كتاب The CNC Handbook
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب The CNC Handbook

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عدد المساهمات : 17648
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب The CNC Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The CNC Handbook    كتاب The CNC Handbook  Emptyالأربعاء 19 يناير 2022, 2:11 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
The CNC Handbook
Hans B. Kief
Helmut a. Roschiwal
Karsten Schwarz

كتاب The CNC Handbook  K_t_c_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword
Part 1 Introduction to Cnc Technology
1 Historical Development of Numerical Control Production
Germany after World War II
Rebuilding the German Machine Tool Industry
Machine Tool Industry in Eastern Germany
Worldwide Changes
Advancement of the German Machine Tool Industry
The Japanese Influence
The Crisis in Germany
Causes and EffectsFlexible Manufacturing Systems
World Economic Crisis of 2009
Situation and Outlook
Conclusion
2 Milestones in the Development of Numerical Control
3 What Is NC and CNC?
The Path to NC
Hardware
Software
Control Methods
NC AxesProgrammable Logic Controllers
Interface Section
Computers and NC
NC Programs
Programming
Data Input
Operation
Summary
Important Points to Remember
PART 2 FUNCTIONS OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS
4 Positional Data Input
IntroductionAxis Designations
Closed-Loop Position Control
Position Measurement
Simple Diagnosis of Measurement Devices
Compensations
Important Points to Remember
5 Switching Functions
Explanations
Tool Change
Tool Changing at Milling Machines and Machining Centers
Tool Changing on the Lathe
Tool Location CodingWorkpiece Change
Spindle Speed Change
Feed Rate
Summary
Important Points to Remember
6 Operating Functions of Numerical Control Systems
Definition
Basic Functions of CNC
Special Functions of CNC Systems
Dynamic Collision Monitoring
Integrated Safety Concepts for CNC Machines
Condition Monitoring and Machine Data CollectionDisplays in CNC Systems
Touch Operation of the CNC System
Open Controls
Price Consideration
Advantages of Newest CNC Developments
Summary
Important Points to Remember
7 Programmable-Logic Controllers (PLCs)
Definition
Origins of PLC
Structure and Functions of PLCs
Data Buses and Field BusesAdvantages of PLCs
PLC Programming and Documentation
Program
Program Memory
PLCs, CNC Systems, and PCs in Integrated Operation
Selection Criteria for PLCs
Summary
Comparison Tables CNC/PLC
Important Points to Remember
8 Effects of CNC on Machine Components
Machine ConfigurationMachine Frames
Guides
Machine Enclosures
Coolant Supply
Chip Removal
Summary
Important Points to Remember
PART 3 ELECTRICAL DRIVES OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS
9 Drive Control for CNC Machine Tools
Definition
Mechanical Axis
Analog ControlAnalog versus Digital Position Control
Digital Intelligent Drive Technology
Controller Types and Controlling Behavior
Loop Gain and Factor
Precontrol
Frequency Converter
Summary
Important Points to Remember
10 Feed Drives for CNC Machine Tools
Requirements for Feed Drives
Types of Feed Drives
Types of Linear MotorsAdvantages/Disadvantages of Linear Drives
Connection of the Drives to the CNC System
Encoder
Summary
Important Points to Remember
11 Main Spindle Drives
Requirements for Main Spindle Drives
Types of Main Spindle Drives
Designs of Main Spindle Drives
Types of Three-Phase Synchronous Motors
Advantages and Disadvantages of Three-Phase Synchronous
MotorsImportant Points to Remember
12 Dimensioning of Drives for Machine Tools
Procedure
Example
Dimensioning of Main Spindle Drives
Example
Summary
Important Points to Remember
13 Mechanical Layout of the Main Spindle Based on the
Process Parameters
Motor Selection
Bearings
LubricationMachining Processes
Requirements for the Main Spindle in Terms of Industry 4.0
Important Points to Remember
PART 4 KINDS OF CNC MACHINES
14 CNC Machine Tools
Machining Centers, Milling Machines
Lathes
Grinding Machines
Gear-Cutting Machines
Drilling Machines
Sawing MachinesLaser Machining Systems
Punching and Nibbling Machines
Tube-Bending Machines
Electrical-Discharge Machines
Wire EDM
Electron-Beam Machines
Water-Jet Cutting Machines
Multitasking Machines
Measuring and Testing
Summary
Important Points to Remember
15 Additive Manufacturing ProcessesIntroduction
Definition
Process Chain
Classification of Additive Manufacturing Processes
Introduction to the Principal Layer Manufacturing Processes
Advantages of Additive Manufacturing
Summary
Important Points to Remember
16 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Definition
Flexible Manufacturing Cells.
Flexible Manufacturing SystemsTechnical Characteristics of FMSs
Application Criteria for FMSs
Manufacturing Principles
Machine Selection and Layout
Workpiece Transport Systems
CNC Systems Suitable for Flexible Manufacturing
Host Computers in FMSs
Economic Advantages of FMSs
Problems and Risks in the Design of FMSs
Flexibility and Complexity.
Simulation of FMSs
Production Planning SystemsSummary
Important Points to Remember
17 Industrial Robots and Handling
Introduction
What Is an Industrial Robot?.
Structure of Industrial Robots
Mechanical Elements/Kinematics
Gripper or Effector
CNC Systems
Safe Robot Technology
ProgrammingSensors
Application Examples for Industrial Robots
CNC-Robot Machining and Machine Tool Automation
Robot with CNC Requirements
Application Criteria for Industrial Robots
Summary and Outlook
Important Points to Remember
18 Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective Fabrication
Introduction
What Is Energy Efficiency?
Work Floor
MachinerySpecial Case: Machining Centers
Energy-Efficient NC Programs
Options of the Machine Manufacturer
Options for the User
Reactive Power Compensation
What Is Reactive Power?
Summary
Outlook
Important Points to Remember
PART 5 TOOLS IN CNC PRODUCTION
19 Tool Construction
IntroductionRequirements
Outline of Tools
Machine-Based Tool Holders
Modular Tool Systems
Adjustable Tools
Thread Milling
Custom Tools
Tool Selection
Important Points to Remember
20 Tool Management.
Motives for Introduction
Evaluation of a Tool Management System.Assessment of Solutions.
Introduction of a Tool Management System
Outline
Integration
Tool Identification
Retrieving Tools
Tool Classification
Tool Components
Complete Tools
Tool Lists
Operations
Tool PresettingTool Logistics
Electronic Tool Identification
Summary
Important Points to Remember
21 Machine-Integrated Workpiece Measurements and Process
Control
Introduction
Starting Points for Process Control
Areas of Application of Workpiece and Tool Measuring Systems
Workpiece Measurement Systems for Machine Tools
Important Points to Remember22 Machine-Integrated Workpiece Measurements in Series
Production
Introduction
Bore-Measuring Heads for Shortest Measuring Times in Bore
Production.
Roughness-Measuring Devices for the Automated Surface Test
Digilog Probe for Digital and Analog Data Acquisition
Highest Productivity with Simultaneous Measurement
Summary
Important Points to Remember
23 Laser-Based Tool Monitoring
Introduction
Tool Breakage Monitoring
Single-Cutting-Edge ControlMeasurement of HSC Tools
Combined Laser Measurement Systems
Summary
Important Points to Remember
PART 6 NC PROGRAM AND PROGRAMMING
24 The CNC Program
Definitions
Structure of the NC Program.
Program Structure, Syntax, and Semantics
Miscellaneous (M) Functions
Positioning DataPreparatory (G) Functions
Machining Cycles
Zero Points and Reference Points
Transformations
Tool Corrections
DXF Converter
High-Level Language Programming
Summary
Important Points to Remember
25 Programming CNC Machines.
Definition of NC Programming
Programming MethodsCAM-Based CNC Machining Strategies
User-Friendly Graphics
CNC Identical Programming Systems
Selection of the Appropriate Programming System
Summary
Important Points to Remember
26 NC Programming Systems
Introduction
Changing Machining Processes
Area of Application Sets the Priorities
Input Data from Different Sources
Scope of a Modern Computer-Aided Programming (CAP) SystemHigh-Level Data Models
CAM-Oriented Geometry Manipulation
High-Performance Machining Strategies Are Paramount
Adaptive Processing
3D Models Offer More
3D Interfaces
Innovation with Feature Technology
Automation of NC Programming
Tools
Clamping Planning and Definition of the Sequence
The Importance of Simulation
PostprocessorGenerated Data and Interfaces with the Machine Tools
Summary
Important Points to Remember
27 Manufacturing Simulations
Introduction
Qualitative Classification of Systems
Components of a Simulation Scenario
Procedure for NC Simulations
Integrated Simulation Systems
Fields of Application
SummaryImportant Points to Remember
PART 7 FROM COMPANY INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO
INDUSTRY 4.0
28 DNC: Direct Numerical Control or Distributed Numerical
Control
Definition
Functions of DNC
Application Criteria for DNC Systems
Data Communication with CNC Systems
Methods for Requesting Programs
DNC Systems Currently Available
Network Technology for DNC Systems
Advantages of Using Networks
NC Program ManagementAdvantages of DNC Operation
Cost-Effectiveness of DNC
Current State and Trends
Summary
Important Points to Remember
29 LANs: Local-Area Networks
Introduction
Local-Area Networks (LANs)
What Is Information?
Characteristics and Features of LANs
Gateways and Bridges
Criteria for Selecting a Suitable LANInterfaces
Summary
Important Points to Remember
30 Digital Product Development and Manufacturing: From CAD
and CAM to PLM
Introduction
Terminology and History
Digital Product Development
Digital Manufacturing
Summary
Important Points to Remember
31 Industry 4.0Basics
Core Elements of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 in Production
MES as a Building Block of Industry 4.0
Challenges and Risks of Industry 4.0
32 Industry 4.0 in the Medium-Sized Company
Requirements for Industry 4.0
Benefits of Industry 4.0
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), the Internet of the Things
Sixteen Case Studies about Industry 4.0
A Workday with Industry 4.0
SummaryImportant Points to Remember
Glossary
Index
details.
References to figures are in
NUMBERS
2½D machining, 386
2½D motion, 631
2½D programming systems, 602
2D drafting, 600
3D CAM systems,
as a plug-in,
3D graphics,
3D interfaces,
3D machining, 386
3D models, 531
3D motion, 631
3D printing,
3D solid model, 6313D tool offset, 120
A ab
solute measuring system, 631
abstract data types, 500
accelerated data exchange, 580
acceleration forces, 49
access time, 631
accompanying calculation in real time, 625
accuracy, precision, 631
active transponders, 435
actual position, 631
actual value, 631
actuators,
adaptive control (AC), 632
adaptive feed control (AFC), 112
adaptive processing,
additional machine setup functions, 632
additive manufacturing processes, 599
advantages of,
beam melting,
classification based on the shaping method, 305
classification based on the starting material,
defined, 632
overview,process chain,
See also specific processes
addresses, 632
adhesive grippers, 363
adjustable tools,
adjustment programs, 508
AI. See artificial intelligence (AI) alphanumeric notation, 632
alternate tools, 632
amplification factor, 632
amplifiers, 633
analog, 633
analog control,
vs. digital position control, 174
analog drives, comparison to digital drives, 197
analog-to-digital converters, 633
angle error compensation,
angular errors, 57
application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), 633
APT, 16
arm drills, 262
artificial intelligence (AI), 633
ASCII, 632
ASCII keyboard, 633
ASICs. See application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs)
assemblers, 633
assembly language, 633
assistance systems, 614asynchronous axes, 633
asynchronous mode, 633
asynchronous motors
control range, 182
defined,
motor selection,
three-phase,
asynchronous subprograms, 95
asynchronous transmission,
automatic guided vehicles (AGVs), 634
automatic job change, 624
automatic material request, 623
automatic mode, 634
automatic pallet changing, 16
automatic return to the contour, 91
automatic system diagnosis, 95
automatic tool changing, 385
automatic tool length measurement, 95
automatic tool offset, 625
automatic work sequences, 166
automation, 16
computers for,
defined, 634
degree of, 642
of lathes, 242
auxiliary axes, 115
auxiliary functions, 634auxiliary graphics, 516
axes,
auxiliary, 115
deactivating, 91
defined, 634
designations of,
gantry-type axes,
mechanical,
orientation, 362
requirements of various machine tools on the extent of the
automation, 42
stuttering, 96
synchronous, 94
axis calibration, 634
axis change,
axis drift, 51
axis drives, 384
axis error compensation. See axis calibration
axis lag, 635
axis swapping, 96
B b
acklash, 635
backlash compensation, 635
ball screw,defined, 635
position deviation through warming of ball-screw spindle,
band saws, 265
barcodes, 635
bar-processing centers, 285
baseband, 635
baseband transmission, 578
baud, 635
Bauer Company,
beam melting,
bearings, 220
behind-tape-reader (BTR) input, 635
Bendix, 16
bevel gears,
big data, 613
defined, 635
vs. smart data, 125
binary,
binary code, 636
binary digit, 636
binary numeral system, 636
binary-coded decimal (BCD) code, 635
bit-parallel transmission, 586
bits, 636
bit-serial interfaces, 586
block cycle time, 636
block delete, 636block number search, 91
block numbers, 636
block search, 636
block-by-block mode, 667
blocks, 636
bore-measuring heads, 455
boring mills,
bridges, 636
broadband transmission, 636
brushless dc motors. See synchronous servo
motors
buses
data buses and field buses,
defined,
business line (bus),
bytes, 637
C C
A (computer aided), 637
cable lengths, 579
CAD/CAM, 16
3D interfaces,
3D models, 531
CAM-based CNC machining strategies,
CAM-oriented geometry manipulation,defined, 637
high-performance machining strategies, 529
integrated CAD/CAM systems, 604
knowledge-based CAM, 605
programming and production,
cam-locks, 223
CAN bus, 637
CANopen, 637
carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. See CFRP materials
cardrack, 637
cartesian coordinates, 637
cascaded control loops, 173
cassette-type magazines, 77
cathode-ray tube (CRT), 637
centering fixtures, 254
central processing unit (CPU), 637
CFRP materials, machining,
chain magazines, 79
chained manufacturing systems. See flexible manufacturing
systems (FMS) channel structure, 638
channels, 637
chattering, 71
check request, 627
chip removal, 166
chuck, 646
Cincinnati Hydrotel, 16
circular interpolation, 638circular saws, 265
circularity tests, 178
CISC, 638
cladding, 317
See also laser cladding clamping devices, 545
clamping errors, 463
clamping fixture, 646
clamping planning, 536
CLDATA, 638
closed process chain, 454
closed-loop control,
defined, 659
guides, 164
schematic, 46
vs. semi-closed loop,
CNC
advantages of newest developments,
asynchronous, 90
basic functions of,
comparison to PLCs,
defined, 638
identical programming systems,
from NC to CNC, 20
special functions of CNC systems,
CNC core, 638
CNC kernel, 372
CNC machine tools, 638
CNC machinesavailability,
data communication with,
defined, 655
displays in CNC systems, 126
five-axis machines,
four-axis machines, 234
installation technology, 109
integrated safety concepts,
and laser-based tool monitoring, 461
lathes for,
machine operating modes,
machine operation, 108
machine type, 107
scope of safety functions, 107
suitable for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS),
switching between languages, 118
three-axis machines, 231
touch operation,
CNC machining strategies, CAM-based,
CNC milling strategies,
CNC operating software, 89
CNC programming, 509
adapting to the actual machine, 517
DXF converter,
executing CNC programs from internal or external storage,
high-level language programming,
PC programming, 518selecting the appropriate programming system,
special tasks, 499
testing externally created programs, 518
training, 518
CNC programs, 469
CNC turning, optimized, 514
lasers, 267
code,
code checking, 639
code converter, 639
column drilling machines, 262
com servers, 563
command position, 639
command value, 173
commands, 152
Common Industrial Safety Protocol (CIP),
commutation. See electronic commutation comparators, 639
compatibility, 639
compensating chucks, tapping without, 112
compensation values, 91
compensations,
compilers, 639
components, 299
computer-aided design (CAD),
computer-aided drafting (CAD),
computer-aided engineering (CAE),
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 639computer-aided planning (CAP), 639
computer-aided process planning (CAP), 596
computer-aided programming (CAP), 427
defined, 639
scope of,
computer-aided quality control (CAQ), 640
Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Applications
(CATIA), 640
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), 154
and DNC systems, 561
Industry 4.0 in production,
computerized control electronics, 180
computerized numerical control (CNC), 640
computers
for automation,
in CNC,
defined, 639
for NC programming, 28
concurrent engineering (CE), 640
condition monitoring, and machine data collection,
constant velocity tests, 124
container management, 625
continuous path control, 640
contour segment programming, 640
contouring control, 640
contouring errors. See following errors
control graphical user interface (HMI), 448control loops, 172
cascaded, 173
nested, 173
control methods,
control technology, 171
controlled change process, 604
controller types, and controlling behavior,
controllers, 640
control-to-control (C2C), 147
converters, 640
coolant supply,
coordinate axes. See axes
coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), 640
coordinate system, 640
coordinate transformation,
coordinates, 640
coordinatograph. See plotters corner deceleration, 641
corner delay, 109
corner rounding, 641
correlation of process and quality data, 625
cost-cutting,
CPUs, 641
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Avoidance), 581
CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection), 641current position. See actual position cutter location data
(CLDATA),
cutter radius compensation, 641
cutting data, 395
cutting forces, 49
cutting the tool free, 90
cyber-physical systems (CPSs), 623
See also Internet of Things (IoT)
cycle time,
block cycle time, 96
defined, 641
cycles, 641
cylinder surface transformation,
D D
/A converter, 641
data, defined, 641
data acquisition, big data vs. smart data, 125
data buses,
data carriers, 642
data communication, with CNC systems,
data conversion,
data handling, 152
data input, 33
data interfaces, 642data memory, 642
data mining, 613
data processing, 642
data transmission, 469
data transmission rate, 635
databases,
data-storage media, 642
datum points, 642
Dc link, 180
dc servo motors. See synchronous servo motors
D-controllers, 177
deactivating axes, 91
decades, 642
decimal system, 642
decimal-point programming, 642
dedicated computers, 642
deep drilling machines, 262
defined accuracy, 631
deflecting mirrors, 269
deformation of feed mechanic through forces,
degree of automation, 385
defined, 642
progressive, 368
delivery schedules online, 624
delta values, 100
demilitarized zones (DMZ), 577
deviation, 642deviation error compensation, 70
device servers, 563
DeviceNet, 637
diagnosis
automatic system diagnosis, 95
defined, 642
of measurement devices,
remote, 61
simple diagnosis of evaluation figures, 60
diagnostic software,
remote diagnostics, 120
dialog mode,
die-sinking EDM, 280
See also electrical-discharge machining (EDM)
differential (D-) controllers, 177
Digilog probes, 458
digital, defined, 643
digital control loops, 175
digital drives
comparison to analog drives, 197
connection to the CNC system,
digital fabrication, 12
digital factory, 596
digital intelligent drive technology,
digital light processing (DLP), 315
digital manufacturing,
2½D programming systems, 6023D CAM systems,
controlled change process, 604
integrated CAD/CAM systems, 604
knowledge-based CAM, 605
overview,
simulation of the machining process,
digital measuring system, 643
digital position control, vs. analog control, 174
digital product definition, 596
digital product development
2D drafting, 600
additive manufacturing, 599
assemblies, 598
component design,
draft designs, 597
product data management (PDM),
simulation,
visualization and digital mockup (DMU),
digital readout, 643
digital twins, 544
digital-to-analog converter, 643
digitizers, 662
digitizing, 643
dimensional data, 643
dimensioning of drives
dimensioning of main spindle drives,
example,procedure, 212
DIN standard, 398
diode lasers, 270
direct measurement, 643
direct measuring systems, 386
direct metal deposition (DMD), 302
direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), 307
direct numerical control. See DNC direct rapid tooling, 301
direct servo drives, 58
disk lasers, 269
disk magazines, 76
displays in CNC systems, 126
touch-enabled,
distributed intelligence, 154
distributed numerical control. See DNC DNC, 33
advantages of DNC operation, 568
advantages of using networks, 566
application criteria for DNC systems,
for CNC machines with an Ethernet connection, 566
cost-effectiveness of,
current state and trends,
defined, 643
functions of,
hardware,
interface, 96
main tasks,
methods for requesting programs, 562NC program management,
network DNC systems,
network technology for DNC systems,
software, 571
systems with serial cabling, 563
systems with terminals, 563
DRAM, 643
drilling centers
boring mills,
overview,
drilling cycles, 643
drilling machines, 162
arm drills, 262
column, 262
deep, 262
overview,
drive power,
driven tools, 93
dry machining, 237
DSL, 576
dummy programs, 562
duplex mode, 643
duplex operation, 576
dwell time, 643
DXF converter,
DXF files, importing, 517
dynamic collision monitoring (DCM), 97automated work area monitoring,
online in the CNC system,
operating mode of, 104
protected areas, 99
setup functions,
simulation,
dynamic deviations, compensation for,
dynamic roughing, 514
dynamic test control, 627
E E
ckert, J. Presper, 15
EDM. See electrical-discharge machining (EDM)
EEPROM
defined, 644
transponders, 435
effectors,
EIA code,
EIA-232C, 644
electric drives, 384
electrical-discharge machining (EDM),
die-sinking EDM, 280
wire EDM,
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), 225
electromechanical feed drives, See also feed driveselectron-beam machines,
electron-beam melting (EBM), 302
electronic commutation, 203
See also synchronous servo motors
electronic handwheel, 644
electronic tool identification advantages of, 433
components of a tool identification system, 433
and data management with RFID,
function/principle,
overview,
electronic weight balance, 70
embedded systems,
encoders,
encoding, 644
See also linear encoders end of program (EOP), 644
end-of-block character, 644
energy balance, 385
energy efficiency, 93
defined, 644
full load vs. coasting, 386
NC programs,
options for the user,
options of the machine manufacturer,
reactive power compensation,
energy management, 627
engineering data management (EDM),
engraving cycles, 644enterprise resource planning (ERP), 644
EPROM, 644
erasable-programmable read-only memory. See EPROM
ERP (enterprise resource planning), 644
ERP system, 429
error-detecting code, 644
Ethernet
defined, 645
fast Ethernet, 144
industrial Ethernet, 146
real-time Ethernet,
evolvent. See involute
execution from external storage (EES),
executive program, 645
expert systems, 645
external memory, 645
F fa
brication flexibility, 350
face transformation, 488
F-address, 85
fast Ethernet, 144
features, 645
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), 5
feed, 645
feed drivesbandwidth, 199
connection to the CNC system,
dimensioning, 212
electromechanical,
encoders,
linear drives,
main components of, 188
overview,
requirements for,
servo motors, 191
synchronous servo motors,
feed forward,
feed limitation, 119
feed rate, 85
defined, 645
test run, 98
feedback, 645
feedback device, 645
feed-rate override, 645
FEPROM, 644
fiber lasers,
field buses, 645
file transfer, 123
files, defined, 645
finger gestures, 127
fingerprints, 123
finite element methods (FEMs), 163firmware,
fixed-zero dimension, 646
fixtures, 646
flame cutting,
See also laser cutting systems
flash erasable programmable read-only memory. See FEPROM
flatbed lathes, 238
flexible manufacturing cells (FMCs), 646
flexible manufacturing island, 646
flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), 295
application criteria for,
automated guided vehicles (AGVs), 337
CNC systems for,
defined, 646
and DNC systems, 561
economic advantages of, 345
and energy efficiency, 385
flexibility and complexity,
flexible production lines,
host computers in,
linear rail-guided transport systems,
machine selection and layout,
manufacturing principles,
overview,
pallet circulating systems, 336
problems and risks in the design of,
production planning systems (PPSs),roller-conveyer systems,
simulation of,
technical characteristics of,
transfer lines, 325
workpiece transport systems,
flowcharts,
FMS. See flexible manufacturing systems (FMS)
following errors, 200
See also axis lag
forced stop, 627
Fourneaux, Henry, 15
fourth industrial revolution. See Industry 4.0 frame deformation,
51
frames, 646
Fraunhofer Institute, 278
free cycles, 482
free-form surface, 646
frequency controller, 646
frequency converters,
construction, 180
control range, 182
four-quadrant operation, 181
functional diagram of, 183
interfaces,
inverters, 182
mode of operation, 182
parameterization, 181protection functions, 184
rotor position encoder,
speed control,
frequency-division multiplexing, 578
friction, 384
friction error compensation,
frictional forces, 50
fused depositing modeling (FDM), 646
fused deposition modeling (FDM),
fused layer modeling (FLM), 311
fusion cutting, 270
See also laser cutting systems
fuzzy logic, 646
G
gantry-type axes,
gantry-type machine, 647
gateways, 647
gear hobbing,
gear-cutting machines, 163
basics and applications,
bevel gears,
machinery, 261
main components of NC programming system in,
modification input and graphic process feedback, 261preparations for gear hobbing,
process mathematics and technology in the components, 261
programming systems of,
setting up and editing with the NC programming system,
spur gears,
technical data input, 261
See also turning/rotary-hobbing centers
geometric data, 647
German Association of Electrical and Information Technology
(VDE), 560
German Democratic Republic (GDR), 6
German economic miracle, 4
German machine tool industry advancement of, 7
competition with Japan,
crisis,
Eastern Germany,
rebuilding, 4
and world economic crisis of 2009,
Germany, post-war,
gestures, 127
647
gigahertz (GHz), 648
graphic assistance, 647
graphical languages, 151
graphical programming, 647
graphical user interface (GUI), 17
graphics3D,
user-friendly,
grease lubrication,
green production, 18
grinding,
machines,
grinding belts. See grinding wheels
grinding machines
automatic workpiece and tool change,
control tasks for use of grinding wheels,
designs and requirements,
tasks of the CNC machine during setup, programming and
optimizing,
See also turning/grinding centers grinding wheels,
grippers,
group technology, 647
guest workers, 3
guides, 164
H ha
lf-duplex operation, 576
handling units, 647
handshake, 647
handshakes,
Hannover Industrial Fair, 18hard disk, 647
hard metal cutting, 237
hardware, 647
hard-wired NC, 647
helical interpolation, 647
helix interpolation, 647
hertz (Hz), 648
hexadecimal, 648
hexapod, 648
high tech, 648
high-level language elements, 93
high-level languages characteristics of, 499
CNC high-level language, 502
defined, 499
high-performance cutting (HPC),
high-speed cutting (HSC), 301
high-speed cutting tools. See HSC tools
high-speed milling (HSC), 135
high-speed motors, 207
high-torque motors, 207
history of NC production,
HMI (human-machine interface), 648
hob milling,
hobbing,
hollow-cut processes, 250
hook machines, 165
host computer, 648HSC machine, 648
HSC tools, 510
measurement of, 463
hubs, 648
human-machine interface (HMI) openness,
hybrid cutting,
hybrid machines, 318
See also multitasking machines hydraulics, 384
hydrostatic guides, 164
I i
Beacon,
I-controllers, 177
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification), 649
inclined-bed lathes, 238
increment, 649
incremental dimensioning, 649
incremental jog, 649
incremental measuring system, 649
incremental programming, 649
indirect measurement, 649
indirect metal laser sintering (IMLS), 309
indirect rapid tooling, 301
industrial Ethernet, 146
industrial PCs (IPCs), 141industrial robots (IRs) advantages of using, 377
application criteria for,
application examples for,
automatic program generation, 370
axis control, 365
basic components of handling programs, 369
with CNC requirements,
CNC systems of,
CNC-robot machining and machine tool automation,
components of, 361
defined, 649
grippers or effectors,
human-guided robots, 367
human-robot collaboration, 378
hybrid programming methods, 369
and Industry 4.0, 378
measuring systems, 366
mechanical elements/kinematics,
mobility for the “smart factory,” 378
offline methods, 369
operator control and programming device, 365
overview,
power unit, 365
processing unit,
programming,
progressive degree of automation, 368
safe robot technology,safety functions, 366
semiautonomous systems,
sensors,
servo drives,
structure of, 360
Industry 4.0, 378
analysis and optimization, 613
assistance systems, 614
benefits of, 622
big data, 613
case studies,
challenges and risks of,
cyber-physical systems (CPSs), 623
interdisciplinarity, 611
Internet of Services (IoS), 613
Internet of Things (IoT), 613
MES as a building block of,
mobile computing, 611
overview,
in production,
requirements for,
requirements for the main spindle,
smart factory,
smart objects,
social media, 611
virtualization, 611
a workday with,information, 649
in-process measuring, 114
input graphics, 514
Institute for Production Management, Technology and Machine
Tools, 381
integrated CAD/CAM systems, 604
integrated circuit (IC) technology, 16
integrated safety concepts, for CNC machines,
integrating (I-) controllers, 177
intelligent interfaces, 181
intelligent process control (IPC), 17
intelligent tool issue, 625
interdisciplinarity, 611
interface controller, 27
interface section, 27
interfaces, 585
3D interfaces,
complementary CNC user interfaces,
data interfaces, 92
defined, 649
DNC, 96
frequency converters,
fully serial interfaces,
handshakes,
hardware,
machine control interfaces,
software, 587synchronous and asynchronous transmission,
web user interfaces (webUIs), 121
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), 147
International Standards Organization (ISO), Recommendation R
841, 41
International Standards Organization (ISO) code, 649
internet,
Internet of Services (IoS), 613
Internet of Things (IoT), 613
See also cyber-physical systems (CPSs) interpolation, 650
interpolation error,
power loss from large interpolation errors,
interrupts, 650
intranet, 650
inverters, 182
involute,
J
Jacquard, Joseph M., 15
jolt, 71
jolt suppression, 93
JT format,
just-in-time production, 650
KkB, 650
kernels, 650
keyboards. See ASCII keyboard kilohertz (KHz), 648
kinematic errors, 48
kinematic structure,kinematic systems,
kinematic transformation, 488
kinematics, 650
knowledge-based CAM, 605
KUKA.CNC, 371
factor, 200
L la
minated-layer manufacturing (LLM), 315
laminated-object manufacturing (LOM), 651
LANs (local-area networks) access methods,
cable lengths, 579
criteria for selecting,
defined, 650
and DNC, 559
gateways and bridges, 584
interfaces,
maximum number of devices,
network topology, 579
overview, 589
protocols,
transmission medium, 578
transmission speed, 583
transmission technology,
laser cladding, 316
laser cusing, defined, 650laser cutting systems,
3D systems with laser beams, 273
flat-bed,
robots, 273
tubes and profiles, 273
laser deposition welding, 316
laser forming, 302
laser interferometer, 68
laser machining systems beam guidance systems,
beam sources, 267
lasers, 267
combined punching and laser machines, 276
diode lasers, 270
disk lasers, 269
fiber lasers,
heads, 270
motion axes, 272
Nd:YAG lasers, 268
overview,
laser measuring systems, 464
combined,
laser metal deposition (LMD),
laser processing machines,
laser sintering,
LaserCUSING, 307
lathe cells, 286
lathe configuration,lathe functions, 463
lathes
automation of, 242
for CNC systems,
flatbed, 238
inclined-bed, 238
long/Swiss-type, 239
multispindle,
overview, 238
pickup,
programming, 243
with two or more tool slides,
vertical, 238
lead-error compensation, 650
LEAN, 615
LED (light-emitting diode), 650
liability log,
line motion control, 23
linear drives,
advantages and disadvantages of, 199
linear encoders,
linear interpolation, 651
linear motors,
defined, 651
schematic, 58
synchronous linear motors,
linear rail-guided transport systems,live tools,
location coding,
logistics, 651
long/Swiss-type lathes, 239
look ahead function, 651
loop gain,
lubrication,
M m
achine configuration,
machine control interfaces,
machine control units, 640
machine data acquisition (MDA),
machine data collection, condition monitoring and,
machine enclosures,
machine frames,
machine size, 385
machine stop, 627
machine tool industry in Germany,
and world economic crisis of 2009,
worldwide changes, 6
machine tools, 652
machine zero point, 652
machine-integrated workpiece measuring,
machinery, and energy efficiency, 382machining centers, 461
defined, 652
and energy efficiency, 383
multispindle, 236
trends in modern machining technology,
machining CFRP materials,
machining cycles, 653
machining processes
grinding,
milling,
turning,
machining time, 653
macros, 668
M-addresses, 75
magnetic grippers, 363
main spindle drives
designs of,
dimensioning of,
requirements for,
types of,
main spindles
horizontal, 233
requirements for in terms of Industry 4.0,
vertical, 232
mainframe computers, 653
maintenance,
manual data input control, 653manual input, 93
manual programming, 653
manual retraction,
Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP), 653
manufacturing cells, 359
manufacturing data acquisition (MDA), 90
manufacturing execution systems (MESs), 653
Martens method, 290
mask sintering (MS),
masters, 147
matrix, 273
Mauchly, John W., 15
MB, 653
Mb, 653
M-commands, 475
MDC (manufacturing data collection),
measurement devices, simple diagnosis of,
measurement principles, 55
measurement step, 664
measurement systems,
measuring accuracy,
measuring cycles,
measuring gear, 654
measuring methods,
measuring probes, 666
See also Digilog probes; machine- integrated workpiece
measuringmechanical axes,
mechanical grippers, 362
mechatronics, 654
megahertz (MHz), 648
memory
defined, 654
types and their characteristics,
memory cards, 654
memory sticks, 152
menus, 654
methods, 654
methods of measuring, 654
metrology, 654
(miscellaneous functions), 651
micro system technology (MST), 654
microcomputers
in CNC,
defined, 654
microcontrollers, 184
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). See micro system
technology (MST)
microprocessors, 654
milling,
machines, 231
strategy,
thread milling, 112
milling cycles, 480milling laser centers, 287
milling/turning machining centers,
minicomputers, 655
MIPS (million instructions per second), 655
mirror imaging, 93
mirror-image operation, 655
mirroring, 488
miscellaneous functions, 634
mobile computing, 611
modal function, 655
models, 299
modems, 655
modular design, 655
modular tool systems, 406
modularity, 655
modules, 655
moment of inertia,
monitored function control, 142
monitors, 655
Moore, Gordon, 135
Moore’s Law,
motion axes, 272
motion control bus, 184
motion programming, 368
motor selection,
motor spindles, 205
defined, 655motor selection,
moved masses, reduction of,
multicore processors, 18
multifunctional keys. See softkeys multiprocessor PLCs, 143
multispindle lathes,
multispindle machining centers, 236
multitasking machines, 523
defined, 655
N na
nointerpolation,
natural error curve, 63
NC. See numerical control (NC)
NC axis, 655
NC folders, 426
NC machines
defined, 655
Japanese influence, 7
NC program management, 426
NC programming, 523
3D interfaces,
3D models, 531
adaptive processing,
areas of application set the priorities,
automation of,CAM-oriented geometry manipulation,
changing machining processes, 524
clamping planning, 536
computers for, 28
defined, 656
generated data and interfaces with the machine tools, 538
high-level data models, 528
high-performance machining strategies, 529
innovation with feature technology, 532
input data from different sources,
languages, 509
machining cycles,
M-commands, 475
postprocessor, 538
preparatory (G) functions,
relative dimension programming, 476
scope of a CAP system,
simulation,
tool changing position,
tools, 536
universal NC programming systems,
zero-point offset, 485
NC programs,
data input, 33
defined,
and energy efficiency,
meanings of the commands, 472miscellaneous functions, 474
positioning data,
semantics, 472
structure of,
syntax, 472
Nd:YAG lasers, 268
near-field communication (NFC), 612
needle grippers, 363
negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC), 220
nested control loops, 173
network adapters, 563
network protocols, 656
nibbling, 274
nibbling machines, 274
machine frames,
maximum sheet metal thickness for nibbling and laser cutting,
276
See also punching machines nonproductive time, 656
nonuniform rational-basis splines. See NURBS (nonuniform
rational B splines)
numerical control (NC)
defined, 656
milestones in development of,
from NC to CNC, 20
the path to NC,
numerical display, 643
NURBS (nonuniform rational B splines), 656O offline, 656
offset, 93
offset compensation, 656
offset paths, 656
oil-air lubrication,
online, 657
online processing, 663
on/off command, 651
on/off controls,
open CNC,
Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA), 148
open system architecture, 133
open-ended controls, 657
open-loop controls, 657
operating procedures,
operating systems (OSs), 657
orientation axes, 362
orientation transformation, 490
OSACA, 657
overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), 657
override, 657
Ppallet changing,
automatic, 16
pallet circulating systems, 336
pallet stations, 84
pallets, 657
paperless manufacturing, 563
parabolic interpolation, 115
parallel axes, 657
parallel data transmission, 658
parallel input mode, 658
parallel kinematic machine (PKM), 658
parallel programming, 658
parametric programming, 658
parametric subprograms, 94
parity check, 658
Parsons, John,
part program zero, 658
part programming. See NC programming
part programs. See NC programs passive transponders, 435
PC cards, 658
P-controllers, 177
P-controls,
performance, 658
peripheral units, 658
photoelectric line tracer, 658
pickup lathes,
picointerpolation,PID controllers,
pitch errors, 48
plant network, 328
play. See backlash playback,
PLCs. See programmable-logic controllers (PLCs)
plotters, 659
plunge milling,
pneumatic grippers, 362
pneumatics, 384
pocket milling, 659
point-to-point control, 659
polar axis, 659
polar coordinates, 659
polling, 580
polymerization, 312
polynomial interpolation, 659
portal robots, 325
portal table design, 231
position deviation
example measurement,
through warming of ball-screw spindle,
position display, 659
position measurement, 47
kinematic errors, 48
semi-closed loop vs. closed loop,
position setup, 94
positional data input, 41axis designations,
position-feedback control, 659
position-measuring system, 659
positive-temperature-coefficient
(PTC), 220
postprocessors (PP), 659
potential capability
precontrol, 179
preparatory (G) functions,
See also
preparatory position conditions, 478
presets, 660
preventive maintenance,
price considerations,
principles, 660
printed circuit boards (PCBs), 21
Prisma, 10
probes, 660
probing cycles, 660
procedures, 660
process control, 439
potential for improvement for,
starting points for,
See also workpiece measuring
process control by process traffic light, 625
process field bus. See PROFIBUS DP
(decentralized peripherals) process monitoring,processors, 660
product data management (PDM),
as the basis for product lifecycle management (PLM), 601
defined, 660
as an integration platform for CAD systems, 601
as a key to information distribution, 601
product definition management (PDM),
product lifecycle management (PLM), 607
defined, 660
PDM as the basis for, 601
product manufacturing information (PMI), 594
production data acquisition (PDA), 90
production network, 328
production planning and control (PPC), 661
production planning systems (PPSs),
ProfiBus, 106
PROFIBUS DP (decentralized peripherals), 661
ProfiNet, 175
program controllers, 142
program editing, 661
program editors, 448
program format, 661
program interrupt, 661
program test, 94
program word, 661
programmable read-only memory (PROM), 661
programmable-logic controllers (PLCs),advantages of,
comparison to CNC,
defined, 661
integrated operation with CNC systems and PCs,
multiprocessor PLCs, 143
origins of,
program memory,
programming and documentation,
programs, 152
remote PLC, 123
selection criteria,
structure and functions of,
tool changing, 78
programming. See NC programming
programming languages,
programming methods
CAD/CAM programming and production,
CNC programming, 509
cutter location data (CLDATA),
manual programming, 505
motion programming, 368
NC programming languages, 509
online methods, 368
postprocessors (PP), 508
sequence programming, 368
shop-floor programming (SFP), 509
teach-in/playback,universal NC programming systems,
programming systems, 662
proportional (P-) control, 177
protected areas, 99
protocols, 662
prototypes, 299
pseudoabsolute measuring, 662
pulse generators, 662
punching,
punching machines, 274
combined punching and laser machines, 276
flexible machining cells,
heads, 275
machine frames,
tools, 275
Q Q
link view, 662
quadrant error compensation,
quadrants, 662
quality assurance, 662
quality class,
quality management, 662
Rradial drilling machines, 262
radio frequency identification device. See RFID
radio-frequency identification (RFID),
random tool access, 663
random tool coding, 86
random-access memory (RAM), 663
range control,
rapid manufacturing, 301
See also additive manufacturing processes rapid product
development (RPD), 663
rapid prototyping manufacturing (RPM), 12
rapid prototyping (RP), 663
See also additive manufacturing processes rapid technologies,
rapid tooling, 663
See also additive manufacturing processes rationalization, 663
reactive current, 663
reactive power
compensation,
defined,
read-only memory (ROM), 20
defined, 663
transponders, 435
read-only systems, 432
read-write systems,
real-time Ethernet,
real-time processing, 663recirculating ball screw. See ball screw rectifiers, 180
reference points
defined, 664
machine reference point 484
tool carrier reference point
relative dimension programming, 476
remote access,
remote desktop, 123
remote diagnosis, 120
repeatability, 664
repetitive accuracy, 664
replacement tools. See alternate tools reproducibility, 664
request to exchange tools, 624
reset, 664
resolution, 664
resolver, 664
restricted area, 664
retraction, manual,
retrofitting, 664
reversal errors, 48
RFID
advantages of,
defined,
functional principle of,
memory allocation, 436
RISC (reduced instruction set computer), 664
RNC 400LaserTurn, 290
robots, 664
See also industrial robots (IRs) roller bearings, 220
guides, 164
roller-conveyer systems,
rotary axes, accuracy of, 57
rotary encoders,
rotary milling, 665
rotary position transducer, 665
rotary table, 665
rotating, 93
rotating tools, 401
rotation, 488
roughness-measuring devices,
RS-232C, 644
runner programs, 562
S sa
fety clearance, 665
safety functions, 665
safety systems, 17
sag error compensation,
sawing machines,
scale error compensation, 114
scaling, 665scaling factor, 113
scanners, 665
scanning,
SCARA robots, 665
selective laser melting (SLM), 307
selective laser sintering (SLS), 665
selective mask sintering (SMS), 665
semantics, 472
semi-closed loop control,
semiconductor components, 666
sensing probes, 666
sensors, 666
sequence programming, 368
sequence search, 636
SERCOS, 175
advantages of,
defined, 666
SERCOS III,
serial data transmission, 666
serial real-time communication system. See SERCOS
servers, 666
servo control, 666
servo cycle time, 666
servo drives, 384
servo lag. See following errors servo loops, 638
servo motors, 191
synchronous servo motors,session record, 123
shaft encode,
Shannon, Claude E., 15
shaping processes, 250
shifting, 488
shop-floor programming (SFP), 666
short-circuit rotor, 633
signal transmission,
silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR), 666
simplex operation, 576
simulation, 541
automatic collision detection, 549
with CNC emulation,
comparison of different simulation approaches, 543
components of a simulation scenario, 552
defined,
and digital product development,
dynamic collision monitoring (DCM),
editing options and analysis methods, 549
fields of application and potential use of, 553
of flexible manufacturing systems,
graphical depiction, 549
graphics, 516
importance of,
integrated simulation systems,
machine models,
of the machining process,
optimization of the production process, 551peripheral components, 548
planning phase in series production,
procedure for NC simulation, 553
program changes during operation, 551
qualitative classification of systems,
testing new programs,
tools,
training,
virtual machines, 552
workpiece geometry and clamping devices, 545
simultaneous interpolation,
simultaneous measurement,
single-block mode, 667
single-cutting-edge control, 463
sintering. See laser sintering skew angle transformation, 489
skip block, 91
slaves, 147
slip, 633
slip-ring rotors, 633
smart data, vs. big data, 125
smart factory,
mobility for, 378
See also Industry 4.0 smart objects,
social media, 611
softkeys, 667
software, 667
software limit switch, 667software limits, 97
source programs, 667
speed, 667
speed control,
spindle drives
designs of main spindle drives,
dimensioning of main spindle drives,
requirements for main spindle drives,
types of,
spindle orientation, 667
spindle pitch error, 63
spindle pitch error compensation,
spindle probes,
spindle speed change,
spindle-out tools, 406
spline function,
spline interpolation, 668
spur gears,
squirrel-cage motor, 633
Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data. See STEP
standard-interface transmission. See STEP
start/stop method,
static accuracy, 631
static RAM (SRAM), 668
stationary tools,
statistical process control (SPC), 668
STEP, 668stepper motors, 668
stepping, 668
stereolithography (SL), 668
Stewart platform. See hexapod straight-cut control, 668
stuttering axes, 96
sublimation cutting, 270
See also laser cutting systems subprograms, 94
asynchronous, 95
defined, 668
subroutines, 668
suction grippers, 363
surface testing, roughness-measuring devices for,
surface-mounted devices (SMD), 668
Swiss-type lathes, 239
switching between languages, 118
switching functions, 651
switching probes, 660
swiveling table, 669
synchronous axes, 94
synchronous linear motors,
synchronous motors
advantages and disadvantages of,
control range, 182
defined, 668
motor selection,
three-phase,
synchronous servo motors,synchronous transmission,
syntax, 669
systematics, 669
systems, 669
T ta
rget values, 173
TCP/IP, 671
teach mode, 669
teach pendants, 365
teach-in mode, 669
Technical and Office Protocol (TOP), 669
technological data, 669
technological reliability, 394
teleservice, 17
temperature compensation, 65
terminal servers, 563
terminals, 669
test run feed rate, 98
textual languages, 151
thermistors, 220
thread milling,
advantages of,
disadvantages of, 412
threading fixtures, 254thyristor. See silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) tilting, 669
time sharing, 669
time-division multiplexing, 578
Token Ring, 669
tool breakage monitoring,
tool center point (TCP), 67
tool changers, 76
automatic, 385
defined, 669
on the lathe,
location coding,
at milling machines and machining centers,
tool changing position,
tool classification,
tool compensation, 670
tool construction
adjustable tools,
classification, 400
component/complete tools, 396
custom tools, 412
cutting data, 395
cutting material, 402
fine machining of bore holes,
flexibility,
handling units, 395
list of characteristics, 399
live tools,modular tool systems, 406
modulation with fine-adjustment heads,
overview, 393
reliability,
rotating tools, 401
stationary tools,
stationary/rotating,
thread milling,
tool type, 398
tool data, 670
tool function, 670
tool length, automatic measurement, 95
tool life, 394
tool logistics,
tool management
assessment of solutions, 418
classification,
complete tools, 429
components,
computer-aided programming (CAP), 427
defined, 670
electronic tool identification,
ERP system (purchasing), 429
evaluation of a tool management system,
graphics,
integration, 419
introduction of a tool management system, 418liability log,
making information available, 416
need for a solution, 416
operations, 426
outline,
planning and preparation, 416
providing suitable information,
retrieving tools,
storage systems,
tool identification, 421
tool lists,
tool presetting,
use of components, 429
use of new technologies, 415
warehousing of the components,
tool monitoring, 670
tool offset
3D, 120
automatic, 625
tool path, 670
tool presetting, 670
tool selection, 412
tool tip compensation, 670
tool tip radius compensation. See cutter radius compensation
tool turrets,
tool-length compensation, 670
tool-life monitoring, 670toothed-belt transmission, 213
TOP. See Technical and Office Protocol (TOP)
topology,
torque
calculation of, 215
effective, 215
maximum, 214
torque motors
control loop for, 58
defined, 671
schematic, 58
touch probes, 666
touch-enabled displays,
touchscreens, 671
Tracto-Technik GmbH, 278
training, simulation,
transfer lines, 671
transistor technology, 16
transmission accuracy, 115
transmission medium, 578
transmission protocols. See network protocols
transmission speed, 583
transmission technology,
trochoidal milling,
tube-bending machines,
turn milling, 671
turning,turning centers, 671
turning cycles,
turning/grinding centers, 288
turning/milling centers,
turning/rotary-hobbing centers, 289
TWIN technology,
twin-spindle machines,
two-position controllers. See on/off controls
U ul
trasonic technology, 671
undershoot, 671
universal (PID) controllers,
universally applicable teach pendants, 363
UNIX, 672
upward compatibility, 672
U.S. Air Force, 16
USB sticks, 672
V V.
24 interface, 672
variable location coding,
variable-block format, 672
VDAFS, 672VEB “Fritz Heckert,” 10
vector feed rate, 672
velocity gain, 200
vertical lathes, 238
virtual machines, 552
virtual NC kernel (VNCK), 119
virtual products, 672
virtualization, 611
visualization and digital mockup (DMU),
VLSI (very large-scale integration), 672
volatile memory, 672
volumetric compensation (VCS),
volumetric model. See 3D solid model
W wa
rm-up time, 386
water-jet cutting machines,
web user interfaces (webUIs), 121
whirl milling,
wide-area networks (WANs), 672
wire EDM,
See also electrical-discharge machining (EDM)
wizards, 672
WLANs (wireless local-area networks),
work area limits, 672work floor, and energy efficiency,
work orders, 623
workpiece changer,
workpiece geometry, 545
workpiece management, 84
workpiece measuring areas of application of workpiece and tool
measuring systems,
machine-integrated,
measuring spindle probes,
programming of measurements,
requirements for accuracy of workpiece measurement systems,
444
switching spindle probes, 446
variants of signal transmission for spindle probes,
See also process control
workpieces, and energy efficiency, 386
workstations, 673
X X-
, Y-, 673
Z ze
ro lag, 673
zero offset, 673zero points
defined, 642
machine zero point
workpiece zero point
zero-error processing, 525
zooming, 673


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