كتاب GE Engineering Thermoplastics Design Guide
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 كتاب GE Engineering Thermoplastics Design Guide

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عدد المساهمات : 17748
التقييم : 32050
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

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GE Engineering Thermoplastics Design Guide
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Contents
Introduction i – iii
Product Development 1-1 – 1-51 Thermoplastic
Material Properties .2-1 – 2-63 Part Performance
3-1 – 3-46
Product Design 4-1 – 4-35
Product Assembly .5-1 – 5-83
Industry Specific Design Considerations 6-1 – 6-32 Guidelines for Injection
Molded Design .7-1 – 7-15 Prototyping and Testing
8-1 – 8-9
Quality Control 9-1 – 9-15
Glossary 10-1 – 10-16
Index .10-17 – 10-21
Contents
Thermoplastic Material Properties • 2-3
Physical Properties 2-4
Specific Gravity .2-4
Moisture Absorption .2-4
Mold Shrinkage .2-5
Factors That Influence Shrinkage .2-5
Crystalline/Amorphous Materials .2-7
Fiber Reinforcement 2-8
Processing Conditions 2-8
Mechanical Properties .2-9
Tensile Stress-Strain .2-9
Tensile Testing .2-9
Proportional Limit .2-10
Elastic Modulus (Stiffness) .2-10
Poisson’s Ratio .2-11
Yield Strength 2-12
Ultimate Strength .2-13
Impact Tests .2-14
Izod and Charpy Tests .2-14
Dart Impact Test 2-16
Instrumented Impact Test 2-16
Fatigue Tests .2-17
Shear Stresses .2-18
Tensile Creep Testing 2-19
Translate Creep Data 2-20
Creep Analysis .2-22
Environmental Properties 2-24
Chemical Compatibility 2-24
Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) .2-26
Short-Term Considerations .2-26
Vicat Softening Temperature .2-27
Ball Pressure Temperature .2-27
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .2-27
Specific Heat Capacity 2-28
Calculating Heat Requirement 2-29
Relative Thermal Index/Thermal Aging 2-29
UL Relative Thermal Index .2-30
Thermal Conductivity 2-31
UV Exposure .2-32
Hydrolytic Stability 2-33
Hot, Moist Environments .2-33
Electrical Properties .2-35
Plastics as Electrical Insulators .2-35
Dimensional Properties 2-38
Dimensional Effects – Reversible .2-38
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) 2-38
Post Mold Shrinkage 2-40
Moisture Absorption 2-41
Optical Properties .2-42
Refractive Index/Light Transmission .2-42
Lubricity Properties .2-44
Lubricity .2-44
Friction 2-44
Thrust Washer Test .2-46
Friction Variances 2-47
Friction Variances as a Function of Temperature .2-47
Wear 2-48
Wear Testing .2-49
PV Limit .2-49
K-Wear Factor 2-49
Rheological Properties 2-50
Rheology 2-50
Rheological Terms 2-51
Shear Rate (1 sec.) 2-51
Sheer Stress (psi or pascals) .2-51
Viscosity (poise, centipoise, pascal x sec.) 2-51
Shear Thinning Behavior .2-51
Shear Rate Rheology 2-52
Tests for High Shear rate Rheology 2-52
High Shear Rate Rheology Curves .2-52
Test for Low Shear Rate Rheology .2-53
Low Shear Rate Rheology Curve 2-53
Melt Rheology 2-54
Thermal Stability 2-54
Melt Flow Rate (MFR) .2-55
R* Index - A Rating for
Blowmolding Processability 2-56
Agency Considerations 2-57
Agency and Regulatory Considerations 2-57
UL 94 Test Procedure 2-58
Specimen and Procedures .2-58
Steiner Tunnel Flame Test 2-59
Barrier Properties .2-61
Terms Related to Barrier Properties .2-61
Properties Relating to Permeability 2-61
Conversion Factor for Units of
Permeability Coefficients 2-62
How to Use Permeation Data .2-62
Design for Manufacturing
& Assembly .4-4
10 Basic Rules 4-4
Bearings and Guides .4-8
Wear .4-8
Heat Dissipation .4-8
Dimensional Tolerance/Stability 4-9
Surface Finish/Molding .4-9
Weld Line Severity/Location .4-9
Strength .4-10
Stiffness .4-10
Hinges 4-11
Types of Hinges 4-11
Living Hinge/Assembly Hinge .4-11
Pin and Tube Hinges .4-12
Snap Together Hinge 4-12
Insert Molded Hinges .4-13
Secondary Assembled 4-13
Rathbun Hinges .4-13
Assembled Hinges 4-14
Design Issues 4-14
Weld Lines .4-14
Parting Lines .4-14
Moldability .4-15
Coefficient of Friction 4-15
Lubricants .4-15
Thermal Effects .4-15
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .4-16
Molded-In Stress .4-16
Stress Relaxation .4-16
Yield Strain 4-17
Gears .4-18
Gear Terminology .4-19
Types of Gears .4-21
Spur Gears .4-21
Helical Gears .4-22
Annular or Internal Gears 4-22
Bevel Gears 4-23
Worm Gears 4-23
Gear Tooth Forms .4-24
Gear Action and Force 4-24
Gear Stress 4-26
Tangential Load on a Gear Tooth 4-27
Gear Torque 4-27
Factors Affecting Tooth Loading 4-28
Helical Gear Design .4-29
Bevel Gear Design 4-30
Worm Gear Design 4-30
Backlash 4-31
Fillet Radius 4-33
Tip Relief 4-34
Noise .4-34
Contents
Product Assembly • 5-3
Assembly Options 5-4
Press-fits .5-4
Stress Level Calculations 5-4
Temperature Effects/Thermal Expansion .5-5
Modulus Change .5-6
Long Term (Time) Effects 5-7
Pull Out Strength .5-9
Inserts 5-10
Insert Designs 5-10
Installation Methods .5-10
Other Insertion Methods .5-11
Snap Fits 5-13
Analysis Techniques .5-14
Calculation of Tapered Beam for Snap-Fits 5-14
Strain Recovery .5-15
Tapered Beams .5-16
Molded-In Threads .5-18
Plastic Threads .5-19
Fasteners 5-20
Definitions .5-20
Thread Forming/Thread Cutting .5-21
Specialty Screws .5-23
Rivets .5-25
Solvent Bonding 5-26
Effective Solvents .5-27
Adhesive Bonding 5-28
Adhesive Families .5-28
Adhesive Concerns 5-28
Adhesive Testing 5-29
Adhesive Evaluations 5-29
Adhesive Selection 5-29
UV Curable Adhesives .5-32
UV Curable Adhesive Suppliers .5-33
Compatible Adhesives .5-34
Adhesive Joint Design .5-35
Adhesive Surface Preparation 5-36
Adhesive Application Methods and Curing 5-37
Plastic Fusion 5-38
Ultrasonic Welding 5-38
Ultrasonic Welding Key Elements .5-39
Typical Ultrasonic Design Dimensions 5-40
Vibration Welding .5-40
Vibration Welding System .5-41
Vibration Welding Joint Design .5-41
Vibration Welding Advantages .5-42
Spin Welding .5-42
Typical Spin Welding System 5-42
Spin Welding Joint Designs .5-43
Electromagnetic Welding .5-44
Electromagnetic Joint Design 5-45
Induction Weldability 5-46
Hot Platen or Hot Plate Welding .5-46
Hot Platen Welding Joint Design 5-47
Staking 5-48
Staking Profiles .5-49
Coatings/Shielding 5-50
Hardcoating 5-50
Thorough Cleaning 5-50
Dip, Spray, Flow 5-50
Air Dry/Oven Cure .5-50
Hardcoat Suppliers 5-51
Shielding Principles and Shielding Effectiveness 5-52
Faraday Cage Principle 5-52
Shielding Theory 5-53
Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility 5-56
Apertures 5-58
Methods of Controlling EMI .5-60
The Electronic Approach .5-60
Housing Approaches 5-60
Coating Methods 5-60
Shielding Methods 5-61
Shielding Effectiveness 5-64
Open Field Testing Technique .5-65
Material Conductivity Measurement .5-66
Adhesion Testing 5-66
Aesthetic/Decorative 5-68
Decorating .5-68
Appliques 5-68
Decals 5-68
Hot Stamping .5-69
Hot Stamp Foils .5-69
Hot Transfer 5-70
In-Mold Decorating .5-70
Water Transfer .5-71
Hot Stamping Equipment Suppliers 5-71
Hot Transfer Suppliers .5-71
Printing 5-72
Dyeing 5-72
Screen Printing .5-72
Pad Transfer Printing 5-73
Diffusion Printing 5-73
Flexography 5-74
Dry Offset Printing 5-75
Laser Printing 5-75
Laser System Suppliers 5-76
Pad Printing Equipment Suppliers .5-76
Screen Printing Ink Suppliers .5-76
Diffusion Printing Suppliers .5-76
Sublimation Transfer Ink Manufacturers 5-76
Painting .5-77
Molding Effects on Secondary Finishing 5-77
Splay 5-78
Venting .5-78
Sinks 5-78
Painting Structural Foam Parts 5-79
Part Preparation 5-79
Coatings Selection 5-79
Finishing System 5-80
Paint Troubleshooting Guide 5-81
Glossary of Painting Terms .5-8
Contents
Industry Specific Design Considerations • 6-3
Electrical Design 6-4
Flame Resistance 6-4
Heat Deflection Temperature 6-4
Chemical Resistance .6-5
Creepage .6-6
Component Retention 6-6
Designing Enclosures 6-6
Sealing .6-8
Weather Resistant Seals - Gasketless 6-8
Weather Resistant Seals - Gasket/O-Ring .6-8
UL 746C Overview .6-9
Enclosure Requirements .6-10
Enclosure Performance Requirements .6-11
UL 508 Industrial Control Equipment .6-14
EMI/RFI Shielding .6-15
Regulations and Standards .6-15
United States .6-16
Part 15 6-16
Canada 6-17
Europe 6-17
Japan .6-20
Knockouts .6-21
UL 508 Tests & Design Considerations 6-21
Knockout Design Suggestions 6-22
Optical Design 6-24
Light Pipes .6-26
Light Pipe Considerations 6-26
Light Pipe Interface .6-27
Design Considerations .6-28
Reducing Losses .6-28
Bends and Curvature 6-29
Converging and Diverging Sections .6-29
Material Considerations .6-30
Contents
Prototyping and Testing • 8-3
Machining 8-4
Plastic Memory 8-4
Frictional Heating 8-4
Coolants 8-4
Annealing .8-5
Quality Control .8-5
Drilling 8-5
Sawing .8-6
Guidelines For The Annealing of Thermoplastics 8-7
Contents
Quality Control • 9-3
Failure Analysis 9-4
The Most Obvious Cause Isn’t 9-4
Degradation .9-4
Degradation Testing 9-5
Degradation Test Results 9-5
Chemical Attack .9-6
Stress 9-7
Design Stress 9-7
Processing Stress 9-8
Assembly Stress .9-8
End-Use Stress 9-8
Stress Concentration Factors 9-9
Trouble-Shooting Guide 9-10
History .9-10
Hypothesis of Failure 9-11
Testing .9-11
Source 9-11
Formulate Solution 9-11
Communicate .9-12
Feedback 9-12
Injection Molding Trouble-Shooting
Considerations 9-13


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