143
Riveting process 237
Rodless cylinder 164
Roller lever valve 28, 190
Rotary actuators 50, 163
Rotary motion 156
Rotary piston compressor 132
Safety requirements for pneumatic clamping devices 51
Seals 144, 165
Servo-controlled 190
Selection criteria for working media 17
Selection and comparison of media 224
Sequence control 227
Sequence valves 217
Setting pressure regulator 148
Shut-off valves 211
Shuttle OR valve 207
Signal flow 57
Signal overlap 107
Single-acting cylinder 34, 156
Sizing pipe 141
Slide valves 180
Sliding-vane motors 177
Standards 39
Static output devices 155
Structure 19
Supply air throttling 213
Swivel/linear drive 243
Synchronous control 230
Symbols and descriptions of components 40
System upgrade 66
Systems: Control circuits 35
l Length m
m Mass kg
t Time s
T Temperature K
F Force N
A Area m2
V Volume m3
qv Volumetric flow rate m3/s
p Pressure bar (Pa)
A Piston surface m2
A' Annular surface m2
d Piston rod diameter m
D Cylinder diameter m
Feff Effective piston force N
FF Force of retract spring N
FR Friction force N
Fth Theoretical piston force N
n Number of strokes per minute 1/min
pabs Absolute pressure bar (Pa)
pamb Ambient pressure bar (Pa)
pe Excess or vacuum pressure bar (Pa)
∆p Differential pressure bar (Pa)
qB Air consumption l/min
qH Air consumption per cm of stroke l/cm
qL Delivery quantity m3/min
qn Nominal flow rate l/min
s Stroke length cm
t Centigrade temperature °C
VB Reservoir size m3
z Switching cycles per hour 1/h
Tn Standard temperature Tn = 273.15 K, tn = 0 °C
pn Standard pressure pn = 101325 Pa


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