كتاب Engineering Metrology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Engineering Metrology

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عدد المساهمات : 17473
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Engineering Metrology  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Engineering Metrology    كتاب Engineering Metrology  Emptyالجمعة 15 أبريل 2022, 11:47 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Engineering Metrology
Including Quality Management and Reliability Analysis
A Text Book for Engineering Students
Er. R.k. Jain
Formerly, Member
Central Electricity Authority
New Delhi.
Fellow
, Metrology Society of India.
(Formerly, Lecturer, Mech. Engg. Deptt .
Regional Engineering College,
Kurukshetra (Haryana)

كتاب Engineering Metrology  E_m_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter Pages
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. What is Metrology
1.2. Need of Inspection
1.3. Physical Measurement
1.4. Measuring Instruments
1.5. Selection of Instruments
1.6. Classification of Methods of Measurements
1.7. The Measurement Problem
1.8. General Care of Metrological Equipment
1.9. Objectives of Metrology
1.10. Requirements of an Inspection Tool
1.11. Standardisation and Standarding Organisation
1.12. International System of Units (SI)
1.13. Role of National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Metrology
1.14. Sources of Errors
1.15. Error Likely to Creep in Precision Measurements—Their Care
1.16. Linearity
1.17. Rigorous definitions of Accuracy and Precision
1.18. Principles of High-Precision Measurements
1.19. Precision Measurements, its requirement
1.20. Establishing Calibration System
1.21. Geometry of Form of Shape
1.22. Optical Principles
1.23. Quality Improvement Programmes
1.24. Managing Measuring Equipment
1.25. Measurements and Traceability
1.26. Quality, Standardisation, Testing and Metrology (QSTM)
Solved Problems
2. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 87
—225
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Line Graduated Measuring Instruments
2.3. Steel Rule
V4T2-
. Calipers
2.5. Surface Plates
2.6. Tool Maker’s Flats and High Precision Surface Plates
2.7. High Precision Surface Plates
2.8. Glass Surface Plates
2.9. Granite Surface Plates
2.10. Angle Plates
2.11. Cast Iron Surface Plates with Handles
2.12. Cast Iron Cubes
2.13. V-Block
Chapter Pages
2.14. Bench Centres 120
2.15. Straight Edges
2.16. Spirit Levels
2.17. Combination Set
2.18. Universal Surface Gauge
2.19. Engineer’s Square
2.20. Engineer’s Parallels
2.21. Planner Gauges
2.22. Radius Gauges
2.23. Feeler Gauges
2.24. Angle Gauges
2.25. Engineers, Taper, Wire and Thickness Gauge
2.26. Pitch Screw Gauge
2.27. Precision Linear Measurements
2.28. Vernier Instruments
2.29. Distance Gauge
2.30. Vernier Height Gauge
2.31. Vernier Depth Gauge
2.32. Digital Length Gauges
2.33. Master Height Gauges
2.34. Universal Height Micrometer
2.35. Electronic Digital Readout Height Gauge
2.36. Universal Measuring Instrument
%.\s
37. Micrometers
2.38. Inside Mecrometer Calipers
2.39. Inside Micrometers
2.40. Stick Micrometers
2.41. Method of Testing Internal Micrometers
2.42. Micrometer Depth Gauge
2.43. Thread Micrometer Caliper
2.44. Outside Micrometer Caliper
2.45. V-Anvil Micrometer Caliper
2.46. Blade Type Micrometer
2.47. Micrometer for Measuring Thickness of Cylinder Walls
2.48. Dial Micrometer Caliper
2.49. Bench Micrometer—
2.50. Taper-screw Operated Internal Micrometer
2.51. Groove Micrometers
2.52. Digital Micrometers
2.53. Differential Screw Micrometer
2.54. Graduated Scales
2.55. Other Instruments for Internal Measurements
256. Pin Gauge for Larger Bores
2.57. Four Balls Method for Measuring Diameter of Bore
2.58. Small Bore Diameter Measurement by a Ball on a Wire
2.59. Measurement of Small Bore by a Pivoted Stylus and Auto Collimator
Chapter Pages
2.60. Digital Measurement Equipment
^5*22.62 =61.. Slip Slip Gauges Gauge Accessories
2.63. Reference Discs, Balls and Roller Gauges
2.64. Step Gauge
Worked Examples
f 3. STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENTS 226—260
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Standards
Line Standard
3.4. Sub-division ofStandards
End Standards
^33.7 <6.. Wavelength Relation of End Standard Standard and Line Standard to International
(light waves) Standard
3.8. Classification of Standards and Gauge Control Structure
3.9. Gauge Control Structure
3.10. Conditions of Comparison
3.11. Environmental Control in Test Laboratory
3.12. Elastic Deformation in the Gauging of Standards
Measurement and Calibration Systems
3.14. The Need and Function of Inspection
3.15. Calibration Systems Requirements
3.16. The Role of Metrology Laboratory
3.17. Metrology in Quality Assurance (QA)
3.18. Setting up a QASystem
3.19. National Measurement System
3.20. Calibration Service Programme
3.21. Accreditation of Calibration Facilities
3.22. Accreditation of Metrology (Calibration and Testing) Laboratories
3.23. Support or Background Services in Metrology
Worked Examples
4. LIMITS, FITS AND GAUGES 261
—362
4.1. Introduction
Tolerances
Interchangeability
VArC Limits of Size
4.5. Indian Standard (IS 1919-1963)
4.6. Terminology
4.6. (a )Tolerance and Deviations for Sizes upto 500 mm
4.7. Guide for Selection of Fits
4.8. The Newall System
4.9. British Standard 1916
4.10. American Standards Association Tolerance System
<11. ISO System of Limits and Fits
Chapter y Pages
kYl. Plain Gauges
Gauge Design
4.14. Indian Standards Gauging Practice for Plain Workpieces
4.15. Gauges for Tapers
Plug and Ring Gauges for Self-holding Tapers
4.17. Tolerances and Geometry (Shape)
4.18. Positional Tolerances
4.19. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
4.20. Paper Layout Gauging
Solved Problems
5. COMPARATORS 363-417
5.1. Introduction 363
5.2. Characteristics of Comparators
Uses of Comparators
5.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Comparators
\^5.6 5f. Mechanical Mechanical Comparators Optical Comparators
Electrical and Electronic Comparators
Pneumatic Comparators
Fluid Displacement Comparators
5.10. Multicheck Comparators
5.11. Optical Projectors
5.12. Recent Gauging Techniques
Solved Problems
6. MEASUREMENTBY LIGHT-WAVE INTERFERENCE 418—471
6.1. Introduction 418
6.2. Interference of Two Rays
6.3. Light Sources for Interferometry
6.4. Interferometry Applied to Flatness Testing
6.5. Surface Contour Test
6.6. Testing the Parallelism of any Surface with Reference to Standard
Optically Flat Surface by Using Optical Flat
6.7. Interferometers
6.8. Laser Interferometers
6.9. Heterodyne Interferometry Technique
6.10. Optical Flats
6.11. Scales and Gratings
6.12. Moire Scales and Moire Fringes
6.13. Contact-free Interferometric Inspection of Optical Components
6.14. Precise, Real-time Interferometric Testing of Optical Surfaces
6.15. Diffraction Measurement Technique
Worked Examples
Chapter Pages
¥ 7. STRAIGHTNESS, FLATNESS, SQUARENESS, PARALLELISM,
CIRCULARITY AND ROTATION 472—516
Straightn
7.2. Straight Edge
7.3. Test for Straightness by Using Spirit Level and Auto-collimator
Flatness Testing
7.5. Mathematical Treatment of Determination of Straightness and Flatness
of Surfaces
7.6. Laser Equipment for Alignment Testing
Parallelism, Equidistance and Coincidence
Squareness
7*9^ Measurement of Circularity
7.10. Tests for Checking Rotation
7.11. Profile Measurements
Worked Examples
¥ 8. ANGULAR MEASUREMENT AND CIRCULAR DIVISION 517—571
8.1. Introduction
\JJ<2T Vernier and Optical Bevel Protractor
8.3. Divided Circles
8.4. Optical Dividing Head
\J^BT SinePrincipleandSine Bars
\JL6T' Angle Gauges
Spirit Level
\&r8r"' Clinometers
8.9. Optical Instruments for Angular Measurement
8.10. Circular Division
8.11. Rotary Tables
8.12. Dividing Heads and Circular Tables
8.13. Precision Polygons
8.14. Angle Gauge Dividing Head
8.15. Caliper Principle
8.16. Calibration of Polygons
8.17. Calibration of Divided Circle
8.18. Automatic Rotary Table Calibrator
8.19. Taper Testing Machine
Worked Examples
9. MISCELLANEOUSMEASUREMENTS 572—601
9.1. Checking the Angle of a Piece Tapered on One Side
9.2. To Check the Angle of a Transverse Recess whose Angle of
Taper is Very Small
9.3. To Check the Angle of a Tapered Hole
9.4. To Determine the Included Angle of an Internal Dovetail
9.5. To Measure an Internal Taper in Blind Hole
9.6. To Determine the Intersecting Dimension T of the V-shaped Slide
Chapter Pages
9.7. To Set two Straight Edges at a Desired Angle to Close Limits
9.8. To Measure the Angle of a V-groove
9.9. To Determine the Width of a V-groove
9.10. To Check Interior Angle of a Profile Gauge
9.11. To Measure the Angle of Small Work Located in a Difficult Position
9.12. To Measure the Taper Angle of a Shallow Circular Groove
9.13. To Find Out the Radius of Circle of any Job having a Portion of a Circle
9.14. To Find Out the Radius of a Concave Surface
9.15. To Measure the Diameter of a Recessed Hole
9.16. To Measure the Diameter of a Large Hole Accurately
Worked Examples
10. TESTING AND CALIBRATION OF GAUGES AND DYNAMIC MEASUREMENT 602—637
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Calibration of Linear and Angular Measuring Instruments
10.3. Measurement of Limit Gauges
10.4. Checking of Slip Gauges
10.5. Dynamic Measurement of Size, Form and Position
10.6. Automatic Inspection Machines
10.7. Measurement During Machining
10.8. Electronic Gauging
10.9. ContactlessThree Dimensional Measurement by Laser Based System
10.10. Multi-Dimensions Automatic Gauging and Sorting Machines
10.11. Electro-Optical Inspection
10.12. Some Recent Developments in Optical Measurements
10.13. Precision Instruments Based on Laser
10.14. Laser Telemetric System
10.15. Laser and LED Based Distance Measuring Instruments
10.16. Intelligent Vision
10.17. Optical Methods for Fast, Non Contact, On-line Measurements
10.18. Management of Gauges and Instruments with Computer
11. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE FINISH 638-666
11.1. Introduction
'l l M e a n i n g of Surface Texture and Some Definitions
11.3. Surface Roughness
11.4. Terminology as Per Indian Standards
Methods of Measuring Surface Finish
11.6. Direct Instrument Measurements
11.7. Replica Method
11.8. The Sample Length or Cut-off Length
Analysis of Surface Traces
11.10. Assessment of Surface Roughness as per Indian Standard
11.11. Roughness Comparison Specimens
11.12. Other Methods of Interest Used for Evaluating Surface Roughness
11.13. Mechanical Roughness Indicator (MECRIN)
11.14. Recent Advances in Measurement and Evaluation of Surface Roughness
Solved Problems
Chapter Pages
12. DIAL INDICATORS AND INDICATING GAUGES 667—680
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Requirements of Good Dial Indicators
12.3. Advantages of Dial Indicators
12.4. Classifications
12.5. Working Mechanism of Dial Indicators
12.6. Range
12.7. Description of Various Parts
12.8. General Care and Use of Dial Gauges
12.9. Accuracy of Dial Indicators
12.10. Guide Lines in the use of Dial Indicators to Reduce the Effect
of Calibration Errors
12.11. Dial Indicator Components, Accessories and Attachments
12.12. Test Type Indicators
12.13. Test Indicators
12.14. Dial Gauges as Per Indian Standards
12.15. Indicators Gauges
12.16. Application of Dial Gauges
Worked Examples
¥ 13. METROLOGY OF SCREW THREAD
13.1. Introduction
\J-SrS7 Screw Threads Terminology
13.3. Effect of Pitch Errors
Measurements of Various Elements of Thread
Worked Examples
14. GAUGES FOR ISO METRIC SCREW THREADS
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Classification of Thread Gauges
14.3. Various Forms of Thread Gauges
14.4. Gauge Wear
14.5. Tolerance for Screw Thread Gauges and Screw Threads
14.6. Screw Thread Gauge Tolerance
14.7. Adjustable Thread Gauges
14.8. Basic Profile
14.9. Diameter and Pitch Combinations
14.10. Design Profile
14.11. TolerancingSystem
14.12. Gauging Practice for ISO Metric Screw Threads
14.13. Thread Pitch Gauges for ISO Metric Screw Threads
MEASUREMENT AND TESTING OF GEARS
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Involute Curve
\ytlx3. Terminology of Gear Tooth
Chapter Pages
v-t5?4. Sources of Errors in Manufacturing Gears
Gear Measurement
15.6. Rolling Tests
15.7. Measurement of Individual Elements
15.8. Composite Method of Gear Checking
15.9. Worked Examples
16. MACHINE TOOL METROLOGY 763—781
16.1. Introduction 763
16.2. Machine Tools Tests
16.3. Alignment Tests on Lathe
16.4. Alignment Tests on Milling Machine
16.5. Alignment Tests on Pillar Type Drilling Machine
16.6. Acceptance Tests for Shapers
16.7. Acceptance Tests for Surface Grinders
16.8. Mandrels
17. MEASURING MACHINES 782—842
17.1. Introduction 782
17.2. Length Bar Measuring Machine
17.3. Newall Measuring Machine
17.4. Universal Measuring Machine
\yr . OpticalProjectionComparator
\J7r6. Engineering Microscopes
17.7. Optical Measuring Instruments
Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM)
17.9. Three Dimensional Measuring Machine
17.10. Universal Measuring Machine
17.11. Numerical Controlled (NC) Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM)
17.12. Electronic Inspection and Measuring Machines
17.13. Feeler Microscope
17.14. Probes
17.15. Photo-electric Micrometer Microscope
17.16. Fluidic Numerical Control (NC) System
17.17. Isometric Viewing of Surface Defects
17.18. Laser Viewers for Production Profile Checks
17.19. The Image Shearing Microscope for Critical Dimension Measurement
17.20. Opto-electronic Dimensional Gauging
17.21. Computers in Metrology
17.22. Machine Vision
17.23. Digital Measurement Equipment
17.24. Multiaxis Measuring Machines
17.25. Co-ordinate Measuring Robots
17.26. 2-D and 3-D Measurements
17.27. Digital Height Gauge with Statistical Production Control
17.28. Air Gauging with ElectronicSensors
17.29. Multi Gauging Systems
Chapter Pages
17.30. Universal Measuring Machine
17.31. Workshop Measuring Instrument for Dynamically Balanced Components
17.32. Universal Measuring Instrument
17.33. 3-D Optical Probe
17.34. Automatic Shaft Inspection Machine
17.35. Sub-micron Accuracy from Non-contact Gauge System
17.36. Process Control Robot
17.37. Nano-technology
17.38. Microprocessors in Metrology
17.39. Fiber Optic Probes for In-process Control
17.40. Inspection of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)
Worked Examples
18. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE 843—887
18.1. What is Quality ?
18.2. Quality Characteristics
18.3. Facets of Quality
18.4. Quality—A Business Strategy
18.5. Quality Control
18.6. Areas of Application of Quality Control
wierT Quality Control Concepts
18.8. Quality Policy
18.9. Quality Planning
18.10. Quality Improvement and Quality Motivation
18.11. Guidelines for Development of Q.C. Plan
18.12. Steps to Quality Improvement
18.13. Quality Motivation
18.14. Quality Losses and Avoidance
18.15. Quality Economics
18.16. Quality Assurance
v_^J8rT7. Attributes of Quality Control Manager
18.18. Quality Auditing
18.19. Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance Programmes
18.20. Process of Introducing Quality Program in an Existing Organisation
18.21. Quality Control and Breakthrough
18.22. Chance and Assignable Causes of Variation
18.23. Quality Management
18.24. Japanese Quality Management
18.25. Quality Circles-Understanding and Practicing
Solved Questions
19. STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL 888—1036
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Data Presentation
19.3. Some Statistical Measures
19.4. Summarisation and Pictorial Presentation of Data
19.5. Variations in Quality
19.6. Frequency Curve
19.7. Shape of Frequency Distribution
19.8. Some Simple Statistical Tools
19.9. Theory of Quality Control
19.10. Process Capability
Chapter Pages
19.11. Determining Confidence Limits for the Population Mean
19.12. Confidence Limits for standard Deviation
19.13. Tolerance Limits for Items in a Population
19.14. Control Charts
Control Chart for Variables
19.16. Fraction Defective and the Binomial Distribution
19.17. Control Charts for Fraction Defectives
19.18. The C-Charts
19.19. Sampling Inspection
19.20. Theory of Probability
19.21. Basic Principle of LotSampling
19.22. Lot Sampling for Estimation of Lot Quality
19.23. Lot Sampling for Lot Acceptance
19.24. Sampling Plans for Inspection by Attributes and by Count of Defects
19.25. Dodge-Rom Tables
19.26. Dodge Plans for Continuous Sampling
19.27. Philips Standard
19.28. ABC Standard
19.29. Sampling Plans for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective
19.30. Reliability and Life Testing
19.31. Statistical Tests of Significance
19.32. Regression and Correlation
19.33. Statistical Analysers
19.34. Microprocessors in SQC
19.35. Solved Problems
20. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) 1037—1062
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Evolution of Total Quality Management
20.3. What is TQM ?
20.4. Principles of TQM
20.5. Elements of TQM System
20.6. Guidlines for TQM Implementation
20.7. Quality Management and Quality System Requirements
20.8. Tools and Techniques of TQM
20.9. World Class Quality at Competitive Cost
Solved Problems
21. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(I.S.O. 9001-2000) 1063—1080
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Principles upon which ISO 9001: 2000 is Based
21.3. Steps to be taken for Certification
21.4. Implementing an ISO 9001 : 2000
21.5. Systematic Requirements of ISO 9001 : 2000
21.6. Management Requrements of ISO 9001 : 2000
21.7. Resource Requirements
21.8(a). Realization Requirements
21.8(6). Remedial Requirements
21.9. Quality System Decumentation
21.10. Preparation of Quality Manual
21.11. Preparation of Quality Plans
Chapter Pages
21.12. Internal Audit
Solved Problems
22. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF METALS AND ALLOYS 1081—1093
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Magnetic Particle Inspection
22.3. Magnetic Crack Detection Method
22.4. Penetrant Inspection Method
22.5. X-ray Examination
22.6. Radiography
22.7. Fluoroscopy
22.8. Photofluoroscopy
22.9. Gamma Radiography
22.10. Ultrasonic Inspection
22.11. Electrical Method
22.12. Electrical/Magnetic Methods
22.13. Damping Test
22.14. Non-magnetic Methods of Non-destructive Testing
22.15. Optical Holography Method
22.16. Hardness Test
23. MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS 1094—1115
23.1. Introduction
23.2. What is a Machine Vision System ?
23.3. Principle of Working
23.4. How Machine Vision System Functions ?
23.5. Fields of Machine Vision Systems
23.6. Machine Vision System Applications
23.7. Development Programmes
23.8. Gray Scale vs Binary Imaging
23.9. Gray Scale Image Processing Techniques
23.10. Mathematical Morphology for Shape Analysis
23.11. Circular Scanning
23.12. Photogrammetry
23.13. Industrial Computed Topography (CT) for Evaluation of Internal
Structures of Large, Dense Parts
23.14. Grazing Incident Technique to Evaluate Surface Flatness
23.15. Visual Inspection
23.16. Laser Inspection
23.17. Robotic Gauging and Inspection Systems
23.18. Computers in Metrology
23.19. Software Control Hierarchy
23.20. Automatic Inspection Machines
23.21. Expert Knowledge Based Real Time Inspection System
Worked Examples
24. RELIABILITY 1116—1148
24.1. System Reliability
24.2. Probability and its Application to Series and Parallel Reliability
(Redundancy)
24.3. Reliability Analysis
Chapter Pages
24.4. Reliability Analysis of Systems 1118
24.5. System Reliability for Series and Parallel Configuration
24.6. Optimum Reliability
24.7. Reliability Allocation
24.8. Repairable System Allocation Method
24.9. Reliability Analysis Techniques
24.10. Probability Evaluation
24.11. Fault Diagnostics and Trouble Shooting
24.12. System Maintenance
24.13. Trouble Shooting Systems
24.14. Trouble Shooting Aids
24.15. Maintainability
24.16. Reliability
25. EVALUATING UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT 1148—1173
25.1. Introduction 1148
25.2. Sources of Uncertainty in Measurements
25.3. Method of Evaluation of Uncertainty
25.3.1. Evaluating Uncertainty of Measurement
25.3.2. Type A Evaluationof Uncertainty
25.3.3. Type B Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty
25.3.4. Expanded Uncertainty
25.3.5. Statement of Uncertainty in Measurement
25.3.6. Uncertainty Budget
25.3.7. Degrees of Freedom
25.3.8. Definitions
25.4. Competence of Testing and Callibration Laboratories
25.4.1. Apex Level Calibration 2nd NPL
25.5. International Traceability
25.6. Mass Metrology
25.7. Coordinate Measuring Machine and Uncertainty in Measurements
25.8. Length Measurement Uncertainty of CMM
Solved Problems
26. METROLOGY LABORATORIES —1183
26.1. Metrology Laboratory Calibration Programme Management
26.2. Quality Management System for Metrology Laboratories
26.3. Role of Calibration Services
26.4. Laboratory Accreditation
26.5. Third-Party Accreditation of Testing and Calibration Laboratories
26.6. International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML)
26.7. Core Values and Concepts for Industries
26.8. Automated Measurement Techniques
26.9. Geometric Demensioning and Tolerancing
Solved Problems
Objective Type Questions and Answers
Appendix I—Rules Relating to the Circle
Appendix II—Indian Standard Specifications on Engineering Metrology
Appendix III—References for Further Reading
Index
1236APPENDIX 1235
APPENDIX-III
REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READING
Author
A.S.T.M.E.
A.C. Parkinson
K.J. Hume
K.J. Hume and
G.H.Sharp
Title of book
Handbook of Industrial Metrology
Engineering Inspection
Engineering Metrology
Practical Metrology
Publishers
Prentice Hall
Pitman
Macdonald
Handbook No. 2 British
Standards for Workshop Practice
Engineering Precision Measurements
Practical Engineering Metrology
Metrology and Gauging
Fundamentals of Mechanical Inspection
Precision Workshop Methods
Engineering Dimensional Metrology
Fundamentals of Dimensional Metrology
Engineering Inspection,
Measurement and Testing
Inspection and Gauging
Symposium on Dimensional Metrology
British Standards
Institution
Chapman and Hall
Pitman
Macdonald
McGraw Hill
Arnold
Arnold
Wilkie Bros.
Odhams
AW. Judge
K.W.B. Sharp
S.A.J. Parsons
R. Jenkins
H.J. Davis
L. Miller
T. Busch
H.C. Town and
R. Coleboume
C.W. Kennedy
N.P.L.
Machinery Pub. Co.
H.M.S.O. 1953Index
Angle dekkor, 540, 687
Angle gauge dividing head, 549
Angle gauges, 134, 527
Angle of a tapered hole, 573
Angle of a V-groove, 576
Angle plate, 112
Angle straight edges, 121
Angular measurement, 517
Angular spacing of a spline shaft,
Back pressure gauges, 384
Backlash, 754
Ball type plug gauge, 179
Bar diagram, 891
Barrel form, 52
Base pitch, 744
Base pitch measuring instrument, 744
Basic dimension, 264
Basic hole, 274
Basic principle of lot sampling,
A2-
D and 3-D measurements, 824
3-D optical probe, 831
100-hour reliability, 1117
ABBE principle, 215
ABC standard, 989
Acceptable quality level, 969
Acceptance sampling, 905
Acceptance sampling plans, 1016
Acceptance tests for shapers, 779
Acceptance tests for surface
grinders, 779
Acoustic image method, 1187
600
Angular tolerance, 323
Anthropometric data, 1143 951
Basic shaft, 274
Basic size, 271
Bausch and lomb projector, 785
Beam comparator, 104
Beam splitters, 439
Bearing area, 117
Bearing area, 643
Bearing ratio, 645
Bench centres, 120
Bench micrometer, 171, 688
Bench micrometer with dial comparator, 174
Best size wire, 694, 700
Bevel protractors, 518
Bias, 9
BIPM, 22
Blade type micrometer, 170
Block gauges, 318
Bonomial distribution, 1013
Bore gauges, 679
Boreseope, 1075
Bow form, 52
Bow shaped straight edge, 121,
125
Brookes level comparator, 200,
231
Anvil and spindle, 156
Accreditation, 249 Applications of CMM, 799
Accreditation of calibration faci- AQL plans, 991
Assessing circularity using a Vblock, 495
lities
, 248
Accuracy, 10
Accuracy and cost, 12
Accuracy and precision, 46
Accuracy class, 9
Accuracy of surface plates, 98
Accuracy of specifications for
the coordinate measuring
machines, 796
Assessment of surface roughness, 653
Assignable causes, 896
Atomic force microscope, 791
Attributes and variables, 889
Autocollimator, 533
Autocollimator accessories, 537
Accurate spindle, 498 Autocollimator applications, 539
Adaptations of surface plates, 114 Automated video system, 1115
Adjustable slip gauges, 194 Automatic gauging, 619, 623
Adjustable snap gauge, 300
Adjustable thread gauges, 714
Adjustable type gap gauges, 307
Adjustable V-Block, 497
Adjusting nut, 157
Adjustment for wear, 159
Air cartridge; 395
Air gauging with electronic
sensors, 396, 826
Air-jet sensing, 409
Airy points, 227
Alignment tests on lathe, 766
Alignment tests on pillar type
drilling machine, 777
Alignment tests on milling
machine, 771
Allowances, 271
American standards association B
tolerance system, 296
Automatic gear measuring
machine, 758
Automatic inspection machines,
622, 1112
Automatic rotary table calibrator, 552
Automatic shall; inspection
machine, 831
Automatic sizing, 624
Automatic sizing instrument, 624
Automobile cylinder bore gauge,
178
Average outgoing quality limit,
971
Axial runout, 54
Axial slip, 767
Axial slip of lead screw, 770
C
Calibration, 14
Calibration by interferometry,
201
Calibration of angle gauges, 529
Calibration of gauges, 602
Calibration of measuring
Back pressure circuit, 390 instruments, 602
1236INDEX 1237
Coincidence, 483 Cylinder gauges, 178
Combination depth and angle
gauge, 150
Combination set, 129
Combined limit gauge, 307
Company-wide quality control,
879
Comparators, 363
Competence of testing, 1160
Composite errors, 738
Composite method of gear checking, 754
Compound levers, 366
Compound sine tables, 116
Compound tolerances, 267
Compression correction, 704
Computer controlled coordinate
measuring machine, 800
Computers in metrology, 816,
1110
Concentricity checking attachment, 114
Confidence levels, 14
Confidence limits, 910
Constant chord method, 743
Constant deviation prism, 543
Consumer’s risk, 969
Contact type pneumaic gauging,
394
Contactless three dimensional
measurements, 628
Continuous distributions, 900
Contour gauges, 308
Control chart for standard
deviation, 918
Control chart for variables, 915
Control charts, 913, 1014
Control charts for fraction
defectives, 941
Control charts for range, 919
Control charts for X, 917
Coordinate measuring machines,
792, 808, 1166
Calibration of polygons, 550
Calibration of universal microscope, 607
Calibration service programme,
248
Calibration system, 50, 241
Calibration
requirements, 242
Calibration vs. Certification, 14
Caliper gauge, 210, 710
Caliper principle, 549
Calipers, 91
Camming, 500, 509
Care of metrological equipment.
D
Damping test, 1088
Data presentation, 889
Datum control, 389
David Borwn
comparator, 744
Deep bores, 178
Demerit control chart, 947
Design
instruments, 221
Deterministic metrology, 4
Deviation, 273
Dial calipers, 95
Dial depth gauge, 679
Dial Indicator, 366, 607
Dial micrometer caliper, 171
Dial pipe gauge, 679
Diameter
combinations, 717
Diameter of a large hole
accurately, 581
Diameter of a recessed hole, 580
Different distributions used in
tangent
systems
of metrological
19
Cast iron cubes, 118
Cast iron surface plates, 98
Causes of out-of-roundness, 492
C-chart, 943
Centre line average, 653
Ceramic slip gauges, 193
CGPM, 22
Chance and assignable causes of
variation, 873
Change causes, 896
Characteristic error, 31
Characteristics of measuring
instrument, 83
Characteristics of random errors,
and pitch
SQC, 899
Differential comparators, 393
Differential method of
measurement, 72
Differential screw micrometer.
33
175
Check plug for new solid go screw
ring gauge, 722
Checking of involute shape of
gear, 750
Checking of profile of involute
shape of gear, 749
Checking of slip gauges, 615
Checking rotation, 506
Checking the flatness, 422
CIPM, 22
Circular division, 544
Circular division by polygons, 548
Circular pitch measuring
machine, 752
Circular scanning, 1102
Circumferential confining gauge,
Differential unit, 377
Diffraction measurement technique, 458
Diffraction pattern technique,
1107
Diffraction
gauging, 635
Digital caliper, 142
Digital comparators, 378
Digital height gauge with
statistical production control,
826
Digital in-line scale readout
device, 451
Digital length gauges, 150
Digital measurement equipment,
184, 821
Digital micrometers, 173
Discrimination, 7
Displacement method, 232
Disposition of tolerances and
deviations, 277
Distance gauge, 144
technique for
— length
uncertainty of, 1169
Coordinate measuring robots,
measurement
494 823
Correction, 6
Correction and correction factor,
Clamping pallets for CNC
machines, 115
Classification of thread gauges, 72
Corrective maintenance, 1135
Cosine error, 213
Cross strip hinge, 370
Cross-wind, 218
708
Clearance, 281
Clearance fit, 272, 289
Clinometers, 532r
1238 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Divided circles, 620
Dividing heads, 546
Dixon test, 33
Documentary standards, 258
Electro-optical inspection, 629
Elements of thread, 687
End bars, 229
End standards, 229
Fillet gauges, 134
Firm joint calipers, 92
Firm joint divider, 92
Fishbone chart, 850
Fits, 271
Fixed gauges, 299, 351
Flat surface generation, 99
Flatness, 53
Documenting the quality policy, Engineer’s parallels, 132
Engineer’s square, 131
Dodge plan for continuous Engineer’s square tester, 488
sampling, 986
Dodge-romig tables, 984
Double ended solid snap gauge,
854
Engineer’s steel rule, 88
Engineer’s taper, wire and Flatness testing, 421
Flexible fiberscopes, 1076
Flexible strips, 214
Flow responsive system, 390
Fluid displacement comparators,
thickness gauge, 134
300 Engineering microscopes, 787
Environmental control, 238
Environmental error, 31, 65
Equidistance, 482
Error distribution, 35
Error reduction and
compensation, 795
Errors accumulation, 36
Double microscope, 660
Dowell prism, 544
Drunken thread, 684
Dual
397
frequency laser
interferometer, 441
Dynamic error, 32
Dynamic measurement, 617
Dynamic probe, 1137
Dynamical method to determine Errors due to vibrations, 39
the radius of ARC, 596
Fluidic numerical control, 810
error Fluoroscopy, 1106
Focusing telescope, 489
Focusing telescope system, 490
Folding steel rule, 90
Formulae for tolerances and
deviations, 282
Four balls method, 181
precision Fraction defective and the
binomial distribution, 938
Free flow air gauge, 383
Errors due to deflection, 40
Errors due to wear in gauges, 41
Errors in circularity, 491
Errors
measurements, 37
EEden-rolt millionth comparator, in
199
Eden-rolt millionth comparator, Errors in threads, 684
373 Evaluating surface roughness, Frequency bar chart, 895
Effect of alignment, 37 658
Effect of eccentricity of pitch Evaluation of surface roughness, Frequency distribution, 896
Frequency histogram, 895
Frequency curve, 898
error, 753 660
Effect of pitch error, 686 Expanded scale, 210
Effect of supports, 37
Effective
measurements, 690
Effective diameter of tapered
threads, 694
Effects of environment, 37
Elastic deformation, 239
Electrical comparator, 374, 621
Electrical level, 128
Electrical/magnetic
1087
Frequency polygon, 895
Expanded uncertainty, 1153, Fringe pattern, 423
F-test, 1002
Fundamental deviation, 273
Fundamental deviations for
holes
, 284
Fundamental deviations of
shafts, 283
1159
— degrees of freedom, 1154,
1159
Expert knowledge based real
time inspection system, 1113
Exponential distribution, 1013
Expressing tolerances, 265
diameter
G
F
Gamma radiography, 1085
Gas lasers, 420
Gauge card specifications, 605
Gauge control structure, 235
Gauge design, 310
Gauge error, 189
Gauge maker’s tolerance, 311
Gauge making tolerances, 714
Gauge wear, 711, 714
Gauges for internal threads, 724
Gauges for ISO metric screw
threads, 708
Gauges for major diameter, 723
Gauges for tapers, 318 - —
methods, Facets of quality, 844
Failure density, 1122
Failure mode analysis, 1045,
1119
Electricheck, 619
Electricheck gauges, 377
Electronic comparator, 378, 618
Electronic digital caliper, 143
Electronic digital machine scales, Fault diagnostics and trouble
150 shooting, 1134 ,
Electronic digital readout height Fault-free analysis, 1119
gauge, 151
Electronic gauging, 376, 627
Electronic indicator, 377
Failure rate, 1122
Failure tree analysis, 1045
Feeler gauges, 134
Feeler microscope, 809
Fiber optic probes for in-process
control, 834
Fiducial value, 15
Electronic precision levels, 128
Electronic sizing device, 624INDEX 1239
International committee of
weights and measures, 22
International metrology, 258
International organisation of
weights and measures, 22
Image processing, 1096
Image shearing miscroscope, 811
Imperial standard yard, 227
Implementation of quality, 853
Gauging force, 343
Gauging of taps, 715
Gauging practice, 315
Gauging thin strips, 620
Gear errors, 737
Gear involute
machine, 750
Gear measurement, 739
Inaccuracy, 9
measuring Included angle by three discs International system of units, 24
International tolerance grade,
274
method, 587
Indian standard (IS 91901993),
International traceability, 1161
Involute curve, 731
Gear testing centre, 759, 760 270
Gear tooth calliper, 742 Indicating snap gauge, 380
Gearing operation requirements, Indicating thread comparator. Involute function, 732
735 728 Involute profile testing machine,
General conference of weights Indicator gauges, 677 751
and measures, 22
Generation of straight edge, 124
Geniometers, 540
Geometric characteristics and
Irregular errors, 685
Irregularities of a circular part,
Indirect pneumatic
devices, 396
gauging
Industrial computed tomography, 491
1103 ISO, 22
ISO 9001: 2000,
— advantages of, 1077
— concepts of, 1060
— disadvantages of, 1077
— documentation preparation for, 1077
— elements of, 1075
— implementation of, 1064
— introduction, 1063
— principles of, 1064
— realization requirements
in, 1067
— remedial requirements,
1069
— requirements of, 1065,
1066, 1079
— resource requirements in,
1067
ISO system of limits and fits, 298
Isometric viewing of surface
defects, 810
symbols, 324 In-process measurement, 626
Geometric dimensioning and Inside calipers, 94
tolerancing, 323
Geometric tolerance, 324
Geometrical values, 52
Glass surface plates, 111
Globalisation, 85
Go screw caliper gauge, 722
Grades of tolerance, 281
Graduated rule accessories, 90
Graduated scales, 176
Inside micrometer, 163
Inside micrometer calipers, 163
Inspection, 4, 242
Inspection by the manufacturer,
315
Inspection by the purchaser, 315
Inspection gauging, 299
Inspection of flaw in materials,
1086
Inspection of printed circuit
boards (PCB), 836
Inspection tool, 20
Installation of ISO 9001 quality
system, 1079
Instrument range, 18
Integrity, 1142
Intelligent vision, 632
Interchangeability, 267
Interference fit, 272, 292
Interference of two rays, 418
Interferometers, 425
Interferometric calibration of
Granite straight edges, 124
Granite surface plates, 111
Gratings in metrology, 451
Gray scale analysis, 1115
Gray scale vs. binary imaging,
Grazing incident technique,
Groove micrometers, 172
Grooving for lapping plates, 102
HHand lapping, 101
Hardness test, 1091
Hemispherical gauge, 177
Hermophrodite calipers, 95
Heterodyne
technique, 441
High precision surface plates, 111
Histogram, 892
Hole, 274, 292
Holographic recording, 1089
Horizontal optimeter, 790
Hysteresis, 7
Japanese quality management,
879
angle gauge, 539
interferometry Interferometry, 421 K
Keilpart gauge, 178
Kinematic Kinematic slide accuracy , 215, 7^6
Kinematics, 221
Roster's prism, 429
Interior angle of a profile gauge,
577
Internal audit, 1073
Internal dial gauge, 678
Internal dovetail, 574
Internal estimates of lot quality, Krypton 86, 420
963
Internal measurements, 177
Internal taper in blind hole, 574
Lack of control, 1024
Laser inspection, 1106
Intemation standard on quality Laser interferometer, 435, 535
management system, 1063
IEC, 22
ILAC, 221240 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Laser scanning gauge, 1108
Laser telemetric system, 631
Laser triangulation sensors, 1077 Major diameter, 687
Laser viewers, 810
Lay, 655
Lead measurement, 754
Least count of vernier scale, 211
Least material limit, 282
Least squares circles, 492
Led based distance measuring
instruments, 632
Legal metrology, 3
Leitz system, 455
Length bars, 194
Levelling depth, 665
Levelling of the machine, 766
Light cross-section method, 659
Light sources for interferometry,
419
Magnification, 13
Maintainability, 1132, 1137
Measuring contacts, 136
Measuring heads, 391
Measuring instruments, 7, 17, 82
Management requirements of Measuring machine, 782, 804
ISO 9000 : 2000, 1066 Measuring means, 5
Management of gauges with Measuring probe head, 801
computers, 636 Measuring range, 7
Managing measuring equipment, Measuring roundness, 499
59
Measuring surface finish, 646
Mechanical Accuracy, 807
Mechanical bevel protractor, 519
Mechanical comparator, 365, 370
Mechanical lapping, 195
Mechanical optical comparator,
Mandrels, 780
Manufacture of slip gauges, 194
Mass metrology, 1162
— instruments mass , 1164
— measuring procedure,
1165
measuring
371
Mechanical roller thickness
gauge, 620
Mechanical roughness indicator,
660
Methods of data presentation,
890
— selection of weighing
instruments, 1164
— standards of mass, 1164
— unit of mass, 1163
Master gears, 755
Master height gauge, 150
Materialisation of the meter, 234
Light-wave interference, 418
Limit caliper gauge, 300
Limit for gauges for tapers, 319
Limit plug gauge, 300
Limit system, 278
Limitations of line graduated
rules, 210
Limits of size, 270
Limits, fits and gauges, 261
Line graduated measuring
instruments, 87
Line standard
, 226
Linear diode array, 635
Linearity, 42
Loading errors, 31
Lobed surface, 515
Lobedness, 52
Lobing, 491
Logistics, 1143
Long series slip gauges, 194
Methods of measurement, 16, 71
Methods of random sampling, 957
Mathematical Morphology for Metre, 227
shape analysis, 1102 Metrological characteristics, 18
Metrology, 1
Metrology laboratory, 243
Metrology of screw thread, 681
Michelson interferometer, 426
Micro interferometer, 647
Micro-alignment telescope, 490
Micrometer depth gauge, 168
Micrometer
comparator, 174
Micrometers, 156
Matrix internal diameter
measuring machine, 784
Matrix pitch measuring machine,
698
Maximum and minimum metal
conditions, 282
Maximum height of irregularity,
642
Maximum inscribed circle, 492 with dial
Maximum material limit, 282
Measure radius on a part, 591
Measurement and testing of
grears, 730
Microprocessors in metrology.
833
Microprocessors in SQC, 1009
Microptic autocollimator, 538
Microscopic inspection, 646
^ Minimum 493 circumscribed circle,
Minimum radial separation
circles, 492
Minor diameter, 688
Misalignment, 53
Misalignment error, 66
Miscellaneous measurements,
572
Modem gear measuring
machines, 756
Modular fixturing system, 116
Moire fringes, 451, 469
Measurement during machining,
624
Lot sampling for estimation of lot Measurement of circularity, 491
quality, 961 Mesurement of error
circularity, 502
Measurement of gear pitch, 751
Measurement of gears using
gratings, 757
Measurement of limit gauges, 609
Measurement of pitch, 696
Measurement of roundness, 494
Measurement of surface finish,
638
Lot sampling for lot acceptance,
966
Lower deviation, 273
LVDT, 375
MMachine tools tests, 766
Machine vision, 818
Machine vision systems, 1094
Magnetic crack detection method,
1083
Magnetic particle inspection, Measuring a taper plug gauge by
rollers, 585
Measurement problem, 19
!
1081INDEX 1241
Optical methods for on-line
measurements, 634
Optical micrometer, 220, 565
Optical principles, 54
Multiaxis measuring machines, Optical probe, 809
Optical projection comparator,
Pictorial presentation of data pie
diagram, 890
Moire scales, 452
Moire technique, 540
Pilot plug gauge, 300
Pin gauge for larger bores, 179
Pitch accuracy oflead screw, 770
Pitch errors, 684
Pitch measuring machines, 699
Pitch screw gauge, 135
Pitter-NPL gauge interferometer,
M-system, 662
Multi sample test, 64
822
Multicheck comparators, 398 784
Multi-dimension
gauging, 628
Multi-gauging systems, 396, 827
Multi-path systems, 1140
Multipurpose angle plates, 114
automatic Optical projectors, 399
Optical rotary table, 545
Optical system of optimeter, 789
Optimum reliability, 1126
Organisation for quality, 878
Organising quality, 851
Originating surface plate, 101
Ornamenting scraped surfaces,
432
Pitter screw measuring machine,
698
Plain gauges, 298
Plain index centre, 533
Plain plug gauges, 301
Plain ring gauges, 303
Planer gauge, 133
Planning sample selection, 958
Plate snap gauges, 306
Plug and ring gauges for selfholding tapers, 319
Plug gauge, tanged, 320
Plug gauges, plain, 319
Plus screw gauges, 708
Pneumatic comparators, 382
Pneumatic gauges, 382
Pneumatic sensitivity, 386
Pneumatic sizing device, 625
Pneumatic test indicator, 396
Pneumatic thickness gauge, 621
Polar graph, 498
Position gauge, 308
Positional tolerances, 323
Practical tests, 771
Precision and accuracy, 9
Precision index table, 545
Precision instruments based on
laser, 631
Precision linear measurements,
NN.P.L. flatness interferomter,
430
Nanometrology, 49
Nanotechnology, 833
National measurement system,
246
National physical laboratory, 29
National service of legal metrology, 23
Nature of light, 418
Newall measuring machine, 783
Newall system, 294
NMI, 22
No go screw caliper gauge, 723
Nominal size, 6
Non-destructive testing of
metals, 1081
Normal curve
, 901
Normal distribution, 1013
Normal inspection, 977
Normal reduced and tightened
inspection, 977
NPL-higher
interferometer, 201
100
Out of round, 507
Out-of-roundness, 491
Outside calipers, 94
Outside micrometer caliper, 169
Ovality, 52, 491
Overall uncertainty, 35
P
Paired T-test, 1001
Paper layout gauging, 327
Parallax, 18
Parallax effect, 41
Parallax error, 66
Parallel motion, 481
Parallel reliability, 1117
Pareto analysis of rejections, 875
Parkinson gear tester, 755
Passmeter, 677
Peak to valley height, 652
Penetrant inspection method,
1083
Performance of CMM, 798
Periodic pitch error, 685
Periodical axial slip, 508
Perpendicularity of motion, 484
Philips standard, 986
Philosophy of Probability, 1116
Photo diode array imaging, 1107
Photo-electric
microscope, 809
Photoelectric microptic autocollimator, 536
Photoelectric scale viewing
system, 454
gauge
o
Objectives of metrology, 20
OGIVE, 895
OIML, 22
Online calibration, 203
One’s own plans, 991
One-wire method, 691
Operating characteristics curve,
135
Precision microptic clinometer,
532
Precision ploygons, 547
Precision scale, 228
Precision sine vice, 117
Preventive maintenance, 604,
1135
Primary standards, 229
Primary texture, 641
Principle of alignment, 136, 221
Principle of kinematics, 136
Principles of least squares, 35
micrometer
967
Optical bevel protractor, 517
Optical dividing head, 520
Optical flats, 443
Optical holographymethod, 1089 Photofluoroscopy, 1085
Photogrammetry, 1103
Physical measurement, 5
Optical inspection system, 634
Optical measuring instruments,
7881242 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Principles of sample selection, Quality target, 855
Quality-a business strategy, 844
Quantum physics, 49
Qulaity plans
— preparation of, 1072
Retro-reflectors, 439
Reversal method, 514
Rib type snap gauges, 305
Rigidity, 221
Ring gauge, plain, 321
Ring gauge, tanged, 321
Ring screw gauges, 710
Robotic gauging, 1109
Rocking prism, 370
Roller type adjustable thread
gauge, 715
Rolling tests, 740
Rotary table, 544, 551
Roughness average, 663
Roughness comparison specimens, 658
Roundness and circularity, 494
Roundness measuring machines,
504
956
Prismatic gratings, 453
Probability distributions, 1020
Probes, 809
Process capability, 908, 1015
Process control robot, 832
Producer’s risk, 969
Profile filters, 504
Profile gauges, 309
Profile measurements, 510
Profile projector, 402
Profilometer, 648
Progressive pitch error, 684
Protector, 219
Protector blocks, 192
R.R
M.S. value, 652
Radial throw. 507
Radical runout, 53
Radiography, 1084
Radius gauges, 133
Radius of a concave surface, 579
Rake correction, 703
Random errors, 32, 73
Ratchet driver, 157
Ratchet stop mechanism, 158
Reading a micrometer, 161
Readout systems for scales, 447
Receiver gauges, 309
Rectilinear chart, 892
QQ.
C. plan, 859
QSTM, 60
Quality assurance system, 854 Roundness 499 measuring spindles,
Quality assurance, 244, 866
Quality at competitive cost, 1047 Reducing
Quality auditing, 869
Reduced inspection, 978'
the volume
Runout, 506, 753
Run-sum test, 927
inspection, 925
Reed comparator, 413
Reed type
comparator, 367
Reference circules, 492
Quality control and quality Reference discs, balls, 208
assurance, 843
Quality control concepts, 849
Quality control manual, 853
Quality control, 845
Quality costs assessment, 864
Quality economics, 863
Quality improvement programmes, 58
Quality improvement techniques,
1046
Quality characteristics, 843 S
Quality circles, 880
Quality control and breakthrough, 873
mechanical Sample length, 651
Sample size to estimate the
average quality, 964
Sampling inspection, 948
Sampling length, 642
Sampling method, 958
Sampling plans for inspection by
attributes, 975
Sampling plans for inspection by
variables, 991
Scale, 88
Scale division value, 18
Scale interval, 7
Scales and gratings, 446
Scanning laser beam, 635
Scanning laser gauge, 1107
Scanning laser gauges, 1114
Schematic representation of the
position of fundamental
deviations, 279
Schewart control charts, 1022
Scientific quality control, 877
Scrapping of flat surfaces, 100
Scratch inspection, 646
Screw check plugs for new sold no
go screw rings gauge, 723
Screw measuring machine, 689
Screw thread gauge tolerance, -
Reference gauges, 318
Reference standards, 47
Regression and correlation, 1004
Regular scale, 210
Rejectable quality level, 969
Reliability, 1138
— trouble shooting aids, 1136
— trouble shooting systems,
1135
Reliability allocation, 1127
Reliability analysis, 1117
Reliability analysis of systems,
1117
Reliability analysis techniques,
1118
Quality improvement,
— by Crosby, 1059
— by Deming, 1058
Quality management, 876, 1041
Quality manual,
— preparation of, 1070
Quality motivation, 857, 860
Quality planning, 855
Quality policy, 854
Quality system requirements, Repeatability, 8, 13, 18, 73
1041 Replica method, 651
Quality system,
Reliability and life testing, 993
Reliability testing, 1120
Repairable system allocation
method, 1127
Representation of surface finish,
640
— , certifiestion/regestration,
079 Reproducibility, 73
ocumentation, 1070, 1077 Response time, 8 713INDEX 1243
Sources of errors, 30
Sources of
manufacturing gears, 735
Spacing parameters, 665
Spatial frequency, 452
Spherical coordinate measuring
machine, 793
Spin table, 498
Spindle locking arrangement,159
Spirit level, 126, 530
Spring calipers, 93
micro- Squareness, 484
Squareness error, 190, 488
Squareness testing, 484
Standard tolerance, 281
Standard tolerance factor, 281
Standardisation, 20
Standards, 226
Standards of measurements, 81
Static errors, 30
Statistical analysers, 1006
Setting plug for adjustable go Statistical determination of
capability, 909
Setting plug for go screw caliper Statistical process control, 1044
gauges, 723
Setting up a QA system, 245
Shaft, 274
Shewhart control charts, 903
Sigma comparator, 369
Simple statistical tools, 903
Sine centre, 527
Sine principle, 520
Sine table, 115, 526
Single angle sine tables, 116
Single frequency
interferometer system, 427
Single path systems, 1139
Single sample test, 64
Slip gauge accessories, 205
Slip gauges, 185
Small bore diameter, 182
Smoothness of gear operation, Stylus probe instruments, 648
Sub-division of standards, 229
Sub-micron accuracy, 832
System maintenance, 1134
in System reliability, 1116
Systematic errors, 32,73
Systematic sampling, 957
Screw thread projection, 786
Screw threads terminology, 681
Scribing and centre points, 207
Second order response, 8
Secondary standards, 229
Secondary texture, 641
Selection of engineering
tolerances, 264
Selection of fits, 289
Selection of instruments, 15
Selective Assembly, 268
Self-centering inside
meter, 166
Sensitivity, 7
Sensitivity and range, 61
Sensitivity and readability, 14
Sensitivity of a level, 217
Sensitivity threshold, 18
Sequential analysis, 980 _
Series parallel reliability, 1117
Series reliability, 1117
errors
Talysurf, 650
Tangential gear tooth calliper,
746
Taper testing machine, 553
Taper-screw operated internal
micrometer, 172
Taylor principle, 315
Taylor’s principle applied to
screw thread gauges, 711
Taylor’s principle in design of
limit gauges, 341
Taylor-Htffcson Talysurf, 649
Telescojjajntemal gauge, 177
Ten point heightr of irregtrfari.-
ties, 643
Ten point peak to valley average
height, 664
screw ring gauge, 722 Terminology for surface
roughness, 641
Statistical production control. Terminology of gear tooth, 731
151 Tertiary standards, 229
Statistical quality control, 888 Test indicators, 674
Statistical quality tools, 1015
Statistical tests of significance, Test type indicators, 673
Testing flatness, 103
Testing parallelism, 425
Theory of probability, 948
Theory of quality control, 905
Thermal effects in dimensional
Test plug method, 746
996
Statistical treatment of errors, 34
Steel rule, 88
Step gauge, 208
Stick micrometers, 167
DC Straight edges, 120
Straightness, 53, 764
Straightness measuring gauge, Thread comparator, 694
metrology, 237
Thimble and barrel, 157
395 Thread form, 696
Thread measuring machine, 692
Thread micrometer, 690
Thread micrometer caliper, 169
Threads pitch gauges for ISO
metric screw threads, 727
Three point shaft gauging, 618
Three wire method, 692
Three-point probe, 497
Tightened inspection, 978
Tilting tables, 117
Tolerance and geometry, 322
Tolerance for screw thread
gauges and screw threads, 711
Tolerance limits, 912
Tolerance zone, 281
Stratified sampling, 956
Stylus, 650
Stylus and skid, 657
736
Snap gauges, 305
Societe genevoise
measuring machine, 784
Software control hierarchy, 1112
Solex pneumatic gauge, 391
universal Suppressed-zero scale, 210
Surface contour test, 423
Surface metrology, 661
Surface plates, 96
Solid or.adjustable go screw ring Surface roughness, 640, 662
gauge, 722
Solid or adjustable
ring gauge, 723
Surface texture, 639
no go screw Swyman-green
457
System effectiveness, 1132
interferometer,
Solid state cameras, 10961244 ENGINEERING METROLOGY
Tolerance zones for pitch dia- Trigger type probe system, 801
meter, 723
Vernier height gauge, 145
Vernier instruments, 137
Vertical optimeter, 789
Video metrology, 1114
Virtual effective diameter, 686
laser Vision methodology, 633
Vision systems, 820
Twyman-Green specilisation, 428 Visual inspection, 646, 1105
Types of errors, 927
True running, 767
Tolerance zones for plain gauges T-tests, 997
for screw threads, 726 Twisted taut strip, 366
Tolerances, 263, 271 Two wire method, 691
Tolerancing system for screw Two-frequency
threads, 719 interferometer, 1108
Tomlinson surface meter, 649
Tool maker’s flats, 110
Tool maker’s microscope, 787
Tool maker’s straight edges, 120
Tool maker’s microscope, 790
Tooth bearing contact, 737
Tooth thickness, 741
Total quality control, 1043
— Kaizen rules, 1057
— Taguchi approach, 1045,
1051
Total quality culture, 1050, 1052
Total quality management
(TQM), 1036, 1038, 1049
— evolution of, 1037
— guidelines for implementation of, 1040, 1053
— Juran’s veiw in, 1059
— need of, 1051
— objectives of, 1050
— principles of, 1039
— terms used in, 1061
— tools and techniques for,
1043 .
Volumetric length measuring
U accuracy, 797
Ultrasonic gauges, 402
Ultrasonic inspection, 1085
Uncertainty, 15
WWavelength standard, 232
Wear allowance, 311
Uncertainty in measurement, Wear check plug for solid and
adjustable go ring gauge, 722
Wear
-out, 1139
Weibull distribution, 1013
Wickman adjustable thread
gauge, 714
— method of evaluation of, Width of a V-groove, 577
Working standards, 229
Workship and inspection gauges,
311
1148
— budget, 1159
— components, 1156, 1157
— definitions, 1155
— equation, 1156
1149
-— sources of, 1148
Unilateral and bilateral
tolerances, 339
Universal bevel protractor, 518
Universal height micrometer, 151 Wringing, 190
Universal measuring instrument, Wringing and enforced adhesion;
152, 830
Workshop
instrument, 829
measuring
190
Universal measuring machine, Wringing slip-gauges, 219
502, 783, 806, 828
Universal surface gauge, 130
Upper deviation, 273
Use of computers, 817
X
TQM system, 1039
— requirements, 1041
Touch inspection, 646
Touch trigger probe, 823
Traceability, 15, 60
X-ray examination, 1083
Yard, 226
Validation system, 1140 z
Zeiss optotest comparator, 372
Zeiss slip gauge interferometer,
617
Zeiss ultra-optimeter, 372
Zero line, 271
Zero setting, 389
Traceability of accuracy, 247 V-anvil micrometer caliper, 170
Traceability within world metro- Variability, 889
logy, 259 Variance of error distribution, 36
Tracer type profilogram, 659
Transfer calipers, 94
Transfer from line standard to V-block, 118, 497
end standard, 230
Variation gauge, 108
Variations in quality, 896
Verification, 6
Transition fit, 273, 291 Vernier depth gauge, 149


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