كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining

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كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining    كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining  Emptyالخميس 02 يونيو 2022, 8:11 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining
A reference book for manufacturing engineers, managers, and technicians
Fourth Edition
Thomas J. Drozda, PE, CMfgE
Editor-In-Chief
Charles Wick, CMfgE
Managing Editor

كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook Volume I - Machining  T_a_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
VOLUME I-MACHINING
Symbols and Abbreviations xi
Principles of Metalcutting and Machinability 1-1
Tolerance Control 2-1
Cutting Tool Materials . 3-1
Cutting Fluids and Industrial Lubricants .
Sawing . 6-1
Broaching. Planing. Shaping and Slotting
Turning and Boring 8-1
Drilling. Reaming and Related Processes 9-1
Milling . 10-1
Grinding 11-1
Threading 12-1
Gear and Spline Production
Nontraditional Machining 14-1
Multifunction Machines 15-1
Machine Loading and Unlaading 16-1
Machine Rebuilding 17-1
Safety and Noise Control .
Machine Controls 5-1
Index . 1-1
SYMBOLS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of symbols and abbreviations in general use throughout this volume. Supplementary and/or derived units,
symbols, and abbreviations which are peculiar to specific subject matter are listed within chapters.
A
A
AA
ABN
ABS
a-c
AC
ACC
ACD
A/cm2
ACO
A/D
AFM
AFMDC
AGMA
A/in.2
AIS1
Al
ALGOL
A1203
ANSI
API
APT
ASLE
ASM
ASME
ASP
ASTM
AUTOSPOT
AWG
Ampere
Arithmetic average
Amber boron nitride
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
Alternating current
Adaptive control
Adaptive control for constraint
Annealed cold drawn
Ampere per square centimeter
Adaptive control for optimization
Analog/digital
Abrasive flow machining
Air Force Machinability Data Center
American Gear Manufacturers Association
Ampere per square inch
American Iron and Steel Institute
Aluminum
Algorithmic language
Aluminum oxide (alumina)
American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
Automatic programming tool
American Society of Lubrication Engineers
American Society for Metals
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Antisegregation process
American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic system for positioning of tools
American wire gauge
B
BASIC
B,C
BCD
Be’
Bhn
BOD
B/P
BTR
BTU
BTU/in,2
BUE
BZN
Beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction
code
Boron carbide
Binary coded data
Baume’ specific gravity scale
Brinell hardness
Biological oxidation demand
Blueprint
Behind the tape reader
British thermal unit
British thermal unit per square inch
Built-up edge
Borazon brand cubic boron nitride (G. E.)
c
c
CAD/CAM
cal
CAL
cal/cm3
cal/ in.3
CAM]
CAPP
Cb
CbC
CBN
cfm
CIMS
CL
cm
cmz
cm3 / A-s
CMfgE
cm2 / hr
cm2 / m
cm2 / min
cm3 / min
CMOS
cm/s
cm3 /s
CNC
co
co.
co
C02
COBOL
COD
COM
Corp.
CP
CPM
Cps
CPU
Cr
CRT
CSA
Cst
Ctbr
Cu
CVD
Coulomb, Celsius or carbon
Computer aided design/ Computer aided
manufacturing
Calorie
Conversional algebraic language
Calorie per cubic centimeter
Calorie per cubic inch
Coated Abrasive Manufacturers Institute
Computer aided process planning
Columbium
Columbium carbide
Cubic boron nitride
Cubic foot per minute
Computer integrated manufacturing system
Cutter location
Centimeter
Square centimeter
Cubic centimeter per ampere second
Certified manufacturing engineer
Square centimeter per hour
Square centimeter per meter
Square centimeter per minute
Cubic centimeter per minute
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor
Centimeter per second
Cubic centimeter per second
Computer numerical control
Cobalt
Company
Compliance officer
Carbon dioxide
Common Business Oriented Language
Chemical oxidation demand
Computer output microfilm
Corporation
Centipoise
Crucible Particle Metallurgy
Cycle per second
Central processing unit
Chromium
Cathode ray tube
Canadian Standards Association
Centistoke
Counterbore
Copper
Chemical vapor deposition
D
dB
d-c
DC
DCF
DCTL
DDA
DEC
deg or 0
diam
DIN
Div.
DNC
DRO
DTL
DX
Decibel
Direct current
Data communication
Discounted cash flow
Direct-coupled transistor logic
Digital differential analyzer
Digital Equipment Corp.
Degree
Diameter
Dcutscher Normenausschuss (German
Standards Organization)
Division
Direct numerical control
Digital readout
Diode transistor logic
Data transfer
E
E
EBG
EBM
EBW
ECD
ECDG
ECEA
ECG
ECH
ECM
ECP
ECT
ECVT
EDC
EDG
EDM
EDP
EDWC
EEM
EHD
EIA
ELP
EMD
EMM
EMT
EOB
EOP
EOT
EP
EPA
EPROM
Eq,
ER
ESCM
ESM
ESR
EVM
EXAPT
xii
Modulus of elasticity
Electrolytic belt grinding
Electron beam machining
Electron beam welding
Electrochemical deburring
Electrochemical discharge grinding
End cutting edge angle
Electrochemical grinding
Electrochemical honing
Electrochemical machining
Electrochemical polishing
Electrochemical turning
Electrochemical vibratory tumbling
Extended data comparison
Electrical discharge grinding
Electrical discharge machining
Electronic data processing
Electrical discharge wire cutting
Electrolytic end milling
Elastohydrodynamic
Electronic Industries Association
Electropolishing
Electromechanical drilling
Electromechanical machining
Electromechanical turning
End of block
End of program
End of tape
Extreme pressure
Environmental Protection Agency
Erasable programmable read only memory
Equation
Electro-Ream
F.lectro-Stream chemical milling
Electro-Stream miUing
Electroslag remelting
Electrovapor machining
Extended subst?t of APT
F-G-H
F
FCI
fd
FDX
FeC13
FIFO
Fig.
fpm
fps
fpt
FRN
FSK
ft
ft2
ft,
ft’ / hr
FTS
gal
gl cm3
GDM
GJ / m’
g/L
GP
GPa
GPAC
GPG
gpm
GPO
GPS
GR
GT
H
HAZ
HBM
HC1
HZCr04
HD
HDAC
HDM
HDO
HDX
Hf
HF
HfC
Hg
HI-E
H*O
hp
hp/in,
hp/ in.3/ min
hr
HZS4
HSS
HTM
H7
Fahrenheit
Flux changes per inch
Farad
Full duplex
Ferric chloride
First in, first out
Figure
Foot per minute
Foot per second
Feed per tooth
Feed rate number
Frequency shift keying
Foot
Square foot
Cubic foot
Cubic foot per hour
Full top skive
Gallon
Gram per cubic centimeter
Glow discharge machining
Giga Joule per cubic meter
Gram per liter
General purpose
Giga pascal
General purpose aqueous coolant
Grain per gallon
Gallon per minute
General purpose oil
General purpose soluble oil
Grinding ratio
Group technology
Henry
Heat-affected zone
Horizontal boring machine
Hydrochloric acid
Chromic acid
Heavy duty
Heavy duty aqueous coolant
Hydrodynamic machining
Heavy duty oil
Half duplex
Hafnium
Hone-Forming
Hafnium carbide
Mercury
High efficiency
Water
Horsepower
Horsepower per inch
Horsepower per cubic inch per minute
Hour
Sulphuric acid
High speed steel
High technology materials
Cycles per second
I-J
I
Ic
ID
IGA
in. or “
in.z
in.’
in. /ft
in.2/ft
in.2/hr
in.3/hr
in. /in,
in. -lbf
in. /rein
in,2/min
in.3/min
in.j rein/ in.
in. jpass
in. js
1/0
1P
ipm
ipr
IRR
IRS
1s0
JJ
/ cm~
JIC
Current or Moment of inertia
Inscribed circle or Integrated circuit
Inside diameter
Intergranular attack
Inch
Square inch
Cubic inch
Inch per linear foot
Square inch per foot
Square inch per hour
Cubic inch per hour
Inch per inch
inch pound force
Inch per minute
Square inch per minute
Cubic inch per minute
Cubic inch per minute per inch
Inch per pass
Inch per second
Input-output
Index of performance or United Kingdom
Standard
Inch per minute
Inch per revolution
Internal rate of return
Internal Revenue Service
international Standards Organization
Joule
Joule per square centimeter
Joint Industry Conference
kc
kg
kg/ mm2
kg/mm3
kHz
k]
kN
kN. m
kohm
kPa
ksi
kV
kW
kW/cm3/min
Kilocycles
Kilogram
Kilogram per square millimeter
Kilogram per cubic millimeter
Kilohertz
Kiloliter
KiloNewton
KiloNewton meter
Kilo-ohm
Kilopascal
1000 pounds per square inch
Kilovolt
Kilowatt
Kilowatt per cubic centimeter per minute
L Liter
lb Pound mass
lbf Pound force
Ibf-ft Foot pound
lbf) in. Pound force per inch
lb/gal Pound mass per gallon
lb/ in.’ Pound mass per cubic inch
LBM
Lid
LD
LED
LH
lin
LMC
L/rein
LPM
LS
LSD
LSI
Laser beam machining
Length to diameter
Light duty
Light emitting diode
Left hand
Linear
Least material condition
Liter per minute
Lines per minute
Low stress
Least significant digit
Large scale integration
M
m
m2
m3
mA
math
man
max
MC
MCR
MCTI
MCU
MD
MD]
MFM
Mg
MgO
m3/ hr
MHz
min
MIS
ml
mm
mm2
mm’
MMC
mm3 / hr
m/ min
mm/m
mm/min
mm2 / min
mm3 / min
mm/ mm
mm/pass
mm/rev
mm/s
mmz / s
mm3 ;/s
mm3/s/mm
Mn
MnS
Mo
MODEM
MOS
MOSV
Meter
Square meter
Cubic meter
Milliampere
Machine
Manual
Maximum
Molybdenum carbide
Master control relay
Metal Cutting Tool Institute
Machine control unit
Medium duty
Manual data input
Magnetic field machining
Magnesium
Magnesium Oxide
Cubic meter per hour
Megahertz
Minimum or Minute
Management information system
Milliliter
Millimeter
Square millimeter
Cubic millimeter
Maximum material condition
Cubic millimeter per hour
Meter per minute
Millimeter per linear meter
Millimeter per minute
Square millimeter per minute
Cubic millimeter per minute
Millimeter per millimeter
Millimeter per pass
Millimeter per revolution
Millimeter per second
Square millimeter per second
Cubic millimeter per second
Cubic millimeter per second per millimeter
Manganese
Manganese sulfide
Molybdenum
MODulator Demodulator
Metal oxide semiconductor
Molybdenum disulfide
M Pa
MR
MRP
ms
M/s
MS1
MTBF
MTS
MTTR
mV
Megapascal
Machinability rating
Material requirements planning
Millisecond
Meter per second
Medium scale integration
Mean time between failure
Medium top skive
Mean time to repair
Millivolt
N
N
NZ
NaCl
NaC103
NaNOZ
NaN03
NaOH
NAS
Na2S04
NbN
NBR
NC
NCD
Nd:YAG
NEC
neg
NEMA
NFPA
Ni
NIOSH
NLG1
N“ m
N/mm
N/mm*
N“m/s
NMTBA
No.
Nontrad
NPV
NR
NS
NTS
Newton or Nitrogen
Nit rogen
Sodium chloride
Sodium chlorate
Sodium nitrite
Sodium nitrate
Sodium hydroxide
National Aerospace Standards
Sodium sulphate
Niobium nitride
Nitrile rubber
Numerical control
Normalized cold drawn
Neodymium-doped, yttrium aluminum
garnet
National Electrical Code
negative
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association
National Fire Protection Association
Nickel
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health
National Lubricating Grease Institute
Newton meter
Newton per millimeter
Newton per square millimeter
Newton meter per second (Watt)
National Machine Tool Builders Association
Number
Nontraditional
Net present value
Nose radius
Nonstaining
No top skive
o-P
02 Oxygen
OA Overaging
OD Outside diameter
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
OTM Overtempered martensite
02
P
Pa
PAM
Pans
PAU
Pb
Pc
PCB
pcs/hr
pcs/ shift
PD
PD2
PE
PERA
pH
PID
PM or P/M
pos
PPD
ppm
PROM
PRS
psi
pt
PTC
PVD
PWM
Ounce
Phosphorus or Poise
Pascal
Plasma arc machining
Pascal second
Position analog unit
Lead
Programmable controller
Printed circuit board
Pieces per hour
Pieces per shift
Plastic deformation or Pitch diameter
Plastically deformed debris
Professional engineer
Production Engineering Research
Association
Acidity measure
Proportional, integral derivative
Powder metallurgy
Positive
Pour point depressant
Parts per million
Programmable read only memory
Product relative step
Pound per square inch
Part
Programmed turning center
Physical vapor deposition
Pulse width modulated
R
Ra
RA, B, ., c
RAM
RB
w
RCTL
Ref
R] O
R&O
ROM
rpm
RTL
RUM
s or sec
s
SACD
SAE
s/ cm2
SCR
SE
SES
sfm
SHF
Si
S1
R-S
Resistance
Arithmetic average roughness
Rockwell hardness—A, B, or C scale
Random access memory
Rockwell hardness—B scale
Rockwell hardness—C scale
Resistor capacitor transistor logic
Reference
Reverse osmosis
Rust and oxidation inhibited
Read only memory
Revolution per minute
Resistor transistor logic
Rotary ultrasonic machining
Second
Sulfur
Spheroidized annealed cold drawn
Society of Automotive Engineers
Second per square centimeter
Silicon controlled rectifier
Selective etch
Stationary ElectroStream
Surface feet per minute
Synthetic hydrocarbon fluids
Silicon
International System of Units
s/ in.2 Second per square inch yr Year
Si02 Silicon dioxide
SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Sn
ZFM Zero force machining
Tin Zn
S-N
Zinc
Stress vs. number of cycles until failure Zr
Ssl
Zirconium
Small scale integration Zr02
Ssu
Zirconium oxide
Seconds Savbolt Universal
St Stoke -
STEM Shaped Tube Electrolytic Machining
T-U-V
t
Ta
TaC
Ti
TiC
TiN
TI R
TJ
TLV
TMEH
tol
tpi
TPI
TRS
TSCA
TTL
TWA
UAM
Uhp
UNC
UNF
USM
UTM
UTS
v
VBM
Vc
VI
Vll
VO1
VTL
Metric ton
Tantalum
Tantalum carbide
Titanium
Titanium carbide
Titanium nitride
Total indicator runout or Total indicator
reading
Thin joint
Threshold limit valve
Tool and Manufacturing Engineers
Handbook
Tolerance
Threads per inch
Teeth per inch
Transverse rupture strength
Toxic Substances Control Act
Transistor transistor logic
Time weighted average
Ultrasonically assisted machining
Unit horsepower
Unified coarse thread
Unified fine thread
Ultrasonic machining
Untempered martensite
Ultimate tensile strength
Vanadium or Volt
Vertical boring machine
Vanadium carbide
Viscosity index
Viscosity index improver
Volume
Vertical turret lathe
w-Y-z
wW
B,
Wc
We-co
W/cm*
W/in.2
WJ M
W/mm
Watt or Tungsten
Tungsten boride
Tungsten carbide
Tungsten carbide with cobalt binder
Watt per square centimeter
Watt per square inch
Water jet machining
Watt per millimeter
P
/.LA
p fd
p in.
pm
ps
n
7r
$.
Coefficient of friction
Microampere
Micro Farad
Microinch (micron)
Micrometer
Microsecond
Ohm
Pi(3.14159, )
Dollar
Approximately
Plus or minus
Dollar per hour
Dollar
Percent
Perpendicular to
Parallel to
INDEX
A
Abrasion and abrasion resistance
carbide, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
cast alloy, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
ceramic, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
defined, 1-44
high-speed steel, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
polycrystalline diamond, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
single-crystal diamond, 3-38
tungsten carbide, cemented, 3-26 (Table
contact wheels, rolls, and platens, 11-118
machine tools
3-13)
Abrasive belt machining
backstand, 1 1 - 1 19, 11-12O(Fig.11-116)
centerless, 11-119, 11-120(Fin. 11-116)
free-belt roll, 11-1 19, 11-i20 (Fig
swing-frame, 11-119, 11-120 (Fig.
11-116)
11-116)
vertical,'l1-119, 11-120 (Fig. 11-116)
stock removal rate, 11-118
Abrasive cutoff (see Cutoff, abrasive)
Abrasives (see also Grinding)
advantages, 11-1
applications, I 1-3
honing, I I -I 29
manufactured, 11-15
natural, 11-15
Abrasives, coated
adhesive bonds, 11-42
backings, 11-42
belts, 11-43
cutting fluids, 11-44
discs, f1-43
elements, 11-40 (Fig. 11-15)
flexing, 11-40
grain size, 11-41
joints, 11-44
sheets, 11-43
special forms, 11-44
types, 11-41
Accuracy (see also Tolerance control)
bandsawing, 6-2 (Table 6-l), 6-12
bevel gear blanks, 13-80 (Table 13-31)
boring, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1), 8-78, 8-79 (Table
broaching, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1), 7-2, 7-4 (Table
buffing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
chemical machining, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
circular sawing, 6-2 (Table 6-l), 6-36
electrical discharge grinding, 14-62
electrical discharge machining, 2-2 (Fig.
electrical discharge wire cutting, 14-59
Electro-Stream, 14-36
electrochemical discharge grinding, 14-17
electrochemical grinding, 2-2 (Fig. 2-l),
electrochemical honing, 14-22
electrochemical machining, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1),
electrochemical turning, 14-35
electron beam machining, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1),
14-39, 14-40(Fig. 14-40)
electropolishing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
filing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
flame cutting, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
gear hobbing, 13-26
gear shaping, 13-26
gears, 13-3
grinding, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
gundrills, external chip removal, 9-55
gundrills, internal chip removal, 9-56
hacksawing, 6-2 (Table 6-1), 6-3
hand disk grinding, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
8-20)
7-1)
chucks, 8-54
2-1)
14-19
14-32
Accuracy (cont.)
hand grinding, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
honing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
jig boring, 8-110
lapping, 2-2 (Fig.2-1)
laser beam drilling, 14-66
laser beam machining, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
lathes, toolroom, 8-3, 8-6 (Table 8-2)
milling, 2-2 (Fig. 2-l), 10-7
multiple-spindle automatic bar and chucknumerical control machine tools, 5-10
photochemical machining, 14-90 (Table
plasma arc machining, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
polishing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
reamers and reaming, 2-2 (Fig. 2-l), 9-109
(Table 9-36), 9-126 (Table 9-43), 9-132
shaped tube electrolytic machining, 14-36
shaping, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
tapped threads, 12-68
thread milling, 12-108
turning, 2-2 (Fig. 2-l), 8-2
twist drilling, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1), 9-2,9-3 (Table
ultrasonic machining, 14-8
Acidity, cutting fluids, 4-29
Acme screw threads, centralizing
ing machines, 15-37
14-30), 14-9I
9-1)
allowances, tolerances, and clearances, 12-
applications, 12-33
basic dimensions, 12-33, 12-38 (Table
diameter-pitch combinations, 12-33, 12-38
thread form and symbols, 12-33(Fig. 12-12)
33 (Fig. 12-11), 12-34(Fig. 12-13)
12-18)
(Table 12-19)
Activators, ECM, 14-25
Active cutting oils, 4-5
Adaptive control
applications, 5-66
classifications, 5-66
concepts, 5-47
dimensional control, 5-67,5-68 (Fig. 5-38)
drilling, 9-4
justification, 5-67
sensor technology, 5-68
surface roughness, 5-68
tool wear, 5-69
trends, 5-66
cutting fluids, 4-5
electrolyte, 14-25
greases, 4-43
lubricants, industrial, 4-38, 4-47
Adhesion, defined, 1-45
Aerobic bacteria, 4-26,4-34
Air deflector nozzle, grinding wheel, I 1-47
Air-line oilers, 4-50, 4-51 (Fig. 4-25) (see also
Air-spray oilers, 4-5 1, 4-52 (Fig. 4-26)
All-loss methods, lubricant application, 4-49
Alloyed tungsten carbide (see Carbide, tungAlternate set, 6-6 (Fig. 6-5)
Alumina (see Aluminum oxide)
Aluminum and alloys
abrasivecutoffwheels, 11-122(Table11-23)
bandsawing, 6-17
broaching constant, 1-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
geometry, 8-30 (Table 8-4)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
titanium grades, 3-27
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
carbide-tipped boring tools, geometry, 8-
cast cobalt-based alloy cutting tools
Additives
Mist lubrication)
sten, alloyed)
29 (Table 3-16)
86 (Table 8-22)
Aluminum and alloys, cast cobalt-based alloy
cutting tools (cont.)
geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
ceramic tools, geometry, 3-35 (Table 3-21)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
counterboring, 9-136,9-I37 (Table 9-47)
cut-and-peel mask etchants, 14-86 (Table
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
drilling, multiple-lip,externalchip-removal,
high-pressure coolant, 9-97 (Table 9-25)
drilling, twist, 1-20(Fig. 1-36), 9-90 (Table
electron beam machining, 14-38 (Table
end milling, 10-56 (Table 10-8)
expansion, thermal, 8-108 (Table 8-26)
face and back-off angles, HSS broaches,
7-18 (Table 7-4)
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
grinding fluids, 11-46 (Table 11-16)
grinding wheels for
centerless, 11-26 (Table 11-7)
cylindrical, 11-28 (Table 11-8)
internal, 11-29 (Table 11-9)
surface, 11-25 (Table 11-6)
gundrilling, 9-58 (Table 9-11)
gundrilling, multiple-lip, internal-chipremoval, 9-96 (Table 9-24)
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
high-speed steel tools, geometry, 8-29
(Table 8-3)
laser drilling, 14-67 (Table 14-20)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate
(Table 6-10)
14-29)
9-20), 9-103
14-14)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9), 6-45
electron beam machining, 14-40 (Fig.
14-39)
milling; 10-52 (Table 10-5)
2), 10-54 (Table 10-7), 10-70
(Table 14-28)
milling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 10-35 (Table 10-
photo/silk screen resist etchants, 14-84
planing, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 6-46 (Table 7-10)
plasma arc cutting, 14-79 (Table 14-26)
polycrystalline diamond tools, 3-43
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-1 14(Table 9-39)
reaming, HSS reamers, 9-128(Table 9-44),
screw machining, 15-8 (Table 15-2)
shaping, gear, 13-67 (Table 13-23)
single-crystal diamond tools, application,
3-39
spade drilling,9-85(Table 9-19), 9-87,9-94
(Table 9-23)
tapping, 12-90,12-91(Table 12-45), 12-102
(Table 12-51)
thread chasers, 12-58, 12-59(Table 12-28),
12-63, 12-64 (Table 12-31)
thread rolling, 12-129 (Table 12-63), 12-
130 (Table 12-64), 12-135 (Table 12-66)
threading, single-point carbide, cutting
speed, 12-52 (Table 12-26), 12-53
threadingtools, high-speed steel, geometry,
12-49, 12-50 (Table 12-24)
tooth pitch, HSS circular saws, 6-43 (Fig.
9-131
6-36)
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
(Table 8-17)
Aluminum oxide (ceramic)
abrasive, applications, 11-15
advantages, 3-34
applications, 3-34
boring tools, 8-84
coated abrasive, 11-41
coatings for carbide
properties, 3-31 (Table 3-17)INDEX
Aluminum oxide (ceramic), coatings for
carbide (cont.)
speeds, cutting, 3-31
comparative performance vs. carbide, 3-35
cutting fluids, 3-38, 4-9
cylindrical grinding of, 11-28 (Table 11-8)
electron beam machining, 14-38(Table 14-
extended tool life equation, exponents, 1-
history, 3-32
hydrodynamic machining, 14-9 (Table
indexable-insert milling cutters, 10-38
limitations, 3-34
speeds and feeds, 3-36, 3-37 (Fig. 3-16)
surface finish effects, 1-24
tool geometry, 3-34 3-35 (Table 3-21)
tool life vs. cutting speed, 3-29 (Fig. 3-13)
troubleshooting, 3-38 (Table 3-22)
turning tools, 8-25
types, 3-32
ultrasonic machining, 14-11 (Table 14-6
and Table 14-7)
Aluminum oxide/zirconium oxide cofusion
abrasive, 11-5
Amborite, 3-45
Anaerobic bacteria, 4-26, 4-34
Angular cuts, 2-22
Angularity, 2-3 (Fig. 2-3)
Annealing (see Heat treatment)
Anodic dissolution theory
ECM mode, 14-25
etching mode, 14-24
polishing mode, 14-25
types of electrodes, 14-24
ANSI standards (see Standards)
Arbors, milling, 10-22
Area of contact, grinding, 11-13, 11-24,-11-45
Armor plate
drilling, twist, 9-103
threading tools, HSS, geometry, 12-49, 12-
50 (Table 12-24)
abrasive cutoff wheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
drilling, twist, 9-90 (Table 9-20)
hydrodynamic machining, 14-8(Table 14-
ASP (Antisegregation process) (see Cast
cobalt-based alloys)
Austenite, HSS, 3-9
Austenitizing, HSS, 3-8 (Table 3-3) (see also
Heat treatment)
Automatic bar and chucking machines,
multiple-spindle (see Bar and chucking
machines, multiple-spindle automatic)
Automatic lathes, single-spindle (see Lathes,
single-spindle automatic)
Automatic screw machines (see Screw
machines, single-spindle automatic, and
Screw machines, Swiss-type automatic)
Automation
(Table 3-20)
14), 14-39 (Table 14-15)
47 (Table 1-8)
14-4)
Asbestos and asbestos board
3), 14-9 (Table 14-4)
defined, 16-1
gear shaving, 13-92
islands of, 16-16
machine loading/ unloading, 15-4 (Fig. 15-
pick-and-place manipulators, 16-9
robotics, 16-14
time on machine vs. time in shop, 16-1,
4) 16-1
16-2 (Fig. 16-1)
6
Back rake angle (see Rake angle)
Back taper (see Tool geometry)
Bacteria and bacteria control
cutting fluids, 4-26,4-34
Bacteria and bacteria control (cont.)
Bakelite
industrial lubricants, 4-48 (Table 4-16)
drilling, twist, 9-90 (Table 9-20)
HSS tools, geometry, 8-29 (Table 8-3)
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-114(Table 9-39)
tapping, 12-102 (Table 12-51)
Balancing, grinding wheel, 11-25, 11-31 (Fig.
Ball bearing spindle, 8-80 (Fig. 8-105)
Ballscrew, boring machines, 8-80
Band filing, 6-22
Band machining (see Bandsawing)
Band polishing, 6-22
Bandsawing (see also Saw bands)
accuracy, 6-12
advantages, 6-11
applications, 6-12, 6-14 (Fig. 6-8)
contouring, 6-11
cost and performance, 6-2 (Table 6-1)
cut thickness, 6-12
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2), 6-24
kerf, 6-2
limitations, 6-12
machine tools
11-13)
accessories, 6-19
air-powered table, 6-13
aluminum cutoff, 6-17
capacity, 6-1
diamond band, 6-13
drive systems, 6-18
feed systems, 6-18
fixed table, 6-13
flying cutoff, 6-15
friction saws, 6-13
horizontal-type, 6-15, 6-17 (Fig. 6-12)
hydraulically powered table, 6-13
plate saws, 6-15, 6-16 (Fig. 6-10)
post-type, 6-17
CNC, 6-15, 6-18
scissor-type, 6-15,6-16 (Fig. 6-11), 6-17
tilt-frame universal, 6-i7, 6-18 (Fig.
(Fig. 6-13)
6-15)
verlical-type, 6-13
materials, workpiece, 6-1
speeds and feeds, 6-12, 6-23, 6-25 (Table
6-5), 6-35 (Table 6-7)
Bar and chucking machines, multiple-spindle
arrangement of spindles, 15-29,15-30 (Fig.
attachments
automatic
15-19)
automation equipment, 15-36
back finish slide, 15-36
cross-milling/drilling/ slotting, 15-36
high-speed drilling, 15-36
independent endworking, 15-35
pick-off, 15-36
pickup, 15-35
recessing, 15-36 (Fig. 15-31)
thread rolling, 15-35, 15-36
universal threading, 15-35, 15-36 (Fig.
capacity, 15-29
construction, 15-30, 15-31 (Fig. 15-20 and
Fig. 15-21), 15-32 (Fig. 15-22 and Fig.
15-23), 15-33 (Fig. 15-24)
cutting fluids, 15-38
method of chucking, 15-29
method of indexing, 15-29, 15-30
number of spindles, 15-29
planning tooling setups, 15-37, 15-38(Fig.
15-32 and Fig. 15-33)
safety, 15-39, 15-40
speeds and feeds, 15-37
tolerances held, 15-37
tools
15-30)
carbide tooling, 15-35
Bar and chucking machines, multiple-spindle
automatic, tools (cont.)
cross-slide tools and holders, 15-33, 15-
34 (Fig. 15-26, Fig. 15-27, Fig. 15-28,
and Fig. 15-29)
endworking tools and holders, 15-33
(Fig. 15-25)
troubleshooting, 15-39 (Table 15-10)
Bar-stock rolling, 13-29
Bar-turning engine lathe attachment, 8-4
Batch computer processing, 5-47
Bath oiling, 4-53
Bench lathe, 8-3
Beryllium and alloys
abrasive cutoff wheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
cut-and-peel mask etchants, 14-86 (Table
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
drilling, laser, 14-67 (Table 14-20)
grinding fluids, 11-46 (Table 11-16)
14-29)
Beta rays, 14-71
Bevel cutting, plasma arc, 14-76 (Fig. 14-74)
Bevel gears (see Gears and gear manufacturing)
Biodegradation
defined, 4-56
disposal method, industrial lubricants, 4-56
Blades, hacksaw
geometry, tooth, 6-6 (Fig. 6-4)
materials, 6-5
pitch, tooth, 6-6
set, tooth, 6-6 (Fig. 6-5)
size, 6-6
tension, 6-5
Blanking dies, 14-44
Blind-hole broach, 7-30 (Fig. 7-33)
Block tooling, boring (see Boring bars and
Block-type boring bars, 8-89
Blotters, grinding wheel, 11-23
Blunt start, defined, 12-2, 12-3 (Fig. 12-1)
Boiling point
Boring t001s)
copper, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
graphite, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
iron, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
tungsten, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
Boring bars, 15-45 (Fig. 15-40), 15-46 (Fig.
15-42and Fig. 15-43), 15-47(Fig. 15-44and
Fig. 15-45), 15-51 (Fig. 15-53).
Boring heads, 15-47,15-48 (Fig. 15-46and Fig.
15-47), 15-49 (Fig. 15-48 and Fig. 15-49)
Boring, jig
applications, 8-101
cutting fluids, 8-109
cutting tools, 8-106
in-process measurements, 8-109
machine tools
accessories, 8-103
adjustable rail, 8-102,8-103 (Fig. 8-145)
fixed-bridge, 8-102, 8-103 (Fig. 8-146)
maintenance, 8-109
measuring systems, 8-103
NC/CNC, 8-102, 8-103 (Fig. 8-147)
openside, 8-102 (Fig. 8-144)
operating parameters, 8-108
temperature control, 8-108 (Table 8-26)
workholding, 8-104
bar support, 15-51 (Fig. 15-53 and Fig.
boring bars, 15-45(Fig. 15-40), 15-46(Fig.
15-42 and Fig. 15-43), 15-47 (Fig. 15-44
and Fig. 15-45)
boring fixtures, 15-51
boring heads, 15-47, 15-48 (Fig. 15-46and
Fig. 15-47), 15-49 (Fig. 15-48 and Fig.
boring tools, 15-49, 15-50(Fig. f 5-50, Fig.
15-51and Fig. 15-52)
Boring machines, horizontal (HBM’s)
15-54)
15-49)
1-2INDEX
Boring machines, horizontal (HBM’s) (cont.)
combined operations, 15-52 (Fig. 15-55
controls
and Fig. 15-56)
CNC, 15-44
MDI, 15-44
floor-type, 15-43, 15-44 (Fig. 15-39)
planer-type, 15-43 (Fig. 15-38)
portable, 15-43
table-type, 15-43(Fig. 15-37)
traveling-bar, 15-44
traveling-head, 15-44
Boring machines, vertical (VBM’s)
applications, 15-61 (Fig. 1s-70)
automatic toolchanging, 15-59, 15-60(Fig.
capacities, 15-55, 15-56 (Table 15-12), 15-
57 (Table 15-13)
controls, 15-55
construction, 15-54
defined, 15-53, 15-54(Fig. 15-57)
machine loading, 15-57, 15-58(Fig. 15-62)
tooling, 15-58 (Fig. 15-63), 15-59 (Fig. 15-
64, Fig. 15-65 and Fig. 15-66)
workholding, 15-60 (Fig. 15-68)
Boring, precision (see also Boring tools)
accuracy, 2-2 (Fig. 2-l), 8-78, 8-79 (Table
applications, 8-100
combining operations, 8-91, 8-95 (Fig.
cutting fluids
drills, indexable-insert, 9-48, 9-49 (Fig.
engine lathe attachment, 8-10, 8-11 (Fig.
jig boring, 8-101
machine tools
15-67)
8-20)
8-127)
nozzle orientation, 4-15
types, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
9-38)
8-14)
center-drive, 8-81 (Fig. 8-108)
dial-type, 8-82, 8-83 (Fig. 8-1 11)
double-end, 8-81 (Fig. 8-107)
horiLonta1 single-end, 8-80 (Fig. 8-106)
NC, 8-82, 8-83 (Fig. 8-112), 8-84 (Fig.
vertical, 8-81, 8-82 (Fig. 8-109)
way-type, 8-81, 8-82 (Fig. 8-110)
8-113)
safety, 18-13
slide operation, 8-78
spindle types, 8-80
surface finish, 1-24, 1-25 (Fig. 1-40)
toolholders, 8-87
troubleshooting, 8-89, 8-100 (Table 8-25)
workholding, 8-95
adjustable heads, 8-88, 8-89 (Fig. 8-119)
block reamers, 9-119,9-120 (Fig. 9-121)
block tooling, 15-46 (Fig. 15-42 and Fig.
block-type bars, 8-89
carbide
tools, 8-82
Boring tools (see also Boring, precision)
15-43), 15-47 (Fig. 15-44)
geometry, 8-84, 8-85 (Table 8-21, Fig.
8-114, and Fig. 8-115)
grades, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
cartridges, 8-89, 8-90 (Fig. 8-122), 8-92
cast cobalt-based alloys, speeds and feeds,
chatter minimization, 8-89, 8-100 (Table
coated carbide
(Table 8-24)
3-17 (Table 3-8)
8-25)
performance vs. uncoated carbide, 3-33
speeds and feeds, 3-30, 3-33 (Table
(Table 3-18)
3-18)
Boring tools (cont.)
cubic boron nitride
geometry, 3-47
performance vs. grinding, 3-47 (Table
speeds and feeds, 3-46 (Table 3-24), 3-
3-25)
47 (Table 3-25)
fixed toolholders, 8-94, 8-95 (Fig. 8-128)
fixtures, 15-51
generating-type heads, 8-91
geometry, 15-50(Fig. 15-50,Fig. 15-51and
Fig. 15-52)
gunbores, 9-121,9-122 (Fig. 9-124)
heads, 15-48 (Fig. 15-46 and Fig. 15-47),
15-49 (Fig. 15-48 and Fig. 15-49)
HSS, powdered metal grades, 3-13
indexable inserts
retention of, 18-12
types, 8-87
materials, 8-83, 15-49
multiple-tool bars, 8-88, 8-89 (Fig. 8-117
and Fig. 8-118)
polycrystalline diamond
geometry, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
performance vs. carbide and singlecrystal diamond, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
speeds and feeds, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
preset tools, 8-99
qualified tools, 8-99
retractable boring tools, 8-91, 8-94 (Fig.
8-124)
setup, 8-99
single-crystal diamond, geometry, 3-39,3-
single-tool bars, 8-88 (Fig. 8-116)
size control, automatic, 8-91, 8-94 (Fig.
solid and tipped tools, 8-84, 8-86 (Table
abrasive for ultrasonic machining, 14-6
cylindrical grinding of, 11-28 (Table 11-8)
hardness, 14-6
internal grinding of, 11-29 (Table 11-9)
ultrasonic machining of, 14-11(Table 14-6)
41 (Fig. 3-19)
8-125)
8-22)
Boron carbide (Norbide)
Boron nitride (see Cubic boron nitride)
Borozon cutting tools, 3-45
Bottle oiler, 4-49, 4-50 (Fig, 4-21)
Boundary lubrication, 4-36, 4-37 (Fig. 4-17)
Box milling, 10-6 (Fig. 10-7)
Brass
abrasivecutoffwheels, 11-122(Table12-23)
bandsawing, 6-25 (Table 6-5)
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
geometry, 8-30 (Table 8-4)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
cast cobalt-based alloy cutting tools
geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
ceramic tools, geometries, 3-35(Table3-21)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
counterboring, 9-136, 9-137 (Table 9-47)
cutting fluids, staining, 4-9
drilling,
29 (Table 3-16)
multiple-lip, external-chip-removal,
high-pressure coolant, 9-97 (Table
spade, 9-87, 9-94 (Table 9-23)
twist, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36)
9-25)
electrodes, EDM, 14-51
electron beam machining, 14-39 (Table
end milling, 10-56 (Table 10-8)
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
14-15)
Brass (cont.)
grinding wheels
for centerless grinding, 11-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding, 11-28 (Table
for internalgrinding, 11-29(Table 11-9)
for surface grinding, 11-25(Table 11-6)
gundrilling, multiple-lip, internal-chipremoval, 9-96 (Table 9-24)
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
HSS tools, geometry, 8-29 (Table 8-3)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
milling, 10-52 (Table 10-5)
11-7)
11-8)
milling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 10-35 (Table 10-
planing, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 7-46 (Table 7-10)
polycrystalline diamond tools, 3-43
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-114(Table9-39)
reaming, HSS reamers, 9-128 (Table 9-44),
screw machining, 15-8 (Table 15-2)
shaping, gear, 13-67 (Table 13-23)
tapping, 12-102 (Table 12-51)
thread chasing, 12-63, 12-64(Table 12-31)
thread rolling, 12-129 (Table 12-63), 12-
130 (Table 12-64), 12-135 (Table 12-66)
threading tools, single-point carbide, cutting speed, 12-52 (Table 12-26), 12-53
tool-life exponents, 1-46 (Table 1-6)
tooth pitch, HSS circular saw blades, 6-43
(Fig. 6-36)
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
(Table 8-17)
2), 10-54 (Table 10-7)
9-131
Brazing, tipped tools, 8-70
Brick
abrasive cutoff wheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
hydrodynamic machining, 14-9 (Table
Broaches (see also Broaching)
blind-hole, 7-30 (Fig. 7-33)
carbide
application, 7-23
grades, 3-22 (Table 3-1I )
14-4)
construction, 7-23
contour, 7-27
cut-and-recut, 7-32
design, 7-25 (Table 7-7)
double-cut, 7-30
dovetail, 7-26
follower ends, 7-24
force, cutting, 7-22
gears, 13-33
grinding of, 11-96
handling, 7-36
high-speed steel
applications, 7-23
grades, 3-10
grinding wheels for sharpening, 11-30
(Table 11-10)
high-speed steel, powdered metal
keyway, 7-26 (Fig. 7-23), 7-30, 7-3
material, 7-23 (Table 7-6)
nomenclature, 7-12 (Fig. 7-9 and
pilots, 7-24
pot, 7-28 (Fig. 7-27 and Fig. 7-28),
pripciples, 7-1, 7-2 (Fig. 7-1)
progressive (nibbling-type), 7-26
pull ends, 7-24
repair, 7-36
rotary, 7-28, 7-29 (Fig. 7-29), 7-32
rotary-cut, 7-30 (Fig. 7-32)
application, 7-23
grades, 3-13
7-34)
7-2)
(Fig.
Table
4-60
1-3INDEX
Broaches (conl.)
round-hole, 7-29 (Fig. 7-30)
sharpening, 7-35,7-36 (Fig. 7-38)
slab, 7-26
spline, 7-26,7-3 1 (Fig. 7-35), 13-33
straddle, 7-27 (Fig. 7-25 and Fig. 7-26)
strength, 7-20
tooth geometry
slot, 7-26
chip space, 7-15 (Fig. 7-12)
cut per tooth, 7-14 (Fig. 7-11),7-16
design data, 7-16 (Table 7-3)
pitch, 7-14 .
troubleshooting, 7-36 (Fig. 7-39), 7-37
(Table 7-8)
V-shaped, 7-26
wobble, 14-60
Broaching (see also Broaches)
accuracy, 2-2 (Fig. 2-I )
advantages, 7-1
applications, 7-1, 7-2 (Fig. 7-2 and 7-3),
broach strength, 7-20
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
construction, broach, 7-23
cutting fluids
7-34
fluid flow recommendations, 4-14
selection, 4-10 (Table 4-2), 7-35
electrochemical, 14-28 (Fig. 14-29)
force, cutting, 7-22
gears and splines, 13-33
high-speed, 7-33
internal broaches, 7-29
knurls, 7-29
limitations, 7-3
machine tools
(Table 4-3)
classification, 7-6, 7-7 (Fig. 7-5)
dual-ram, vertical, 7-8 (Fig. 7-6)
horizontal continuous, 7-10 (Fig. 7-7)
horizontal internal, 7-9
horizontal one-way, 7-10
horizontal two-way, 7-10
portable, 7-11
pot broaches, 7-11 (Fig. 7-8)
pulldown internal, 7-9
pullup internal, 7-9
pushdown internal, 7-9
rotary, 7-11
selection, 7-7
single-ram, vertical, 7-8
special, 7-1 1
universal, 7-9
CNC, 7-7
materials, broach, 7-23
nomenclature, 7-12 (Fig. 7-9 and Table
principles, 7-1, 7-2 (Fig. 7-1)
serrations, 7-29
sharpening, broach, 7-35, 7-36 (Fig. 7-38)
speeds and feeds, 7-3
strip, 7-30 (Fig. 7-31)
surface broaches, 7-26
threads, 7-29
tooth geometry, 7-13
troubleshooting, 7-36 (Fig. 7-39), 7-37
workholding, 7-32
workpiece materials, 7-3,7-4 (Table 7-1)
abrasive cutoff wheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
bandsawing, 6-25 (Table 6-5)
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
geometry, 8-30 (Table 8-4)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
7-2)
(Table 7-8)
Bronze
29 (Table 3-16)
Bronze (cont.)
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
cast-cobalt-based alloy cutting tools
geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
ceramictools, geometries, 3-35 (Table3-21)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
cutting fluids, staining, 4-9
drilling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36)
end milling, 10-56 (Table 10-8)
expansion, thermal, 8-108 (Table 8-26)
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 12-15)
grinding wheels
for centerless grinding, I 1-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding, 11-28 (Table
for internalgrinding, 1 1-29(Table 11-9)
for surface grinding, 11-25(Table 11-6)
gundrilling, 9-58 (Table 9-11)
gundrilling, multiple-lip, internal-chipremoval, 9-96 (Table 9-24)
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
HSS tools, geometry, 8-29 (Table 8-3)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
milling, 10-52 (Table 10-5)
11-7)
11-8)
milling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 10-35 (Table IOphoto/silk screen resist etchants, 14-84
planing, 1-20(Fig. 1-36), 7-46 (Table 7-10)
polycrystalline diamond tools, 3-43
reamers, HSS reamers, 9-128 (Table 9-44)
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-114(Table 9-39)
sawing, 6-2
shaping, gear, 13-67 (Table 13-23)
spade drilling, 9-87,9-94 (Table 9-23)
tapping, 12-102(Table 12-51)
thread chasing, 12-63, 12-64(Table 12-31)
thread rolling, 12-129 (Table 12-63), 12-
tooth pitch, HSS circular saw blades, 6-43
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
2), 10-54 (Table 10-7)
(Table 14-28)
130 (Table 12-64)
(Fig. 6-36)
(Table 8-17)
Buffer storage, 5-39
Buffing, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
Built-up edge
broaching tools, 7-3, 7-6 (Fig. 7-4)
defined, 1-4 (Fig. 1-7), 1-5, 1-6 (Fig. 1-13)
high-speed steel vs. carbide tools, 1-28
milling, 1-32 (Fig. 1-44), 10-72
steel machining, 1-23
surface roughness effects, 1-4 (Fig. 1-8)
titanium carbide tools, 3-27
turning tools, 1-4, 8-76
Bump attachment, 12-134 (Fig. 12-102)
Burnishing button, 7-12 (Table 7-2)
Bushings
drilling, 9-75
reaming, 9-126
BZN compacts, 3-45
C
Cam generation
jig boring, 8-108 (Fig. 8-159)
milling, 10-2
Cam operation
boring machines, 8-80
multiple-spindle automatic bar and chucking machines, 15-22
single-spindle automatic screw machines,
15-7 (Fig. 15-7)
Swiss-type automatic screw machines, 15-
24 (Fig. 15-15)
Cam operation (cont.)
CAMI-grade coated abrasives, 11-41
Cap screw recesses, 9-137 (Table 9-48)
Carbide, boron (see Boron carbide)
Carbide, coated
advantages, 3-30
applications, 3-32
cutting fluids, 3-32
drills, 9- 16
extended tool life equation, exponents, 1-
47 (Table 1-8)
history, 3-30
indexable-insert milling cutters, 10-37
limitations, 3-30
multilayer coatings, 3-31
properties of coatings, 3-30
speeds and feeds, 3-32
surface finish effects, 1-24
types of coatings, 3-30
uncoated carbides, compared with, 3-33
Carbide, micrograin, 3-20
Carbide size and distribution
3-4), 3-12 (Fig. 3-5)
(Fig. 3-41, 3- 12 (Fig. 3-5)
Carbide, titanium, cemented
(Table 3-18)
high-speed steel, conventional, 3-1 1 (Fig,
high-speed steel, powdered metal, 3-11
additives for ceramic inserts, 3-32
advantages, 3-26
applications, 3-27
ceramics, compared with, 3-35 (Table3-20)
coatings for carbide, 3-30
cutting fluids, 3-30, 4-9
drills, 9-16
extended tool life equation, exponents, 1-
grinding wheels and grinding
47 (Table 1-8)
centerless, 11-26 (Table 11-7)
cylindrical, 11-28 (Table 11-8)
general, 3-24
internal, 11-29 (Table 11-9)
history, 3-25
indexable-insert milling cutters, 10-37
operating parameters, 3-29
properties and grades, 3-26 (Table 3-14)
sharpening safety, 18-13
surface finish effects, 1-23
thread grinding, 12-125 (Table 12-60)
tool geometry, 3-29
tungsten carbide, compared with, 3-26, 3-
turning, 8-25
Carbide, tungsten, alloyed
columbium carbide, 3-20
electrodes, EDM, 14-52
hafnium carbide, 3-20
manufacturing of, 3-19
niobium carbide, 3-20
tantalum grades, 3-19
thread grinding, 12-125 (Table 12-60)
titanium grades, 3-I9
Carbide, tungsten, cemented
advantages, 3-18
alloyed grades, 3-19
application, 3-20
boring tools, 8-86 (Table 8-22)
broaches, 7-23
classifications, 3-20
compared with titanium carbide, 3-26, 3-
cutting fluids, 3-30, 4-9
drills, 9-16
drills, small-hole, 9-67
expansion, thermal, 8-108 (Table 8-26)
hobs, 13-39
28 (Table 3-15 and Fig. 3-12)
hobs, 13-39
28 (Table 3-15 and Fig. 3-12)
1-4INDEX
Carbide, tungsten, cemented (cont.)
extended tool life equation, exponents, 1-
47 (Table 1-8)
grinding wheels
for centerless grinding, 11-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding, 11-28 (Table
for general grinding, 3-24
for internal grinding, 11-29(Table 1I-9)
11-7)
Il-8)
history, 3-16
manufacture of, 3-16
micrograin, 3-20
milling cutter inserts, 10-37
operating parameters, 3-24, 3-25 (Table
planing tools, 7-44 (Table 7-9)
selection, 3-20, 3-24 (Fig. 3-10)
shaping tools for chromium alloys, 7-51
sharpening safety, 18-13
straight grades, 3-18
substrate for polycrystalline diamond
surface finish effects, 1-24
taps, 12-86
thread grinding, 12-125(Table 12-60)
troubleshooting, 3-26 (Table 3-13)
turning tools, 8-25
ultrasonic machining of, 14-11 (Table 14-6
and Table 14-7)
Carbon (see also Graphite)
3-12)
(Fig. 7-62)
tools, 3-42
abrasive cutoff wheels, 1 1-122(Table11-23)
ceramic tools, geometries for, 3-35 (Table
grinding discs, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
grinding wheels, centerless, 11-26 (Table
machinability effects on steels, 1-58
polycrystalline diamond, 3-43
twist drilling, 9-90 (Table 9-20)
ultrasonic machining of, 14-11 (Table 14-7)
carbide cutting tools, classification, 3-22
hydrodynamic machining, 14-8 (Table
laser beam cutting, 14-72(Table 14-23)
3-21)
11-7)
.
Cardboard
(Table 3-1I )
14-3)
Cartridge filters, 4-23
Cartridges, boring bar, 8-89,8-90 (Fig. 8-122),
8-92 (Table 8-24)
Cast cobalt-based-alloys
advantages, 3-14
applications, 3-15
boring tools, 8-83
chemical composition, 3-14 (Table 3-6)
cutting fluids for, 3-16
drills, 9-16
grinding, abusive, 1-33, 1-35 (Fig. 1-50)
grinding wheels for, 11-30 (Table 11-10}
history, 3-14
operating parameters, 3-16
tool geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
tool grinding, 3-16
turning tools, 8-25
abrasivecutoff wheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
geometry, 8-30 (Table 8-4)
speeds and feeds, 3-29 (Table 3-16)
carbide-tipped boring tools, 8-86 (Table
cast cobalt-based alloy cutting tools
ceramic cutting tools
hobs, 13-39
Cast iron
8-22)
geometry, 3-I5 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
Cast iron, ceramic cutting tools (cont.)
speeds and feeds, 3-38 (Fig. 3-17)
tool geometries, 3-35 (Table 3-21)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
coated vs. uncoated carbides, performance,
counterboring, 9-136, 9-137 (Table 9-47)
cubic boron nitride, speeds and feeds, 3-46
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
drilling
3-33 (Table 3-18)
(Table 3-24), 3-47 (Table 3-25)
indexable-insert, 9-82 (Table 9-18)
multiple-lip, external-chip-removal,
high-pressure coolant, 9-97 (Table
spade, 9-94 (Table 9-23)
twist, 1-20(Fig. 1-36),9-90 (Table 9-20)
end milling, 10-56 (Table 10-8)
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
grinding fluids, 11-46 (Table 11-16)
grinding wheels
9-25)
for centerless grinding, 11-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding, 11-28 (Table
for internal grinding, 1 1-29(Table 11-9)
gundrilling, multiple-lip, internal-chipremoval, 9-96 (Table 9-24)
hobbing, 13-55(Table 13-20)
honingfluids, 11-126,ll-127 (Table 11-24)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
electron beam machining, 14-40 (Fig.
milling, 10-52(Table 10-5)
milling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 10-54 (Table 10-
planing, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 7-46 (Table
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-1 14(Table9-39)
reaming, HSS reamers, 9-128 (Table 9-44)
shaping, gear, 13-67 (Table 13-23)
shaping tools for, 7-50 (Fig. 7-60)
tensile strength, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
thread chasing, 12-63, 12-64(Table 12-31)
thread grinding, 12-125 (Table 12-60)
thread milling, 12-114 (Table 12-56)
threading tools, high-speed steel, geometry,
12-49, 12-50 (Table 12-24;)
threading tools, single-point carbide, cutting speed, 12-52(Table 12-26), 12-53
titanium carbide vs. tungsten carbide cutting tools, 3-28 (Table 3-15)
tool life exponents, 1-46 (Table 1-6)
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
(Table 8-17)
Cast iron, chilled
11-7)
11-8)
14-39)
7), 10-69
7-10)
carbide tools, speeds and feeds, 3-29 (Table
cubic boron nitride tools, speeds and feeds,
grinding wheels, surface, 11-25(Table 11-6)
milling, 10-35(Table 10-2)
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide-tipped boring tools, 8-86 (Table
chasers, rake angle, 12-58, 12-59 (Table
drilling,
indexable carbide insert, 9-87, 9-92
spade, 9-85 (Table 9-19)
twist, 9-90 (Table 9-20)
3-16)
3-46 (Table 3-24)
Cast iron, ductile
8-22)
12-28)
(Table 9-22)
face and back-off angles,’ HSS broaches,
7-18 (Table 7-4)
Cast iron, ductile (cont.)
grinding wheels
for centerless grinding, 11-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding, 11-28 (Table
for internal grinding 11-29(Table 11-9)
for surface grinding 11-25(Table 11-6)
11-7)
11-8)
gundrilling, 9-58 (Table 9-11)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
planing, 7-46 (Table 7-10)
shaping tools, 7-50 (Fig. 7-60)
tapping, 12-90,12-91 (Table 12-45), 12-102
threading tools, high-speed steel, geometry,
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12)
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
carbide-tipped boring tools, geometry, 8-
cast cobalt-based alloys
(Table 12-51)
12-49, 12-50(Table 12-24)
Cast iron, gray
86 (Table 8-22)
speeds and feeds, 3-38 (Fig. 3-17)
tool geometries, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
carbide inserts, compared with, 3-35
tool geometries, 3-35 (Table 3-21)
chasers, rake angle, 12-58, 12-59 (Table
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
face and back-off angles, HSS broaches,
grinding discs, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
grinding wheels
ceramics
(Table 3-20)
12-28)
7-18 (Table 7-4)
for centerless grinding, 11-26 (Table
for cylindrical grinding 11-28 (Table
for internal grinding 11-29(Table 11-9)
for surface grinding 11-25(Table 11-6)
high-speed steel tools, geometry, 8-29
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
milling, 10-35 (Table 10-2)
sawing, 6-2
shaping, tools for, 7-50 (Fig. 7-60)
speeds and feeds
gundt-illing, 9-58 (Table 9-11)
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
planing, 7-46 (Table 7-10)
11-7)
11-8)
(Table 8-3)
tapping, 12-90,12-91 (Table 12-45), 12-102
threading tool, high-speed steel, geometry,
tooth pitch, HSS circular saw blades, 6-43
(Table 12-51)
12-49, 12-50 (Table 12-24)
(Fig. 6-36)
Cast iron, malleable
broaching constant, 7-22 (Table 7-5)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-11)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
29 (Table 3-16)
titanium grades. 3-27
titanium-vs. tungsten grades, 3-28
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
carbide-tipped boring tools, 8-86 (Table
(Table 3-15)
8-22)
cast cobalt-based alloy cutting tools
geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
cubic boron nitride tools, speeds and feeds,
3-46 (Table 3-24)
1-5INDEX
Cast iron, malleable (cont.)
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
drilling
indexable carbide insert, 9-87, 9-92
(Table 9-22)
multiple-lip, external-chip-removal,
high-pressure coolant, 9-97 (Table
twist, 1-20(Fig. 1-36),9-90 (Table 9-20)
face and back-off angles, HSS broaches,
7-18 (Table 7-4)
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
gundrilling, multiple-lip, internal-chipremoval, 9-96 (Table 9-24)
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
milling, 10-52 (Table 10-5)
9-25)
milling, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 10-35 (Table 10-
planing, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 7-46 (Table 7-10)
reaming, HSS reamers, 9-128 (Table 9-44)
sawing, 6-2
shaping, tools for, 7-50 (Fig. 7-60)
tapping, 12-90,12-91 (Table 12-45), 12-102
thread chasing, 12-63, 12-64 (Table 12-31)
threadingtools, high-speed steel, geometry,
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
Cast iron, nodular
carbide tools
2), 10-54 (Table 10-7)
(Table 12-51)
12-49, 12-50 (Table 12-24)
(Table 8-17)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
tungsten grades vs. titanium grades, 3-
cast cobalt-based alloy tools
geometry, 3-15 (Table 3-7)
speeds and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
chasers, rake angle, 12-58, 12-59 (Table
cubic boron nitride tools, speeds and feeds,
drilling, indexable carbide insert, 9-87, 9-
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10}
milling, 10-35 (Table 10-2)
sawing, 6-2
29 (Table 3-16)
28 (Table 3-15)
12-28)
3-46 (Table 3-24)
92 (Table 9-22)
Cast steel (see Steel, cast)
Cathode, electrochemical machining, 14-33
Cathode ray tube, 5-48
CBN (see Cubic boron nitride)
Center drilling, 15-40
Center drilling and facing machines
milling and centering, 15-41 (Fig. 15-35),
15-42
plunge facing and centering, 15-40, 15-41
(Fig. 15-34)
Center drills. 9-19. 9-35
Center holes; 11-90
Center-column machines, 15-78 (Fig. 15-99)
Center-drive boring machine, 8-81(Fig. 8-108)
Center-type workholding
grinding, 11-87
turning
face drivers, 8-48 (Fig. 8-66)
mandrels, 8-48, 8-49 (Fig. 8-67, Fig.
steadyrests and follower rests, 8-49, 8-
types, 8-47, 8-48 (Fig. 8-64)
Centerless grinding (see Grinding, centerless
Centers (see Center-type workholding)
Centrifuges
8-68, and Fig. 8-69)
50 (Fig. 8-70)
cylindrical)
Centrifuges (cont.)
cutting fluids, 4-18 (Fig. 4-4)
electrolytes, 14-27
grinding fluids, 11-48
abrasive cutoff wheels, 11-122 (Table 11-23)
carbide tools, classifications, 3-22 (Table
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2), 4-13
grinding discs, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
laser drilling, 14-68 (Table 14-21)
polycrystalline diamond tools, 3-43
Ceramic (tile)
3-11)
Ceramic cutting tools (see Aluminum oxide)
Chain oiling, 4-53
Chamfering (see also Chamfering tools)
tap sharpening, 12-103 (Fig. 12-58)
thread chaser sharpening, 12-64
Chamfering tools, polycrystalline diamond
geometry, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
performance vs. carbide, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
speeds and feeds, 3-44 (Table 3-23)
Chasing, thread (see Thread chasing and
Chatter
(see also Chamfering)
thread chasers)
boring tools, 8-100
ceramic tools, 3-38 (Table 3-22)
drilling, 9-102
grinding, 11-109
milling, 10-74
reaming, 9-131 (Fig. 9-137)
safety consideration, 18-14
turning tools, 8-76
Chemical composition
cast cobalt-based alloys, 3-14 (Table 3-6)
high-speed steel, 3-6 (Table 3-1), 3-7
high-speed steel, powdered metal, 3-13
machinability effects, 1-58
(Table 3-4 and Table 3-5)
Chemical cutting fluids, 4-6
Chemical etching (see Etchants and etching,
Chemical machining
chemical)
accuracy, 2-2 (Fig. 2-1)
chemical milling, 14-83
cut-and-peel maskants, 14-82
ECM operations, 14-32
etchants
etching rate, 14-82
selection, 14-82
special, 14-82
fundamentals, 14-81
photochemical machining, 14-89
photographic resists, 14-82
screen resists, 14-82
surface integrity
depth of alterations, 1-30 (Table 1-4)
types of alterations, 1-28 (Table 1-3)
Chemical milling
applications, 14-83
cleaning, 14-83
etchants, 14-86(Table 14-29)
fillet radii, 14-89
grain direction, 14-89
masking, 14-83
processing, 14-89
stock removal, 14-89
surface finish, 14-89
tapers, 14-89
Chemical resistance, coatings for carbide
Chemical tool wear, defined, 1-45
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 3-30
Chip breakers (see Chip control and chip
Chip color, 1-8
Chip control and chip breakers
inserts, 3-31 (Table 3-17)
breakers)
Chip control and chip breakers (cont.)
broaches, 7-17, 7-18 (Fig. 7-13 and Fig.
chip color, 1-8
chip thickness vs. power, milling, 10-50
drills, 9-36, 9-39 (Fig. 9-22)
fundamentals, 1-7
indexable inserts, 8-32, 8-38 (Fig. 8-50),
single-point tools
7-14)
8-39
defined, 1-5, 1-6 (Fig. 1-13), 8-30 (Fig,
ground, 8-31 (Table 8-5 and Table 8-6)
mechanical, 8-31 (Fig. 8-43)
orthogonal cutting model, 1-1
undeformed chip thickness, defined, 8-
undeformed chip thickness vs. horseChip curlers (see Chip control and chip
Chip formation, theory of
8-42)
66 (Fig. 8-96)
power, 8-64
breakers)
chip breakers, 1-5, 1-6 (Fig. 1-13)
chip color, 1-8
chip length ratio, 1-2 (Fig. 1-1)
continuous chips with BUE, 1-4 (Fig. 1-7)
cutting ratio, 1-2 (Fig. 1-1)
discontinuous chips, 1-3 (Fig. 1-6)
extensive shear, 1-4, 1-5 (Fig. 1-11)
inclination angle, 1-6, 1-7 (Fig. 1-15 and
Fig. 1-16)
milling, 10-3
orthogonal cutting model, 1-1
safety considerations, 18-11
secondary shear, 1-4, 1-5 (Fig. 1-10)
shear strain and strain rate, 1-3 (Fig. 1-4)
single-point turning, 1-3
symbols, 1 - 1 .
Stabler’s Rule, 1-6
Chip length ratio (see Cutting ratio)
Chip processing, 4-18, 4-19 (Fig. 4-5), 4-20
Chip welding, milling cutters, 10-72
Chip wringer (see Chip processing)
Chipping (see also Cracking)
ceramics, 3-38 (Table 3-22)
milling cutter inserts, 10-72
tungsten carbide, cemented, 3-26
turning tools, 8-76
(Fig. 4-6)
Chucking fixture, 8-60, 8-63 (Fig. 8-94 and
Fig. 8-95)
Chucking machines, automatic, multiplespindle (see Bar and chucking machines,
multiple-spindle)
Chucking machines, automatic, multiplespindle vertical
application, 15-62, 15-63 (Fig. 15-72)
attachments, 15-62
defined, 15-62(Fig. 15-71)
tooling, 15-62
Chucks (see also Vises)
diaphragm, 8-60
grinding, 11-87
indexing, 8-60
jaw-type
jaw force requirements, 8-54 (Fig. 8-80)
independent, 8-54 (Fig. 8-81)
installation, operation, and safety, 8-60
lever-type power, 8-56, 8-57 (Fig. 8-85
master jaws, 8-57, 8-60 (Fig. 8-87)
selection, 8-53
self-centering, 8-55 (Fig. 8-82)
special top jaws, 8-57, 8-61 (Fig. 8-89)
standard top jaws, 8-57, 8-58 (Table
8-15), 8-59 (Table 8-16), 8-61 (Fig.
wedge-type power, 8-55 (Fig. 8-83), 8-
and Fig. 8-86)
8-88)
56 (Fig. 8-84)
1-6INDEX
Chucks (cont.)
magnetic
demagnetizers, 11-60
maintenance, 11-60
types, 11-60
milling attachments, 10-23
spring-jaw, 8-60
trunnion-type, 8-60
vacuum, 11-60
drilling, 9-36
drilling, small-hole, 9-89
hydrodynamic machining, 14-7 (Table 14-
2), 14-9 (Table 14-4)
Circular interpolation, 5-39
Circular sawing (see also Saw blades)
Circuit board
accuracy, 6-36
advantages, 6-36
cost and performance, 6-2 (Table 6-1)
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2), 6-45
engine lathe attachment, 8-9, 8-10 (Fig.
fixturing, 6-40, 6-41 (Fig. 6-31)
kerf, 6-2
limitations, 6-36
machine tools
8-11)
CNC, 6-37, 6-38 (Fig. 6-26)
horizontal-travel, 6-39 (Fig. 6-28)
miter-cut, 6-40
plate saws, 6-39 (Fig. 6-29), 6-40 (Fig.
radial bench-type, 6-40
table-type, pivot arm, 6-37 (Fig. 6-23)
vertical pivot arm, 6-37 (Fig. 6-24)
vertical-column, 6-39 (Fig. 6-27)
6-30)
materials, workpiece, 6-1
operating costs, 6-36
safety, 6-46
sawblades, 6-40
speeds and feeds, 6-44 (Table 6-9), 6-45
tooling costs, 6-36
tooth geometry, 6-42 (Fig. 6-33, Fig. 6-34,
and Fig. 6-35)
tooth pitch, 6-43 (Fig. 6-36), 6-44
troubleshooting, 6-43 (Table 6-8)
Circulation systems,industrial lubricants,4-51
Clamping (see Workholding)
Clamping fixture, 11-61, 11-62(Fig. 11-36and
Clamping, inserts, ceramic, 3-36 (Fig. 3-15)
Clarification and clarity (see also Filtration
Fig. 11-37)
and filters)
cutting fluid
defined, 4-15, 4-17
measurement, 4-16
methods, 4-17
electrolyte, 14-27
Clay (see Thickeners, grease)
Clearance angle
boring tools, 8-85
broaches, 7-13 (Fig. 7-10), 7-14 (Fig. 7-11)
cast cobalt-based alloys, 3-15 (Tuble 3-7)
cutoff tools, 8-46 (Fig. 8-61)
defined, 8-27
hacksaw blades, 6-6 (Fig. 6-4)
saw bands, 6-19 (Fig. 6-16), 6-20 (Fig. 6-17)
saw blades, 6-42 (Fig. 6-33)
single-crystal diamond, 3-40
shaping tools, 7-50 (Fig. 7-60 and Fig. 7-
CNC (see Numerical control and computer
Coating
Cobalt-based alloys, cast (see Cast cobaltCoefficient of expansion (see Expansion,
61), 7-51 (Fig. 7-62)
numerical control)
for carbide, 3-31 (Table 3-17)
for high-speed steel, 3-10
based alloys)
coefficient of)
Coefficient of friction (see Friction, coefficient
Cold isostatic pressing (see Isostatic pressing,
cold)
Collar oiling, 4-53
Collets
of)
air actuation, 8-52
draw-in, 8-51 (Fig. 8-74)
stock pullback, 8-52
stock pushback, 8-52
expanding collets, 8-52, 8-53 (Fig. 8-78)
push-out, 8-51 (Fig. 8-73)
stationary, 8-50, 8-51 (Fig. 8-71 and Fig.
step chucks, 8-52, 8-53 (Fig. 8-77)
tap holders, 12-97 (Fig. 12-53 and Fig.
8-72)
12-54)
Columbium
cylindrical grinding wheels for, 11-28
tapping, 12-90, 12-91 (Table 12-45)
cemented tungsten carbide, 3-18
single-crystal diamond, 3-41
(Table 11-8)
Columbium carbide, 3-20
Compacting
Compax, 3-42
Composite ceramics composition, 3-32 (see
Composites
also Aluminum oxide)
drilling, twist, 9-106
hydrodynamic machining, 14-7 (Table
laser cutting, 14-72(Table 14-23)
14-2)
Compounded cutting oils, 4-5
Compressive strength (see Strength, compresComputer fire protection
causes of fire, 18-16
first aid equipment, 18-17
types of protection, 18-16
sive)
Computer, host, 5-27
Computer, mainframe, 5-47
Computers, mini and micro, 5-47
Concentricity broaching, 7-32
Concentricity, hole
boring, 8-79 (Table 8-20)
calculations, 2-3 (Fig. 2-3), 2-53
Concrete, abrasive cutoff wheels for, 11-122
Conductivity, electrical
(Table 11-23)
copper, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
graphite, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
iron, 14-49 (Table 14-17))
tungsten, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
copper, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
graphite, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
iron, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
single-crystal diamond, 3-38
titanium carbide, 3-26
tungsten, 14-49 (Table 14-1 7)
Conductivity, thermal
Conformal and nonconformal surfaces, 4-35
Continuous chip, 1-2 (Fig. 1-2)
Continuous path controls, 5-31
Continuous wave lasers (see Lasers and laser
beam machining)
Contour broach, 7-27
Contouring
bandsawing, 6-13
jig grinding, 11-100, 11-101 (Fig. 11-106),
milling, 10-70
NC concepts, 5-35
planing, 7-47
(Fig. 4-13)
11-102 (Fig. 11-108)
Controls (see Machine controls)
Coolant (see Cutting fluid and Grinding fluid)
Coolant-fed twist drills, 9-45
Copper and alloys (see also Brass and Bronze)
Copper and alloys (cont.)
abrasivecutoffwheels, 11-122(Table 11-23)
bandsawing, 6-25 (Table 6-5)
boiling point, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
carbide cutting tools
classifications, 3-22 (Table 3-1I)
geometry, 8-30 (Table 8-4)
tungsten grades, 3-21 (Table 3-10)
speeds and feeds, 3-25 (Table 3-12), 3-
carbide-tipped boring tools, 8-86 (Table
cast cobalt-based alloy cutting tools, speeds
ceramics,tool geometries, 3-35(Table3-21)
circular sawing, 6-44 (Table 6-9)
cutting fluids, staining, 4-9
drilling
29 (Table 3-16)
8-22)
and feeds, 3-17 (Table 3-8)
multiple-lip, external-chip-removal,
high-pressure coolant 9-97 (Table
spade, 9-94 (Table 9-23)
twist, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36), 9-90 (Table 9-
elasticity, modulus of, 14-49(Table 14-17)
electrical conductivity, 14-49(Table 14-17)
electrodes, EDM, 14-44, 14-51
end milling, 10-56 (Table 10-8)
face and back-off angles, HSS broaches,
7-18 (Table 7-4)
forces and power when machined with
single-crystal diamond tools, 1-19 (Fig.
grinding discs for, 11-39 (Table 11-15)
grinding fluids, 11-46 (Table 11-16)
grinding wheels for cylindrical grinding,
hacksawing, 6-8 (Table 6-2)
heat to vaporize, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
HSS tools, geometry, 8-29 (Table 8-3)
laser drilling, 14-67 (Table 14-20)
machinability ratings, 1-49 (Table 1-10)
material removal rate, circular sawing, 6-
melting point, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
milling, 1-20(Fig. 1-36), 10-35(Table 10-2)
photo/silk screen resist etchants, 14-84
planing, 1-20 (Fig. 1-36)
reaming, carbide-tipped, 9-114(Table9-39)
strength, tensile, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
tapping, 12-90,12-91 (Table 12-45), 12-102
thermal conductivity, 14-49 (Table 14-17)
thread chasers, 12-58, 12-59(Table 12-28),
thread rolling, 12-130 (Table 11-64)
threading tools, HSS, geometry, 12-49,12-
tool life exponents, 1-46 (Table 1-6)
tooth pitch, HSS circular saws, 6-43 (Fig.
9-25)
20), 9-103
1-35)
11-28 (Table 11-8)
44 (Table 6-9)
(Table 14-28)
(Table 12-51)
12-63, 12-64 (Table 12-31)
50 (Table 12-24)
6-36)
unit power, single-point turning, 8-65
(Table 8-17)
Copper graphite EDM electrodes, 14-51
Copper tungsten EDM electrodes, 14-51
Core drilling
drills, 9-17, 9-36 (Table 9-7)
rotary ultrasonic, 14-11
Corrosion and corrosion protection
cutting fluids
cast iron, 4-13
protection mechanism, 4-4
tests, 4-29
water quality effects, 4-24
grease, 4-46
inhibitors
electrolytes for ECM, 14-25
1-7INDEX
Corrosion and corrosion protection (cont.)
industrial lubricants, 4-47 (Table4-15),
4-48
Cost estimating, NC, 5-11
Counterboring and counterbores
carbide-tipped, 9-136
defined, 9-134
deep-hole, 9-135
disposable-insert, 9-134
indexable-insert, 9-134,9-135 (Fig. 9-142)
inserted-blade, 9-134, 9-135 (Fig. 9-141)
interchangeable, 9-134, 9-135 (Fig. 9-140)
interchangeable pilot, 9-134
multidiameter, 9-136, 9-138 (Fig. 9-145)
recesses for cap screws,9-136,9-137 (Table
recesses for machine screws, 9-136, 9-138
solid, 9-134,9-135 (Fig. 9-139)
speeds and feeds, 9-136
Countersinking and countersinks
chatterless, 9-139, 9-142 (Fig. 9-151)
cutting fluids, 4-10 (Table 4-2)
defined, 9-134
disposable insert, 9-141 (Fig. 9-149)
machine-type, 9-139, 9-140 (Fig. 9-148)
rivet sizes, 9-142 (Table 9-51)
ship plate, 9-139 (Table 9-50)
9-48)
(Table 9-49)
CPM (Crucible Particle Metallurgy) (see Cast
Cracking (see also Chipping)
cobalt-based alloys)
brazing of tipped tools, 8-70
ceramics, 3-38 (Table 3-22)
micro and macro in machining, 1-30(Table
milling, 10-72
titanium carbide, 3-26
tungsten carbide, cemented, 3-26
turning tools, 8-76
Crane and parking attachments, 10-22
Crankshaft milling
defined, 10-3
machine tools, 10-20 (Fig. 10-33)
Crater resistance (see also Cratering)
carbide, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
cast alloy, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
ceramic, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
hafnium vs. titanium carbide, coated
carbide inserts, 3-31
high-speed steel, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
polycrystalline diamond, 3-2 (Fig. 3-1)
Cratering (see also Crater resistance)
defined, 3-1, 8-76
milling cutters, 10-72
turning tools, 8-76
tungsten carbide, 3-26 (Table 3-13)
Crown grinding, 11-71
Crown shaving, 13-91
CRT (see Cathode ray tube)
Crush-form wheel dressing
general, 11-32, 11-33 (Table 11-11)
thread grinding, 12-121
applications, 11-16
coated abrasive, 11-41
gear grinding, 13-94
hardness, 14-6
hob sharpening, 13-62
honing, I I-129
advantages, 3-45
applications, 3-45, 3-47
boring tools, 8-84
ceramics, compared with, 3-46
cutting fluid, 3-47
defined, 3-45
diamond tools, compared with, 3-45
speeds and feeds, 3-46 (Table 3-24)
I-4), 1-33
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) abrasive
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tools
CBN cutting tools (cont.)
tool geometry, 3-47
turning tools, 8-25
types, 3-45
Cut-and-recut broach, 7-32
Cutoff (see Hacksawing, Bandsawing, Circular
Cutoff, abrasive
sawing, and Cutoff, abrasive)
grinding fluid selection, 11-46 (Table 11-
machine tools, 11-124(Fig. 11-118)
principles, 11-121
troubleshooting, 11-124(Fig. 11-117)
wheels, 11-121
Cutoff tools, screw machining, 15-18 (Table
Cutting angle, 8-28
Cutting fluid (see also Grinding fluid)
Id), 11-121
15-7), 15-19
accessibility to the cut, 4-3
application, 4-13
chip removal, 4-5
concentration control, 4-27
cooling properties, 4-4
corrosion protection, 4-4, 4-13,4-24
drilling, 9-89
economic evaluation, 4-8 (Table 4-1)
filtration, 4-15, 4-20
fluid flow recommendations, 4-14 (Table
forces and power, effects on, 1-19
friction, metalcutting, 4-1
health and safety, 4-32, 18-13
history, 4-1
jig boring, 8-109
lubricating properties, 4-4
machinine tool design considerations, 4-16
metallurgical compatibility, 4-9
milling, 10-60
multiple-spindle automatic bar and chucking machines, 15-38
performance evaluation, 4-30, 4-31 (Fig.
rancidity control, 4-26
recycling and disposal, 4-53
Rehbinder effect, 4-3
reservoir cleaning, 4-27 (Table 4-6)
selection, 4-7
shaving, gear, 13-91
storage of concentrate. 4-23
4-3)
'
4-12)
Swiss-type automatic screw machines,
15-27
testing
microbiological properties, 4-34
physical properties, 4-28
threading, single-point, 12-54
tool material compatibility, 4-9
types, 4-5, 4-9
water quality, 4-23
water treatment, 4-25
Cutting friction (see Friction, metalcutting)
Cutting model, orthogonal (see Orthogonal
Cutting oil, 4-5
Cutting rate (see Material removal rate)
Cutting ratio, defined, 1-2(Fig. 1-l),4-2 (Fig.
Cutting tool material
cast cobalt-based alloys, 3-14
ceramic, 3-32
coated carbide, 3-30
cubic boron nitride, 3-45
diamond, polycrystalline, 3-41
diamond, single-crystal, 3-38
vs. forces and power, 1-19
high-speed steel, 3-4
high-speed tool steel, powdered metal,
history, 3-3, 3-4 (Fig. 3-3)


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