كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals

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كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals    كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals  Emptyالخميس 03 مارس 2022, 2:56 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals
Robert Wilson

كتاب A Practical Approach to Continuous Casting of Copper-Based Alloys and Precious Metals  A_p_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Introduction
1 CONTINUOUS CASTING
1.1 History of Process and Evolution of Machine Design
1.2 Details of Casting Process
1.2.1 Mode of Casting
1.2.2 Vertical Continuous Casting
1.2.3 Vertical Upward Casting
1.2.4 Rautomead Upcast System
1.2.5 Pressure Upcast System
1.3 Horizontal Continuous Casting
1.3.1 Principle of Horizontal Continuous Casting
1 1 335677 78
1.4 Crucibles Used in Continuous Casting 8
1.4.1 Ceramic Crucible Assemblies Used in Induction Melting-Casting 9
1.4.2 Graphite Crucible 9
1.4.2.1 Top Protection and Crucible Liner 10
1.4.2.2 Crucible Liner 11
1.4.2.3 Crucible Die Seal 11
1.4.2.4 Graphite Baffle 12
1.5 Construction and Operation of Horizontal Continuous Casting Furnace
Utilising Integrated Melt and Cast Sequence 12
1.5.1 Furnace Construction 13
1.5.1.1 Refractory Insulation 13
1.5.1.2 Low Thermal Mass Insulation 13
1.5.1.3 Heating Elements 13
1.5.1.4 Temperature Control 14
1.5.2 Industrial Horizontal Continuous Casting Furnace 14
1.6 Casting Dies and Cooler Assembly 14
1.6.1 Strip Die and Cooler Assembly 15
1.6.1.1 Nitrogen Protection Within the 'Air Gap' 16
1.6.1.2 Outward Taper on Top Face of Die 17
1.6.1.3 Fitting Starter Strip 17
1.6.2 Jacket Cooled Die Used for Rod and Billet 17
1.6.3 Probe Cooled Die for Rod and Narrow Strip Casting 18
1.6.3.1 Probe or Plate Cooled Die for Narrow Strip 19
viiContents
1.6.4 Dies Used in Continuous Casting of Tube
1.6.5 High Efficiency Cooler Applied to Small Diameter Rod
1.8 Casting Practice 24
1.8.1 Graphite Casting Die 24
1.8.2 Assembly of Graphite Die and and Cooler-Jacket Type Cooler 25
1.8.2.1 Fitting Starter Rods 27
1.8.3 Fitting Starter Strip to Graphite Die and Cooler-Strip Type Cooler 27
1.8.4 Assembly of Die Insert to High Speed Cooler for Small
Diameter Rod
1.9 Safety from Liquid Metal Runout
1.9.1 Failure of Cooling Water Supply
1.9.2 Break in Continuous Casting Billet Within Die
1.9.2.1 Die TemperatureIWithdrawal Interruption
1.9.2.2 Incorporating Safety Plunger at Die Exit
1.10 Trouble Shooting
1.10.1 Irregular Pulse Length
1.10.2 Cast Surface Finish-Deterioration with Time'
1.10.3 Inverse Segregation
1.10.4 Pulse Cracking
1.10.5 Porosity
1.10.6 Periodic Surface Gouging
1.10.7 Zinc Segregation on Brasses
1.10.8 Edge Cracking on Strip
1.10.9 Heat Balance Checks
1.7 Withdrawal
1.7.1 AC Servo Drive
1.7.2 Withdrawal Using Cam-Operated Indexing
1.7.3 Withdrawal Using Pneumatic Slide Feed
28
28
29
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
33
33
34
2 HEAT TRANSFER 37
2.1 Mode of Heat Transfer Along the Mould 37
2.1.1 The Influence of 'Air Gap' 38
2.1.2 Water Spray at Die Exit 38
2.1.3 Vertical and Horizontal Casting 39
2.1.4 Manipulation of Heat Transfer in Region of h; 39
2.1.4.1 Copper Sleeve Cooler Assembly for Rod Casting 39
2.1.4.2 Effect of Withdrawal Characteristics on Shell Formation 40
2.1.4.3 Mode of Freezing and Effect on Product Quality 41
2.1.4.4 Upcasting of Copper Rod 43
2.1.4.5 Cooler Assembly Strip 43
2.1.4.6 Jacket- and Probe-Cooled Die Assembly 43
2.2 Overall Energy Balance from Properties of Materials 44
2.2.1 Typical Heat Balance on Selected Casting Runs 45
viiiContents
3 CONTINUOUS CASTING PLANT and EQUIPMENT 51
Casting Equipment 51
3.1 'Unicast' System Introduced by United Wire, Edinburgh 51
3.1.1 'Unicast' Horizontal Casting System 52
3.2 Rautomead International, Dundee 53
3.2.1 Precious Metal Strip Casting 53
3.2.2 Vertical Casting of Precious Metals 53
3.2.3 Computer Monitoring and Process Display with Data Logging of
Operating Parameters 'Rautocast 2000' 54
3.2.4 Rautomead Upwards Vertical Continuous Casting Plant 54
3.3 Ewen Technology - New Jersey, USA 54
3.4 Wertli 55
3.4.1 Furnace Design 55
3.4.2 The Wertli Drive Concept 56
3.4.3 Wertli Casting Mould/Cooler Design for Strip 56
3.4.3.1 Water Flow and Cooler Chamber Design 56
3.4.4 Wertli Data Recording 'Capvis' 57
3.5 Mannesmann Demag Continuous Casting 58
3.5.1 Microprocess Control 'Demag Computocast' 58
3.6 Graining Furnace - Schultheiss GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany 59
3.7 Hazelett Strip Casting Process 59
3.8 Outokumpu Upcasting 59
3.8.1 Operating Principle 60
3.8.1.1 Melting Furnace 60
3.8.1.2 Holding and Casting Furnace 61
3.8.1.3 Production Capacity 61
3.9 History of Properzi 'Wheel Casting' Technology 61
3.9.1 Equipment Capacity 62
3.9.2 Casting Wheel 63
3.9.2.1 Casting Wheel Insulation 'Sooting' 63
3.9.2.2 Rolling, Pickling and Coiling 63
3.9.3 Production of Elecrolytic-Grade Copper Rod from Copper Scrap 63
3.9.3.1 Typical Raw Material Copper Scrap 64
3.9.3.2 The Properzi-La Farga Thermal Process 64
3.9.3.3 Casting and Rolling 66
3.10 Southwire Continuous Casting Rod Process 66
3.10.1 The SRC Process 66
3.10.1.1 Vertical Shaft Furnace 67
3.10.1.2 Tundish and Automatic Metal-Pouring System (AMPS) 67
3.10.1.3 Casting Wheel 67
3.10.1.4 Rolling Mill 67
ixContents
3.10.2 Cast Bar Quality 68
3.10.3 Superheat and Control of Chemistry 68
3.10.4 Cast Structure 69
3.11 OHNO Continuous Casting Process 69
3.11.1 The OHNO Continuous Casting System 70
3.11.2 Industrial Application of the OHNO Process 71
4 GRAPHITE and REFRACTORY CERAMICS used in CONTINUOUS
CASTING 73
Graphite 73
4.1 Graphite Manufacture 73
4.2 Properties 74
4.2.1 Reaction of Graphite with Molten Metals 74
4.2.2 Compatibility of Graphite with Various Metal Metals 74
4.2.3 Solubility of Carbon in Selected Molten Metals 76
4.3 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Commercially Available Die-Grade
Graphites 77
4.3.1 Thermal Conductivity 77
4.3.2 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphites - Effect of
Temperature 78
4.3.3 Thermal Expansion of Graphite and Various Ceramics 78
4.3.4 Mechanical Strength of Graphite Effect of Temperature 78
4.3.5 Bulk Density (ASTM C559-85) 79
4.3.6 Specific Electrical Resistance (ASTM C611-84) 79
4.4 Commercial Graphites used in Continuous Casting 81
4.4.1 Crucible-Grade Graphite 81
4.4.2 Die-Grade Graphite 81
4.4.2.1 Premium Fine Grained Graphite 82
4.4.2.2 Graphite Die-Grade Selection 82
4.5 Machining Guide for Graphite 82
4.6 'GRAFOIL'® Flexible Graphite 82
Ceramics used in Continuous Casting 85
4.7 Properties 85
4.7.1 Alumina (Alz03) 85
4.7.2 Zirconia (Zr02) 86
4.7.3 Magnesia (MgO) 86
4.7.4 BerYllia (BeO) 86
4.7.5 Silicon Carbide 86
4.7.6 Chrome Alumina 87
4.7.7 Mullite 87
4.7.8 Sillimanite 87
xContents
4.8 Ceramic Die Material Boron Nitride (BN) 87
4.9 Thermal Properties of Selected Ceramics Compared to Graphite 88
4.9.1 Thermal Conductivity 88
4.9.2 Thermal Expansion 88
4.10 Low Thermal Mass Insulation 89
4.11 Monolithic Refractories 90
4.12 Ceramic Fibre Paper 90
5 CONTINUOUS CASTING OF COPPER-BASED ALLOYS 91
5.1 High Purity Copper 91
5.1.1 Cathode 91
5.1.2 Oxide-Free Copper BS ClODCI02 93
5.2 Deoxidation of Copper 93
5.2.1 Data on Rate of Deoxidation on Controlled Casting Run on
Copper 96
5.2.2 Copper Deoxidation by Graphite Bed Filtration 97
5.2.3 Production Application of Graphite Deoxidation 97
5.2.3.1 Outokumpu Upcast 98
5.2.3.2 Rautomead Continuous Casting Equipment 98
5.3 Vertical Upcast Process for Production of OFHC
Copper Rod 98
5.3.1 Casting Operation 99
5.3.2 Rod Withdrawal 100
5.3.3 Product Purity and Residual Elements 100
5.4 Copper-Phosphorus Deoxidised 101
5.4.1 Continuous Casting Data for Copper (Phosphorus Deoxidised)
Alloys 101
5.5 Continuous Casting of High-Purity Copper 101
5.5.1 Details of the Plant 101
5.5.2 Casting Data on High-Purity Copper 103
5.6 Continuous Casting of Cu: Cd and Cu: Mg Alloys 104
5.6.1 Cu: Cd Alloys 104
5.6.2 Cu :Mg Alloys 104
5.6.3 Mechanical Properties of Cu-OF, Cu: Cd and Cu: Mg 107
5.6.4 Comparison of Properties of Cu-OF, Cu: Cd and Cu: Mg 108
5.7 Brasses 108
5.7.1 Continuous Casting of a Brasses 110
5.7.2 Continuous Casting of a-f3 Brasses 113
5.7.2.1 Free Machining a-f3 Brasses 113
5.7.2.2 Specifications, Properties and Casting Data for a-f3
Leaded Brasses 113
XlContents
5.7.3 Other Low Per Cent Element Additions to Brasses 113
5.7.4 High-Tensile Brasses 113
5.7.4.1 Continuous Casting of High-Strength Brasses 117
5.7.5 Zinc Equivalent in Brasses 117
5.7.6 Zinc Rich-Surface Phase on Brasses 118
5.7.6.1 Mode of Formation of Zinc-Rich Phase 118
5.7.6.2 SEM Analyses on Zinc-Rich Surface Layer 119
5.7.6.3 Methods to Minimise the Zinc-Rich Layer 119
5.7.7 Charging and Effect of Minor Element Additions to Brasses 120
5.7.8 DZR Brass (Dezincification Resistant) 120
5.7.8.1 Continuous Casting of DZR Brass 122
5.8 Tin Bronzes 122
5.8.1 Copper-Tin Alloys 122
5.8.2 Copper- Tin-Phosphorus Alloys 123
5.8.2.1 Phosphor Bronze PBI03-C51900 124
5.8.3 Bronzes Containing Zinc 124
5.8.4 Bronzes Containing Lead 125
5.8.4.1 Leaded Gunmetal LG2-C83600 125
5.8.5 Specification, Properties and Casting Data for Cu: Sn Alloys 126
5.8.6 Silicon Bronze 127
5.9 Copper Aluminium Alloys 127
5.9.1 Castable Alloys 130
5.9.2 Melting and Casting Practice for Cu-AI Alloys 130
5.9.3 Nordic Alloy - Aluminium Bronze CuAl5Zn5Sn 133
5.9.3.1 Continuous Casting Characteristics 135
5.9.4 Mint Coinage 136
5.10 Nickel-Silver 136
5.10.1 Charging Sequence for Nickel Silver 136
5.11 Copper-Nickel Alloys 136
5.11.1 Casting Properties 138
5.11.1.1 Reaction with Graphite 138
5.12 Free Cutting Copper Alloys with Reduced or no Lead 139
5.12.1 Contamination of Copper With Bismuth 142
5.12.2 Literature Review 142
5.12.3 Continuous Casting Trials 143
5.12.4 Casting Characteristics 144
5.12.5 Federalloy" - Bismuth-Modified Tin Bronzes 144
5.12.5.1 Comparative Microstructural Study on CDA 932
(Leaded Brass - 7%Pb) versus Federalloy 111-932
Modified 20/0Bi, 0.050/0Pbmax) 145
5.12.5.2 Concast - Continuous Casting of Federalloys 148
6 CONTINUOUS CASTING OF PRECIOUS METALS 151
6.1 Gold 151
6.1.1 Gold-Melting Characteristics 152
xiiContents
6.2 Casting Equipment - Precious Metals 152
6.2.1 Resistance Heated 153
6.2.2 Induction Heated 153
6.3 Crucible and Die 154
6.3.2 Die and Cooler Assemblies used in Precious Metal Casting 154
6.3.1.1 Strip Casting - Wide Strip 154
6.3.1.2 Probe Cooled Die for Rod and Narrow Strip Casting 155
6.3.1.3 Thin Strip - Engineering Applications 155
6.3.1.4 Rod Casting 155
6.3.1.5 Small Diameter Rod and Thin Narrow Strip 155
6.4 Continuous Casting of Fine Gold 155
6.5 Typical Casting Run on Fine Gold Strip 156
6.6 Continuous Casting of Carat Gold 156
6.6.1 Gold Alloy 22 Carat 157
6.6.1.1 Gold-Silver-Copper 22 Carat 157
6.6.1.2 Continuous Casting Data 159
6.6.2 Gold Alloy 18 Carat 159
6.6.3 Gold Alloy 14 Carat 159
6.6.4 Gold Alloy 10 Carat 160
6.6.4.1 Hardness Characteristics of Au:Ag:Cu 18- 14- 10 Carat
Alloys 160
6.6.5 Gold Alloy 9 Carat 163
6.6.6 Fractional Element Additions to Carat Gold 163
6.6.7 Contamination of Carat Gold 165
6.6.8 Summary - Casting Data Carat Gold 165
6.7 Coloured Gold 165
6.8 Ternary Gold Alloys - Phase Diagrams 167
6.8.1 Liquidus Isotherms Ag-Au-Cu System 169
6.8.2 Solidus Isotherms Ag-Au-Cu System 169
6.8.3 Ag-Au:Ag-Cu:Au-Cu Binary Diagrams 170
6.9 Mixing and Homogenisation in Gold Alloy Casting 170
6.9.1 Gas Stirring 171
6.9.2 Induction Melting 171
6.9.3 Pre-Ingot Casting 171
6.10 Graining 172
6.10.1 Equipment for Graining 172
6.10.2 Details of Graining Process 172
6.10.3 Graining of Sterling Silver 173
6.10.4 Graining Gold Alloys 175
6.11 Assaying Gold and Silver Alloys 175
6.12 Production Casting of Gold Strip 176
6.12.1 Data on Typical Casting Run on Fine Gold and Carat Gold Strip 176
6.12.2 Casting Procedure 177
xiiiContents
6.13 Production of Gold Solder-Filled Rod 177
6.13.1 Combined Casting Technique for Production of Cored Rod
in Gold or Silver 178
6.13.1.1 Downstream Processing of Cast Cored Rod 179
6.13.1.2 Comments on Use of this Alternative Process 180
6.14 Casting of Gold Tube 180
6.14.1 Jacket-Cooled Cooler and Die Assembly 180
6.14.2 Probe-Cooled Tube Die Assembly 180
6.14.3 Upcasting of Tube 180
6.14.4 Vertical Casting 181
6.14.5 Horizontal Casting 181
6.14.6 Tilting Horizontal Furnace 181
6.14.7 Graphite Mandrel 182
6.14.8 Starter Tube 182
6.14.9 Start Up 183
6.14.10 Alloying 183
6.14.11 Tube Break 184
6.14.12 Re-Start After Break 184
6.14.13 Stop or Interruption of Tube Casting 185
6.14.14 End of Run and Crucible Draining 186
6.15 Gold-Tin Alloys 186
6.15.1 Alloy Constitution 186
6.15.2 Casting 186
6.15.3 Crucible and Die Material and Construction 186
6.15.4 Casting Procedure 187
6.15.4.1 Details on Typical Casting Run on Resistance-Heated
Horizontal Unit 188
6.15.4.2 Casting of 88:12 Au:Ge Alloy 188
6.15.4.3 Casting 98:2 Au:Si Alloy 189
6.16 Continuous Casting of High-Purity Gold Plus Trace Beryllium 190
6.16.1 Typical Casting Run 191
6.17 Hardenable High-Carat Gold Alloys 191
6.18 Silver
6.18.1 Deoxidation of Silver
6.18.2 Casting Fine Silver
6.18.3 Silver Alloys - Silver-Copper
6.18.3.1 Constitution of Silver: Copper Alloys
6.18.3.2 Sterling Silver
6.18.4 Modified Sterling Silver Cast Using Pressure Upcaster
6.18.4.1 Casting Data
6.18.4.2 Properties of Cast Strip
6.18.5 Ag:Cu Eutectic Alloy and Similar Alloys
6.18.5.1 Casting Equipment
6.18.5.2 Casting Practice
xivContents
6.18.5.3 Industrial Application of Continuous Casting of Silver
Alloys 199
6.18.6 Silver-Copper-Germanium Alloy 200
6.18.6.1 Silver-Capper-Germanium Sterling Silver -
Properties and Casting Data 200
6.18.7 Silver-Magnesium-Nickel - Oxidation Hardenable Alloy 200
6.18.7.1 Problems Associated with Casting Ag-Mg-Ni Alloy 202
6.18.7.2 Method Developed for Continuous Casting Ag-Mg-Ni
A~~ 2m
6.18.7.3 Recommended Casting Procedure 202
6.19 Noble-Metal Brazing Alloys 203
6.19.1 Continuous Casting of Au-Cu Brazing Alloys 203
6.19.2 Casting Sequence 205
6.20 Ag: Cu :Pd Brazing Alloys 205
6.20.1 Pd Reaction with Graphite 205
6.20.2 Graphite Crucible and Die 205
6.20.3 Casting Sequence for Ag: Cu :Pd Alloys 206
6.21 Ag:Cu Eutectic Brazing Alloy Conforming to BS1845 206
6.22 Group AG Silver Brazing Alloys 206
6.22.1 Casting Sequence 207
6.23 Cu-P-Ag Brazing Alloys 207
6.23.1 Copper-Phosphorus Alloys 209
6.23.2 Copper-Phosphorus-Silver Alloys 211
6.23.2.1 Ductile Range in Ag-Cu-Cu3P Alloys Cast as Small
Diameter Rods 212
6.23.3 Modified AFNOR and DIN Specifications (Restricted
Phosphorus and Silver Contents) 213
6.23.4 Continuous Casting of Cu-P-Ag Brazing Alloys 214
6.23.4.1 Melting Practice (Modified CP2 Alloys) 214
6.23.4.2 Typical Casting Procedure for Modified CP2 Alloy 215
7 CONTINUOUS CASTING OF OTHER ALLOY SYSTEMS 217
7.1 Metal Alloy Systems which Dissolve or are Aggressive to Graphite 217
7.1.1 Ceramic Crucible Containment - Graphite Composite System 217
7.1.2 Induction Heated Ceramic Crucible Assembly 217
7.2 Die Ceramics 218
7.3 Die Design 218
7.3.1 Composite Ceramic-Graphite Die 218
7.3.2 Ceramic Die Insert in Copper Sleeve Cooler 219
7.3.3 Strip Die with Boron Nitride Insert 219
7.3.4 Ceramic Die Insert for Larger Section Sizes 220
xvContents
7.4 Casting Applications
7.4.1 Nickel-Chromium Alloys
7.4.2 Crucible Assembly
7.5 Palladium Alloys
7.5.1 Casting Details on Palladium-Silver Alloys
7.6 Gold-Platinum-Palladium Dental Alloys
7.7 Horizontal Continuous Casting of Special Steels and High-Nickel Alloys
Applying Break-Ring Technology 223
7.7.1 The Principle of 'Break-Ring' Casting 225
7.7.1.1 Mould Design 226
7.7.2 The Influence of Casting Parameters on Product Surface Quality 226
7.7.3 Application of Break-Ring Casting 228
7.7.3.1 Casting Start-Up 228
7.8 Tin-Lead Alloys 228
7.8.1 Continuous Casting 229
7.8.1.1 Tin-Lead Alloy ASTM B32-68T-60A 231
7.8.1.2 Lead-Tin Alloy ASTM B32-60T 231
APPENDIX 1 233
National Standard Compositions for Copper Alloys ** selected aUoys** 233
ASTM standard compositions Tables 1 to 6 234
BS EN standard compositions Tables 7 to 10 241
DIN standard compositions Tables 11-15 245
**Full range and comparison of National Standards available from Copper Development
Association, Verulam Industial Estate, 224 London Road, St Albans, Herts
APPENDIX 2
Table 1 - Physical Properties of Metals
Table 2 - Coefficient of thermal expansion/solidification shrinkage
Table 3 - Conversion of atomic percent (mass percent) and vice versa
Table 4 - Copper based master alloys
APPENDIX 3
Table 1 - COSHH Occupational exposure limits UK regulations 1999
Table 2 - Cooling water specification
Table 3 - Nitrogen specification
Index 26
Index
Key to abbreviations: D - diagrams; G - graphs; P - photographs; T - tables
Air-gap, nitrogen protection, 16, 16D, 25D, 26
Assaying - gold/silver alloys, 175, 176
Asymmetric sump profile, 18, 19, 38
Boron nitride, 87
high cost compared to graphite, 87-88
properties compared to graphite, 87
proprietory grade formulation, 87, 88T
thermal conductivity, 88T
Brasses, 109-122
arsenical, 113, 114T, 120-122
constitution, 109, 110
copper-zinc phase diagram, 109G
copper-zinc alloys, mechanical properties,
110G
copper-zinc alloys, specification, 111T
DZR alloy heat treatment, 121
DZR casting data, 122
DZR data, 120, 121
high-tensile casting data, 117T
high-tensile specification, 116T
lead distribution, 113
leaded free machining casting data, 115T
leaded free machining specification, 114T
leaded free machining, 113, 115T
low per cent element additions, 113, 117
minor element additions, 120, 121T
single phase, casting data, 112T
zinc equivalent coefficient, 118, 118T
zinc rich phase - mode of formation, 119
zinc rich phase, 118, 119P
zinc rich phase, SEM analyses, 119, 120T
Brazing alloys, copper phosphorus, 209-211
composition/properties, 210T
phase diagram/section through, 210
Brazing alloys, copper phosphorus silver,
211-215
ductility range, ternary phase diagram, 212,
213T
international standards/properties, 212T
melting practice (modified alloys), 213, 214,
215T
mode of freezing, 214
modified specification/restricted phosphorus
and silver, 213
ternary phase diagram, 211G
twin crucibles/improved mixing, 214-215T
Brazing alloys, noble metal, 203-204
gold--copper, composition/properties, 203T
gold-copper, casting practice 203T
Brazing alloys, silver, 205-210
composition/properties, 210T
silver/palladium - high affinity for oxygen,
207
silver-copper eutectic, 208T
silver-copper-palladium casting, 207T
silver-copper-palladium,
composition/properties, 206T
silver-copper-palladium, reaction with
graphite, 205
silver-copper-zinc casting, 209T
silver-copper-zinc, composition, 208T
Break-ring technology, 223-228
application, break-ring casting, 228
break-ring ceramic material, 227
casting parameters/surface quality, 226
casting start-up, 228
cooler assembly, 225D
copper alloy mould, 227
mould design, 226
principle of break-ring casting, 224-226
withdrawal conditions, 227
witness marks, primary/secondary, 226, 227
Bronzes, copper-tin alloys, 122-127
alpha + delta eutectoid, 122, 123
copper-tin alloy constitution, 122, 123
copper-tin alloys (phosphor bronze) casting
data, 129T, 131T
261copper-tin alloys (phosphor bronze)
specification, 127T
copper-tin phase diagram, 123G
copper-tin-phosphorus alloy constitution,
123, 124
copper-tin-phosphorus alloy phase
diagram/section through, 124G
gun metal and phosphor bronze
specification, 129T, 130T
gun metal leaded, 126GT
manganese-silicon bronze
specification/casting data, 132T
phosphor bronze, thermal analyses, 125GT
Casting dies and cooler assembly, 14-21
dies for tube casting, 19, 20D
jacket die and cooler, 17D, 18
probe cooled die-rod and narrow strip, 18D,
19D
rod, high-speed die/cooler, 20, 21, 21D, 22D,
28D
small diameter rod - copper cooler jacket,
20, 21, 22D
strip - outward taper, 17, 19
strip die and cooler, 15D, 16D
strip die copper cooler - material
specification, 15, 16
thermocouple fitting, 25D, 26, 27
Casting plant and equipment, 51-71
Casting practice, 24-28
assembly die-cooler, jacket type, 25D
assembly high efficiency cooler-rod, 28
die thermocouple, 26
die thrust support, 26
finish on cooler surfaces, 26
fitting starter - strip die, 27
fitting starter rods, 27
grafoil sealing gasket, 26
graphite die machining/preparation, 24, 25
insulation on outer cooler surface, 26
nitrogen protection to die, 26, 39
solidification shrinkage, appendix 2
Ceramic fibre paper, general formulation, 90
Ceramics, 85-88
alumina composition - temperature rating,
85
beryllia composition - temperature rating,
86
chrome alumina composition - temperature
rating, 87
composite graphite/ceramic, 85
fibre paper (Fiberfrax), 90
magnesia composition - temperature rating,
86
mullite composition - temperature rating, 87
Index
silicon carbide composition - temperature
rating, 86
sillimanite composition - temperature
rating, 86
thermal conductivity compared to graphite,
89G
thermal expansion compared to graphite,
79G
zirconia composition-temperature rating, 86
zirconia stabilised/partially stabilised, 86
Closed-head casting process, 4D
Copper-phosphorus deoxidised, 101, 102T
Copper alloys, free machining with no lead,
139-148
bismuth, mechanism of embrittlement, 140
bismuth, alternative to lead, 139, 140
bismuth, mechanism of free machining, 142,
143
bismuth, wetting at grain boundaries, 140
casting trials, upward, 145T
copper contamination with bismuth, 142
Federalloy comparative microstructural
study, 145, 148P
Federalloy specification and properties,
146T, 147T
Federalloy, copper bismuth modified alloys,
144, 145
lead health hazard, 139, 140
literature review, 142, 142T, 143, 143T
machinability lead/bismuth, 143T
machinability enhancing elements, 143
patents review, 142T, 144T
physical properties, bismuth/lead alloys,
144T
potable water plumbing systems, 139
specification, 145T
Copper aluminium alloys, 127-136
copper aluminium alloys constitution, 127,
128, 130
copper aluminium alloys specification, 134T
copper aluminium casting procedure/data,
130, 131, 135T
copper aluminium phase diagram, 133G
Mint coinage data, 136
Nickel sensitivity, 135
Nordic alloy data, 133-136
Nordic alloy specification, 134T
Copper-cadmium alloys, 104, 105
copper-cadmium casting data, lOST
Copper cathode, 91, 92T
Copper de-oxidation, 93-96
deoxidation - bed filtration application, 97,
98D
deoxidation - INCRA data, 95, 96
deoxidation rate-controlled casting, 96G
262Copper de-oxidation (contd.)
deoxidation - reaction with graphite, 94,
95G
deoxidation by graphite bed filtration, 97G
deoxidation rate - upcasting, 98
deoxidisers - elemental, 93, 94T
Copper high purity, 91, 92T, 93T
Copper magnesium alloys, 106-108
copper magnesium casting data, 106T
copper magnesium upcast 20mm rod, 107T
Cu-OF, Cu-Cd, Cu-Mg tensile properties,
108G
Copper oxygen free, 93, 93T
Copper-nickel alloys, 136-139
copper-nickel alloy phase diagram, 139G
copper-nickel alloys, constitutions, 136, 138
copper-nickel casting data, 143T
copper-nickel alloys specification, 142T
copper-nickel reaction with graphite, 138
Crucibles used in continuous casting, 8-12
ceramic assembly with graphite carrier, 10D
die seal grafoil, 11, 12
graphite baffle - floating, 102, 102D
graphite baffle, lID
graphite crucible die seal, lID
graphite crucible liner, lID
graphite, vertical/horizontal, lID
impregnation with coal tar pitch, 10
induction melting-casting, 9D
Ewen technology, USA, 54, 55
Gold - carat alloys - assaying 166T, 171, 172,
175
Gold - carat - contamination, 165
Gold - carat - fractional element additions,
163, 165
Gold - carat - general casting conditions,
166T, 167T
Gold - casting equipment, 152-155
crucible - ceramic, 152
crucible - graphite 8-12, 1520, 154
die probe cooled - narrow strip, 155
die probe cooled, thin strip, 155
die rod and narrow strip, 155
die rod casting, 155
die strip, 154, 155
furnace induction heated, 153, 153D, 154
furnace resistance heated, 12D
Gold - coloured, alloy systems, 165, 167
data ternary alloys, 165
NIHS/ISO standards, 167T
Gold - hallmarking, 151, 192
Gold - solder filled rod, 177-179
combined casting technique, 178, 179, 178D
Index
comparison conventional/combined casting,
180
composition 9 carat, 178T
downstream processing, ratio core to shell,
179, 179T
method of production, conventional, 177, 178
silver cored rod, 180
Gold - tube casting, 180-186
alloying and assay, 183, 184
die assembly/start-up, 183
end of run/crucible draining, 185
graphite mandrel - details/fitting, 182
horizontal casting, 181, 182,
horizontal crucible/die assembly, 1820D
horizontal tilting furnace, 181
jacket cooled die assembly, 180
probe cooled die assembly, 180
start-up, 183
starter tube, fabrication and fitting, 182, 183
stop or interruption of casting, 185, 185D
tube break and re-start, 184, 1853
upcasting, 180
vertical casting, advantages/disadvantages,
181, 185
Gold, 22 carat, 157-159
gold 22 carat, properties vs. composition,
158G
gold, 22 carat, composition range and
properties, 158T,
gold, 22 carat, continuous casting data, 159,
160T
gold alloy, 22 carat, general properties, 157
gold-silver-copper 22 carat, cast/cold work
properties, 158G
Gold, 21 carat, 159T
Gold, 18 carat, 159, 160
gold 18 carat, age hardening, 162G
gold, 18 carat, compilation, 159, 161T
gold, 18 carat, strip casting, 177T
Gold 14 carat, 159
gold 14 carat, age hardening, 162G
gold 14 carat, compilation, 160, 161T
Gold 10 carat, 160-163
gold 10 carat, age hardening, 163G
Gold 9 carat, 163, 164
gold 9 carat, compilation, 164T
gold 9 carat, properties vs. composition,
163, 164G
Gold alloy, graining, 172-175
graining, process data, 172, 173D
graining, proprietary equipment, (see 3.6),
172
graining, sterling silver, 175, 176GP
Gold alloy, mixinglhomogenisation, 170-172
gold alloy gas stirring, 171
263gold alloy induction melting, 171
gold alloy pre-ingot casting, 171, 172
graining, process data, 172, 173D
graining, proprietary equipment, (see 3.6),
172
graining, sterling silver, 173, 174GP
Gold and silver assaying requirements, 175,
176
Gold high purity plus trace beryllium, 190,
191
continuous casting data 6mm rod, 191T
gold plus (beryllium 0.0008%), 190, 191
Gold, fine, 155
24 carat strip casting, 157T, 176T
continuous casting data, 155, 157T
mechanical properties, fine gold, 156G
Gold, pure, 151
carat values, theoretical 152T
gold, pure properties, 151T
gold, pure, melting characteristics, 152
Gold, 990 and above, harden able 191, 192
Gold, ternary phase diagrams, 167-170
gold-silver-copper liquidus projection, 168,
169, 168G
gold-silver-copper, binary systems, 170,
171G
gold-silver-copper solidus projection, 169,
170, 169G
Gold-germanium industrial alloy, 188, 189
gold-germanium 88:12 eutectic alloy, 188,
189
gold-germanium casting as for gold tin, 188,
189
gold-germanium phase diagram, 189G
Gold-platinum-palladium dental alloys, 223,
224T
Gold-silicon industrial alloy, 189, 190
continuous casting data 6mm rod, 191
gold-silicon 98:2 wide freezing alloy, 189,
190
gold-silicon phase diagram, 190G
gold-silicon, casting more difficult, 189
Gold-tin industrial alloy, 186-188
gold-20wt% tin, eutectic alloy, 186
gold-tin phase diagram, 187G
graphite die-thin strip, 188D
horizontal cast/thin strip, 186, 187
pre-alloy mixing required, 188
typical casting run details, 188
Gold strip, production casting runs, 157T, 176,
177T
Graining furnace - Schultheiss, 59
graining, proprietary equipment, (see 3.6)
Graining, process data, 171, 172D
graining, sterling silver, 172, 173GP
Index
Graphite, 73-85
anisotropic properties, 73
baked carbon, 76
binder material, 73
bulk density, 79, 83T
bulk filler material, 73
carbide forming elements, 77
co-efficient of thermal expansion, 78, 83T
commercial graphites, 81, 83T
contact/wetting angle, 74, 75T
crucible grade, 81, 83T
die graphite properties, 74, 83T
die graphite selection, 81, 82, 83T, 84T
electrical resistivity/specific electrical
resistance, 77, 79, 81G
electro-graphite, 73
extruded green shapes, 73
filter bed, 7, 97, 98D
grafoil, 11, 12, 26, 82, 85
graphitisation, 73
graphitising cell, 74
heating elements, 14
isostatically moulded, 74
mechanical strength at temperature, 80G
metals inert, 74
reaction with molten metals, 74, 75T
solubility in metals, 76T
thermal conductivity, 74, 77G
thermal expansion graphite/ceramics, 79G
transition elements, 77
wetting properties, 75T, 76
Gun metals, 125-130
casting data, 130
specification, 128, 129
Hazelett process, history, 3
anode Contilanoid, 59
strip casting, 59
Heat transfer, 36-49
air gap, 16, 16D, 37-38
asymmetric solidification profile, 37, 38, 39
axial cooling, 42P
effect of withdrawal, 39, 40, 41D
heat balance equations, 34, 44, 45
heat transfer coefficients, h., h., h., hw, 37,
38D
heat transfer studies referred to, Thomson,
et al., 37
jacket and probe cooled die, 43D
latent heat, 37
mode of heat transfer along the mould,
37-38D
multi-rod die assembly, 43D
radial cooling, 42P
solidification shell formation, 40, 41D
264Heat transfer (contd.)
strip casting, 43D
symbol annotation, 50
symmetric solidification profile, 37-38, 39
typical heat balance calculations, 45-50
water drop or bubble transfer, 39
water film transfer, 39
water sparge, 37, 38
Horizontal casting plant, industrial, 14D
Horizontal continuous casting integrated melt
and cast, 7, 8D, 12-14
furnace construction, 3
heating elements, 13
low thermal mass insulation, 13
refractory insulation, 13
temperature control, 13
Low thermal mass insulation materials 13, 89,
90
alumina-silicate modules, 89
ceramic board, 90
module construction, 90
operating temperature ranges, 90
refractory blanket, 89, 90
Mannesmann Demag, 58, 59
horizontal large billets, 58
micro melt plant, 58
micro process control, 58, 59
vertical casting (tilting frame), 58
Metals aggressive to graphite -
ceramics/equipment 87, 88 217-220
boron nitride die, strip, 87, 88, 219, 220D
casting practice, 222T
ceramic crucible container, 217
ceramic die insert, copper cooler, 219D
ceramic die insert, larger section, 220
ceramic die, combined jacket/probe cooler,
220D
ceramic die, composite, 218D
induction heated crucible, 217
Monolythic refractories, general formulation,
90
Nickel silver, 136-138
nickel silver casting data, 137T
nickel silver properties, 136,
nickel silver specification, 137T
Nickel-chromium alloys, 220, 222
crucible assembly (see 1.4.1), 221, 222T
Nitrogen gas specification, appendix 3
Ohno process, 69-71
details of system, 70, 70D
industrial application, 71
Index
product properties, 71
separation theory, 69
Outokumpu upcasting, 6, 6D, 59-61
channel melting furnace, 60
de-oxidation method, 60
introduction, 6, 6D
operating principle, 60D
production capacity, 60T
refractory lining, 60
Palladium alloys, 221
dental alloys, 223
dental alloys, casting, 224T, 225T
Plumbago, 10, 11, 13
Precious metals casting equipment, 152-154
induction heated melting rate, 153
induction heated, 153D
resistance heated crucible, 182D, 12D
strand withdrawal, 154
Precious metals, die assembly, 154, 155
copper plate cooler, 154
graphite strip die (see 1.6.1), 154
probe cooled die, rod/narrow strip, (see
1.6.3), 155
rod casting (see 1.6.2), 155
small diameter rod, (see 1.6.5), 155
starter strip fitting (see 1.6.1.3), 155
strip casting - wide to 200mm, 154
strip die, outward taper 0.10/0, 154
thin strip, engineering application,(see
1.6.3.1), 155
Pressure upcasting, 72, 101-105
equipment details, 72, 103T, 104
high-purity copper, 101-105
Properzi casting, 61-66
break -down rolling, 63
casting wheel details, 63
chemistry of thermal process, 64, 65
comparison ETP and FRHC copper rod, 65
electrolytic copper from scrap, 63
history of process, 61, 62
insulation sooting, 63
modern plant, 62D
plant capacity, 62,
Properzi - La Fargo thermal process, 64
typical scrap charge, 64T
wheel casting - copper, 62
Rautomead equipment, 3,14,53,54,98-101
computer monitoring, 54
horizontal table top, 53
integrated melt and cast, 14D, 53
upwards vertical (see 5.12.3), 3, 54, 99D,
100D
vertical casting tube, (see 6.14.4)
265Safety from liquid metal run-out, 28-30
break in continuous billet within die, 29,
30D
die temperature/withdrawal interruption,
29-30
failure of cooling water supply, 29
Silver alloys, general casting practice, 197-200
crucible - ceramic versus graphite, 199
induction versus electrical resistance, 199,200
Silver - copper alloys, 193-198
constitution, 193
eutectic alloy (28.1 wt% copper),
constitution, 197
eutectic alloy, casting practice, 198T
phase diagram, 194G
sterling silver, (92.50/0silver), 193
sterling silver, casting, 195T
sterling silver - modified alloy, 195, 196
sterling silver, modified alloy, casting, 196
sterling silver, modified alloy, properties,
196G, 1977G
Silver-copper-germanium alloy, 200
casting data, 201T
composition/patent data, 200, 201
constitution, 200
Silver fine, 192-194
casting data, 194T
deoxidation - in graphite, 192-193
oxygen absorption, 192
Silver-magnesium-nickel alloy, 200-203
casting practice typical, 203T
casting procedure recommended, 202
casting, problems associated with, 202
constitution/oxidation hardenable alloy, 200,
202
Solidification shrinkage, appendix 2
Southwire process, (SRC) 3, 66-69
automated pouring system, 67
cast structure, 69
chemical specification materials involved, 69T
chemistry control ETP copper, 68
details of casting wheel, 67, 68D
history of process, 66
operation of rolling mill, 68
reactions in vertical shaft furnace, 67
typical plant lay-out, 66D
Technica-Guss process, 3
Thermal analyses data, 124, 125G, 126G
Thermal properties ceramics/graphite, 79T, 88,
89T,
Tin-lead alloys, 2286-231
casting data (630/0tin 37% lead), 229, 230T
casting data (800/0lead 200/0tin), 231, 231T
metal casting die, 230D
Index
specification/ ASTM properties, 229T
Tin Research Institute, TRI plant, 2, 5D
Troubleshooting, 30-34
cast surface deteriorating with time, 31
edge cracking attributed to cooling (strip),
33, 34
inverse segregation - periodic over-dwell or
push-back, 32
irregular pulse length, 31
nitrogen to die air gap - surface gouging,
16, 33
periodic interrupted/uninterrupted casting,
31D
porosity - de-oxidation of melt, 33
pulse cracking - influence of withdrawal
conditions, 32, 33
pulse cracking - tin-rich segregation or
zinc-rich phase (brasses), 32,33
torque requirement to counteract traction
forces, 31
zinc segregation (brasses) - 33, see section
5.7.6
Tube casting, 19, 1808, 181, 182D
United Wire Unicast history, 3
United Wire Unicast, 50
Timex - recycling scrap, 52
unicast furnace, 50, 52D
unicast horizontal system, 52
Up casting - vertical, OFHC copper, 98, 99T
casting procedure, 99, 100
copper product purity, residual elements,
101
die and cooler assembly, 100D
graphite system, 98, 99D
rod withdrawal, cam indexer, 100
Vertical continuous casting plant - Poland &
Lindner,2D
Wertli equipment, 3, 8, 55-57
ancillary equipment, 55
data recording, 57
drive concept - backlash free, 56
history, 3, 8, 8D
melt transfer, 56
melting furnaces, 55, 56
strip cooler design, 56D
strip-rod and tube, 55, 56
Withdrawal systems
AC servo-drive, 23
cam indexing, 23, 24
DC drive, 23, 56
pneumatic slide, 24
withdrawal sequence, 22G, 23T


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