كتاب Power Boilers - A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Power Boilers - A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

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Power Boilers - A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Second Edition
by
John R. MacKay
and
James t. Pillow
founding Authors:
Martin d. Bernstein
and
Lloyd W. Yoder

كتاب Power Boilers - A Guide to Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code  P_b_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
List of Figures . ix
List of Tables . xii
Foreword . xiii
Introduction xv
Acknowledgment xix
chapter 1
Scope of Section I, Organization and, Serice Limits . 1
Scope . 1
The Organization of Section I . 4
The Parts of Section I . 5
Interpretations . 10
Pressure Range of Section I Boilers . 11
Fired Versus Unfired Boilers 11
The Use of Section VIII Vessels in a Section I Boiler . 12
Standards Referenced by Section I . 14
chapter 2
how and Where Section I is Enforced and Effectie dates . 17
United States and Canada . 17
International Acceptance 19
Uniform Boiler and Pressure Vessel Laws Society 19
National Board Inspection Code . 20
Effective Dates of the Code and Code Revisions . 20
chapter 3
Materials . 25
How Material is Ordered 25
Using Section II 25
Finding and Using Design Stresses in Section II, Part D . 28
Marking of Materials 29
Use of Non-Asme Material Specifications and Material Not Fully Identified . 30
Special Concerns 31
Material Requirements for Boiler External Piping . 33
Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Materials 33
Nonpressure Part Materials . 34
Material Test Reports . 34
Strength of Materials After Fabrication 35
Cold Forming of Austenitic Materials 36
Cold Forming of Creep Strength-Enhanced Ferritic Steels 38
Does New Material Get Old? . 39Use of Materials in Inventory . 41
Code Guidance on the Use of Old Materials 41
chapter 4
Boiler design . 43
Design Life . 43
Design Allowable Stresses . 44
Design Methods 44
Design Loads 45
Distinction Between Boiler Proper Piping and Boiler External Piping 50
Some Design Differences: Section I Versus B31.1 51
Bend Design 52
Openings and Compensation 54
Ligament Design . 61
Interpretations on Openings, Compensation, and Ligaments . 65
Nozzle Attachment Rules . 66
Dished Heads 70
Flat Heads . 76
Interpretations on Heads . 76
Stayed Surfaces . 78
Supports and Attachment Lugs . 82
Loading on Structural Attachments 82
Design of Pressure Relief Valve Nozzles . 84
Thermocouple Installations 85
chapter 5
Piping design 89
Introduction . 89
Shock Service for Feedwater and Blowoff Piping . 89
Pump Discharge Head 90
Unusually High Piping Design Pressure . 91
Short-Term Overstress in Boiler External Piping . 92
Hydrostatic Test of Boiler External Piping 96
Allowable Stress When Pressure Relief Valves Are Discharging 97
Feedwater Piping 98
Main Steam Piping . 99
Blowoff and Blowdown Piping 102
Design Conditions for Blowoff and Blowdown Piping 104
Drains 104
Design Conditions for Drain Piping . 107
Pipe Connections to the Boiler . 107
Addition of Small Connections to Boiler Piping 108
chapter 6
fabrication 109
Fabrication 109
Tube Attachment by Expanding . 109
Welding — Some History 111
Welding Rules 112
Qualification of Welding Procedures 113
i Table of ContentsQualification of Welder Performance . 113
Expiration and Renewal of Welding Qualifications . 114
Transfer of Procedures and Welders to Another Organization 116
Welding Documentation . 118
Welding Nonductile Materials 119
Welding Variables 119
P-Numbers, S-Numbers, F-Numbers, and A-Numbers 120
Weldability . 122
Design of Welded Joints . 123
Bending Stress on Welds 123
Acceptance Criteria for Welds 124
Tube-to Header Attachment Using Partial Penetration Welds . 125
Alignment Tolerance 126
Backing Rings . 126
Preheating . 126
Postweld Heat Treatment 127
Test Plates . 130
Interpretations on Welding . 131
Volumetric Examination of Welds . 134
chapter 7
nondestructie Examination and hydrostatic testing 139
Nondestructive Examination 139
Qualification And Certification Of NDE Personnel . 139
Hydrostatic Testing . 140
Welding After Hydrostatic Test 144
Interpretations On Hydrostatic Testing 144
chapter 8
third Party Inspection 151
chapter 9
certification by data Reports and Stamping 155
Certification and Its Significance 155
Manufacturer’s Data Report and Certificate of Conformance Forms 156
The Section I Manufacturer’s Data Report And Certificate Of Conformance Forms 156
Completing the Manufacturer’s Data Report Forms 159
Distribution of the Data Report Forms . 159
Interpretations on Use of Manufacturer’s Data Report Forms . 160
Code Symbol Stamps and How They Are Obtained 161
What the Code Symbol Stamps Cover . 162
Reapplication of an ASME Code Symbol Stamp . 164
Interpretations on Code Symbol Stamping . 165
chapter 10
Quality control System . 173
chapter 11
Standard Pressure Parts, Vales, and Vale Ratings . 175
Standard Pressure Parts . 175
Table of Contents iiValve and Valve Ratings 176
chapter 12
Pressure-Relief Vale Requirements 179
Introduction . 179
Overpressure Protection 180
Selection of Pressure-Relieving Devices 188
Design of Pressure-Relief Valves . 191
Establishing and Certifying Relieving Capacities 192
Qualification of Pressure-relief Valve Manufacturers 195
Installation Guidelines 195
Pressure-Relief Valves in Service 196
chapter 13
feedwater Supply and Water Leel Indication 199
Importance of Feedwater 199
Rules for Feedwater Supply 199
Tower Mounted Solar Fired Boilers . 202
Forced-Flow Steam Generators 202
Low Water Level Fuel Cutoffs . 203
Water Level Indication . 203
Water Columns . 206
chapter 14
creep and fatigue damage during Boiler Life 209
Introduction . 209
Creep . 209
Fatigue 212
Boiler Life Extension 214
chapter 15
determination of Allowable Stresses 217
General Philosophy . 217
Establishing Allowable Stresses . 218
Penalties on Allowable Stresses . 218
Design Stresses: Past, Present, and Future . 219
Appendix 1 of Section II, Part D 220
chapter 16
Rules coering Boilers in Serice 223
Introduction . 223
Jurisdictional Requirements 224
National Board Inspection Code . 224
References . 231
Appendix I
Eolution of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code . 233
iii Table of ContentsAppendix II
Organization and Operation of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards committees 237
Organization and Responsibility . 237
A Balance of Interests . 239
The Code Sections and Their Related Standards Committee . 240
The Service Committee 240
The Certification Committees . 242
Committee Operations 242
How the Committee Does Its Work 242
Code Inquiries and Interpretations 242
Publication of Interpretations of the Code 244
Additions and Revisions to the Code 245
Code Cases 246
Voting at the Standards Committee (BPV I) 247
Due Process 248
Appendix III
Oeriew of code Sections II to XII and Piping codes B31.1 and B31.3 . 249
Appendix IV
design Exercises . 261
Design Exercise No. 1, Design of a Header .261
Design Exercise No. 1A, Alternative Design of Header (A-317) 262
Design Exercise No. 2, Design of a Head 262
Design Exercise No. 3, Choice of Feedwater Stop Valve 263
Design Exercise No. 4, Design of a Tube For Lug Loading 264
Design Exercise No. 5, Design of an Opening . 266
Pg-27 Cylindrical Components Under Internal Pressure (Reproduced from ASME Section I) 269
PG-29 Dished Heads (Reproduced from Section I) . 273
Appendix V
Illustrations of Various types of Boilers . 283
Index of Interpretations Referenced in text, their Major Subjects and Abstracts . 295
Index .
List of Figures
chapter 2
Fig. 2.1 Map of States and Provinces with Boiler and Pressure Vessel Laws
(Courtesy of the National Board Synopsis of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Laws, Rules and Regulations) . 18
chapter 4
Fig. PG-33.1 Nominclature and Formulas for Reinforced Openings
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 56
Fig. PG-52.1 Diagram for Determining the Efficiency of Longitudinal
and Diagonal Ligaments Between Openings in Cylindrical Shells
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 63
Fig. PW-15 Examples of Weld Strength Calculations (Reproduced From ASME Section I) . 68
Fig. PW-16.1 Some Acceptable Types of Welded Nozzles and Other Connections
to Shells, Drums, and Headers (Reproduced From ASME Section I) . 71-74
Fig. PG-31 Some Acceptable Types of Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 77
chapter 5
Fig. PG-58.3.1(a) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Drum-Type Boilers
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 92
Fig. PG-58.3.1(b) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Isolable Economizers Located
in Feedwater Piping and Isolable Superheaters in Main Steam Piping
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 93
Fig. PG-58.3.1(c) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Reheaters and Nonintegral
Separately Fired Superheaters (Reproduced From ASME Section I) . 94
Fig. PG-58.3.2 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — An Example of Forced-Flow
Steam Generators with No Fixed Steam Or Waterline
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 99
Fig. PG-58.3.3 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — An Example of Steam Separator Type
Forced-Flow Steam Generators with No Fixed Steam or Waterline
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) 100
chapter 6
Fig. 6.1 Dudgeon’s Roller Expander, Circa 1880 110
Fig. 6.2 Prosser Tube Expander, Circa 1880 110
xchapter 14
Fig. 14.1 Strain in Constant Stress Creep Test . 210
Fig. 14.2 Progression of Microstructural Damage During Componenet Life
(Reproduced From Neubauer and Wedel (1983)) 211
Fig. 14.3 2¼ Cr-1Mo — 100 Percent of the Minimum Stress-to-Rupture
(Reproduced From ASME Section III) . 211
Appendix II
Fig. A.II.1 Organization of ASME (Condensed) 238
Fig. A.II.2 Portion of ASME Organization Encompassing BPV
Committee on Power Boilers (I) . 239
Appendix IV
Fig. A-71 Lug Load on Tube (Reproduced From ASME I) . 264
Fig. PW-15 Examples of Weld Strength Calculations Sketch (C)
(Reproduced From ASME Section I) . 266
Appendix V
Fig. A.V.1 Supercritical Once-Through Coal Firing Steam Generator
(Courtesy of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation) 283
Fig. A.V.2 Coal Firing Central Station Steam Generator
(Courtesy of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation) 284
Fig. A.V.3 Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (Courtesy of Foster Wheeler
Energy Corporation) . 285
Fig. A.V.4 Kraft Process Black Liquor Recovery Boiler
(Courtesy of the Babcock & Wilcox Company) . 286
Fig. A.V.5 Refuse Fired Boiler (Courtesy of the Babcock & Wilcox Company) 287
Fig. A.V.6 Package Boiler (Courtesy of the Babcock & Wilcox Company) . 288
Fig. A.V.7 “Flex” Boiler (Courtesy of Cleaver-brooks Inc.) 289
FIG. A.V.8 “Flex” Boiler (Courtesy of Cleaver-brooks Inc.) 290
FIG. A.V.9 Solar “Fired” Boiler (Courtesy of Esolar) .291
FIG. A.V.10 Miniature Electric Boiler (Courtesy of Chromalox Inc.) .292
FIG. A.V.11 Heat Recovery Steam Generator (Courtesy of Alstom Power, Inc.) .293
List of Figures xiList of Tables
chapter 3
Table PG-19 Post Cold-Forming Strain Limits and Heat-Treatment Requirements
(Reproduced From ASME Section 1) . 37
Table PG-20 Post Cold-Forming Strain Limits and Heat-Treatment Requirements
(Reproduced From ASME Section 1) . 38
chapter 4
Table PG-26 Weld Strength Reduction Factors to be Applied When Calculating Maximum
Allowable Working Pressure or Minimum Required Thickness of Components
Fabricated with a Longitudinal Seam Weld . 47-48
chapter 9
Table 9.1 Capabilities Needed to Obtain Section I Code Symbol Stamps . 163
chapter 12
Table 12.1 Pressure-Relief Devices Allowed by the ASME Code . 183
Table 12.2(a) Section I Pressure-Relief Device Operating Requirements . 185
Table 12.2(b) Section IV Pressure-Relief Device Operating Requirements 186
Table 12.2(c) Section VIII Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Pressure-Relief Device
Operting Requirements .186-187
Table 12.2(d) Section X Pressure-Relief Device Operating Requirements 188
Table 12.2(e) Section XII Pressure-Relief Device Operating Requirements . 189
chapter 15
Table 1-100 Criteria for Establishing Allowable Stress Values for Tables 1A and 1B 221
Appendix II
Table A.II.1 The Book Sections of the ASME B&PV Code 241
Appendix IV
Table 1 Material Specification List (Reproduced From Asme B16.34) 276-277
Table 2 Dimensions And Weights of Welded And Seamless Steel Pipe
(Excert–Reproduced From ASME B36.10m) .278-281
Table 2.1.1 Rating for Group 1.1 Materials (Reproduced From Asme B16.34) .
303
A
Addenda to the Code, 211–212, 246
Alberta Boilers Safety Association (ABSA),
152
Alignment tolerance in welding, 123, 126
Allowable overpressure, 179, 183–185
Allowable stress, 26
determination, 217–222
establishing, 218
penalties on, 218–219
when pressure relief valves are discharging,
97–98, 218–219
Allowance for structural stability, 50
Alterations
defined, 226
documentation and stamping for, 229
edition of Section I applicable to, 223
under National Board Inspection Code,
224–225
pressure tests following, 228–229
American National Standard (ASME/ANSI
standard), 107
American Society for Nondestructive Testing,
14
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM), 21
American Welding Society, 111, 121
A-Numbers, 121–122
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 21,
151–152, 233–235
ASME Code, see Particular section of Code
ASME-designated organization, 162, 193
ASTM (American Society for Testing and
Materials), 25
Attachment lugs, 82
Austenitic materials, cold forming of, 36–38
Austenitic steels, in water-wetted service, 32
Authorized Inspection Agency, 19, 152, 224
Authorized Inspector (AI), 13–14, 152,
225
Automatic welding, defined, 112
B
Backing rings, 126
Bayonet tubes, 106
Bend design, 52
Bending stress on welds, 123–124
Blowdown, 187–188
pressure relief valve, 104
Blowdown piping, 102–104
design conditions for, 104
Blowdown systems, defined, 103
Blowoff piping, 89–90, 102–104
design conditions for, 104
Blowoff systems, 103
Boiler, see also Power boilers
electric, 1, 8, 12
firetube, 6
forced-flow steam generators, 143, 202–203
high-temperature water, 1
miniature, 1, 143
organic fluid, 1, 8
power, see Power boilers
waste heat, 9, 14
watertube, 6, 82, 157
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee, 4, 31
balance of interests in, 239–240
due process in, 247–248
operations in, 242
organization and responsibility of, 237–239
publication of interpretations on Code by,
244–245
workings of, 242
Boiler external piping, 2–3, 14, 21, 33, 50–51,
92–96, 98, 99–100, 148, 149–150
addition of small connections, 108
boiler proper piping versus, 50–51
hydrostatic testing, 140–141, 144–150
material requirements, 33
mechanically assembled, hydrostatic testing
of, 149–150
short-term overstress in, 92–96
Boiler laws, 224
Index304 INDEX
Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System
(BLESS), 216
Boiler life extension, 214–216
Boiler proper, term, 2–3
Boiler proper piping, 3, 50–51
boiler external piping versus, 50–51
Boilers in service, rules for, 223–230
Bolted head flanges, 78
B31.1 Power Piping Code, 3, 6–7, 14, 21, 32,
51, 54, 65, 84, 90, 96, 104, 108, 173, 258–259
design differences from Section I, 51–52
B31 Pressure Piping Code, 121, 238, 258
B31.3 Process Piping Code, 3, 260
BPV Committee on Materials II, 241
Brazing, 5
Breaking pin device, 190–191
Brittle fracture, prevention of, 141–142
Buckling pin device, 190–191
Buckstays, 136
C
Calibration of welding equipment, 131–132
Canada, use of Section I in, 17–19
Carbon equivalency (CE), 122
Certificate of Authorization to Register, 10
Certificate of Authorization to use a Code symbol stamp, 131–132, 153
Certificate of Compliance/Conformance, 35
Certificate of Inspection, 35
Certification
by data reports and stamping, 155–171
significance of, 155–156
Certification committees, 242
Certified Material Test Report, 35, 40
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
Code, 3
Circulating fluidized bed boiler, illustrated, 285
Circumferential ligament, 61, see also Ligaments
Circumferential welds, 128
Coal firing central station steam generator,
illustrated, 284
Code, term, 3
Code Case 1855, 14
Code Cases, 246–247
Code construction, 19
Code inquiries and interpretations, 242–244
Code responsibility for design calculations, 168
Code revisions, effective codes of, 20–24
Code sections and related subcommittees, 240
Code symbol stamps, 161–162
A stamp, 164
E stamp, 164
interpretations on, 165–171
M stamp, 164
PP stamp, 164
S stamp, 162–163
V stamp, 164
Cold forming
of austenitic materials, 36–38
of creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels,
38–39
Compensation
for individual openings, 57
inherent, 57, 58
integral, 54, 65
interpretations on, 65–66
limits, 55
for multiple openings, 61
openings and, 58–61
openings exempt from calculations, 58
required, 57
required for openings in flat heads, 60–61
Complete boiler unit, 2
Completion of boiler, 167, 223
Conference Committee, 238, 247
Consulting advice, 36
Contract date, boiler, 21, 23
Correction factor F, 57
Corrosion/erosion allowance, 54
Creep, 209–212
Creep-fatigue interaction, 212
Creep rupture, stress to cause, 43
Creep strength-enhanced ferritic steels
cold forming of, 38–39
C&S Connect, 243
CSP-53, 151–153
Cyclic loads, 213
D
Design allowable stresses, 44, 219–220
Design exercises, 261–268
choice of feedwater stop valve, 263
cylindrical components under internal
pressure, 269–273
design of a head, 261
design of a header, 261
design of a tube for lug loading, 264–265
dished heads, PG-29, 262INDEX 305
Design life, 43–44
Design loads, 45–46
Design margins, 219–220
Design methods
by analysis, 44–45
by hydrostatic deformation or proof test, 45
by rule, 45
Design pressure and temperature, choice of, 46
Design responsibility, 157–158
Design stresses, 219–222
past, present, and future, 219–220
in Section II, 28–29
Design temperature, 81–82
for firetube boilers, 45, 79
Diagonal ligaments, 61, see also Ligaments
Diagonal pitch, 64
Diagonal stays, 79, 80
Direct stays, 80
Dished heads, 70, 74–75, 273–275
Drain piping, design conditions for, 107
Drains, 104–107
Drum-type boilers
test pressure for, 142
Due process, 247–248
Dye penetrant examination, 139
E
Effective dates of the Code, 20–24
Efficiency of ligaments between openings in
cylindrical shells, 63
Electric boilers, defined, 1
Electric resistance welded (ERW) materials,
33–34
postweld heat treatment, 127
radiography, 127
Electrode-type boilers, 8
Ellipsoidal head, 74
Engineering-Contractor, 157, 168–169
Engineering judgment, phrase, 84
Equivalent average diameter of hole, 66
Equivalent longitudinal efficiency of diagonal
ligaments, 61
Erosion/corrosion allowance, 54
Essential variables, 119–120
Examination, term, 23
F
Fabrication, 109
strength of materials after, 35–36
Fatigue, 212–213
failure, 213
Feed stop valve, 96– 97
Feedwater
check valve, 3
heater, 6–7, 91
piping, 93, 98–99
supply, rules for, 199–202
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Vessels, Code Section
X, 256–257
Fired pressure vessel, defined, 1
Fired versus unfired boilers, 11–12
Flanged-in (flued) manways, 76
Flanges and pipe fittings, 29
Flat heads, 76, 77
F-Numbers, 121
Forced-flow steam generators, 99, 100, 145,
202–203
G
Gage glass bodies, 32, 207
Gage glasses, 207
Graphitization, 32–33
Group Numbers, 120
H
Heads, 70–75
areas of, to be stayed, 82
interpretations on, 76–78
Heating boilers, 182
Code Section IV, 241
Heat recovery steam generators (HRSG),
143–144
defined, 1
Heat treatment, postweld, see Postweld heat
treatment
Hemispherical heads, 124, 274
High-temperature water boiler, defined, 1
Hub-type flanges, 107
Hybrid Section I boiler, 14
Hydrostatic head, 49–50
Hydrostatic testing, 140–150
applying insulation before, 96–97, 148–149
for drum-type boilers, test pressure for, 142
for forced-flow steam generators with no
fixed steam and waterline, 143
of heat recovery steam generators, 143–144
hold time for, 146
interpretations on, 144–150306 INDEX
location and type of gages in, 147
of mechanically assembled boiler external
piping, 149–150
minor leakage from mechanical joints
during, 146–147
painting before, 149
pneumatic pressurization, 149
pressure drop during, 146
procedures for, 149
slight leakage through valve seats during, 146
subsequent, 147–148
test pressure for drum-type boilers in, 145
welding after, 144
Hydrostatic test pressure, 49
exceeding, 145–146
same, for all parts of boiler, 144–145
temperature ratio applied to, 148
using pump to maintain, 146
I
Incoloy 800, 32
Inherent compensation, 57
Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Plant Components, Code Section XI, 257
Inspection
term, 23
third party, 151–153
Inspectors, see Authorized Inspector (AI)
Interpretations, 76–78, 130, 165–171, 244–245
index of, 244–245
Inventory, use of materials in, 41
Isolable economizers, 93
J
Jurisdiction, 17, 224
K
Knuckle, 70–71
Kraft process black liquor recovery boiler,
illustrated, 286
L
Ligaments
definition, 55, 61
design of, 61–65
efficiency of, 61–62, 66
interpretations on, 65–66
Linear damage rule, 212
Liquid penetrant examination, 139
Load-carrying paths, 66, 68
Load factor, 83
Loading on structural attachments, 82–83
Longitudinal ligaments, 61, see also Ligaments
efficiency, 61
Longitudinal pitch, 61–62
Low water level fuel cutoffs, 203
Lug attachment angle, 83
M
Machine welding, defined, 112
Main Committee (now TOMC), 245, 247, 248
Main steam piping, 99–102
Manual welding, defined, 112
Manufacturers’ Data Report Form (MDRF),
156–161
completing, 159
computer-generated, 160
distribution of, 159–160
Form III-1A, 159
Form P-2, 156
Form P-2A, 156
Form P-2B, 157
Form P-3, 157
Form P-3A, 157
Form P-4, 157
Form P-4A, 157–158
Form P-4B, 158
Form P-5, 158
Form P-6, 158
Form P-7, 158
Form P-8, 158
Guide to Data Report Forms Distribution, 156
interpretations on use of, 160–161
Master Data Report Form, 156
Marine Conference Group, 238, 247
Marking
of duplicate boiler parts, 169–170
of materials, 29–30
of standard pressure parts, 175–176
use of ASME, 170–171
Master stamping pressure, 143
Materials
austenitic stainless, 32, 38, 206, 209–210
Code Section II, 249–250
electric resistance welded (ERW), 33–34
ferritic stainless, 31
ferrous, 27, 207INDEX 307
foreign material specifications, use of, 25
marking of, 29–30
new, does it get old, 39–41
non-ASME, 30–31
nonferrous, 27, 219
nonpressure part, 34
not fully identified, 30–31
old, Code guidance on use of, 41–42
ordering, 25
requirements for boiler external piping, 33
sorting order for, 26–27
special concerns with, 31–33
specifications for, 25–27
strength of, after fabrication, 35–36
test reports, 34–35
use of, in inventory, 41
Material test report (MTR), 34–35
MAWP, see Maximum allowable working
pressure
Maximum allowable working pressure
(MAWP), 45
Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering
System, 27
Miner’s rule, 213
Miniature boiler
defined, 1
hydrostatic tests for, 143
Minimum allowance for threading and
structural stability, 50
Minimum Design Metal Temperature
(MDMT), 13, 33, 254–255
Miscellaneous pressure parts, 175
MTR (material test report), 34–35
N
Nameplates, 169
Napier’s formula, 192
National Association of Construction Boilermaker Employers, 116
National Board Inspection Code (NBIC), 20,
118, 223, 224
advantages of following, 225
repairs and alterations under, 226–228
National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Inspectors, 17, 152, 195
National Board repair stamp program, 227
Nil ductility transition temperature (NDTT),
141
Nominal wall thickness, 64
Non-ASME materials, 30–31
Nonboiler external piping, 51
Nondestructive examination (NDE), 139–140
Code Section V, 241
qualification and certification of personnel
for, 139–140
Nonductile material, welding, 119
Nonessential variables, 119–120
Nonpressure part materials, 34
Not permitted (NP) designation, 28
Nozzle, pressure-relief valve, see Pressurerelief valve nozzle, design of
Nozzle attachment
acceptable configurations of, 70
current rules for, 67–68
design philosophy, 66–67
determining strength of, 69
new rules for, 67–69
by single fillet welds, 133
small, problems with, 70
strength of, 70
Nozzle end load, 69
NP (not permitted) designation, 28
Nuclear Power Plant Components, Code
Section III, 250–251
O
Openings
compensation and, 54–61
in cylindrical shells, efficiency of ligaments
between, 62–63
exempt from compensation calculations, 58
flanged-in, in formed heads, 60
in flat heads, compensation required for,
60–61
individual, compensation for, 57
interpretations on, 65–66
limits of compensation for, 55
multiple, compensation for, 61
rules for, in Section VIII, 59–60
shape of, 58
size of, 58–59
symmetrical groups, 62
which do not form a definite pattern, 55
Organic fluid vaporizer, defined, 1
Overpressure, allowable, 179, 183–184
Overpressure protection, 180–188
Overstress, short-term, in boiler external
piping, 92–96308 INDEX
P
Package boiler, illustrated, 288
Parts manufacturer’s standard, 33, 175
Physical-property tables, 26
Pipe
bending, 168
interchanging tubes and, 52–54
Pipe connections to boilers, 107–108
Piping
defined, 53
miscellaneous, 161
Piping design, 89–108
Piping design pressure, unusually high, 91–92
Pitch, 62, 63f
Pneumatic test, 145, 149
P-Numbers, 120–121
Postconstruction activities of ASME, 230
Post Construction Committee, 230
Postservice examinations, 215
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT), 13, 127–130
attachment of nozzles to boiler after, 128
circumferential welds, 128
exemptions from, 127–129
interpretations on, 130
local, 129
maximum holding temperature for, 130
minor repairs after, 129–130
Power-actuated pressure-relief valve, 190
Power boilers
creep and fatigue damage in, 209–216
defined, 1, 2
design life of, 43–44
design loads for, 45–46
design methods for, 44–45
design of, 43–87
explosions in, 233, 234, 235
extension of life of, 214–216
fired versus unfired, 11–12
illustrations of types of, 283–293
circulating fluidized bed boiler, 285
coal firing central station steam
generator, 284
Kraft process black liquor recovery
boiler, 286
package boiler, 288
refuse fired boiler, 287
supercritical once-through coal firing
steam generator, 283
jurisdictional requirements covering, 224
pipe connections to, 107–108
pressure range of, 11
Recommended Guidelines for Care of, Code
Section VII, 252–253
rules covering, in service, 223–230
safe design of, 45
use and meaning of term, 2
use of Section VIII vessels in, 12–14
Practical Guide to ASME Section 11—1996
Materials Index, 27
Preamble, Section I, 4–5
Preheating in welding, 126–127
Pressure classes, 177, 263
Pressure-containing items (PCI), 23, 84, 192
Pressure range of power boilers, 11
Pressure relief valve nozzles, design of, 84–85
Pressure-relief valves
allowable stress values in discharging, 97–98
design of, 179–180
installation guidelines for, 195–196
materials for, 192
overpressure protection, 180–188
qualification of manufacturers of, 195
relieving capacities, establishing and certifying, 192–195
required relieving capacity, 180
selection of, 188–191
in service, 196
set pressure of, 184–185
Pressure-relieving devices, selection of, 188–191
Pressure tests following repairs and alterations,
228–229
Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC), 220
Pressure vessels, Section VIII, 253–255
use of, in Section I boiler, 12–14
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), 113
Proof test, 10, 45, 60
Pump discharge head, 90–91
Pump shutoff head, 90, 91
Q
Quality control manual, 173
Quality control system, 173–174
Quality factor for steel castings, 219
Quality system, 227, 228
R
Radiographic examination of welds, 126
Radiography, acceptance standards for, 135, 136INDEX 309
Range qualified, term, 114
Recommended Guidelines for Care of Power
Boilers, Code Section VII, 252–253
Recommended Practice for Nondestructive
Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification, 14
Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of
Heating Boilers, Code Section VI, 252
References, 231
Refuse fired boiler, illustrated, 287
Reheat piping, 3
Reinforcement, see Compensation integral
Rejectable imperfections, 36, 136
Relief valves, 188
Repairs
defined, 226
documentation and stamping of, 229
edition of Section I applicable to, 226
of material defects, 225
under National Board Inspection Code, 228
pressure tests following, 228
routine, 228
of weld defects, 133
Replacement in kind, 227–228
Replication, method of, 215–216
Residual-life assessment, 216
Residual stress, 127–129
Riveted construction, 5
Robinson’s rule, 212, see also Linear damage
rule
Rules for Construction of Power Boilers, 235
Rupture disk, 190
S
Safety factors, 219–220
Safety relief valve, 188
Safety valves, 179, see also Pressure-relief
valves
in service, 196
Section I of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, 4–5, 235
Section II, Materials, 25–27, 249–250
design stresses in, 28–29
Section III, Nuclear Power Plant Components,
240–241
additions and revisions to, 245
B31.1 versus, 51
edition applicable to repairs and alterations,
226
effective dates of Code and effective dates
of Code revisions, 20
enforcement, 19
evolution of, 233–235
international acceptance of, 19
interpretations on, 10–11, 244
organization of, 4–5
parts of
Appendix, 9–10
Part PB, 5–6
Part PEB, 7–8
Part PFH, 6–7
Part PFT, 6
Part PG, 5
Part PHRSG, 8–9
Part PMB, 7
Part PR, 5
Part PVG, 8
Part PW, 5
Part PWT, 6
scope of, 1–3
standards referenced by, 14–15
in United States and Canada, 17–19
Section IV, Heating Boilers, 182, 251
Section V, Nondestructive Examination,
251–252
Section VI, Recommended Rules for Care and
Operation of Heating Boilers, 252
Section VII, Recommended Guidelines for
Care of Power Boilers, 252–253
Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, 253–255
use of, in power boilers, 12–14
Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications, 255–256
Section X, Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Vessels,
256–257
Section XI, Inservice Inspection of Nuclear
Plant Components, 257
Section XII, Transport Tanks, 257–258
Semiautomatic arc welding, defined, 112
Semiellipsoidal heads, 78
Service committees, 240–241
Setting, 33
Shock service, 89–90
Shop-assembled boiler, 166
Single opening, 57
Slow-opening valve, 103
SNT-TC-1A, 139–140
S-Numbers, 121
Socket welded connections, 107310 INDEX
Sorting order for materials, 26–27
Stamps, see Code symbol stamps
Standard for Qualification and Certification of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel CP-189,
14, 139–140
Standard pressure parts, 175–176, 207
Standards Committee (BPV I), 248
Standards referenced by Section I, 14–15
State special, 123
Stayed surfaces, 78–82
diagonal stays, 80
direct stays, 80
stayed curved surfaces, 80
stayed flat plates, 79
stay tubes, 80–82
Stays, 78–82
Stay tubes, 80
design of, 80–81
Stress
allowable, see Allowable stress
to cause creep rupture, 43, 212
design, see Design stresses
thermal, 129, 213
Stress corrosion cracking, 31, 260
Stress values, basis for establishing, 220–222
Stringer tubes, 136
Structural attachments, loading on, 82–83
Subcontracting, 168, 174
Supercritical once-through coal firing steam
generator, illustrated, 283
Supplemental essential variable, 120
Supports, 82
Sweetwater condenser, 13
T
Technical Oversight Management Committee
(TOMC), 245, 247–248.
Technical Standards and Safety Authority
(TSSA), 152
Temperature limits, for materials, 26, 28
Testing, term, 23
Test plates, 130
Test pressure for drum-type boilers, 142
Thermal shock, avoidance of, 49
Thermocouple installations, 85–87
Thermowells, 86
Thickness factor for expanded tube ends, 50
Thickness of cylindrical components, 49
Third party inspection, 151–153
Threaded boiler external piping, 167
Tolerances, fabrication, 126
Torispherical heads, 70
Tower mounted solar fired boiler, 202
Transport Tanks, Code Section XII, 257–258
Tube and pipe design, 50, 52–54
Tube attachment by expanding, 109–111
Tubes, interchanging pipe and, 52–54
Tube-to-header attachment using partial
penetration welds, 125–126
U
Ultrasonic examination of welds, 134–135
Unfired Pressure Vessels, 112
Unfired steam boiler, 3, 6–7, 11–12
Unfired versus fired boilers, 11–12
Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys (UNS), 27
Uniform Boiler and Pressure Vessel Laws
Society, Inc., 19
United States, use of Section I in, 17–19
UNS number, 27, 37, 120
V
Valves and valve ratings, 175–176
Valve standard, ASME/ANSI B 16.34, 98,
264
Volumetric examination of welds, 134–137
W
Wall thinning, 52, 111
Wastage, 209, 214
Water boiler, high-temperature, defined, 1
Water columns, 206–207
Water level indication, 203–206
Weldability, 122–123
Welded joints, design of, 123
Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ),
113–114
Welders
defined, 112
marks, 119
transfer of, to other organizations, 116–118
Welding, 111
after hydrostatic testing, 141
alignment tolerance in, 126
history of, 111–112
interpretations on, 131–134INDEX 311
nonductile materials, 119
preheating in, 126–127
rules for, 112–113
tack, 131
Welding and Brazing Qualifications,
Code Section IX, 112, 255–256
Welding documentation, 118–119
Welding operator, defined, 112
Welding Procedure Qualification Record
(PQR), 117, 255
Welding procedures, qualification of, 113
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 113
standard, 118–119, 255
transfer of, to other organizations, 116–118
Welding qualifications, expiration and renewal
of, 114–116
Welding variables, 119–120
Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factor, 46
Welds
acceptance criteria for, 124–125
bending stress on, 123–124
circumferential, 128
concavity, 124
fillet, 67, 82, 134
longitudinal, 123
minimum attachment, for nozzles, 70
partial penetration, tube-to-header attachment using, 125–126
radiographic examination of, 134–135
ultrasonic examination of, 134
undercuts, 124
Working pressure, defined, 45


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