كتاب Engineering Drawing and Design
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Engineering Drawing and Design

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Engineering Drawing and Design    كتاب Engineering Drawing and Design  Emptyالجمعة 10 يونيو 2022, 12:55 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Engineering Drawing and Design
Fifth Edition
David A. Madsen, David P. Madsen
David A. Madsen
President, Madsen Designs Inc., www.madsendesigns.com
Faculty Emeritus, Former Department Chairperson, Drafting Technology, Autodesk Premier Training Center
Clackamas Community College, Oregon City, Oregon
Director Emeritus, American Design Drafting Association
David P. Madsen
President, Engineering Drafting & Design, Inc.
Vice President, Madsen Designs Inc.
Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Consultant and Educator

كتاب Engineering Drawing and Design  E_d_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


C O N T E N T S
Introduction . 40
Manual Drafting Equipment and Supplies 41
Drafting Furniture 41
Drafting Pencils and Leads 41
Technical Pens, Pen Cleaning, and Ink 42
Erasers and Erasing . 42
Dividers 43
Parallel Bar 43
Triangles 43
Templates . 44
Irregular Curves 45
Drafting Machines 45
Scales 46
Drafting Media . 50
Sheet Size and Format . 53
Diazo Reproduction . 62
Photocopy Reproduction . 62
Properly Folding Prints 62
Microfi lm . 62
CADD Applications . 64
Professional Perspective 64
Math Applications . 65
Web Site Research 65
Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction
Methods Test . 65
Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction
Methods Problems 66
Chapter 3—Computer-Aided Design
and Drafting (CADD) 69
Learning Objectives . 69
The Engineering Design Application 69
Introduction to Computer-Aided Design
and Drafting (CADD) 70
The CADD Workstation 71
CADD Software Products . 71
CADD Formats . 75
Industry and CADD . 79
CADD Applications 3-D 89
Preface .xii
Acknowledgments . xxiv
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION TO
ENGINEERING DRAWING
AND DESIGN 1
Chapter 1— Introduction to Engineering
Drawing and Design 2
Learning Objectives 2
The Engineering Design Application . 2
Introduction 8
A History of Engineering Drawing 10
The Drafter 14
Drafting Fields . 14
Education and Qualifi cations 22
Drafting Job Opportunities 25
Searching for a Drafting Position . 26
Drafting Salaries and Working Conditions . 27
Professional Organization 28
Drafting Standards 29
Workplace Ethics . 30
Copyrights 31
Trademarks 32
CADD Applications . 33
Professional Perspective 34
Web Site Research 37
Introduction to Engineering Drawing
and Design Test . 38
Introduction to Engineering Drawing
and Design Problems 38
Chapter 2— Drafting Equipment, Media,
and Reproduction Methods 39
Learning Objectives . 39
The Engineering Design Application 39
Virtual Reality 89
Basic CADD Techniques 93
Surface Modeling Techniques . 102
Solid Modeling Techniques 104
CADD Applications 3-D . 110
CADD Standards 111
Productivity with CADD 112
Green Technology Application 115
Professional Perspective . 118
Web Site Research . 118
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD) Test . 119
Computer-Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD) Problems 119
Chapter 4— Manufacturing Materials
and Processes 121
Learning Objectives 121
The Engineering Design Application . 121
Introduction 122
Manufacturing Materials 122
Green Technology Application 126
Metallurgy . 126
Plastics and Polymers . 126
Plastic Resin Identifi cation Codes . 129
Plastics Material Selection Applications . 129
Green Technology Application 130
Material Selection 131
CADD Applications 3-D . 133
Manufacturing Processes 135
Machine Processes . 140
CADD Applications 146
Machined Feature and Drawing
Representations . 147
Manufacturing Plastic Products . 153
Thermoset Plastic Fabrication Process 157
Manufacturing Composites 158
Rapid Prototyping (RP) . 160
Tool Design . 160
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) . 161
Application Examples 162
Integration of Computer-Aided Design
and Computer-Aided Manufacturing
(CAD/CAM) 164
Statistical Process Control (SPC) 165
CADD Applications 3-D . 166
Green Technology Application 168
Professional Perspective . 168
Math Application 169
Web Site Research . 169
Manufacturing Materials and
Processes Test . 170
Manufacturing Materials and
Processes Problems . 170
SECTION 2
FUNDAMENTAL
APPLICATIONS 173
Chapter 5— Sketching Applications 174
Learning Objectives 174
The Engineering Design Application . 174
Sketching 174
Sketching Tools and Materials 175
Sketching Straight Lines . 175
Sketching Circular Lines 176
Sketching Arcs 179
Sketching Ellipses 180
Measurement Lines and Proportions . 180
Introduction to the Block Technique . 181
Creating Multiview Sketches . 183
Creating Isometric Sketches 184
CADD Applications 3-D . 187
Professional Perspective . 191
Sketching Applications Test 191
Sketching Applications Problems 192
Chapter 6 — Lines and Lettering 193
Learning Objectives 193
The Engineering Design Application . 193
Lines 193
Types of Lines . 194
CADD Applications 204
Lettering . 207
Lettering on Engineering Drawings 207
Lettering Numbers . 207
Other Lettering Styles . 208
Lettering Legibility . 209
CADD Applications 210
CADD Applications 3-D . 212
Professional Perspective . 212
Math Applications 214
Web Site Research . 214
Lines and Lettering Test . 214
Lines and Lettering Problems . 214
Chapter 7—Drafting Geometry 218
Learning Objectives 218
The Engineering Design Application . 218
CADD Applications 219
Drafting Geometry . 219
Characteristics of Lines . 219
Geometric Shapes 220
Common Geometric Constructions 224
Constructing Polygons 230
Constructing Tangencies 233
Constructing an Ellipse . 236
Professional Perspective . 237
Math Applications 238
Web Site Research . 238
Drafting Geometry Test . 238
Drafting Geometry Problems . 239
SECTION 3
DRAFTING VIEWS
AND ANNOTATIONS 247
Chapter 8—Multiviews 248
Learning Objectives 248
The Engineering Design Application . 248
Multiviews . 250
Third-Angle Projection 252
First-Angle Projection 254
View Selection 254
Projection of Contours, Circles, and Arcs . 262
Line Precedence . 266
Multiview Analysis and Review . 266
Recommended Review 267
Multiview Layout 267
CADD Applications 2-D . 267
CADD Applications 3-D . 270
CADD Applications 275
Professional Perspective . 275
Math Applications 277
Web Site Research . 277
Multiviews Test 277
Multiviews Problems . 277
Chapter 9—Auxiliary Views 292
Learning Objectives 292
The Engineering Design Application . 292
Auxiliary Views . 292
Auxiliary View Visualization . 295
Drawing Curves in Auxiliary Views 297
View Enlargements . 297
Drawing a Removed Auxiliary View 297
Locating Views on Different Sheets 298
Drawing a Rotated Auxiliary View . 298
Secondary Auxiliary Views . 299
Auxiliary View Analysis and Review . 300
Descriptive Geometry . 302
Auxiliary View Layout 302
CADD Applications 304
CADD Applications 2-D . 305
CADD Applications 3-D . 306
Professional Perspective . 307
Math Applications 307
Web Site Research . 307
Auxiliary Views Test 308
Auxiliary Views Problems . 308
Chapter 10— Dimensioning and
Tolerancing 315
Learning Objectives 315
The Engineering Design Application . 315
Introduction to Dimensioning 319
Dimensioning Basics . 320
Dimensioning Characteristics and Definitions 320
Fundamental Dimensioning Rules . 323
Dimensioning Components 324
Dimensioning Symbols 325
Dimensioning Systems 326
Dimensioning Fundamentals . 327
Preferred Dimensioning Practices . 334
Notes for Machined Features . 338
Placing Location Dimensions . 342
Specifying Dimension Origin . 344
Dimensioning Auxiliary Views 344
CADD Applications 2-D . 345
Using General Notes . 349
Tolerancing Applications 351
CADD Applications 3-D . 360
Dimensions Applied to Platings and
Coatings . 361
Maximum and Minimum Dimensions 361
Casting Drawing and Design . 361
Machining Allowance . 362
Casting Drawings 363
Forging, Design, and Drawing 363
Drawings for Plastic Part Manufacturing 369
Machined Surfaces . 370
Design and Drafting of Machined Features 373
Tool Design 373
CADD Applications 378
Introduction to ISO 9000 378
Professional Perspective . 379
CADD Applications 381
Recommended Review 382
Math Applications 383
Web Site Research . 383
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Test 384
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Problems . 384
Chapter 11—Fasteners and Springs 392
Learning Objectives 392
The Engineering Design Application . 392
Screw Thread Fasteners . 393
Thread-Cutting Tools . 395
Thread Forms . 395
Thread Representations . 397
vi CONTENTS
Revolved Sections 453
Removed Sections 454
Locating Sectional Views on Different Sheets 455
Recommended Review 457
Professional Perspective . 457
Math Applications 459
Web Site Research . 459
Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional
Breaks Test . 459
Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional
Breaks Problems . 460
Chapter 13— Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing 475
Learning Objectives 475
The Engineering Design Application . 475
Introduction 476
GD&T Symbols . 477
Datums 477
Applying Material Condition and Material
Boundary Symbols . 492
Limits of Size Application . 494
Perfect Form Boundary . 494
Applying Regardless of Feature Size and
Regardless of Material Boundary 494
Applying Maximum Material Condition 496
Applying Least Material Condition 498
Application of RMB on a Primary Datum
Feature 499
Application of RMB on a Secondary and
Tertiary Datum Feature . 499
The Effect of Datum Precedence and
Material Condition . 499
Introduction to Geometric Characteristic
and Related Symbols 501
Form Geometric Tolerances 504
Orientation Geometric Tolerances . 507
Applying Profi le Geometric Tolerances . 532
Runout Geometric Tolerance . 544
Specifying Independency 546
CADD Applications 547
CADD Applications 2-D . 548
Professional Perspective . 553
Math Applications 555
Web Site Research . 555
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Test . 556
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Problems . 556
Chapter 14— Pictorial Drawings
and Technical Illustrations 562
Learning Objectives 562
The Engineering Design Application . 562
Drawing Thread Representations 398
Drawing Detailed Threads . 400
Thread Notes . 403
Measuring Screw Threads . 406
CADD Applications 2-D . 406
CADD Applications 3-D . 407
Threaded Fasteners 408
Thread Design Guidelines . 410
Lag Screws and Wood Screws . 414
Self-Tapping Screws 414
Thread Inserts . 415
Self-Clinching Fasteners . 415
How to Draw Various Types of Screw
Heads . 416
Drawing Nuts . 417
Drawing Washers 418
Drawing Dowel Pins 418
Taper Pins and Other Pins . 418
Retaining Rings . 419
Keys, Keyways, and Keyseats . 419
Rivets . 420
Designing and Drawing Springs . 421
CADD Applications 421
Spring Representations and Specifi cations . 426
Recommended Review 428
CADD Applications 2-D . 428
CADD Applications 3-D . 429
Professional Perspective . 429
Math Applications 431
Web Site Research . 431
Fasteners and Springs Test . 432
Fasteners and Springs Problems . 432
Chapter 12— Sections, Revolutions,
and Conventional Breaks 439
Learning Objectives 439
The Engineering Design Application . 439
Introduction to Sectional Views . 440
Cutting-Plane Lines and Sectional View
Identifi cation . 440
Section Lines . 442
Full Sections 444
Half Sections 444
Offset Sections 445
Aligned Sections . 446
Unsectioned Features . 446
Intersections in Section . 447
Conventional Revolutions . 447
Broken-Out Sections 448
Auxiliary Sections 448
CADD Applications 2-D . 449
CADD Applications 3-D . 450
Conventional Breaks . 452
CADD Applications 453CONTENTS vii
Introduction to Pictorial Drawing and
Technical Illustration Pictorial Drawings 563
Pictorial Drawings . 563
Isometric Projections and Drawings . 566
Types of Isometric Drawings . 568
Isometric Construction Techniques 568
Dimetric Pictorial Representation . 574
Trimetric Pictorial Representation . 574
Exploded Pictorial Drawing 575
Oblique Drawing 576
Perspective Drawing 578
Drawing a One-Point Perspective . 578
Drawing a Two-Point Perspective 580
Drawing a Three-Point Perspective 580
Drawing Circles and Curves in Perspective 582
Using Basic Shading Techniques 583
Pictorial Drawing Layout Techniques 584
CADD Applications 3-D . 585
Professional Perspective . 589
Math Applications 590
Web Site Research . 590
Pictorial Drawings and Technical
Illustrations Test . 590
Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations
Problems . 591
SECTION 4
WORKING DRAWINGS 595
Chapter 15—Working Drawings 596
Learning Objectives 596
The Engineering Design Application . 596
Introduction to Section Four . 597
Introduction to Working Drawings 597
Detail Drawings . 598
CADD Applications 2-D . 601
CADD Applications 3-D . 601
Assembly Drawings 603
Types of Assembly Drawings . 604
Identifi cation Numbers . 607
Parts Lists 608
Purchase Parts 612
Engineering Changes . 614
CADD Applications 2-D . 614
CADD Applications 3-D . 615
Drawing From a Prototype . 620
Analysis of a Set of Working Drawings . 620
CADD Applications 3-D . 627
Professional Perspective . 628
Math Application 629
Web Site Research . 629
Working Drawings Test . 629
Working Drawings Problems . 630
Chapter 16— Mechanisms: Linkages,
Cams, Gears, and
Bearings 678
Learning Objectives 678
The Engineering Design Application . 678
Mechanism . 679
Linkages . 679
Linkage Symbols 679
Types of Linkages 680
Cam Design 682
CADD Applications 683
Cam Displacement Diagrams . 684
Construction of an Inline Follower Plate
Cam Profi le . 687
Preparing the Formal Plate Cam Drawing . 688
Construction of an Offset Follower Plate
Cam Profi le . 688
Drum Cam Drawing 690
CADD Applications 691
Introduction to Gears . 691
Gear Structure 692
Splines 692
Gear Types . 693
Spur Gear Design 696
Drawing Specifi cations and Tolerances . 696
Designing and Drawing Spur Gears 696
Designing Spur Gear Trains 702
Designing and Drawing the Rack
and Pinion . 703
Designing and Drawing Bevel Gears . 703
Designing and Drawing Worm Gears . 705
Plastic Gears 706
CADD Applications 708
Bearings . 709
Drawing Bearing Symbols . 710
Bearing Codes . 710
Bearing Selection 710
Gear and Bearing Assemblies . 715
Professional Perspective . 717
Math Application 718
Web Site Research . 718
Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and
Bearings Test 718
Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and
Bearings Problems . 719
Chapter 17—Belt and Chain Drives 727
Learning Objectives 727
The Engineering Design Application . 727
Introduction 728
Advantages of Gear Drives . 728
Advantages of Belt Drives 728
Advantages of Chain Drives 728
Belts and Belt Drives 728viii CONTENTS
CADD Applications 2-D . 783
Flanges 787
Seams and Hems . 788
Roll Forming . 788
CADD Applications 3-D . 789
Material Applications in Sheet Metal Drafting 791
Precision Sheet Metal Dimensioning Applications . 792
Sheet Metal Punch Applications . 796
Professional Perspective . 798
Math Applications 798
Web Site Research . 798
Precision Sheet Metal Drafting Test 799
Precision Sheet Metal Drafting Problems 799
Chapter 20— Electrical and Electronic
Drafting 809
Learning Objectives 809
The Engineering Design Application . 809
Introduction to Electrical and Electronic
Drafting . 810
Fundamentals of Electrical Diagrams . 811
Generation, Transmission, and Distribution
of Electricity 814
Electric Power Substation Design Drawings . 814
Residential and Commercial Electrical Plans . 819
Green Technology Application 825
Professional Perspective . 827
Electronic Drafting . 827
Electronic Diagrams 827
Printed Circuit Technology 838
Pictorial Drawings . 846
CADD Applications 848
Professional Perspective . 850
Math Applications 851
Web Site Research . 851
Electrical and Electronic Drafting Test 852
Electrical and Electronic Drafting Problems . 852
Chapter 21—Industrial Process Piping 868
Learning Objectives 868
The Engineering Design Application . 868
Introduction 869
Where Industrial Piping Is Used 869
Pipe Drafting . 870
Pipe Drawings 872
Types of Pipe . 876
Pipe Sizes and Wall Thickness 878
Pipe Connection Methods . 879
Pipe Fittings 881
Flanges 885
Valves . 887
Pipe Drafting . 891
CADD Applications 2-D . 901
Belt Types 728
Typical Belt Drive Design 730
Belt Drive Selection 730
Chain Drives 734
Chain Drive Sprockets 734
Chain Classifi cation and Types . 734
Precision Chains . 734
CADD Applications 735
Nonprecision Chains . 736
Light-Duty Chain 736
Chain Drive Design 737
Roller Chain Drive Selection . 737
Professional Perspective . 741
Math Applications 741
Web Site Research . 742
Belt and Chain Drives Test . 742
Belt and Chain Drives Problems . 742
Chapter 18— Welding Processes
and Representations 745
Learning Objectives 745
The Engineering Design Application . 745
Welding Processes . 746
Elements of Welding Drawings . 748
Types of Welds 751
Weld Symbol Leader Arrow Related to
Weld Location 755
Additional Weld Characteristics . 759
Welding Tests . 762
Welding Specifi cations 765
Prequalifi ed Welded Joints . 765
Weld Design 765
CADD Applications 2-D . 766
Professional Perspective . 768
Math Application 768
Web Site Research . 769
Welding Processes and Representations Test . 769
Welding Processes and Representations
Problems . 769
SECTION 5
SPECIALTY DRAFTING
AND DESIGN 775
Chapter 19— Precision Sheet Metal
Drafting 776
Learning Objectives 776
The Engineering Design Application . 776
Introduction to Precision Sheet Metal Drafting . 776
Precision Sheet Metal Layout Options 777
Precision Sheet Metal Material Bending . 782CONTENTS ix
Introduction to HVAC Systems 1016
HVAC Systems and Components . 1016
Green Technology Application . 1021
HVAC Symbols . 1022
HVAC Drawings 1022
Drawing Revisions 1038
Duct Sizing 1039
CADD Applications . 1041
CADD Applications 2-D 1041
CADD Applications 3-D 1044
Sheet Metal Design and Drafting . 1045
Pattern Development 1045
Establishing Intersections 1055
CADD Applications 2-D 1061
CADD Applications . 1063
Professional Perspective 1064
Math Applications . 1064
Web Site Research 1065
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
(HVAC), and Pattern Development Test . 1065
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning
(HVAC), and Pattern Development
Problems 1066
Chapter 24—Civil Drafting 1072
Learning Objectives . 1072
The Engineering Design Application 1072
Introduction to Survey: Direction 1073
Surveying . 1075
Plotting Traverses . 1077
Distance and Elevation . 1078
Property Descriptions in Civil
Engineering . 1082
Beginning a Civil Engineering Drafting Project 1084
Introduction to Site Plans . 1092
Introduction to Grading Plans . 1095
Subdivision Plans . 1095
Metrics in Site Planning 1100
Introduction to Site Plan Layout . 1100
Site Design Considerations 1101
Laying Out Property Lines 1103
CADD Applications 2-D 1106
Drawing Contour Lines 1107
Drawing Site Profi les 1109
Drawing the Grading Plan 1110
CADD Applications 2-D 1113
CADD Applications 3-D 1115
CADD Applications . 1116
Green Technology Application . 1117
Professional Perspective 1119
Math Applications . 1120
Web Site Research 1120
Civil Drafting Test 1121
Civil Drafting Problems 1121
Piping Details . 910
Drawing Sheets 910
Drawing Revisions . 914
CADD Applications 3-D . 914
CADD Applications 2-D . 916
Pipe Drafting Layout Techniques 916
CADD Applications 917
Professional Perspective . 919
Math Applications 919
Web Site Research . 920
Industrial Process Piping Test 920
Industrial Process Piping Problems 920
Chapter 22—Structural Drafting 928
Learning Objectives 928
The Engineering Design Application . 928
Introduction 929
Structural Engineering 930
Line Work on Structural Drawings 930
Lettering on Structural Drawings 933
Coordination of Working Drawings 933
Structural Drafting Related to Construction
Systems 936
Concrete Construction 936
Concrete Block Construction . 945
Wood Construction 947
Steel Construction . 960
Common Connection Methods . 966
Green Technology Application 969
Components in a Set of Structural Drawings . 972
Drawing Revisions . 979
CADD Applications 983
CADD Applications 3-D . 983
General Construction Specifi cations . 986
Specifi cations for Commercial Construction . 986
Green Technology Application 988
Basic Drawing Layout Steps 988
Pictorial Drawings . 991
Green Technology Application 992
CADD Applications 997
Professional Perspective . 998
Math Applications 998
Web Site Research . 999
Structural Drafting Test 1000
Structural Drafting Problems 1000
Chapter 23— Heating, Ventilating, and
Air-Conditioning (HVAC),
and Pattern Development 1015
Learning Objectives . 1015
The Engineering Design Application 1015
Introduction . 1016x CONTENTS
Appendix F— Wire Gages (Inches) 1171
Appendix G— Sheet Metal Gages (Inches) 1172
Appendix H— Sheet Metal Thicknesses (Millimeters) . 1173
Appendix I— Standard Allowances, Tolerances, and Fits . 1174
Table 5— Allowances and Tolerances
Preferred Hole Basis Fits . 1174
Allowances and Tolerances
Preferred Shaft Basis Fits . 1174
Allowances and Tolerances
Description of Preferred Fits 1175
Table 6— American National Standard Fits—
Running and Sliding Fits . 1176
American National Standard Fits—
Clearance Locational Fits 1178
American National Standard Fits—
Transition Locational Fits 1180
American National Standard Fits—
Interference Locational Fits . 1181
American National Standard Fits—
Force and Shrink Fits . 1182
Table 7— Metric Limits and Fits—Preferred
Hole Basis Clearance Fits . 1184
Metric Limits and Fits—
Preferred Shaft Basis
Clearance Fits . 1186
Table 8— Metric Tolerance Zones—Metric
Tolerance Zones for Internal
(Hole) Dimensions . 1188
Metric Tolerance Zones—
Tolerance Zones for
External (Shaft) Dimensions 1189
Appendix J— Unifi ed Screw Thread Variations . 1190
Table 9— Unifi ed Standard Screw
Thread Series 1191
Appendix K— Metric Screw Thread Variations . 1192
Appendix L— ASTM and SAE Grade Markings for Steel
Bolts and Screws . 1193
Appendix M— Cap Screw Specifi cations 1194
Table 10— Dimensions of Hex Cap Screws
(Finished Hex Bolts) . 1194
Table 11— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Head Cap Screws
(1960 Series) . 1195
Table 12— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Flat Countersunk
Head Cap Screws 1196
Table 13— Dimensions of Slotted Flat
Countersunk Head Cap
Screws 1197
Table 14— Dimensions of Slotted Round
Head Cap Screws 1198
Table 15— Dimensions of Slotted Fillister
Head Cap Screws 1198
SECTION 6
ENGINEERING DESIGN 1129
Chapter 25— The Engineering
Design Process 1130
Learning Objectives . 1130
The Engineering Design Application 1130
Introduction . 1131
Engineering Design and Industry
Management Models 1131
An Engineering Design Process 1134
The Phase Gate Design Process 1137
After Full Production 1147
Creativity and Innovation in Design 1147
Change and the Impact on the Design
Process . 1149
Design Deliverables . 1150
The Design Process Responds to Changes
in Engineering . 1150
Green Technology Application . 1151
Professional Perspective 1151
Web Site Research 1153
The Engineering Design Process Test 1153
The Engineering Design Process Problems . 1153
SECTION 7
ENGINEERING
DRAWING AND
DESIGN STUDENT CD 1157
Descriptive Geometry I 1158
Descriptive Geometry II 1158
Engineering Charts and Graphs 1158
Engineering Drawing and
Design Math Applications 1158
Fluid Power . 1158
APPENDICES
Appendix A— Abbreviations . 1163
Appendix B— Conversion Charts:
Table 1—Inches to Millimeters 1166
Table 2—Millimeters to Inches 1166
Table 3—Inch/Metric Equivalents . 1166
Table 4— Inch/Metric—Conversion—Length,
Area, Capacity, Weight . 1167
Appendix C— Mathematical Rules Related
to the Circle 1168
Appendix D— General Applications of SAE Steels 1169
Appendix E— Surface Roughness Produced by Common
Production Methods 1170CONTENTS xi
Appendix X— Valve Specifi cations . 1226
Table 32— Wrought Steel Pipe and Taper
Pipe Threads—American
National Standard. . 1229
Table 33— Cast Iron Pipe Screwed Fittings,
125 LB—American National
Standard . 1230
Appendix Y— PVC Pipe Dimensions in Inches . 1231
Appendix Z— Rectangular and Round HVAC Duct
Sizes 1233
Appendix AA— Spur and Helical Gear Data . 1234
Appendix BB— CADD Drawing Sheet Sizes, Settings,
and Scale Factors . 1235
CD Appendices: There is a CD available at the back of
Engineering Drawing and Design, 5e. The CD contains a
variety of valuable features for you to use as you learn
engineering drawing and design. The CD icon, placed throughout
this textbook, directs you to features found on the CD.
CD Appendix A— American National Standards of Interest to
Designers, Architects, and Drafters
CD Appendix B— ASME Standard Line Types
CD Appendix C— Dimensioning and Tolerancing Symbols
and ASME Dimensioning Rules
CD Appendix D— Designation of Welding and Allied
Processes by Letters
CD Appendix E— Symbols for Pipe Fittings and Valves
CD Appendix F— Computer Terminology and Hardware
CD Instructions: Access the CD to view the CD chapters,
appendices, chapter tests, and selected chapter problems:
• Place the CD in your CD drive.
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Glossary . 1239
Index . 1273
Appendix N— Machine Screw Specifications . 1199
Table 16— Dimensions of Slotted Flat
Countersunk Head Machine
Screws 1199
Appendix O— Set Screw Specifications . 1200
Table 17— Dimensions of Hexagon and
Spline Socket Set Screws 1200
Appendix P— Hex Nut Specifi cations 1202
Table 18— Dimensions of Hex Nuts
and Hex Jam Nuts . 1202
Appendix Q— Key and Keyseat Specifi cations . 1203
Table 19— Woodruff Key Dimensions 1203
Table 20— Woodruff Keyseat Dimensions . 1205
Table 21— Key Size Versus Shaft Diameter 1207
Table 22— Key Dimensions and Tolerances 1208
Table 23— Gib Head Nominal Dimensions 1208
Table 24— Class 2 Fit for Parallel and
Taper Keys . 1209
Appendix R— Tap Drill Sizes . 1210
Table 25— Decimal Equivalents and Tap
Drill Sizes (Letter and
Number Drill Sizes) 1210
Appendix S— Concrete Reinforcing Bar (Rebar)
Specifi cations 1211
Appendix T— Common Welded Wire Reinforcement
Specifi cations . 1212
Table 26— Wire Size Comparison 1212
Table 27— Common Styles of Metric
Welded Wire Reinforcement
(WWR) . 1214
Appendix U— ASTM A500 Square and Rectangular
Structural Tubing Specifi cations . 1215
Appendix V— Structural Metal Shape Designations . 1216
Table 28— W, M, S, and HP Shapes —
Dimensions 1216
Table 29— Channels American
Standard and
Miscellaneous—Dimensions 1221
Appendix W— Corrosion-Resistant Pipe Fittings . 1223
Table 30— Weldings, Fittings, and Forged
Flanges—Dimensions 1223
Table 31— Threaded Fittings and
Threaded Couplings,
Reducers, and Caps 1225
I N D E X
Air-duct sizing formulas, 1045, 1064
Airflow analysis, 994
Air-handling unit (AHU), 1044
Air supply registers, 1016–17
Air terminals, 1044
Air-to-air heat exchangers, 1020
AISC. See American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC)
AISC/AWS standards
prequalifi ed welded joints, 765
AISI. See American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI)
AISI/SAE steel numbering system,
123–24, 132
AL. See Application list (AL)
Alberta Energy Utility Board, 874
Alberti Battista, Leon, 11
Alcoa, 1021
Algor® software, 116
Alibre, Inc., 73
Alibre Design, 73
Alibre Personal Edition, 73
Aligned dimensioning, 326
and piping drawings, 900
Aligned sections, 446
Alkyds, 128
All around dimensioning symbol, 325
All over dimensioning symbol, 325
Allowance, 355. See also Tolerances
defined, 321
for metric threads, 404
Alloy cast iron, 123
Alloys
commonly used in manufacturing,
123, 124–25
section lines for, 202
selection of, 131–32
Unifi ed Numbering System for,
125–26
All-weather driveway surfaces, 1103
Alternate view placement, 259
Aluminum
basic features, 124–25
in green construction, 971
section lines for, 202
selection of, 131–32
Aluminum for Future Generations, 126
American Chemistry Council (ACC)
plastic resin identifi cation codes, 129
plastics selection guidelines, 129–31
American Design Drafting/Digital Design
Association (ADDA), 28
chapters, 28
employment center, 29
history of, 28
professional certification, 28
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA), 692, 696
American Institute of Architects (AIA),
94, 1016
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC), 765
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 123
American National screw thread, 393
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 1144
American National Standard taper pipe
threads, 396–97, 403
American National thread form, 395
American Society for Quality (ASQ), 1134
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) standards. See ASME standards
American Water Works Association
(AWWA), 877
American Welding Society (AWS), 765
drafting standards, 30
AMP. See Amplifier (AMP)
Amplifi er (AMP), 836, 838
Analysis of EDA software tools, 850
Analytic geometry, 11
Analyzing working drawings, 620–27
Anchor bolts, 942, 972, 975
Anchors, wood to masonry, 947, 956
Angle of projection block, 58, 59
Angle of repose, 1091, 1110, 1111
Angles
basic features, 220
bisecting, 228
dimensioning, 335
of oscillation in four-bar linkages, 681
structural steel, 963
Angle valves, 888, 889
Angular contact ball bearings, 709
Angular dimension line, 324
Page numbers in italics indicate figures.
A
ABR. See Polyacrylic rubber (ABR)
Abrasive saw, 144
ABS. See Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS)
AC (alternating current) circuits
elementary diagrams, 814
ACC. See American Chemistry
Council (ACC)
Acetal, 127
Acetate, 127
Acme thread, 396, 404
Acorn nuts, 417
Acoustical liner (AL), 1044
Acrylics, 127
Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA), 127
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), 127
for pipe, 877
Active device, 832
Actual local size, 320
Actual mating size, 320–21
Actual size, 320–21
Actuator, 891
Acute angle, 220
Adaptive parts, 109
ADDA. See American Design Drafting/
Digital Design Association (ADDA)
Addendum formula, 697, 698, 704, 706
Addendums to contracts, 914, 979
Additive process, 844–45
Adhesion, 122
Adjacent views, 266
Advanced research, 1135–36
Aeronautical drafter, 15
AGMA. See American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA)
Agonic line, 1075
A hubs, 692
AIA. See American Institute of
Architects (AIA)
AIA CAD Layer Guidelines, 1016
Air-conditioning circuit and cycle
diagram, 1017
Air-duct calculators, 1044–451274 INDEX
Autodesk Seek free Web service, 1061–63
Autodesk Vault, 73
Autodesk® Seek, 848, 917–18, 997
Automatic cutter compensation, 146
Automatic pencil, 41
Automotive design drafter, 15
Automotive industry
plastics selection, 129–31
Auxiliary sections, 448
Auxiliary views, 292
analysis and review, 300–01, 302
CADD applications, 304–06
curves plotting in, 297
descriptive geometry and, 302
dimensioning, 344–45
enlargements, 297
full view, 293
layout process, 292, 302–03
location on different sheets, 298
math applications, 307
partial view, 293, 295
professional perspective, 307
removed views, drawing, 297, 298
rotated, 298–99
secondary, 299–300, 301
visualization, 295–96
AWS. See American Welding Society (AWS)
AWWA. See American Water Works
Association (AWWA)
Axes
creating for isometric sketches, 184
of pyramids, 222
Axial forces, defined, 930
Axis (thread), 394
Axis datums. See Datum axis
Axis geometric control, 495–96
Axis perpendicularity, 498
Axis straightness
effect of RFS on, 496
tolerances, 504
Axonometric projection, 563
types of, 566
Azimuth
measuring, 1073–74
traverses, 1076–77
B
Babbitt
section lines for, 202
Backfl ow valves, 890
Backsight, 1079
Back solving, 1143
Backward compatible, 1144
Ball bearings, 709
Balloons, 575, 610
identifi cation numbers in, 607, 715
to identify engineering changes, 613
leaders styles for, 610
piping notes in, 909
with page identification, 612
Ball valves, 887, 888
Band saw, 144
Bars (steel), 963
Base circle, 684
diameter, 697, 699
engineering change documentation,
599, 614
fasteners and springs, 393
lettering, 207
line, 54–57
line conventions, 193–94, 194
pictorial drawings, 563
undimensioned drawings, 780, 792
unit, 47
Aspect ratio, 1044
ASQ. See American Society for Quality (ASQ)
Assemblies
constraints, 108
defined, 987
model creation, 108
parameter-driven, 109
welded, 749
Assembly drawings, 444, 597, 603–04
basic features, 603
CADD tools and options, 614
defined, 603
detail assembly, 605–06
erection assembly, 606, 609
gear and bearing, 715–16
general assembly, 605
layout assembly, 604–05, 606
and parts list, 611, 622
pictorial assembly, 607, 610
printed circuit, 844, 846
for screwdriver, 622, 623, 624
subassembly, 606–07
types of, 604–07
Assembly files, 106
Assembly models, 615
Associated Lists, 811
Association Connecting Electronics
Industries (IPC), 842, 843
Associative dimension, 347–48
Assumed azimuth, 1074
ASTM standards, 123, 938, 967
manufacturing metals, 122
steel pipes, tubes, and fittings, 877
AT symbol, 943
Attribute, defined, 207
Attributes, with symbols in CADD, 901
AutoCAD, 71, 73, 97
assembly drawing tools, 614
detail drawing tools, 601
detailed thread representations with, 401
DIMLIN command, 345
drawing aids in, 268
enlargements in, 269
geometric tolerancing with, 548–52
MLEADER command, 406
REVCLOUD command, 916, 985
schematic thread representations
with, 400
XLINE command, 267
AutoCAD DesignCenter, 101
Autodesk, Inc., 73
Autodesk Algor Simulation, 73
Autodesk Ecotect, 993, 995
Autodesk Green Building Studio,
993, 994, 995
Autodesk Inventor, 73, 116, 117
Autodesk Inventor Fusion, 627
Autodesk Revit, 73
Angular dimensions, 329
Angularity tolerances, 511–12
Angular perspective. See Two-point
perspective
Angular surfaces, dimensioning, 335
Angular units, on engineering drawings, 329
Animation(s), 84–86
e-learning, 86
engineering, 85–86
entertainment, 86
storyboarding, 86
techniques, 86
Annealing, 124
Annotations (electronic), 835
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
ANSI/ASME standards
pipe sizes and wall thickness, 878–79
welding symbols, 748
ANSI/ISA standards
piping symbols, 907
ANSI standards
gear drawings, 693, 696
Antibacklash spring, 424
Apparent overlap, 553
Application block, 61
Application list (AL), 612
Applications
job, 26
patent, 31–32
ArchiCAD, 74
Architectural drafters, 15, 16
Architectural electrical symbols,
820, 821–22
Architectural lettering styles, 208–9, 209
Architect’s scale, 49–50
Archive drawings, storage of, 64
Arc length symbol, 325
Arcs, 223
CADD commands for, 226
concentric, 227
dimensioning, 336–37
drawing, 233
isometric, 187, 570
showing in multiviews, 262–66
sketching, 179–80, 187
Argon (CADD software), 73
Arm drafting machine, 13, 45
ARRAY command, 401
Arrowheads, 324, 330
on dimension and leader lines, 324
rules for, 199–200, 200
in welding symbols, 750, 755, 757–59
Arrowless dimensioning, 381
Arrow side of welded joint, 755, 757
ASA. See Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA)
As-built drawings, 620
Ashlar-Vellum, 73
ASME codes and standards
piping and pipelines collection, 876
slip-on pipe flanges, 885
ASME drafting standards, 29
ASME/ISO standards
multiview drawings, 249
ASME standards, 319–20, 349, 362, 574
dimension symbols, 325
electrical and electronic drawing, 811, 842INDEX 1275
Box beams, 955, 959
Box method, 584–85
of isometric construction, 568–69
sketching circles, 176–77
Brainstorming, 39
Brass, 125, 202
Braze welding, 747
Brazing, 746–47, 881
Brazolet, 884
BREAK, 453
Break corner, 151, 264
Breaking chain, 1079
Break lines, 332, 334, 336
in partial views, 257, 258
types, 203
Break symbol
for a cylindrical solid shape, 452
for a cylindrical tubular shape, 452
Bridges and culverts standards, 1103
Brinell hardness test, 124
Broken-out sections, 448, 603
BROKEN VIEW, 453
Bronze
for bearings, 709
composition of, 125
section lines for, 202
Building design, analyzing, 913, 995
Building information modeling (BIM), 992
Building life cycle, 987
Building sections. See also Sections
functions in structural drawings, 976,
978, 979
Burrs, 151, 350
Bus, 817
Bushings, 709, 885
Business management strategy, 1133
Bus layout drawing, 817–19
Butterfl y valves, 888, 889
Buttress thread forms, 396
Butt-welded steel pipe, 877
Butt welding, 879
Butyl rubber, 128
Butyrate, 127
C
CAB. See Cellulose-acetatebutyrate (CAB)
Cabinet oblique drawing, 576, 578
Cable assemblies
electrical drafting, 813, 814
Cable diagrams
electrical drafting, 813
Cable harness diagrams. See Cable
assemblies
CAD. See Computer-aided design (CAD);
Computer-aided drafting (CAD)
CAD/CAM integration, 87, 164
CAD/CAM systems, 64, 87
elements of, 164
CADD. See Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
CADD/CAM, dimensioning for, 381–82
Cadence Design Systems, Inc., 850
CAE. See Computer-aided engineering
(CAE)
CAGE code, 58
precision sheet metal, 782–87
process, bend allowance and, 782
Bend instructions, 780
Bend radius, bend allowance and, 782
Bend relief, 786
Bend table, 780, 782
Bend tangent line, 780
Bend transition, 785
Bentley Systems, Inc., 73
BE pipe. See Beveled end (BE) pipe
Beveled end (BE) pipe, 879
Bevel gears, 694–95, 704–05
Bevel groove welds, 753–54
B hubs, 692
Bias, 832
Bidding requirements, defined, 929
Bilateral tolerances, 321, 351, 532, 534
Bill of materials. See also Parts list (PL)
guidelines for, 608, 612
on pipe spool sheets, 910
BIM. See Building information
modeling (BIM)
Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor
(BOOM), 91
Binocular overlap, 91
Bisecting lines and angles, 228, 229
Bitmap images, 407
Black belts, 1134
Blacksmithing, 138
Blanking, 791
chemical, 145
Blind flanges, 885, 886
Blind holes, 147, 395, 411
BLOCK command, 766
Block diagram
electrical, 811
electronic, 827–28, 829
Blocks, 1084
of subdivisions, 1084
Block shading, 584
Block technique, 181–83, 182
Blow molding, 154–55
Blue-line prints. See Diazo prints
Blueprint, 13, 62
BM. See Bench marks (BM)
Board, 13
Body of thread, 394
Bolt circles, 196–97, 197
Bolted connections, specifying, 967
Bolts and nuts, 408, 409
Bond beams, 947, 950
Boolean operation, 104
BOOM. See Binocular Omni-Orientation
Monitor (BOOM)
Border, 57
Bores
of bearings, 710
of gears, 692
Boring techniques, 148
Bosses, 149, 150
Bottoming taps, 395, 411
Bottom-up assembly, 108
Boundary
defined, 449
Bow compass, 42
Bow dividers, 43
Box, developing, 1046, 1047
Base features in solid modeling, 107
Baseline, 1083
dimensioning, 332
Basic dimensions, 321, 479, 485
Basic Facts about Registering a Trademark, 32
Basic size, 358
Basic solid models, 104
Bead chain, 736
Beams
compass, 42
defined, 928
Bearing (direction)
of electrical supply lines, 817
expressing, 1074, 1075
Bearings, 709
bore, 710
codes, 710
dimensions, 711
drawing, 710
with gear assemblies, 643–44, 715–16
lubrication requirements of, 713
major types, 709–10, 710–11
mountings, 715
numbering system, 711
oil grooving of, 713
pressures, 936
selection, 710
symbols for, 710
Beginning points, 1075, 1078
Begin vertical curve point, 1091
Bell and spigot connections, 880
Bell Crank, 680
Belt drive ratio, 734
Belt drives, 727
advantages of, 728
basic purpose, 728
common confi gurations, 728, 729
design, 730, 731
length calculation, 741
selecting, 730–34
types, 728–29, 730
Belt length, 741
Belts, 728
and belt drives, 728
defined, 728
fl at belts, 729
positive drive belts, 729, 730
types, 728
V-belts, 728–29
Belt velocity, 734
Benches, 1110
Bench marking. See Existing product
research
Bench marks (BM), 1078
fi nding distance and elevation from,
1079, 1080
symbol for, 1078
Bend allowance, 776, 782
calculating, 782–85
defined, 782
Bend angle, bend allowance and, 782
Bend, defined, 777
Bend diagrams (rebars), 943, 948
Bend facets, 786
Bending
corner to round, sheet metal, 786
metal, 1381276 INDEX
Chopped fi ber spraying, 158, 159
Chordal addendum, 697, 698
Chordal thickness, 697, 698
Chromium steel, 123
C hubs, 692
Chucks, lathe, 140–41
CIM. See Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
Circles
basic properties, 222–23
CADD commands for, 226
concentric, 227
dimensioning, 321
drawing, 223, 226
fi nding distances between, 629
isometric, 186, 570
in perspective drawings, 582–83
prime, 688–89
showing in multiviews, 262–66
sketching, 176–79, 177, 178
Circle tangent, drawing, 223
Circle templates, 44
Circuit, 811. See also Electrical drafting
Circularity tolerance, 505–07
Circular pattern, 107–8
Circular pitch, 697, 703
Circular runout, 544, 545
Circulator, 1018
Circumference, 222
Circumscribed circle, 221
Circumscribed polygons, 230
Cire perdue technique, 137
Civil CADD technician, 14
Civil drafters, 15–16, 17, 1072
Civil drafting, 1072
CADD applications, 1113–17
contour lines, 1107–09
cut and fill, 1091, 1092
distance and elevation, 1078–82
grading plans, 1095–98, 1099, 1100,
1101, 1110–11, 1112
green technology application, 1117–19
math applications, 1120
plotting traverses, 1077–78
property descriptions, 1082–83
property lines, laying out, 1103–07
site design considerations, 1101–03
site plan basics, 1092–95, 1100
site plan layout, 1100–01
site profiles, 1109–10
starting, 1084–91, 1092
survey, 1073–77
Civil engineer’ scales, 47–49
Civil engineering drafter, 14
Civil engineering drawings
contour lines, 1086
direction concepts, 1073–75
highway layout, 1087–92
property descriptions, 1082–83
starting, 1084–86
surveying basics, 1075–76
Civil piping, 869
Classes of threads, 394
Clay pipe, 878
CLB. See Center line of bend (CLB)
Cleaning manual drafting equipment, 41
Clearance fi ts, 355, 358
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment
(CAVE), 91, 92
CE. See Concurrent engineering (CE)
Cellulose, 127
Cellulose-acetatebutyrate (CAB)
for pipe, 877
Cementing pipe, 881
Center dashes, 324
Center distance
for belt drives, 728, 729
for chain drives, 728, 735, 737
spur gear formula, 697
Centerline method
sketching circles, 177, 177–78
Center line of bend (CLB), 780
Centerlines, 324
as connection lines in exploded
assemblies, 575
as extension line, 198, 324, 343
dimensioning, in wood frame
construction, 960
of isometric construction, 569–70
in piping drawings, 895
precedence in multiviews, 266, 318
rules for, 196–97
spacing and offset, 324
Center plane datums. See Datum
center plane
Centers, lathe, 140, 141
Central forced-air systems, 1016–17
Centrifugal casting, 136
Ceramics, 122
Certification, 25
Chain, 1079
classifi cation and types, 734
Chain dimensioning, 331–32
Chain drives, 727, 734
advantages of, 728
classifi cation and types, 734
design, 737
light-duty chain, 736
nonprecision chains, 736
precision chains, 734–36
roller chain drive selection, 737–41
sprockets, 734, 735
Chain lines, 203, 204
Chain pitch, 735
Chamfers, 150
dimensioning, 335
showing in multiviews, 262–63
thread, 394, 398, 411
Champions, 1133
Change Manager, 627–28
Change Manager Environment, 627
Change order (CO), 616–18, 619, 624, 1038
Chart drawings, 327
Checker, 59
Check valves, 890
Chemical blanking, 145
Chemical machining, 145, 147
Chemical milling, 145
Chilled cast iron, 122
Chip, 837
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
refrigerants, 1022
Chloroprene rubber, 128–29
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), 129
Calculation, bend allowance, 782–85
Calendering process, 155
Camber, in glu-lam beams, 953
Cam design, 691
Cam displacement diagrams, 684, 691, 692
CADD applications, 691
creating, 684–87
development of, 687
as guide to manufacturing, 687–88
Cam followers, 684
Cam manufacturing, 691
CADD applications, 691
Cam profiles, 687, 688, 691
CADD applications, 691
Cam roller followers, 684
Cams
basic design features, 682
creating profi les for, 687–88
displacement diagram creation,
684–87
importance of understanding, 717
sketching, 182
types of, 683
CAM system. See Computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM) system
Cantilever beams, 958
Capacitance, 835
Capacitor, 829, 835
Caps, pipe, 883, 885
Cap screws, 409, 410, 417
CAQC. See Computer-aided quality
control (CAQC)
Carat, 125
Carbon steel pipe, 877
Carburization, 124
Careers
engineering drawing, 14–25
ethics, 30–31
fi nding employment, 26–27, 37
in related areas, 118
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 112–13
Cartesian coordinate system, 11, 225
Cartographer, 15
Cartographic drafter, 15
Case hardening, 124
Casting drafters, 15
Casting drawing and design, 361,
363, 364, 366
draft, 362
fi llets and rounds in casting, 362
shrinkage allowance, 362
Castings
major types, 135–37
simulating in solid models, 166
steel, 123
thermoset plastic, 157
Cast iron
for pipe, 877
section lines for, 202
types, 122–23
Catalogs, 622, 623
Catalog feature, 107, 108
Cathode, 830
CATIA, 73–74
Cavalier oblique projection, 576, 578
CAVE. See Cave Automatic Virtual
Environment (CAVE)INDEX 1277
skill standards, 30, 111–12
software manufacturers, 73–75
software products, 71, 72–75
solid modeling techniques, 104–11
sprockets, 735
standards, 111–12
structural drafting tools, 983
surface modeling techniques, 102–3
sustainable-design considerations, 115
symbols, 96–97
technical illustration, 88
technician, 14
terrain model, 1115
thread notes, 406, 408
thread representations, 407
three-dimensional illustration
capabilities, 588–89
tolerancing with, 360–61
two-dimensional drawings, 71, 76, 77
virtual reality, 89–93
web-based collaboration, 79–80
welding drawings with, 766, 767
workstation, 71, 72, 113
Computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD), software programs
drawing screw heads with, 417
for drawing screw thread
representations, 398
fastener tools, 422
spring creation tools, 429
Computer-aided drafting (CAD), 8, 10
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 84
in CIM systems, 163
electronics, 849
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
system, 87, 163. See also CAD/CAM
systems
Computer-aided quality control
(CAQC), 163
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM),
88, 161, 162–64
Computer numerical control (CNC)
systems, 691, 796
in CIM systems, 163
machining considerations in, 146
role in CAD/CAM systems, 87–88, 164
Computers in engineering drawings, 10.
See also Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
Concentric arcs, 227
Concentric circles, 223, 227
Concentricity tolerances, 529–30, 531
Concentric reducer, 881, 883
Concept phase of phase gate design process,
1137–40
design specification, 1140
industrial design, 1137, 1139
quality function deployment (QFD),
1139–40
Concept review, 1140
Concrete
construction methods, 936–47, 948, 950,
951, 952
section lines for, 202
weight and cubic yard calculations, 998
Concrete masonry unit, 945–47
Concrete pipe, 878
cam displacement diagrams, 691
cam manufacturing, 691
cam profiles, 691
in CIM systems, 161, 162
common geometric constructions,
224–25
computer-aided engineering, 84
computer-aided manufacturing, 87
computer-integrated manufacturing,
88, 88
computer numerical control, 87–88
constraints, 69
creating springs, 429
defined, 70
design vs. industrial design, 1139
design formats, 75–79
design planning, 112
detail drawing tools, 601
dimensioning with, 345–47
drafters and, 14
in drafting/designing of precision sheet
metal, 783
drawing accuracy with, 304
drawing and editing, 93, 94
drawing springs, 428
drawings templates, 99, 100–101
ergonomics, 112–14
factors, 75–76
fastener symbol libraries, 421–22
fastener tools, 422
fi le management, 101
fi le-referencing tools, 97
geometric tolerancing with, 547–52
graphical user interface (GUI), 72
hardware, 71
interface, 72
layers for HVAC drawings, 1043
lift hook, 69, 70
line-drawing techniques, 204–6
line standards and layers, 93, 94, 95–96
major applications in industry, 79–88
manual drafting and, 40
manufacturing materials applications,
133–34
MCAD software, 72
mechanism design features, 683
vs. microfilm, 64
multiview tools and options,
267–69, 275
note placement, 350
operator, 14
parts libraries, 33–34
peripheral equipment, 71
pictorial drawings with, 585–87
piping models, 914–15
piping symbols, 900, 901–2, 901–7
plotting considerations, 98, 99–100
productivity with, 112–14
product life cycle management, 73, 79
program, 445
property line layout tools, 1106
prototyping, 80–84
reusability of, 33–34
reusing content, 96–97
revision cloud tools, 916, 984, 985
site plan tools, 1113–17
sketching, 187–91
Clearance in spur gears, 697
Closed-loop robotic systems, 163
Closed traverses, 1075–76, 1077
Close running fits, 357
Close sliding fits, 357
Cluster gears, 694, 701
drawing, 701, 702
CNC. See Computer numerical
control (CNC)
CNC program, 87, 164. See also Computer
numerical control (CNC) systems
CO. See Change order (CO)
Coatings, dimensioning with, 361
Coaxial features, position tolerancing,
519–21, 522, 523
Cobalt (CADD software), 73
Cock valves, 887
CoCreate, 75
Coded section lines, 202, 443–44
Codes
plastic resin identifi cation codes, 129
welding, 765
Coils, 423, 829, 835
Cold air (CA), 1016–17
Cold-rolled steel (CRS), 123
Cold saws, 144, 145
Collaborative engineering, 1152
Collets, lathe, 140–41
Collision detection testing, 1028
Color-coding, 1029
Color gamut, 91
Columbium, 125
Column reinforcing, 938
Commercial construction, specifications for,
986–88
Commercial drafter, 16
Commercial electrical plans, 819–21,
823, 824
Compass-bearing traverses, 1076,
1077, 1078
Compasses, 42
beam compass, 42
bow compass, 42
emulating with hand, 178
Component terminal holes, 842–43
Composite positional tolerancing, 517–19,
520, 521
Composite profi le tolerance, 543
Composites, 122, 158
manufacturing, 158, 159
Compression length (springs), 423, 424
Compression molding, 157, 158, 159
Computer-aided design (CAD), 8, 10. See
also Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD)
defined, 70
sustainable-design practices, 116–17
Computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD), 10, 13, 14
3-D digitizers with, 915
adding text, 210–11
animation, 84–86
assembly drawing tools, 614,
615–16, 622
auxiliary views, 304–06
basic techniques, 93–101
cam and gear design tools, 6921278 INDEX
Crossed helical gears, 695
Cross fittings, 881, 883, 885
Cross-functional team approach, 1135
Cross-reference zoning, 298, 456
Crown backing, 704, 705
CRS. See Cold-rolled steel (CRS)
CSM. See Chlorosulfonated
polyethylene (CSM)
Cubes, 186
Cubic feet per minute (CFM), effect on duct
sizing, 1040
Cul-de-sacs, 1104
Cumulative trauma disorder, 112
Curve data, 1087
Curved line, 219
Curve length, 1087
Curves. See also Arcs; Irregular curves
in auxiliary views, 297
in civil drafting plan views, 1087–88
in civil drafting profi le views, 1091
in perspective drawings, 582–83
in property lines, 1103–04
in surface modeling, 102
Cushion sections, in V-belts, 729
Customer focus, 1152
Cut, 777
Cut and fi ll drawing, 1091, 1092, 1110,
1112. See also Grading plans
Cutsheet, 1029, 1031
Cutting line, 1088
Cutting metal, 138
Cutting-plane line, 200, 200–201, 440–42,
1088
in highway profi le drawings, 1088
precedence in multiviews, 266
structural drafting practices, 931, 932
Cycles (cam), 684
Cycloidal motion, 686
Cylinder intersecting cone, 1058, 1060–61
Cylinder pattern development, truncated,
1048–49
Cylindrical break lines, 203
Cylindrical elbows, 1050
Cylindrical features
intersections in isometric drawings, 570
position tolerancing for, 513
showing in multiviews, 262, 265
Cylindrical roller bearings, 710
Cylindrical shapes, dimensioning of, 334
Cylindricity tolerance, 507
D
Dardelet thread forms, 396, 397
Dassault Systèmes, 73
Data list (DL), 612
Datum axis, 488–89
Datum center plane, 490–92
Datum dimensioning
best for CNC, 146
Datum features, 477
coaxial, 489
defined, 478
simulators, 478–79, 499
symbols for, 478, 480, 488, 490
Datum precedence, 499–501
Continuous stave wood pipe, 878
Continuous-White layer, 94
Contour flange, 787
Contour interval, 1092
Contour lines, 1086, 1093, 1107–09
drawing, 1086, 1107–09
topographic concepts, 1092
Contours
defi ned in civil engineering, 1086
dimensioning, 337–38
showing in multiviews, 262–66
Contract documents, defined, 929
Contractor drawing, 1028
Control charting, 165, 169
Control joints, 976
Controlled radius (CR), 337
defined, 322
dimensioning, 322, 325
Control limits, 165–66
Control points, 102
in closed traverses, 1075
survey, 1107
Control valves, 891
body and damper symbols, 906
Conventional breaks, 452–53
Conventional machining
prototyping by, 84
Conventional tolerancing, 476
Coordinate method, 582, 584–85
of isometric construction, 568–69
Coordinate systems, 1073, 1074
Copes, 135
Coplanar bends, 785
Coplanar profi le tolerance, 542
Coplanar surface datums, 487–88
Coplanar surfaces, 542
Copper alloys, 125, 202
Copper pipe, 877
Copper tubing, 877
Copyright, 31, 1141
Cores, casting, 135–36
Cork, section lines for, 202
Corner relief, 787
Corrosive fl uids, protecting valves from, 889
Cosine, 1079
Cotangent, 1079
Counterbores
dimensioning, 325, 339–40
drawing, 148, 149
specifying for bolted connections, 968
Counterdrill, 148, 149
dimensioning, 340
Countersink
dimensioning, 325, 340
drawing, 148, 149
Coupler, 680
Coupling circuitry, 832
Couplings (pipe), 882, 885
Coupolet, 884
Courses, 1075, 1077–78
Cover sheet, 1029
CR. See Controlled radius (CR)
Cradle-to-cradle design, 1021
Cranks, 680
Creativity in design, 1147–49
principles of, 1148–49
Crest (threads), 394
Concrete slabs
defined, 936
plan, 972, 975
specifying in drawings, 943, 972, 975
Concurrent engineering (CE), 1134
Conductor lines. See Conductor traces
Conductor traces
printed circuits, 840, 841
Conductor width and spacing, on printed
circuits, 842
Conduit layout and detail drawings,
819, 820
Coned disk, 425
Cone distance, 704, 705
Cone pattern development, truncated, 1051
Cones
dimensioning, 335–36
developing, 1050–51
Confusing symbols, 832
Congruency, of geometric shapes, 998
Conical features
dimensioning, 335–36
profi le of, 543
Conical taps, 1037
Connecting rod, 680
Connecting traverses, 1075–76, 1077
Connection lines, 575
in exploded assemblies, 575
Connection methods, industrial piping,
879–81
Connectors
in foundation plans, 972, 975
joist and beam, 956, 958
in structural design, 966–69
Consider ease of recycling, 1152
Constant force spring, 426
Constant velocity motion, 685
Constraints, 69, 105, 348
for geometric construction, 225
levels, 105, 106
to lines, 204–5, 205
Construction documents, defined, 929
Construction drafter, 14
Construction drawings, 929
Construction lines
with auxiliary views, 305–06
basic features, 195
to create multiview layouts, 273, 274
sketching circles with, 176–77
use in CADD, 267, 268
Construction methods
concrete block, 945–47, 950, 951, 952
engineered wood products, 953, 955,
959, 960
importance of understanding, 936
laminated beam, 950, 953, 957,
958, 959
poured and precast concrete, 936–42,
947, 948, 952
steel structures, 960–966
timber frame, 947–48, 950, 953–960
wood frame systems overview, 947
Construction specifications, 986
Content, process versus, 118
Continuation sheet title block, 59
Continuity of welds, 762
Continuous reinforcing, 158, 159INDEX 1279
ISO 9000 Quality Systems Standard,
378–79
in isometric drawings, 573–74
jig and fi xture design, 378
location dimensions, 342–44
machined features, design and drafting
of, 373
machined surfaces, 370–73
machining allowance, 362–63
machining drawing, 363, 365
maximum and minimum
dimensions, 361
notes for machined features, 338–42
phantom lines, on machining allowance
and draft angles, 363, 367
in piping drawings, 900, 908
plastic part manufacturing, drawings for,
369–70
platings and coatings, dimensions applied
to, 361
rules for multiviews, 302–03, 315–19
site plan layout, 1104–06
style setting, 348–49
symbols, 325
threads, 404–05
tolerancing and, 351–61
tool design, 373–78
Dimensioning and Tolerancing, 47, 59
Dimensioning and tolerancing block,
59–60
Dimensioning fundamentals, 327
arrowheads, 330
baseline dimensioning, 332
chain dimensioning, 331–32
cylindrical shapes, dimensioning, 334
decimal points, 327–28
dimensioning units, 327
dimension lines and numerals, 330–31
dimension line spacing, 330
direct dimensioning, 332–34
fractions, 329–30
layout standards and specifications, 328
metric and inch units, 328–29
square features, dimensioning, 334
stagger adjacent dimensions, 334
symmetrical objects, dimensioning, 334
Dimensioning systems, 326
aligned dimensioning, 326
chart drawings, 327
rectangular coordinate dimensioning
without dimension lines, 326–27
tabular dimensioning, 327
unidirectional dimensioning, 326
Dimensioning units, 327
Dimension lines
AutoCAD features, 345
defi ned, 297, 324
and numerals, 330–31
rules for, 198
spacing of, 330
structural drafting practices, 930–31, 932
Dimension numerals, 324, 330–31
Dimension origin symbols, 325, 344, 345
Dimension styles, 348–49
Dimension text, 324
Dimetric projection, 563, 574
DIMLIN command, 345
of HANDLE, 621, 622
layout process in structural drafting, 990
manufacturing information, 599
monodetail drawing, 599
multidetail drawings, 599
piping, 910, 911
roof framing, 972, 977
sheet layout, 599
springs, 426
steps in making, 599
threads, 400–03
Detailed representation of threads, 397
Detailed spring representation, 426
Detailer, 1028. See also Detail drafter
defined, 928
DETAIL VIEW command, 271
Detail views
in multiview drawings, 258–59
Development phase of phase gate design
process, 1140–44
DfX. See Design for everything (DfX)
Dial indicator, 545
Diameter nominal (DN), 909
Diameters, 222
defined, 321
dimensioning symbols, 325
Diametral pitch, 342, 696, 698, 703
Diaphragm symbols, 906
Diaphragm valves, 889
Diazo prints, 62
Diazo reproduction, 62
Die, 786
Die casting, 137
Dies (thread), 152, 361, 395, 394
Differential relays, 817
Diffusers, 1016
Digital product defi nition datasets, 111
Digital prototyping, 81
Dimension
defined, 321
Dimensional accuracy points, 793, 794
Dimensional constraint line, 204–5, 205
Dimensional constraints, 348, 105
Dimensional lumber, defined, 947
Dimensional stability of drafting media, 50
Dimensioning, 315. See also Geometric
tolerance
ASME standards, 319–20, 349, 362
associative dimension, 347–48
auxiliary views, 344–45
basics, 320
with CADD, 345–47
for CADD/CAM, 381–82
casting drawings, 361–62, 363, 364
characteristics and definitions, 320–23
CNC options, 146
combined casting and machining
drawing, 363, 366
components, 324
constraints, 348
dimension origin, 344, 345
excluded from assembly drawings, 603
forging, design, and drawing, 363,
368–69
fundamental concepts, 323, 327–34
in general notes, 349–51
good practices, 334–38
Datum reference frame (DRF), 479, 481, 482
Datums, 375
defined, 321, 477
selecting, 553
Datum targets, 483–87
locating, 485–87
symbols for, 483
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 10–11
DC (direct current) circuits
elementary diagrams, 814
DC biasing, 832
Dead ends, 1103
Decimal Inch Drawing Sheet Size and
Format, 811
Decimal inches, 327
Decimal points, 327–28
on drawings, 207
Decking, 960
Declination
magnetic, 1074
Dedendum, 697
Dedendum angle, 704
Default dimension styles, 348–49
Default text styles, 210
Defects
minimizing, 165
waste, 1132, 1133
Deferred tangency, 236
Deflection, 423
Defl ection-angle traverses, 1076, 1077
Deformed steel bars, 936, 937
Degree of curve, 1087
Degrees of freedom, 481–82
Deliverables, 1150
Delta, 351, 1039
Delta angle, 1087, 1104
Delta note. See also Flag notes
pipe drawings, 915
in structural drafting, 984, 985
Deming, W. Edwards, 1133
Depth dimensioning symbols, 325
Depth of threads, 394
Derived components, 108
Descartes, René, 11
Descriptive geometry, 11, 267
auxiliary views and, 302
Design documentation, 1144
Design drafter, 14, 628
Design drawings, 930
Designer’s tools, 377–78
Design for everything (DfX), 1152
Design plan, 112
Design sketches, 620
Design specification, 1140
Destructive testing of welds, 762–63
Detachable chain, 736
Detail assembly drawings, 605–06
Detail drafter, 18, 20
Detail drawings, 598, 620–22, 1037
CADD tools and options, 601
conduit, 819, 820
coordination with sections in structural
drafting, 934, 936, 972
defined, 597
of DRIVER, 622
electrical grounding, 819
foundations, 9721280 INDEX
E-business, 1152
Eccentric circles, 223
Eccentric reducer, 881, 883
ECM. See Electrochemical machining (ECM)
ECN. See Engineering change notice (ECN)
ECN number, 618–19
ECO. See Engineering change order (ECO);
Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECO)
Economic efficiency, 1132
Ecosystem, green technology application
in, 1117
ECR. See Engineering change request (ECR)
EDA. See Electronic design automation
(EDA)
Edge views, 296
Editing
with CADD, 93, 94
parametric models, 108–9
EDM. See Electrodischarge machining
(EDM)
Education, 22–23, 25
Elastomers, 127, 128–29
Elbolet, 881, 884
Elbows, 881, 883, 885
E-learning animations, 86
Electrical circuits, 811
Electrical conduit, 870
Electrical drafters, 16, 18
Electrical drafting. See also Drafting


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