كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design
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 كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design

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كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design    كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design  Emptyالأحد 06 مارس 2022, 4:01 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Elevator Mechanical Design
Second Edition
Lubomír Janovský

كتاب Elevator Mechanical Design  E_m_d_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Foreword to second edition 9
List of symbols . 1 1
1 Definition of the mechanical system
and component parts 15
V
2 Suspension of car and counterweight
2.1 Methods of suspension and equalizing gear
2.2 Specification, construction and recommendations
for the selection of elevator ropes
2.3 Calculation of elevator ropes and factor of safety 39
2.4 Rope termination
2.5 Rope stretch .
2.6 Life, maintenance and replacement of elevator ropes 49
2.7 Compensating cables
3 Types of drive
3.1 Traction drive
3.1.1 Roping systems
3.1.2 Traction sheave and diverting pulley
3.1.3 Forces on sheave
3.1.4 Specific pressure of the rope
in the sheave groove
3.1.5 Coefficient of friction of the ropes
in the grooves
3.1.6 Traction under different conditions
3.1.7 Rope slip. Wear of sheave grooves
3.2 Drum drive
3.3 Reduction of torques
. 976 Table of contents
4 Elevator machines
4.1 Geared elevator machines
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Calculation principles
4.1.3 Thermal performance calculation
4.1.4 Design of geared machines
4.2 Gearless elevator machines
4.3 Testing of geared elevator machines .
5 Brakes
5.1 Types of brakes
5.2 Calculation of braking torque and brake selection 159
5.2.1 Calculation of the static torque Mst .
5.2.2 Calculation of the dynamic torque Mj
5.2.3 Selection of the brake
5.3 Testing of elevator brakes
6 Counterweight 169
7 Guiding the car and counterweight
7.1 Shape, material and jointing of guide rails.
Guide rail brackets
7.2 Guide rail calculations
7.2.1 Analysis of stress in guide rails and
deflection during safety gear operation
7.2.2 Forces on guide rails during normal operation.
Classes of loading
7.2.3 Worldwide Standards for guide rail calculations 191
7.2.4 Evaluation of calculation methods.
Final recommendation
7.3 Types of guide shoes
8 Safety gear
8.1 General
8.2 Overspeed governor
8.3 Instantaneous safety gear
8.4 Progressive safety gear .
218Table of contents 7
9 Buffers
9.1 Specification
9.2 Polyurethane buffers (energy accumulation)
9.3 Spring buffers (energy accumulation) .
9.4 Oil buffers (energy dissipation)
10 Car frame
10.1 Design principles
10.2 Calculation of car frame
11 Doors and door operators
11.1 Specification: types of doors
11.1.1 Swinging doors
11.1.2 Horizontally sliding doors
11.1.3 Collapsible doors
11.1.4 Vertical sliding doors
11.2 Door operators
11.2.1 Door operators for horizontally sliding doors 284
11.2.2 Door operators for vertical sliding doors 296
12 Elevator hoistway and machine room
12.1 General requirements for hoistways
12.2 Hoistway structure, equipment and assembly
12.3 Top clearances
12.3. 1 Traction drive elevators
12.3.2 Positive drive elevators
12.4 The pit. Bottom clearances
12.5 Machine and pulley rooms
12.6 Sound insulation
12.6.1 Elevator machine
12.6.2 Controllers
12.6.3 Sound sources located in the hoistway
Bibliography 316
Index 3198 Table of contents
List of examples
Example 2.1
Example 2.2
Example 3.1
Example 3.2
Example 3.3
Example 3.4
Example 5.1
Example 7.1
205Index
angle of distortion, of car frame, 255
anti-rebound device, 59
astragal, 282,283
axial pitch, of worm, 115
axial thrust, 119
floor, net area, 249
frame (sling), 248
calculation. 252-266
platform, 248,249
classes of loading, 190-191
collapsible door, 281
open picket type, 281
steel shutter door, 281
compensating cables, 59
comer-post construction,
of car frame, 251
counterweight, 17, 169-171
critical number of wire breaks,
51,56,58
crosshead beam , 248
background noise, 310-312
balance mechanism,
for suspension ropes, 26-27
bi-parting door, 282
regular door, 283
pass-type door, 283
bottom clearances, 156
brace rods, 249
brakes, 153
calculation, 159-162
external contracting type, 154
internal expanding type, 154
selection, 162-163
testing, 163-164
braking torque, static, 160
dynamic, 160-161
breaking load, see elevator ropes
buckling factor, 195-197
buffers, 17,225
energy accumulation type, 225
energy dissipation type, 226, 236
calculation, 240
retardation, 247
retarding force, 246
lever type, 240
oil, 236
polyurethane, 226
required strokes for, 225-226
spring, 232
number of active threads, 235
stiffness of the spring, 236
diverting pulley, 67, 70, 72
doors,
interlock, 269
kinetic energy, 274, 278-279
material, 268
specification, 267
strength of door panels, 268
top track, 276, 293
velocity, 274, 280
door hanger, 276, 277, 278
door operators
for horizontally sliding doors, 284
for vertical sliding doors, 296
double wrap drive. 65-70, 75-76
DRAKO 300T rope, 35-38
drive door, 271
driving machine, see elevator machine
drum drive, 95-97
dual tensile ropes, see elevator ropes
Dyform elevator ropes, 34-36
efficiency,
of elevator machine, see
elevator machine
of worm gearing, see worm
gearing
car, 17
doors, see doors
enclosure, 249320 Index
filler wire, 33
fillers, 171
fire lintel, 283
fleet angle, of the rope, 73
frequency of bending, 49,50
frequency of oscillation,
of elevator car, 89
elastic elongation, see elevator ropes
elevator, classification, 15
definition, 15
main parts, 16-17
linear induction motor drive, 15,
19-22
positive drive, 15, 304
traction drive, 15, 302
technical parameters, 16
elevator brake, see brakes
elevator hoistway, 17, 300
general requirements, 300
structure, 301
elevator machine, geared, 108-134
design, 108, 120-134
efficiency, 146
testing, see load tests
elevator machine, gearless, 134-139
elevator pit, see pit
elevator ropes. 28-38
breaking load, minimum, 31-32
calculation, 39
construction, 32-34
dual tensile, 30
elastic elongation. 47
factor of safety, 39
fatigue breaks, 55
life, 49-50
load spectrum, 49
lubrication, 52-54
minimum number, 24
modulus of elasticity, 47
nominal diameter, 28
preforming, 38
replacement, 54-58
single tensile, 30
storage, 54
tensile breaks, 55
tensile grade of wires, 30
equalizing gear, 24
equalizer drive,
for bi-parting doors, 297, 299
equivalent output, 119
equivalent torque, see torque
escape holes in oil cylinder, layout.
geared elevator machine, see
elevator machine
gearless elevator machine, see
elevator machine
gearing, 108
gear ratio, 110
glide shoes, see guide shoes
governor, 17, 207
centrifugally operated, 211-212
governor pulley, 211
governor rope, 210
of pendulum type, 212
groove, see sheave groove
groove liner, 86-88
guide rail,
brackets, 178
calculation,
deflection, 188
stress analysis, 182
worldwide standards, 191-198
clips,
general purpose, 178
sliding, 178, 179
solid, 178, 179
cold drawn, 172-173
dimensions, 174
jointing, 176
layout, 176
lubrication, 202-203
machined. 172-173
physical properties, 174
surface roughness, 175
guide shoes, 201
glide shoes (slipper guides), 201
roller guides, 204
swivel guides, 202
242
Euler’s formula, 74 harmonic motion, of elevator car, 93
heat dissipation, from a gearbox, 115
hoistway, see elevator hoistway
horizontally sliding doors, 270
centre-opening, single-speed, 271
two-speed, 271
multi-panel door, 274
factor of safety, see elevator ropes
fatigue breaks, see elevator ropes
ferrule-secured eye, 45
filler construction, of elevator rope,
33Index 321
side-opening, two-speed, 270
three-speed, 270
single panel, 270
hydraulic linear drive,
for horizontally sliding doors,
291-295
oil buffer, see buffers
open pit type door, see collapsible
doors
ordinary lay ropes, 29
over-driven worm gear, 109
overspeed governor, see governor
idler sheave, see secondary sheave
interlock, see doors
pit, 156
planetary gearing, 131-134
power loss, 116
preforming, see elevator ropes
pressure angle, see worm gearing
pulley room, 305
laboratory tests, specific features, 149
landing door, see doors
Lang’s lay ropes, 29
levelling device, 129-130
LIM drive, see elevator
linear induction motor drive, see
elevator
load capacity, see load tests
load factor, see load tests
load tests, of geared elevator
machines,
load capacity, 140
load factor, 140
number of starts per hour, 140
long-term tests, 150-152
operational tests, 152
short-term tests, 140-150
reference places, 144
testing equipment, 140
testing procedure, 144
long wrap drive, 88
low speed shaft, layout, 110
radial deflection of worm, 115
radial effect, of the rope, 95
radial force, 119
rated load, 15-16
rated speed, 15-16
reduction of torques, 97
reference places, see load tests
resin socketing, 43
rope, core, 32
creep, 94
drag, 49, 73
grips, 44
slip, 94
splice, 44-45
strand, 29
stretch, 46
termination, 41
rope brake, 156-158
ropeless LIM drive, 22-23
roping factor, 39, 62
roping systems, 64-69
round (semicircular) groove, 71
specific pressure, 79-81
coefficient of friction, 83
rubbing speed, 113-114
machine, see elevator machine
machine room, 305-307
measuring rope diameter, methods.
29
mechanical linkage,
between car and landing doors, 274
between door panels, 278
modulus of elasticity, see elevator
ropes
multi-panel door, see horizontally
sliding door
safety gear, definition, 17
general, 207
instantaneous, 207, 213
eccentric cam type, 215-216
roller type, 216-218
wedge type, 213-215
with buffered effect, 208
progressive, 208, 218
flexible guide clamp, 219-223
roller type, 223
safety plank, 248
Seale rope construction, 32-33
number of active threads,
of spring buffer, see buffers
number of operations per hour,
of a brake, 162
number of ropes, see elevator ropes
number of starts, of worm, 109
number of starts per hour, 140322 Index
tie-rods, 171
time heating constant, 143
toe guard, 248-249
top clearances, 302-305
top track, see doors
torque, equivalent, 152
on brake drum, see braking torque
on traction sheave, 120
on worm, 119
on worm wheel, 120
traction capability, 85-89
available, 89-93
traction drive, 64
traction sheave, 49, 70, 72-73
tractive force, 74
trailing door, 271
transfer coefficient, 117
transfer of passengers, 267
travelling cable, 169
tripping speed, 209-210
trucking sill, 283
secondary sheave, 67
self-tightening wedge-type socket, 41
semicircular groove, see round
groove
sheave, see traction sheave
sheave groove, 70
specific pressure, maximum. 76
wear, 94-95
shutter door, see collapsible door
side-post construction, of car frame.
249
single tensile ropes, see elevator
ropes
single wrap drive, 65-70
sliding doors, see horizontally sliding
doors or vertical sliding doors
sling, see car frame
slipper guides, see guide shoes
specific pressure in sheave groove,
maximum, see sheave groove
spider, 110
spindle drive,
of horizontally sliding doors,
290-291
sound insulation, 307
controllers, 314
elevator machine, 307-313
sources in the hoistway, 314
sound pressure level, 310
superposition of s. p. levels, 312
speed sensor, 131
spring buffer, see buffers
stacked counterweight, 171
stiles, see vertical uprights
surface roughness, see guide rail
suspension, of car and counterweight,
methods, 24-26
suspension ropes, see elevator ropes
swinging doors, 269
double, 270
single, 269
undercut groove, 72
coefficient of friction, 84
specific pressure, 81-82
under-driven worm gear. 109
uprights, see vertical uprights
upthrust roller, 276, 293
vee-groove, 70
coefficient of friction, 83
specific pressure, 77-79
vertical sliding door, 282
vertical uprights, 248
Wahl’s coefficient, 233
Ward-Leonard system, 134
Whisperflex cable, 59-61
wire rope, see elevator rope
worm gearing, 108-114
calculation, 114
efficiency, 112, 126, 148
pressure angle, 109
thermal performance calculation.
tangential effect, of the rope, 95
tangential force, 119
tapered babbitted socket, 42-43
technical parameters, see elevator
tensile grade of wires, see elevator
ropes
tension meter, 27
testing equipment, see load tests
testing, of elevator motor. 149-150
Thyristor-Leonard system, 134-135
115
worm reference diameter,
extreme values, 115
zinc protective coating,
of wire ropes, 30


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