كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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  كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory

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 كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory    كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory Emptyالثلاثاء 26 أبريل 2022, 9:56 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mechanism and Machine Theory
Ashok G. Ambekar  

 كتاب Mechanism and Machine Theory M_a_m_17
و المحتوى كما يلي :


الجزء المتاح فقط هو الجزء المعروض على جوجل كتب
CONTENTS
Preface xy
1. Introduction to Kinematics and Mechanisms
].1 Introduction J
].2 The Four-bar Mechanism 2
1J Motion of a Particle. 2
1.4 Motion of a Rigid Body 3
13 Motion of Translation i
].6 Motion of Rotation 4
1.7 Planar Motion and Euler’s Theorem
1.8 Degrees of Freedom 4
1.9 Vectors and Their Treatment J
1.10 Methods of Expressing Vectors 8
1.11 Position Vectors 10
1.12 Displacement of a Particle 11
1.13 Rigid Body Displacement //
IJ4 Relative Displacement 12
Review Questions 18
1-18
2* Planar Mechanisms and Geometry of Motion 19-60
2J Introduction 19
22 Definitions and Basic Concepts 19
2.3 Classification of Links 22
2.4 Classification of Pairs 23
2.4.1 Classification of Pairs Based on Type of Relative Motion _23
2.4.2 Classification of Pairs Based on Type of Contact _25
2.4.3 Classification of Pairs Based on Degrees of Freedom 26
2.4.4 Classification of Pairs Based on Type of Closure 27
mjy Contents
2.5 Mechanism and Machine 27
2*6 Inversions 28
2.7 Quadric Cycle Chain and Its Inversions 28
2.8 Inversion of Slider Crank Chain 33
2*9 The Double Slider Crank Chain and Its Inversion 35
2*10 Transmission of Torque and Force in Mechanisms 36
2
-11 Constrained Motion and Degrees of Freedom of a Mechanism 38
2.12 Expression for D.O*F* of Chains and Mechanisms 38
2 *13 Interpretation of Mobility Equation 40
2.14 Inconsistencies of Gmbler’s Equation 43
2.15 Degrees of Freedom Permitted by Joints other than
Turning and Sliding 45
2.16 _ Equivalent Linkages 48
2.17 Number Synthesis 49
2.17 A Effect of Even/Odd Number of Links on Degrees
of Freedom 50
2.17.2 Minimum Number of Binary Links in a Mechanism 51
2.17.3 Maximum Possible Number of Turning Pairt on any
of the n Links in a Mechanism 52
2.18 Enumeration of Kinematic Chains 53
2*19 Spatial Mechanisms 57
2.20 Manipulators 55
Review Questions 58
3. Velocity and Acceleration Analysis (Graphical Approaches) 61-126
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Linear and Angular Velocity 61
3.3 Velocity of a Point on Rotating Rigid Body 53
3.4 Graphical Differentiation 64
3.5 RelatiyeJ/elocity 67
3.6 Relative Velocity between Two Points on the Same Link 68
3.7 Velocity Image 68
3.8 Velocity Polygon 70
3*9 Velocity of Rubbing 75
3.10 Mechanical Advantage and Power Transmission 77
3.11 Instantaneous Centres of Rotation 75
3.12 Properties of Instantaneous Centre 79
3.13 Location of Velocity Pole (I.C.) 50
3.14 Instant Centres of 4-bar Mechanism 5i
3.15 Aronhold-Kennedy's Theorem of Three Centres 52
3.16 Locating I,Cs. in Mechanisms S3
3*17 Acceleration in Mechanisms 57
3,18 Motion of a Particle along Curved Path 55Contents V
3J9 Acceleration of a Rigid Link 88
3.20 Acceleration Image of a Link 90
3.21 General Acceleration Equation for a Link 91
3.22 Necessary Conditions for Acor to Exist 94
3.23 Acceleration Polygon 94
3.24 Combined Four-Bar Chain and Slider-Crank Mechanism 101
3.25 Acceleration Polygon Involving Coriolis Component of Acceleration 103
3.26 Klein’s Construction 109
3.27 Approximate Analytical Expression for Displacement, Velocity and
Acceleration of Piston of Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 115
3.28 Kinematic Analysis of Complex Mechanisms 118
Review Questions 121
4, Velocity and Acceleration Analysts (Analytical Approach) 127-157
4.1 Introduction J27
4.2 Vector Method /27
4.3 Types of Analysis Problems 128
4.4 The Loop Closure Equation 131
4.5 Algebraic Position Analysis 131
4.5.1 Case of Slider-Crank Mechanism 132
4.5.2 Case of Four-Bar Mechanism 133
4.6 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis Using Complex Algebra
(Raven’s Approach) 135
4.7 Application to Slider-Crank Mechanism 136
4.B Application to Four-Bar Mechanism 137
4.9 Application to Quick-Retum Mechanism 139
Review Questions- 153
S. Mechanisms with Lower Pairs 158-202
5.1 Introduction
Offset Slider-Crank Mechanism as a Quick Return Mechanism
The Pantograph 160
Straight Line Motion Mechanisms 162
Exact Straight Line Motion Mechanisms 163
5.5.3 The Han Mechanism 165
5.5.4 The Scott-Russel Mechanism 166
The Approximate Straight Line Moiion 167
5.6.1 The Watt Mechanism 167
Condition for Generating Exact Straight Line Motion
PeaucdMer Mechanism 164
lire Grasshopper Mechanism 168
The Tchebieheff Straight Line Motion Mechanism 169
The Roberts Straight Line Motion Mechanism 171yj Contents
5,7 Engine Indicators Ill
Simplex Indicator 111
Crosby Indicator 772
Thompson Indicator 113
5.7.4 Dobbie-Mdnnes Indicator 7 75
5.8 Motor Car Steering Gear 777
5.8.1 Condition of Correct Steering Ill
5.8.2 Davis Steering Gear 118
5.8.3 Ackerman Steering Gear 181
5.9 Hooke’s (Cardan) Joint or Universal Coupling 185
5.9. 1 Transmission Characteristics 186
5.9.2 Double Hooke's Joint 192
5.10 Toggle Mechanism 191
5.11 Scotch Yoke Mechanism 199
Review Questions 199
6. Elements of Kinematic Synthesis of Mechanisms
(Graphical and Algebraic Methods)
6.1 Kinematic Synthesis 203
6.2 Approximate and Exact Synthesis 205
6.3 Chebyshev’s Spacing of Accuracy Points 205
6.4 Graphical Methods of Dimensional Synthesis
Motion Generation
6.5 Poles and Relative Poles 208
6.6 Motion Generation: Three Prescribed Positions 210
6-7 Relative Poles (Roto-Ccntres) of the 4-Bar Mechanism 212
6.8 Relative Poles of Slider-Crank Mechanism 214
6.9 Function Generation (Three Precision Points) 27 7
6.10 Algebraic Method of Function Generation 219
6.11 Comments on Design Parameters and Special Nature of Results
6.12 Coupler Curves 228
6.13 Synthesis for Path Generation 230
6.14 Graphical Synthesis for Path Generation
(Three Specified Positions) 2J7
6.15 Roberts-Chebyshev Theorem (Cognate Linkages) 232
6.16 Coupler Curves from 5-Bar Mechanisms 235
Review Questions
7 Cams
7J Introduction 24.1
7.2 Comparison between Cams and Lower Paired Mechanisms 247
73 Classification:of Cams and Followers 242
13A Classification of Cams 242
13.2 Classification of Followers 244
241-299Contents yjj
7*4 Terminology for Radial Cam 247
7*5 Types of Follower Motion 248
7.5.3 Simple Harmonic Motion 250
7*5,4 Uniformly Accelerated and Retarded (Parabolic)
Follower Motion 254
7.5.5 Cycloidal Follower Motion 258
7.6 7.7 Pressure Parameters Angle Affecting (^) Pressure 260 Angle 261
7.8 Effect of Offset Follower Motion 263
7.9 Main Consideration Influencing Choice of Cam 266
7.9.1 Smaller Lateral Pressure on Guides 266
7.9.2 Smaller Force Required to Accelerated Follower 2tf 7
7.9J Smooth Jerkkss Motion 268
7.9.4 Smaller Base-Circle 268
7.10 Radius jrfCuryature and Undercutting 269
7.11 Construction of Cam Profiles 269
1A2 Cam Layout: General Type of Problems 272
7J3 Translating Flat_ Face Follower: Analytical Desjgn_
7.14 Cam with Oscillating Roller Follower 284
7.15 Cams with Specified Contours 287
7.15.1 Circular Arc Cam with Tangent Follower 287
7*15*2 Tangent Cam with Roller Follower 292
Review Questions 296
Uniform Motion or Constant Velocity Follower Motion 249
Modified Uniform Motion 249
8. Gears
8.1 Introduction 300
8.2 Rolling Contact and Positive Drive 300
8.3 Classification of Gears 301
8.4 Nomenclature for Straight Spur Gears 305
8.5 Fundamental Law of Toothed Gearing 310
8*6 Conjugate Teeth 312
8*7 Tooth Profiles 313
8.7.1 Cycloidal Tooth Profile 314
8.7.2 Involute Tooth Profile 115
8.8 Length of Path of Contact 318
8.9 Length of Arc of Contact 320
S*10 Contact Ratio 321
300-365
Gears Mounted on Parallel Axes
Gears Mounted on Intersecting Shaft Axes
Gears Mounted on Skew Shaft Axes
304Vfii Contents
SHII Interference and Undercutting 324
8.12 Standard Proportions of Interchangeable Gears 327
8.13 Minimum Number of Teeth to Avoid Interference 328
8.14 Minimum Number of Teeth on Pinion to Avoid
Interference with Rack 336
8.15 Comparison between Involute and Cycloidal Tooth Profiles 342
8, 1b Methods of Reducing or Eliminating Interference 343
8 H17 Helical Gears 344
8.18 Spiral Gears (Skew or Screw Gears) 347
8.19 The Efficiency of Spiral and Helical Gears 350
8*2Q Worm and Worm Gear 355
8.21 Bevel Gears 360
8.22 Special Bevel Gears 362
Review Questions 363
9. Gear Trains
9A Introduction .366
9.2 Classification .3.66
9.3 Epicyclic Gear Trains with Bevel Gears 372
9A Algebraic Method of Analysing Epicyclic Gear Trains 373
9.5 Tabulation Method for Analysing Epicyclic Gw Train 379
9.6 Torques and Tooth Loads in Epicyclic Gear Trains
9.7 Bevel Gear Differentia] 397
Review Questions 398
366^403
384
10. Gyroscopic Effects
10.1 Introduction 404
10.2 Angular Motion and Conventional Vector Representation 405
10.3 Precessional Motion and Angular Acceleration 406
10.4 Gyroscopic Couple 4 JO
10.5 Gyro-couple and Gyro-reaction Couple 411
10.6 Analogy with Motion of a Particle in Circular Path 411
10.7 Gyroscopic Effects on an Aeroplane 414
10.8 Stability Analysis of 4-Wheeler Vehicle 415
10.9 Stability Analysis of a Two-wheel Vehicle 423
10.10 Gyroscopic Effects on Naval Ships 427
10, It Gyroscopic Ship Stabilization 432
10.12 Gyroscopic Analysis of a Disc Fixed Rigidly to a
Rotating Shaft at Certain Angle 435
10.13 Gyroscopic Analysis of Grinding Mill 4J 7
Review Questions 440
404-442Contents ix
11. Friction Gears
] ]. I Introduction 443
11.2 Types of Friction 443
11.3 Dry Friction 444
11.4 Angle of Repose and Angle of Friction 446
11.5 Motion along Inclined Plane 446
11.6 Friction of Nut and Screw 450
11.7 Wedge 457
11.8 Rolling Friction 461
11.9 Pivot and Collar Friction 463
11.10 Axial Force and Friction Moment in Pivots and Collars 464
11.10.1 Assumption of Uniform Pressure Intensity 466
11.10.2 Assumption of Uniform Rate of Wear 467
11.11 Design Considerations in the Choice of Assumption 469
11.12 Thrust Bearing 470
11.13 Friction Clutches 474
11 *14 Cone Clutch 475
11.15 Single Plate Clutch 479
11.16 Multi-Disc Clutch 481
11.17 Effect of Number of Pairs of Active Surfaces 482
11.18 Centrifugal Clutch 492
11.19 Friction Circle and Friction Axis 495
11.20 Lubricated Surfaces 500
11.21 Friction between Lubricated Surfaces 501
I L22 Film Lubrication in Rotating Shafs 504
11.23 Michel Thrust Bearing 505
11.24 Hydrostatic Lubrication 506
11.25 Rolling Contact Bearing* 506
11.26 Advantages and Disadvantages of Rolling Contact Bearings 508
Review Questions 509
443-512
12. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives 513-558
12.1 Introduction 5.13
12.2 Velocity Ratio 513
12J Belt Length 517
[ 2.4 Limiting Ratio of Belt-Tensions 519
12.5 Maximum Effective Tension and H.P. Transmitted 522
12.6 Centrifugal Tension and Stresses in Belts or Rope 525
12.7 Maximum Tension in Belt/Rope 526
12.8 Initial Tension and its Role in Power Transmission 526
12.9 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission 535
12.10 Power Transmitted by Belt: Further Comments 537
12.11 Idler and Jockey Pulleys 540X Contents
12.12 Timing Bell 541
12.13 Rope Drive 541
12.14 Materials of Belt and Rope 552
12.15 Chains 553
12.16 Inverted Tooth Chain (Silent Chain) 555
Review Questions 556
13. Brakes and Dynamometers
13. ) Introduction 559
13.2 Classification of Brakes 559
13.3 The Simple Block or Shoe Brake 560
13.4 Short-Shoe Brakes (Condition of Self Energization ) 56J
13.5 Double Block Brakes 563
13.6 Long Shoe Brakes 5<5<5
13.7 Long Shoe Brakes (Shorter Method ) 570
13.8 Internally Expanding Shoes 573
13.9 Band Brakes 583
13.10 Band and Block Brake 587
13.11 The Braking of a Vehicle 596
13.12 Types of Dynamometers 604
Absorption Dynamometers
13.13 Prony Brake Dynamometer 605
13.14 Rope Brake Dynamometer 606
Transmission Dynamometers
13.15 Epicydic Train Dynamometers 608
13.16 Belt Transmission Dynamometer 609
13.17 Torsion Dynamometers 611
Review Questions 614
559-616
14. Dynamics of Machines, Turning Moment, Flywheel
14.1 Role of Force Analysis in Design Calculations
14.2 Laws of Motion and D’Alembert’s Principle
14.3 Static Force Analysis
14.4 Static Force Analysis for Mechanisms
14.5 Mass Moment of Inertia and Inertia Torques
14.6 Simple Harmonic Motion
14.7 Dynamically Equivalent Two Mass System
14.8 Centre of Percussion
14.9 Significance of Kinetic Equivalence
14.10 Equivalent Dynamic System: Graphical Determination
14J I Correction Couple Required for Arbitrary' Choice of Both
the Mass Locations
14*12 The Effective Force and the Inertia Force 644
14.13 Reversed Effective (Inertia) Force and Force Analysis 646
14.14 Dynamic Force Analysis of a Four-link Mechanism 64S
14.15 Analytical Expressions for Velocity and Acceleration of Slider
in Slider-Crank Mechanism 654
14*16 Piston Effort, Crank Pin Effort and Crank Effort 657
14.17 Inertia Forces and Torques in Slider-Crank Mechanism 659
14.15 Dynamic Force Analysis of a Slider-Crank Mechanism 663
14.19 Turning Moment Diagram {Crank Effort Diagram) 675
14.20 Fluctuation of Crank Shaft Speed 678
14.21 The Flywheel 682
14.22 Flywheel for Punching Press 683
Review Questions 701
15. Governors
15*1 Introduction 705
J 5.2 Functions of a Governor 705
15.3 Types of Governors 707
15.4 Terms Used in Governors 708
15.5 The Watt Governor 709
15.6 Effect of Mass of Amis in Watt Governor 111
15.7 The Porter Governor 713
15.8 Effect of Friction 7/ 7
15.9 Proell Governor 724
15.10 Spring Controlled Governors 729
15.11 Hartnell Governor 729
15.12 Governor with Spring Connected Balls (Wilson-Hartodl Governor) 732
15.13 Governor with Gravity and Spring Control 742
15.14 Hartung Governor 744
15.15 Pickering Governor 746
15.16 inertia Governors 747
15.17 Characteristics of Centrifugal Governors 747
15.18 Quality of Governor: Definitions 748
15.18.1 Controlling Force 748
15.18.2 Stability and Isochroitism 749
15.18.3 Sensitiveness 752
15 *18.4 Hunting 752
15.19 Governor Effort and Power 752
15.20 Effect of Friction: Insensitiveness 754
Review Questions 763
705-766xii Contents
16. Balancing 767-849
16.1 Introduction 767
16.2 Balancing of Rotating Masses 767
J 6J Static and Dynamic Balancing Problem 76#
\6A Unbalanced Rotating Mass 769
16.5 Balancing of Several Masses Revolving in the Same Plane 772
16.6 Analytical Approach for Several Rotating Masses in Same Plane 775
J 6.7 Balancing of Several Masses Revolving in Different Planes 775
16.7.1 First Method 775
16.7.2 Second Method (Dalby’s Method) 779
16.8 Balancing of Rotors 789
16.9 Static and Dynamic Balancing 790
16.10 Static Balancing Machines 790
16.11 Dynamic Balancing Machines 791
16.11.1 Pivoted Cradle Balancing Machine 792
16.12 Field Balancing 794
16.12. ) Balancing of a Twin Disc 795
16.12.2 Balancing by Four Observations 796
16.13 Balancing of Reciprocating Masses 798
16.14 Inertia Effects of Reciprocating Masses in Engine Mechanism 799
16.15 Primary and Secondary Unbalanced Forces due to
Reciprocating Masses 801
16.16 Inertia Effects of Crank and Connecting Rod 802
16.17 Partial Balancing of Primary Inertia Forces 804
16.18 Partial Balancing of Locomotives 807
16.19 Effect of Partial Balancing in Locomotives 807
16.20 Primary Balance of Multi-Cylinder In-Line Engine 822
16.2 i Secondary Balance of Multi-Cylinder In-Line Engines 823
16.22 Balancing of 2-Stroke and 4-Stroke Tn-Ltne Engines 824
16.23 Firing Order 827
16.24 Direct and Reverse Cranks 836
16.25 Balancing V-Engines 841
Review Exercises 845
17. Vibration Analysis
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Definitions
17.3 Simple Harmonic Motion and Rotating Vectors
17.4 Work Done in Harmonic Motion
17.5 Elements of Discrete ( Lumped Parameter) Vibratory System
Single Degree of Freedom Problems
17.6 Undamped Free Vibrations
17.6, 1 Method Based on Newton's Second Law of Motion
850-935
850
850
852
853
855
856
856Contents xiijj
17.6.2 Energy Method 859
17.6.3 Rayleigh’s Method 860
17.7 Equivalent Springs and Dashpots 864
17.8 Equivalent Length of Shaft 867
17.9 Damped Free Vibrations 868
17.10 Logarithmic Decrement 572
17.11 Forced Vibrations with Harmonic Excitation 877
17.12 Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility 55J
17.13 Vibration Isolation without Dampers 883
17.14 Vibration Isolation Using Dampers 885
17.15 Motion Transmissibility 889
17.16 Whirling of Shafts 895
17.17 Critical Speed of Light Vertical Shaft with Single DISC
(without Damping) 896
17.18 Critical Speed of Light Vertical Shaft Having
Single Disc with Damping 900
17.19 Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations 905
17*20 Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations due to a
Point Load on a Simply-Supported Shaft 906
17
*21 Transverse Vibration of a Uniformly Loaded Shaft 907
17.22 Transverse Vibrations of Shaft Canying Several Loads 911
Torsional Vibrations
17.23 Single Rotor System 917
17.24 Free Torsional Vibrations: Two Rotor System 918
17.25 Free Torsional Vibrations: Three Rotors 920
17*26 Torsional Vibration of Geared System 927
Review Questions 931
Appendix I Units
Appendix it Mathematics
Appendix HI 5-/- and M.K.S* Units
Bibliography
937-938
939-941
942-974
975-976
Index 977-986
I N D E X
Absolute motion, 28
Absorption dynamometer. 604. 605
Acceleration. 87
absolute, 95
angular. 87-90, 92-99, 103. 106. 406. 410
centripetal. 89
Coriolis. 94. 103
equation. 91
gyroscopic. 409. 410
image. 90, 91
normal. 88
of piston. 96. 112. 115
analytical. II5-117
polygon, 94. 95. 103
relative, 89-92
rigid link, 88
tangential. 88. 90. 92
Acceleration analysis, 61, 89-94, 135
analytical approach. 773
cam and follower, 287-293
complex mechanism. IIS
of direct contact mechanisms. 232, 300
four-bar linkage. 99
Raven's method, 135
return mechanism. 103-104
slider-crank mechanism. 101, 136
slotted lever, 104
Accuracy points. 205-208
Ackerman steering gear. 32. 181-183
Addendum of tooth. 306
modification. 328
standard. 327
Art. 428
Amplitude of vibration. 920
damped vibration, 868
forced vibration. 851. 877
Angle of approach
friction. 446
heel. 424
lap. 517. 518. 519. 520
obliquity, 308
repose, 446
Approximate straight line motion mechanisms, 162—
163
Grasshopper. 168
Robert’s, 171
Tchcbichcff. 169
Amhold-Kennedy's theorem, 82
Arc of action contact. 320
Allas, Urones-Nelson, 228. 230
Automotive differential, 362
Axial pilch. 356
Back cone bevel gear. 360
Backlash. 307
Balancing by four-observations, 796
Balancing, definition, 767
dynamic, 768-769
partial. 804
static, 768
Balancing of cranks, 806
locomotives, 807-812
multicylinder in-line engines. 822-823
reciprocating masses. 801
revolving masses. 772, 775
rotors, 789
secondary forces. 839
V-engines. 841
Ball hearing. 507
Band brake. 583
Band and block brake. 587
977978 Index
Band brake, differential 584
simple, 584
Ba.se circle of cam. 247
* 270
Ba.se circle of involute gear, 316* 312
Bearn engine mechanism. 32. 33
Bearing
ball. 507
horse shoe-shaped* 470* 471
journal. 504. 505
Michel thrust
* 505
Needle rotten 507-508
roller
* 507-508
Belt drive
catenary effect 538. 540
centrifugal tension. 525
creep, 539
Hat 519
initial lension. 526
law of (helling), 519-522
length of, 51SJ13
limiting ratio of tensions. 519-522
material, 533
maximum HP transmitted. 522
maximum tension, 526, 532
power transmitted, 526, 535
slip* 515^516
timer helt 553
V-bclt 455, 52 J
velocity ratio. 513-515
Belt transmission dynamometer. 609
Bevel gears. 303* 362* 372
miter
* 3.62
pitch angle. 362
pilch cone, 16ft. 362
pitch surface, 360* 362
shaft angle, 361* 362
tooth thickness. 307
Ircdgold’s approximation. 360
Zctol. 304. 362
Bevis Gibson torsion dynamometer. 604. 612
Binary links. 22. 54
minimum number in chain* 53
Block brake. 560-56*
Boundary friction, 444. 501
Bow of a ship. 430
Brakes, band. 559. 583
band and block. 587
block, 560, 561
external. 559
* 566
internal. 573
long shoe* 566-570
pivoted shoe. 560
self energization. 561-563
self locking. 565
short shoe. 561-563
Braking of vehicles. 596
Bush roller chain, 553, 554
Cams, advantages. 24J
Cams, analysis* 287
analytical design, 280
angle of action. 244, 290
angle of retum/descent. 265. 27 J , 274
angle of rise/assent/outstrnke, 265. 271. 274
angle of dwell, 21L 111
base circle
* 273. 274
circular arc. 287
cylindrical, 243
disc, 242. 244. 247
displacement diagram* 248, 249, 25.1. 253
flat. 245
follower, oscillating, 243. 284, 285
jerk, 287
layout of, 27{)
master, 287
pitch circle, 248
pitch curve, 247
pitch point 248
plate cam. 242, 253
pressure angle, 244, 260
prime circle* 248
profile, 248, 263, 266
radial* 242* 243
specified contours, 270. 287
specified follower motion, 269r-287
tangent. 287. 292
types, 244
undercutting, 269
Centre of percussion. 636
Centre distance
spiral gears, 347, 350
worm gears* 355
Chain
constrained* 40
double slider. 35
drive, 553-554
Ibur-bar, 29
kinematic, 21
pitch* 553-554
pitch quadric cycle, 28
roller, 554
silent
* 555
slider-crank* 33
sprocket* 554
Chcbyshcv spacing. 206. 218index 979
Circular Frequency, 893
Circular pitch, 306
Clearance, 307
Closed chain. 21
Closed pair, 27, 242
Closure, loop equation. 131
Clutches, cone. 475
disc, 479
multi-disc, 48 L
single plate* 479
Coefficient of rolling friction. 461-462
sliding friction, 443
Coefficient of energy fluctuation, 680
Coefficient insensitiveness, 755
Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 680
Cognate linkages. 232
Collar friction. 463
Collars and pivots, 463
Complex algebra. 135
Complex mechanisms. 118
Complex polar notations, 9
Compound gear train, 368
Conical clutch, 475
Conjugate tooth profiles, 312-314
Constrained mechenism, 38
Constraint. 38-40
motion, 38, 59
Contact, arc of, 320
path of 318
Contact ratio. 307. 321
Coriolis acceleration. 103, 104. 126
Correction couple, 640. 643
Coupler, 29
Coupler curves. 228-230
equation of, 229
for 5-bar linkage. 235-236
Couple, gyroscopic, 410, 411
reaction, 411
representation vectorial. 405
swaying, 809
Cradle balancing machine. 792
Cramer's rule, 878
Crank effort, 657, 675
Cranks, direct and reverse, 836
Crank-pin effort. 657
Crank-rocker mechanisms, 30, 31, 32
Crankshaft balancing, 806
Crank-slotted lever mechanism. 33
Critical damping coefficient. 869, 870, 876
Critical speed in rope dynamometer, 604. 606
Crosby indicator. 172
Crossed belt, 5H, 518
Curvilinear motion of translation, 3
Cycloidal follower motion. 258, 268
Cycloidal gear teeth. 314
Cycloidal and involute tooth comparison, 342
Cylindrical cams. 243, 244
pairs, 25
D’Alembert’s principle, 618-620
Dal by's method, 779-781
ldamping factor/ratio coefficient, 869
Damped vibrations. 868
critical, 870
overdamped, 870
undeFdamped, 871
Davis steering gear. 178
Dedcndum, 306
Degrees of freedom, 4, 23, 26, 38, 45
of chains, 38. 39
effect of
multiple joint, 41
spring connection, 41
even/odd number of links, 50
of mechanisms, 38
* 39
of pairs, 25* 26, 45
redundant. 43
Diametral pitch. 306
Diagrams, free body, 620
schematic, 21
Differential mechanism, 398
Dimensional synthesis, 204. 208
Direct contact mechanism. 48
Direct and reverse cranks. 836
Displacement finite and infinitesimal, 79
Displacement of
particle, 11
rigid body, 11, 12
Displacement, relative, 12, 13
Displacement-time curve
in follower motion. 250-254
in quick return motion mechanism, 158. 159
in slider crank mechanism. 654. 659, 663
Displacement vector, 11
Dobbic-Mclnnes indicator mechanism. 175
Double block brake, 563
Double-crank mechanism, 29
Double helical gear,
Double Hooke's joint. 192, 193
Double lever mechanism, 29
Drag link mechanism. 29
Drive, belt, 518. 529, 531, 532
chain, 513
305980 ^dex
cam. 242
clutch
* 475
friction, 474, 5H
rope, 300, 513, 521, 526
Dry friction, 444
Dunkcrley’s method* 911
Dwell period in cams. 245, 246
Dynamic balancing, 768-769
Dynamic machines* 790
Dynamics, defined* 623, 679, 681
Dynamically equivalent two-mass system* 634, 639
Dynamometers, 604
absorption. 604-605
belt transmission. 609
epicyclic gear train* 608
Prony brake, 60S
rope brake* 606
torsion, 611
transmission, 604. 608
Face of gear tooth. 307
width of helical gear. 345
Face cam, 243
Ferguson's parados* 386
Field balancing. 794
Fillet radius, 307
Film lubrication. 502, 504
Firing order. 827
Flat face follower, 280
Flat pair, 24
Fluctuation of crank shaft speed, 678
Fluctuation of energv, 680
Flywheel, 682
energy, 683, 684
speed! 683. 684
Foettinger torsion dynamometer, 613
Follower, classiftcation, 244-246
Follower, flat raced, 247. 273. 283
cycloidal* 248. 258
knife edge. 246
lift 248
modified constant velocity, 249
motions types. 244
mushroom, 246
offset, 244
oscillating, 244
parabolic, 248, 254
radial
* 244
roller
* 246
simple harmonic* 250-251
spherically seated, 246
stroke. 248
uniform velocity, 249, 250
Force analysis
dynamic, 646
static, 62
Force analysis of
four-bar mechanism slider. 648
crank mechanism. 659, 663
Force closure in cams, 242
Force, controlling
effective, 644
inertia, 644. 646
Fore of ship, 428
acceleration polygon, 94
instantaneous centre. 78^79
inversions, 29
mechanical advantage. 36
pressure angle, 37
transmission angle. 36
Free body diagram, 620
Freedom, degrees of, 4
Effect of friction on governors. 717, 724, 754
Effect, gyroscopic, 404, 405, 406, 414. 427
Effect of partial balancing of locomotives* BG7-810
Effective force, 619, 644
tension. 522
Efficiency of inclined plane
helical gears, 344, 350
spiral gears, 347, 350
worm gears. 355
Effort at crank
* 657
Effort of governor* 752
piston. 657
Element* definition of* 20
Elliptical trammel* 35
Energy fluctuation* flywheel, 680, 681, 682. 684
Enumeration of chains, 53-57
Epicyclic dynamometer, 608
gear train, 366
torque and tooth loads. 384
Epicycloid. 342
Equilibrium, dynamic, 415
Equilibrium, static. 618-619
Equivalent linkage. 48
Equivalent two-mass system dynamic* 634-635
Error in function generator structural* 204—205
Euler's theorem. 4
Exact straight line motion
condition for
. 163
Hart
, 165
Peaucellier, 164
Scim-Russcl, 166Index 981
Frequency of vibration
cyclic, 677
damped. 768
fundamental, 907, 910
natural. 906
Freundenstein's equation. 217
Friction. 443
angte. 446
axis, 495-496. 499
boundary. 444. 501
circle, 495
clutches. 474
coefficient. 445
dry, 443, 444
film, 444. 502
greasy. 444. 501
rolling, 444. 461
skin. 444, 501
solid. 443, 444
moment, 464, 496
viscous, 444, 502
Friction in governors, 603, 664
pivot and collar. 463
roiling. 444. 461
Full depth tooth. 327
Function generation, 217, 219
algebraic method, 219, 373
graphical method, 208
Function generator, 204. 205
Gear trains, 366
algebraic method, 373
bevel gear differential, 397
compound, 368
epicyclic, 37L 372
formula (algebraic) method, 376
ordinary (simple), 366
reverted. 370
tabulation method. 379
train value, 368
Globular pair, 24
Governors, 705
centrifugal, 707
controlling force, 707
definitions, 708
effort. 752
emergency. 707
friction, 717, 754
gravity control. 708
Hartnell, 729
Harfung. 744
isochronous, 757
inertia. 708, 747
insensitiveness. 754-757
pendulum. 709
pickering, 746
porter, 713
power, 752
Proell. 724
quality, 748
sensitiveness. 752
spring controlled. 729
stability. 749
watt, 709
Wilson Hartnell. 729, 732
Graphical cam design, 275
Graphical differentiation. 64—66
GrashoFs chain, 29
Grashoff's law, 29
Grubler’s criterion inconsistencies. 43
Gyroscope, definition. 404
Gyroscopic acceleration. 407
Gyroscopic action. 439
Gyroscopic action in grinding mill. 437
Gyroscopic couple. 410
Gyroscopic effects on
air planes. 414
four wheeler. 415
naval ship. 427
two wheeler. 423
Gyroscopic ship stabilisation, 432
Gear, definition, 300
Gear ratio, 307
Gears, 301
bevel, 304
classification. 301
helical. 302, 344
Herringbone. 303
hypoid, 304
rack and pinion. 303
spur, 301, 302, 305
spiral, 304. 305. 347
worm. 305
Gear teeth
base circle, 316
conjugate. 312
cycloidal profile, 314
face. 307
Hank, 307
involute, 315
module, 306, 327
proportions, 327
[ 1 I982 index
Hammer blow, 807
Hand pump mechanism. 34
Han mechanism, 165
Harmonic motion, simple. 625
Hartnell governor, 729
Helical gear. 302, 344
normal circular pilch, 346-347
Helix angle. 303
Herringbone gear, 303
Higher pair, 25, 28, 24J
effect on d ^o.f-. 40
Hooke's joint, 185
double. 192
HP transmitted by belt and rope, 522
Hrones and Nelson atlas, 228
Hunting governor. 752
Hypoide gearing, 304
Jaw dutches, positive, 475
Jerk, 248. 253, 254, 255
Jockey pulley's, 540
Joints, simple. 41
multiple, 41
Journal bearing, 503-504
friction in, 495-496
pressure distribution, 503
Tower’s experiment, 502
Kennedy's theorem, 82
Kinematics, 19
Kinematic
chain. 21
enumeration. 53
pairs. 23
synthesis, 203
Klein's construction. 109
Idler pulleys. 540 Kutzbach's criterion, 40
Images, velocity and acceleration. 68, 69, 88. 89
Inclined planes. 446
efficiency of. 447-448
friction of, 446-448
Indicator diagrams for engines. 171, 675
Inertia effects of
crank and connecting rod. 802
reciprocating masses, SOL
Inertia force, 646
determination. 639
Inertia torque, 619, 620. 649
Inscnsitiveness Instantaneous centres , governor , 78, 754—757
Aronhold Kennedy's theorem. 82
Locations of, 80, S3
method for velocity, 85
notation, 81
number of. 82
properties. 79
Interference in involute teeth. 324
mcihods of elimination, 343
minimum number of teeth to avoid. 328. 336
Internally expanding shoe brakes. 573
Inversion. 28
of four-bar chain, 212
of double-slider chain, 35
of slider-crank chain, 33
Inversion, importance of, 28
properties of, 28
Inverted tooth chain, 555
Involute teeth, 312-315
Isochronous governors, 757
Law of gearing. 310
Laws of motion. 618
Laws of solid friction. 444
Length of arc of contacts, 320
Length of path of contact 318
approach. 318
recess, 318
Limiting angle of friction, 445. 446
Limiting coefficient of friction. 445
Linear motion lower pairs. 40
Links, classification. 22
conventional representation. 22
Linkage. 28
Locomotives,
effects in, 807
partial balancing of. 807
Logarithmic decrement, 872
I
-ong shoe brakes. 566
shorter method, 570
Longitudinal vibrations. 905
Loop closure equation. 39. 131
Lower pairs. 25
equivalent. 45
Lubrication. 444. 502, 504
film, 502
hydrostatic, 506
of journal hearing. 503-504
of plane surfaces. 500-501
viscous. 502Index 983
Machine, definition. 19. 27
magnification factor 830
Manipulators, 58
Master earn. 287
Materials for belt and rope. 552
Mechanical advantage. 36, 77
Mechanism, definition. 22, 27
Michel thrusl bearing, 505
Minimum number of pinion teeth, 336
Miter gear. 362
Mobility. 38
Mobility equalion. 40
Mode of vibration. 907
Module, standard values. 306, 308
Motor car steering gear. 177
Ackerman
, 181
Davis, 178
condition of correct steering. 177
Motion generation, 204, 205. 208
Motion of the follower. 244, 245
Motion of translation. 3
curvilinear. 3
rectilinear. 3
Motion transfer fink, 52
Motion, simple harmonic, 625
Movabiltty. 40. 50
Multile joint, 4J
higher. 25
lower. 25
prismatic, 23
redundant, 43
revoltilc. 23
rolling. 21 45
screw, 23
turning, 23
Pantograph, 32, 160-162
Parabolic follower motion, 254
Parallel, helical geats. 302. 344
Partial balancing of locomotives, 8117-812
Particle, motion of, 3
Path generation. 204-205. 230-241
Peaucdlier mechanism, 164
Pendulum, compound. 628, 631. 636
simple, 626
torsional, 629, 633
Percussion, centre, 636
Periodic time. 850
Phase angle, 793, 8U9. 853
Pickering governor. 746
Pinion. 303. 306
Piston effort, 657
Pitch circle, 248. 302
cone. 360-363
tine. 336
Pitching motion of ships, 428
Pivot bearing, friction, 463
Plane of gyracouple, 405
precession. 406
spin, 406
Planar motion, 24
Planar pair. 24
Planetaiy gear trains, 17-1
Plate clutch, 479
Poles. 208. 212
Port 428
Position vector, ID
Preeessional motion. 406
Precision points, 205
Pressure angle of.
earns, 244, 260-263
Ibur-bar mechanism. 17
spur gears. 305
Primary and secondary unbalanced forces, SfiI-833
Primary balancing of multicylinder in-line engines.
822, 824
Prismatic pairs, 23
Properties of 79T41G
Pulleys, idler and Jockey, 540
Pure rolling. 45, 177. 300
Notation, static forces. 621
Number of instantaneous centres, 79
Number synthesis, 49, 203
Offset follower motion, 244, 263
Offset slider-crank mechanism, 158
condition of rotatibility of crank, L6G
Oldham's coupling, 3.6
Open chain. 21
Oscillating cylinder engine mechanism. 33
Oscillating follower with fial face. 245
Oscillating follower with roller. 245, 284
Overdamped vibration. 870
Pairs, classification, 23
Pairing dements. 2Q
Pairs,
cylindrical, 23
definition. 20
flat, 24
globular. 24
i984 index
Quadric cycle chain* 28
Quaternary link* 22
Quick T\Mum mechanism. 31
drag-link type* 31
offset slider crank type, 158
slotted lever, 33
^ 3.4
Whit-Worth mechanism. 33* 106
Skeleton diagram, 20
Slider-crank mechanism. 34, 58, 132
acceleration. 654
displacement, 655
force analysis, 646* 659
inversions* 655
velocity, 655
Sliding pair* 23
Slotted lever quick return motion mechanism* 33, 34
Spacing of accuracy points, 205
Spatial mechanism, 57
Specified cam profiles, 287
follower motion
* 248, 263
Speed regulation* 706
Spherical pair, 24
Spiral hevcl gear, 304
Spring constant, 891, 892
Sprocket, 553
Spur gears, 302. 303, 305
addendum
* 306
arc. of contact, 307
backlash. 307
base circle
* 315
circular pitch. 306
clearance. 307
conjugate action. 310
contact ratio, 307
dedendum* 306
face width. 307
fillet radius. 307
hilt-depth tooth* 327
interchangeable, 327
interference, 324
length of path of contact* 3IS
minimum number of teeth for pinion, 328. 336
pitch circle, 306
pilch circle diameter, 306
pitch line. 336
pressure angle. 308
stub tooth, 327
tooth face, 307
tooth proportions 327
tooth thickness. 307
undercutting, 324
working depth. 307
Stability of
2-wheeler, 423
A-wheeler 415
governors* 748
Stabilization, gyroscopic, 432
Star hoard, 427
Static balance, 768
Static balancing machines, 790
Rack. 326
Radial Hat faced cam follower, 244
Radial roller earn follower. 244
Raven's method, 135
Rayleigh s method, 912
Rectilinear motion
* 2
Rectilinear translation, 3
Relative displacement* 12
Relative velocity, 67* 68
acceleration, 88
Relative poles* 208, 212
Reverted gear trains, 370
Revolute pair. 23
Rigid body displacement, II
guidance. 205
motion, 2
Robert's Chehyehev theorem, 232
Rolling contact. 300, 506. 508
Rolling friction* 461
Rolling of ships, 428
Rolling contact, bearing, 506* 508
Rotation, motion* 4
Roio-centrcs, 212
Rubbing velocity* 75
Scott Russel's mechanism. 166
Screw friction
* 450
jack. 450
pair, 23
Secondary force balancing of multi-cylinder in-line
engines. 823
Secondary couples, 829
Self actuating brake, 562
Self-closed pairs, 27
Self energisation, 562
Self locking, 454
Sensitiveness of governors, 752
Shaking farce, 650
Simple harmonic Molino 625
Simple pendulum, 626
Simplex indicator, 171
Singular link, 2 L


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