كتاب Mechanical Design of Process Systems - Volume 2
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 كتاب Mechanical Design of Process Systems - Volume 2

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كتاب Mechanical Design of Process Systems - Volume 2 Empty
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Mechanical Design of Process Systems - Volume 2
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Rotating Equipment
Bins, Silos, Stacks
A.Keith Escoe
Contents
Foreword vii
by John J. McKetta

كتاب Mechanical Design of Process Systems - Volume 2 S_a_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface ix
Chapter 5
The Engineering Mechanics of Bins, Silos,
and Stacks 1
Silo and Bin Design, I
Stack Design, 8
Vortex Shedding and Frequency Responsc.
Ovaling. Helical Vortex Breaker Strakes.
Example 5-l: Granule Bin Design for Roofing
Plant, 11
Bin Stiffener Design. Vcssel Supports.
Example 5-2: High-Pressure Flare Stack Design, 20
Effective Diameters. Section
Weights-Uncorroded weight. Required t
Thickness. Anchor Bolt Design. Cantilever
Vibration. Static Deflection. Dynamic
Deflection. Anchor Bolt Torque. Design
Summary.
Example 5-3: Stack Vortex Strake Design, 27
Example 5-4: Natural Frequency of Ovaling
Ring Formula (Michell Formula), 28
Notation,29
References, 29
Chapter 6
Rotating Equipment 31
Pumps, 31
Centrifugal Pumps. Hydraulic Requirements of
Centrifugal Pumps. Positive Displacement
Pumps. Pressure Protection for Positive
Displacement Pumps.
Compressors,43
Principles of Compression. Reversible
Adiabatic (lsentropic) Compression. Polytropic
Compression. Isothermal Compressron.
Dimensionless Reference Numbers. Centrifugal
Compressors. Reciprocating Compressors.
\{ulriple Staging of Reciprocating Compressors.
Cas Temperature for Reciprocating
Compressors. Axial Flow Compressors.
Specirying Compressor Flow Conditions. Mass
Flow. Actual or lnlet Volumetric Flow.
Standard Volumetric Flow. Properly Specifying
Compressor Flow Conditions.
Piping Systems for Rotating Equipment, 60
Nozzle Loadings.
Pulsation Response Spectra Induced by
Reciprocating Equipment, 62
Example 6-l: Horizontal Centrifugal Pump
Sysrem Design, 65
Suction Line Pressure Drop. K-Values.
Discharge Line Pressure Drop. The Effects of
Liquid Viscosity on Centritugal Pumps.
Example 6-2: Positive Displacement Pump
Design,74
Suction Line Pressure Drop. K-Values. A word
About Priming.
Example 6-3: Centrifugal Compressor Selection,
Example 6-4: Installing a Compressor at
Elevation, 34
Selecting the Reciprocating Compressor.
Example 6-5: Naphtha Pump System Design, 86
Flow from Reservoir to Naphtha Storage Tank.
Naphtha Pump Hydraulics. The Maximum
Capacity Condition. Reevaluation of Reservoir
Line.
Notation,9T
References, 97
79Chapter 7
The Mechanical Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers 99
Fundamentals of Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers,99
Design Classifications of Heat Exchangers.
Fixed Tubesheet Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers. U-Tube Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers. Floating Head Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers. General TEMA Exchanger
Classes-R, C, and B. Basic Components of
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers. TEMA
Formulations. ASME TUbe Joint Load Criteria.
Process Evaluation of Shell-and-Tirbe
Exchangers, 115
Tube Wall Temperature and Caloric
Temperaturc. Overall Heat Transfer
Coefficient. Fouling of Inside and Ourside Tube
Surfaces. Tube Film Coefficients.
Tube Vibrations, 139
Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers, 147
Example 7-1: Regenerated Gas Exchanger
Design, 148
Tube-Side Film Coefficient. Shell-Side Film
Coefficient. Shell-Side Pressure Drop.
Example 7-2: Vibration Check for Regenerated
Gas Exchanger, 153
Example 7-3: Chlorine Superheater Design, 154
Tube-Side Film Coefficient. Shell-Side Film
Coefficient. Shell-Sid€ Pressure Drop. TUbe
Metal Temperature.
Example 7-4: Asphalt Coating Mix Heater-A
Non-Newtonian Fluid Application, 160
Tube-Side Film Coefficient. Shell-Side Film
Coefficient. Shell-Side Pressure Drop.
Example 7-5: Zero LMTD Exchanger, 165
Notation, 165
References, 166
Chapter 8
External Loadings on Shell Structures 169
Lifting Lug Design, 170
Example 8-1: Lifting Lug Design and Location, 170
Notation, 175
References, 176
Appendix A
Partial Volumes and Pressure Vessel
Cafcufations ,177
Partial Volume ofa Cylinder, 177
Partial Volume of a Hemispherical Head, 177
Partial Volumes of Spherically Dished Heads, 178
Partial Volumes of Elliptical Heads, 179
Partial Torispherical Heads, 181
Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with
Outside Dimensions, 183
Internal Pressure ASME Formulations with Inside
Dimensions, 184
Appendix B
National Wind Design Standards . 187
Criteria for Determining Wind Speed, 187
Wind Speed Relationships, 188
ANSI A58.1-1982 Wind Categories, 189
Appendix G
Properties ot Pipe . . . 193
Insulation Weight Factors, 200
Weights of Piping Materials, 201
Appendix D
Conversion Factors . .225
Alphabetical Conversion Factors, 226
Synchronous Speeds, 233
Temperature Conversion, 234
Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures, 235
Pressure Conversion Chart, 236
Index
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. See
ASME.
API, degrees for hydrometer,
conversions, tables of, 92
defined,8T-88
ASME Section VIII Division I
joint reliability factor, l13-l14
joint types for tubesheets. I l5
maximum tube joint force, ll3, 157
tube joint load criteria, 113
vessel code, 99, 101
Axial flow compressors
aircraft, for, 59
airfoil blades for
pitch, 58
size,58
applications of, 44, 58-59
characteristic curve for, 59
operating range of, 49
surge limit of, 59
Beams, boundary conditions for, continuous beams,
142
Bins
arching (rathole, l-2, 6)
critical dimension for, 3, 12
critical flow factor for, 4
critical hooper dimensions, 6
dead storage, 1-2
degradation flow condition, 1
design of, reasons for inefficiency, 1
flow, erratic, I
flushing of, 1
funnel flow in, 1, 6, 8
hoop pressure in, rnaximum, 6
hooper angle, 3
mass flow in, 1, 3-4, 6, 8, 11
piping,3
angle of internal friction, 3-4, 6-7
angle of friction, effective, 6*7
critical flow factor for, 7
piping factor, 304
pneumatic gases in, 7
pressure vessels, differences from, 1
segregation, 1
shear stress, 1
solid flow, pressure distribution for, 8
steady flow, consolidating pressure for, 3
structural design,
conical portions, rectangular, 17
frame detail, 20
stiffener design, 14-16
hoop force, 16
stresses in, 13- 14
truss design, 18-20
wall friction angle, 4-5
Blowers and fans, 59
Bulk solid properties
bins, in, 1, 6
bulk density, 3, 6
critical dimensions of, 3
pressure of, consolidating, 4, 6-7
stresses,
hooper wall, on, 3
solids, in, 3
typical values oi 7
yield strength, solid material, 3
Centrifu gal compressors
actual, or inlet, flow rate, 80
advantages of, 43-44
affinity laws, 50
237Mechanical Design of Process Systems
anti-surge devices for, 52
diagram of, 53
applications of, 49
compressibility curves for, 81
compressibility factor, significance of, 83
compression process, diagram of, 50
compression ratio of, 50, 80-81
discharge temperature
average,80
dependence on ratio of specific heats, 83
frame data, typical, 80
gas, cyclic vibration of, 50-51
noise induced by, 50-51
gas inlet conditions, 50
impeller, 49
types of, 52, 52
inlet parameters, effect of varying. 52
intercoolers, sizing of, 50
mechanical losses of, 82
percentage of power required, 83
mixtures
compressibility factors for, 79-81
specific heats for, 79
nncratinc 'arlo" 44
performance curves, typical, 51
polytropic head, 81
maximum per stage, 82-83
significance of, 83
polytropic relations for, 46-50
pressure versus capacity for
constant speed compressor, 52
rpm, required, 82
selection of, 79-83
shaft power, required,
expression for, 82
single stage, 49-50
specific heat ratio
significance of, 83
stages, required number of, 82
standard cubic feet, use of, 52
surge,50
control of, 52
surge limits, 50, 52
temperature, discharge, 49-50
temperature ratio for, 81
volumetric flow, expression for, 80
Centrifugal pumps
advantages of, 31
API hydrometer,
conversion factors, table of, 92
defined, ST-88
bearings, 34
outboard type, 34
brake horsepower, 34, 36, 70, 9l
required,96
shut-off, at, 36
by-pass for, 34, 36
casrngs,
horizontally split, 32
vertically split, 32
advantages of, 32
components of, 33
efficiency of, 70
head, total, 36
heat dissipation in, 34, 36
intercooler for, 37
Hydraulic Institute, 68, 71-72
hydraulic requirements of, 34, 36-37
impeller,
axial flow pump, for, 32
mixed flow pump, for, 32
vanes of, 32
radial type, 32
volute of, 32
net positive suction head (NPSH)
definition of, 34
pressure pads for, 91
Newtonian fluids, 68
non-Newtonian fluids, 68, 79
packtng, 32
performance curves for, 34
typical, 69, 75, 95
pressure drop
discharge line, for, 67 -68, 9l, 95-96
friction factor for, 66-67
,
89-91, 93, 95-96
suction line for, 65-66, 90-91,93,95,97
viscosity, effects of, 68, 70-72
seals,32
double seals
criteria for use, 32
types of, 35
seal flush, 34
single seals
types of, 35
versus double seals, 32
selection of, 70
total dynamic head, application of, 70, 74
types of, 31, 34-35
vaporization of pumped liquid, causes of, 34
viscous liquids, pumping of, 37
correction-factor curves, 37, 38-39
criteria for, 37
equivalent water-performance of, 37
water horsepower, 34, 36
defined, 36
Compression, ideal gas
compressibility factor
discharge, at, 45mean, 45
suction, at, 45
isentropic (reversible adiabatic), 46-49
adiabatic efficiencY, 46
energy, isentroPic, 46
polytropic efficiencY, 46
principles of, ff 44-48
real gas. compressibility factor. 44
Compressors
acfm,59-60
advantages of, 59-60
conversion to, standard volumetric flow, 60
actual volumetric flow. See acfm'
flow conditions, sPecifYing, 59
actual, or inlet flow, 59
mass flow, 59
standard volumetric flow, 59-60
mass flow, conversion to standard volumetric flow,
60
principles of comPression, 44-48
scfm, 59-60
specifing flow conditions, 59
acfm, exPression for, 60
actual, or inlet flow, 59
mass flow, 59
specific volume, exPression for, 60
standard volumetric f1ow, 59-60
standard volumetric flow
compressibilitY factor, 59
conversion to actual or mass flow, 60
disadvantages of, 60
specific volume, exPression for, 59
'ttandard" condition, defined, 59-60
comparisons of various forms, 60
volume flow, equation for, 59
types of, 43
volume flow, exPression for, 59
External loading on shell structures
applications of , l7Q-17 5
"critical value," 170
shell thickness, 170
Fans and blowers, 59
Flow of solids, problems of, 1-3
Gas
compressibility tactor, 44
general gas law, 44
specific heat ratio for, 44
universal gas constant, 44, 59
Gear pumps, 37, 40
Heat transfer, convection of, air normal to cylindeq 126
Hydraulic Institute, 37
Hydraulics
API hydrometer
conversion factors, table of, 92
defined,8T-88
Internal pressure, stress concentration factor, 169
lsentropic comPression
brake horsepower, 48
discharge temperatue, 48
head, adiabatic, 46
heat, mechanical equivalent of, 45
horsepower, ratio of isentroPic, 45
horsepower input for single stage, 45
ideal eas, 45
adia--batic efficiencY, 45
horsepower, isentropic, 45
mechanical efficiencY, 45
overall adiabatic efficiencY, 45
multistage,46
perfect gas, formulations for, 44
real gas,
formulations for, 45
isentropic exPonent for, 45-46
relations, basic versus polytropic compression, 47
reversible,48
Jenike and Johanson method, 1-8
Lifting lug design, 170-175
choker angle for, 175
standard designs for, 171
L'Hospital's rule, 165
Ingarithmic mean temperature difference. See LMTD.
LMTD,
application of, 148-149, 154, 160, 162' t65
correction factot F, 117 -l2l
multipass exchangers, variance in, 117
variance in shell and tube heat exchangers, 117
zero LMTD exchanger, 165
Multi-stage reciprocating compressors, 58
Non-Newtonian fluids, 162
Nozzle reinforcing pads
disadvantage of pads, 170
pad width, maximum, 170
Nusselt number, 125-126, 156
Petroleum fractions
API hydrometer for, 87-88
Plate-fin heat exchangers
advantages of, 14724O Mechanical Design of Process Systems
applications of, 99
disadvantages of, 147
illustrated, 149
Kays and London coefficients, 148
thermal shock and fatigue, 148
uses of, 147- 148
vacuum brazing of, 148
Polytropic compression
efficiency
overall polytropic, 48
polytropic vs. isentropic, 46-47
gas horsepower, 47
head, adiabatic, 47
horsepower, compressor (polytropic head), 48
perfect gas, for, 47
polytropic exponent, 46
polytropic head (compressor horsepower), 48
real gas, for, 47
relations, basic versus isothermal compression, 47
Positive-displacement pumps
applications of, 31
brake horsepower, 77
definition of, 31
efficiency of, 77
pump selection, use in, 77
gear pumps, 37 , 40, 78
heat dissipation in, 43
intercooler, 43
temperature switch, 43
net positive suction head. See Pumps.
performance curves for rotary gear pumps, 79
pressure drop
suction line, 74
velocity heads, 74
pressure protection for, 42-43
priming of, 79
reciprocating pumps
diaphragm pumps, 3l
piston pumps, 31
nlrrnocr nrrmnc 1l
rotary pumps
cam pumps, 31
gear pumps, 31
lobe pumps, 31
screw pumps,31
types of, 37
vane pumps, 31
screw pumps, 40-41
vane pumps, 37
Prandtl number, 125,152, 156, 164
Pulsation response spectra
compression bottles, 64, 65
typical,65
methods of predicting, 64
orifice plates, application of, 65
piping system excited by, 65
pulsation bottles. See Compressor bottles.
pulsation dampener. See Compressor bottles.
reciprocating equipment, induced by, 62, &-65
Southwest Research Institute, 64
Structural Dynamics Research Corporation,
(scRc), 64
surge drums. See Compressor bottles.
Pumps
API degrees, defined, 87-88
calculation sheet for, 36, 70, 77
flow capacities of, 34
head, friction, 40
static discharge, 40
static suction, 40
total discharge, 40
total dynamic, 34, 40
total static, 40
total suction, 40
Hydraulic Institute, 68, 7 | -72
inline, nozzle loadings for, 61
lift
static suction, 40, 42
for water
maximum recommended, 43, 77
theoretical, 43, 77
total suction, 40, 42
motors, NEMA frame dimensions, 73
NPSH
definition of, 34
pressure pads for, 91
priming of, 79
pump Hydraulic Design,
calculation sheet, 36, 70,77, 93,95-96
pump selection guide, 32
types of, 3l
uses of, 31
velocity heads,
effect on pumps, 40
Reciprocating compressors
adiabatic compression, work required for, 58
adiabatic exponent, 53
adiabatic expressions for, 44-46, 53
adiabatic process, 57
applications of, 43, 84-86
clearance capacity, effect of, 55
clearance pockets, 43
stop valve, 53
volumetric efficiency, effects on, 56
compressibility factors
discharge, 58
inlet, 58fr
lnder
API 618, 61
API criteria, 61-62
NEMA. See Nozzle Loadings.
nozzle loadings on, 61-62
allowable, defined, 61-62
NEMA,61_62
applications for, 61
options to, basic, 62
steam turbines, ideal expansion joint, 64
turbo-expanders, reasonable values for, 63
typical for in-line pumPs, 61
piping systems for, 60-65
pulsation bottles. Se? Pulsation response spectra.
steam turbines, piping to, 62
surge drums. 'gee Pulsation response spectra
Rotary pumps, types of, 37
Screw pumps, 40-41
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
advantages of, 99
ASME Section VIII Division I Code, 99, 101
ASME tube joint load criteria, 1 13- 1 15
joint reliability factor. I l3-l14
maximum tube joint force, 113
tube joint load, 113
baffle cuts, 111
baffle details, 111
baffle lanes, channel and head, 128
baffle plates, 99
baffle windows, 139
various schemes, 139
baffles
annular orifices, 110
doughnut and disc tYPes, 110
flow direction, used for, 107
horizontally cut, 107, 109
longitudinal, 109
structural supports, as, 107
verticaliy cut, 107
vibration dampers, as, 107
baffle windows, Ill
basic components of, 107 -112
caloric temperature, 117 , 122-123, 158
Kern relationships for, I22
caloric versus arithmetic rnean, 122
chlorine superheater design, 154- 160
chiller, 101
condenser, 101
deflexion or ligament efficiency, 158
design classifications of, 101
final condenser, 101
fixed tubesheet, 102-1O4
fixed tubesheet design, 100
floating heat exchangers
211
compressor horsepower, factors affecting, 53
compression ratio, 58, 84
compressor bottles. See Pulsation response spectra.
cylinders, size of, 86
cylinder displacement, 86
diatomic gases, 57
discharge temperature, 85
efficiency, volumetric, 86
Neerken equation for, 86
gas temperature, exPression for, 58
horsepower, theoretical, 58
parameters affecting, 58
horsepower per million curves, 85
correction factors for, 85
intercoolers for, 84
multiple staging of, 58
advantages of, 58
compression ratio for, 84
cylinder size, 58
cylinders, number of, 58
flywheei, effect on, 58
torque, effect on, 58
operating range, 44
piston rod diameter, 86
polytropic exponent, 57
Chlumsky recommendations for, 57
pressure-volume diagram, 56
ratios of clearance volume to volume swept by
piston,57
reciprocating compressor cycle, 53, 55
re-expansion process, 57
schematic of, 87
volumetric efficiency
curves for determining, 57
expression for, 53, 57
for a perfect gas, 57
parameters that affect, 53, 57
theoretical,53
Regenerated gas exchanger
design of, 148- 153
vibration check, 153- 154
Reinforcing pads (external loadings)
pad width, maximum, 170
disadvantage of pads, 170
Reynolds number, 9, 66-67, 7 4, 89 -91, 93, 95 -96,
t25-127, 140, 141, l5l-152, 156-157,
1U
non-Newtonian fluid, Metzner-Reed, 162-163
versus drag coefficients for long circular cylinders,
r42
Rotating equipment
APr 611,61
APr 612, 61
API 617, 61242 Mechanical Design of Process Systems
internal floating head design, 103-104
advantages of, 104
outside-packed floating head design, 103-104
operating range, 104
packed latern ring design, 103-1M
operating range, 1M
pull-through bundle design, 103- 104
limitations of, 104
types of, 103- 104
forced circulation reboiler, 101
fouling resistances, recommended minimum, 125
friction factors for, shell-side surfaces, 140
heat transfer
bulk temperature of fluid, 125
continuity equation, 128
convection, basic expressions for, 115
factor jH, 129,138, 152, 157
film coefficients, shell-side, 128
Kern correlation, 128
fouling factors, 124
bare tubes versus finned tubes, 124
definition of, 124
versus thermal conductance, 124
fouling resistance, 124
Fourier's law of heat conduction, 116
Grimson equation, for film coefficient, 126
inside film coefficient, 122, 151
laminar, 125
turbuient, 125
laminar boundary layer. 125
modes of, 115
McAdams correlation, 125
outside film coefficient, lZZ, 126, 1,29
overall heat transfer coefficient, 152
caloric, 117, 122, 152, 157, 158
parameter jH, 129, 138
effective diameters for, 129
versus Reynolds number, 138
shell-side film coefficient, 151-152, 156,
163-t64
tube-side film coefficient, 151, i54-156
tube wall resistance, 124
turbulent boundary layer, 125
impingement baffles, i28
latent heat, I 16- 117
ligament or deflexion efficiency, 158
LMTD
correction factor R 117- 121
multipass exchangers, variance in, 117
variance of, 117
overall heat transfer coefficient, 122
caloric, 117, 122, 152
partial condenser, 101
process evaluation of, 115-140
reboiler, 99, l0l
kettle type, 99
regenerated gas exchanger design, 148-153
sensible heat, 116- 117
shell-side, defined, 99
shell-side equivalent,
tube diameter, 129, 152, 156, 164
shell-side pressure drop, \39, 152-153,157,
164-165
expression for, 139, 152
shell-side mass density, 151
shell-side mass flow rate, G,, 139, 152-154, 156,
I O-l
Sieder-Thte correlation,
laminar flow, for, 125, 162
turbulent flow, for, 125
steam generator, 101
TEMA
class B exchanger, 99, lO4
class C exchanger, 99, 104
class R exchanger, 99, 104
comparisons of types, 105
mode constants for tubes, 112
natural frequencies of straight tubes, I 12- I l3
natural frequencies of U-tubes, 113
nomenclature of, 102
TEMA specification sheet, 150, i55
tubes, stress, allowable compressive, l12
tubesheets, compressive stress induced OD,
lll
thermosyphon reboiler, 101
tie rods
TEMA recommendations for, 110
uses of, 110
tube arrangements, pros and cons of, 129
tube bundle, 99, 126, 128
flow area of, 152
Keys and London constants foq 129
tube bundle cross-flow arca, 128
staggered inline, for, 128
triangular layouts, for, 128
tube count tables, 130- 137
tube geometry
angtlar pitch, 126-127
diamond-square pitch, 126 - 127
inJine square pitch, 126-127
inJine triangular pitch, 126-127
tubes
bare, 107
bend radii, minimum, 109
boundary layer, 125
laminar, 125
turbulent, 125
buckling of{
2rl:t
Euler columl formula, 114
exchanger tubes, 113
Johnson short column equation, 1i4
finned, 107
foreign deposits, 124
inside film coefficient, 122
outside film coefficient, 122
pitch, nominal, 114
stress factors for, 159- 160
tabulated properties of, 108
tubesheets, 99
double tubesheets, 110
uses of, 110
maximum radial stresses in, 159
single tubesheets, 110
tubesheet-tube connections, typical, I 1 1
tubesheet layouts
staggered in{ine, for, 128
triangular layouts, for, 128
typical, 128
tube-side defined, 99
tube-side mass flow rate, 151, 162
tube vibrations. See Tube vibrations.
tube wall temperature, 117,122, 124
U-tube exchangers
kettle type reboiler, 100
tubesheet fot 103
vaporizer, 101
vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, I 17
vertical gas-gas exchanger, 151
Silos. See Bins.
Specific diameter, 48
versus specific speed, 49
Specific speed, 48
versus specific diameter, 49
Stack design
anchor bolt torque, 26-27
base support detail for, 27
carbon precipitation in, 8
buckling stress
allowable, 22
deflection, dynamic, 26
deflection, static, 26
excitation, flexural, 9
flexural frequency, 9
lining of, 8
effect of, 8
gunite,8
modulus of elasticity of, 8
Michell and Love equation, 9, 28
ovaling,8-9
flexural modes of, 9
in-plane, 9
out-of-plane,9
modes of, 9
ovaling frequency. See Flexural frequencl -
ovaling rings, 9, 26
natural frequency of, 9, 26
reasons for, 9
section modulus of, required, 9
pressure vessels, vertical differences bef$'een. 8
seismic response spectra, 8
vibration, cantilev er, 25 -26
vortex shedding frequency, 9, 26
vortex strakes, 9-11, 27 -28
clearances for, 11
critical wind velocities for, 10
fabrication detail of, 11
fabrication, method of, 11
helix angle of, 10
length of, 10
Morgan equation, 10, 28
radius of curvature of, l0
strake height, 10
range for, 10
wind design
anchor bolt design for, 23
bearing pressure for, 23
base plate, Brownell and Young method, 24
chair design, Brownell and Young method, 24-25
compression rings, gusset plate thickness,
required,25
effective diameters for, 20
weld, skirt-to-base ring, 25
wind load, 2l-22
wind moment, 21-22
wind pressure, 21
wind response spectra, 8
Steam turbines
piping of, 62
Strouhal number, 9
Suction lift,
IOr WAIe\ +5, I I
TEMA
class B exchanger, 99, 104
class C exchanger, 99, 104
class R exchanger, 99, 104
heat exchanger specification sheet, 150-161
mode constants for tubes, 112
natural frequencies of,
straight tubes, 112- 113
U-tubes, 113
nomenclature for shell-and+ube heat exchangers.
102
standard, TEMA, 99, 104
TEMA types, composition of, 105
tie rods,244 Mechanical Design of Process Systems
recommendations for, 1 10
uses of, 110
tube joint load formulations, 113
tubes,
minimum bend radii, 109
stress, allowable compressive, I 12
tubesheets,
compressive stress induced on, 111
Tube vibration
baffle damage,
modified damage number, 143, 153
baffle plate, illustrated, 143
displacements, inducing excessive, 143-144,
t53-154
drag coefficients versus Reynolds number, 142
flow-induced vibration, 144
fluid vortices, force exerted on tubes, l4i
jetting, or jet switching, 144
compared to turbulence, 146
cornpared to vortex shedding, 146
shear force on tube, l4l, 143, 153
shell-side fluid, velocity of, 141
maximum recommended, 148
Thorngren, John T., maximum velocity method, 139
tubes
boundary conditions of continuous beams, 142
circle of contact, diameter of, 143
colliding of, 139
deflection oI, 141, 154
effective tube wall, 141
fatiguing of, 139
fluid force causing baffle impingement, 143
force coefficient, 146
fundamental natural frequency of, 146
natural frequency of, (Blevins formulation), 146,
154
shear of against baffles, 143
turbulence
deflection, root-mean-square, 145
joint efficiency, 145
pressure distribution for, 144- 145
response spectra, 145
Wambsganss and Chen relation, 146
Venturi effect, 144
von Karman equation, 141
vortex shedding, 139, 144
compared to turbulence, 146
compared to whirling, 146
resonant frequency of, 141
vortex street, limits of, 141
vortices, breaking-up of, 141
whirling, 144
compared to turbulence, 146
compared to vortex shedding, 146
critical velocity, cxiteria of, 147
whirling parameter, for tube arrays, 148
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturing Association. See
TEMA.
Vane pumps, 37
Velocity heads (K-values), 66-68, 7 4, 88-89, 90-9 1
Vibration
ovaling. Se€ Stack design.
Rayleigh method for, 8. Also see Volume l.
Viscosity
absolute viscosity, 68
conversion to kinematic, 68
centrifugal pumps, effect on, 68, 70-72
converting centipose to SSU units, 74
kinematic,68
Vortex shedding, 8-9, 139, l4l,144, 146
Welding Research Council. See WRC.
WRC 107 Standard, 169
WRC 297 Standard, 169


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