كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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مدير المنتدى
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عدد المساهمات : 17648
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3    كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3  Emptyالإثنين 17 يناير 2022, 1:41 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machine Tools Production Systems 3
Mechatronic Systems, Control and Automation  
Christian Brecher · Manfred Weck

كتاب Machine Tools Production Systems 3  M_t_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Machine Tool as a Mechatronic System 3
1.2 Engineering 4
1.3 Current Trends . 5
References 6
2 Feed Axes in Machine Tools 7
2.1 Converters for machine tool feed axes . 11
2.1.1 Design of converter systems . 11
2.1.2 Control electronics in converters . 13
2.1.2.1 Analog control 13
2.1.2.2 Digital control 14
2.1.2.3 Additional functions of digital drive controllers . 14
2.1.3 Interfaces to the control system . 15
2.1.3.1 Analog interface 16
2.1.3.2 Digital interface . 18
2.2 Motors in feed axes . 22
2.2.1 Requirements on drive units . 22
2.2.2 Direct current motors . 24
2.2.3 Synchronous motors 29
2.2.4 Asynchronous motors . 34
2.2.5 Design and calculation of electric drives 41
2.2.5.1 Ramp-up without a current limit . 42
2.2.5.2 Ramp-up with a current limit 42
2.2.5.3 Numeric determination of the ramp-up for non-linear and discontinuous
characteristics 45
2.2.5.4 Selection of motors according to static considerations 45
2.2.6 Designs based on direct current and 3-phase servo drives . 46
2.2.6.1 Stepper motors . 47
2.2.6.2 Linear motors . 49
2.2.7 Current and power measurements on electric motors . 53
2.3 Position measuring systems for NC machines 55
2.3.1 Basics of path and angle measurement . 56
2.3.1.1 Basic terms . 56
2.3.1.2 Measuring principles and measuring methods 56
2.3.2 Measuring systems 58
2.3.2.1 Photoelectric measuring methods . 58
2.3.2.2 Interferometers . 69
2.3.2.3 Electromagnetic sensors 69
2.3.2.4 Magnetic sensors . 73
2.3.3 Interpolation methods and direction detection . 75
2.3.3.1 Interpolation with auxiliary phases . 76
2.3.3.2 Digital interpolation 78
2.3.3.3 Amplitude analysis 79
2.3.3.4 Direction detection . 79
2.3.4 Selecting and installing measuring devices . 79
2.3.4.1 Selecting a measuring device 79
2.3.4.2 Place of installation in a system or machine 81
2.3.4.3 Installation notes . 81
2.3.4.4 Electrical connection 81
2.4 Mechanical transmission elements . 83
2.4.1 Components for converting rotation motion to translation motion 83X Contents
2.4.1.1 Ball screw/nut drives 83
2.4.1.2 Rack and pinion drives 90
2.4.1.3 Worm and rack drives . 90
2.4.1.4 Toothed belt drives . 92
2.4.1.5 Chain drive . 92
2.4.2 Feed gear units . 93
2.4.2.1 Gear drives . 93
2.4.2.2 Toothed belt drives . 95
2.4.2.3 Custom feed gear units 96
2.4.3 Couplings 100
2.4.3.1 Self-aligning couplings 100
References 105
3 Dynamic Behavior of Feed Axes . 107
3.1 Control Engineering Principles . 110
3.1.1 Linear, Continuous Transfer Systems . 112
3.1.1.1 Time Behavior of Control Loop Elements . 112
3.1.1.2 Basic Systems of Control Loop Elements and Their Representation . 114
3.1.1.3 Structure of a Control Loop 115
3.1.1.4 Signal Flow (Block) Diagram . 117
3.1.1.5 Stability of Control Loops . 118
3.1.1.6 Rules for Setting Analog Controllers . 119
3.1.2 Linear Discrete-Time Transfer Systems . 120
3.1.2.1 Representation of Discrete-Time Systems 121
3.1.2.2 Z-Transform 122
3.1.2.3 Linear Difference Equations . 122
3.1.2.4 Rules for Setting Discrete-Time Controllers . 123
3.1.2.5 Transfer Function in the Z-Domain . 123
3.1.3 Feedforward Controller for Tracking Error Correction . 125
3.1.4 State Control . 126
3.1.4.1 Representation in the State Space . 126
3.1.4.2 Design of a State Controller . 128
3.2 Closed-Loop Control of Feed Drives 129
3.2.1 Feed Drive as Control Loop 129
3.2.2 Calculation of Continuous Position Control Loops 131
3.2.3 Transmission Behavior of the Linear Position Control Loop 132
3.2.4 Simulation of Feed Drives . 134
3.3 Transmission Behavior of the Mechanics . 135
3.3.1 Physical Boundaries of the Mechanical and Electrical Systems . 136
3.3.2 Transmission Behavior of Electromechanical Drive Systems . 137
3.3.2.1 Kinematic Transmission Behavior 137
3.3.2.2 Static Transmission Behavior 137
3.3.2.3 Dynamic Transmission Behavior . 138
3.3.3 Transmission Behavior of Linear Motor Drives 140
3.4 Influences of the Measuring System on the Closed-Loop Feed Control 141
3.4.1 Behavior of Electromechanical Axes for Closed-Loop Control via Indirect and
Direct Measuring Systems . 142
3.4.2 Effect of the Measuring System for Linear Motor Drives . 142
3.4.3 Improvement of Closed-Loop Feed Control Using a Ferraris Sensor 144
3.4.4 Shortest Traversable Increment 146
3.5 Static and Dynamic Stiffnesses of Feed Axes . 147
3.5.1 Static Stiffness 148
3.5.1.1 Static Stiffness of Electromechanical Drives (Ball Screw Drives) 148
3.5.1.2 Static Stiffness for an Electric Linear Motor Drive 149
3.5.2 Dynamic Stiffness . 149
3.5.2.1 Dynamic Stiffness of Electromechanical Feed Axes 149XI
Contents
3.5.2.2 Electric Linear Motor Drive 150
References 153
4 Feed Drives for Path Generation 155
4.1 Design of Path Controllers . 158
4.2 Path Errors on Machine Tools 158
4.2.1 Path Errors in the Interpolator . 158
4.2.2 Typical Path Errors of Position Control . 158
4.2.3 Effects of Mechanical Transmission Elements . 160
4.2.4 Determination of Dynamic Path Deviations . 161
4.2.4.1 Corner Smoothing 161
4.2.4.2 Circularity and Diameter Deviations 161
4.2.5 Influence of the K
V Factor on the Path Deviations . 163
4.3 Measures to Reduce Path Deviations . 165
References 165
5 Design of Feed Drives . 167
5.1 Design of the Motor and Mechanical Components . 170
5.1.1 Determining the Requirements and Selecting the Drive Principle 171
5.1.2 Selection and Design of the Mechanical Components . 171
5.1.3 Selection and Design of the Drive Motor . 172
5.1.3.1 Design in Accordance with Static Parameters . 174
5.1.3.2 Dynamic Design 174
5.1.3.3 Optimum Gear Ratio 175
5.2 Design of the Measuring System . 175
5.3 Commissioning of the Controller . 176
5.3.1 Manual Commissioning . 176
5.3.1.1 Adjusting the Rotational Speed Controller . 177
5.3.1.2 Adjustment of the Position Controller 179
5.3.2 Automatic Commissioning 180
References 180
6 Process Monitoring 181
6.1 Introduction 184
6.1.1 Background, Terminology and Objectives 184
6.1.2 Economic Significance of Process Monitoring, Process Control, Diagnostics, and
Maintenance Measures 186
6.1.3 Factors Affecting the Function of the Means of Production and Product Quality 187
6.1.4 Strategies and Structure of Monitoring Systems 187
6.1.4.1 Strategies for Monitoring Systems . 188
6.1.4.2 The Structure of Monitoring Systems . 189
6.1.4.3 Connection and Delimitation Between Process Monitoring and Machine
Diagnosis . 190
6.1.4.4 Mechanical and Optical Sensors . 190
6.1.4.5 Control-Internal Information 190
6.1.5 Principles of Process Control . 192
6.2 Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition 193
6.2.1 Analog Signal Processing 194
6.2.2 Digital Pre-Processing . 198
6.2.3 Feature Extraction 198
6.2.4 Classification . 199
6.2.4.1 Fixed Limits 199
6.2.4.2 Moving Thresholds . 200
6.2.4.3 Multi-Dimensional Classification . 200
6.3 Technological Process Monitoring and Process Control in Different
Manufacturing Processes . 202XII Contents
6.3.1 Turning 202
6.3.1.1 Sensor Systems for Measuring Torque and Cutting Force 202
6.3.1.2 Controlling Force, Torque and Power During Turning . 204
6.3.1.3 Automatic Cut Distribution for Turning 208
6.3.1.4 Process Monitoring During Turning 210
6.3.2 Milling . 213
6.3.2.1 Sensor Systems and Processes for Process Monitoring During Milling 213
6.3.2.2 Process Monitoring for Milling . 214
6.3.2.3 Process Control for Milling . 219
6.3.2.4 Process Control When Fettling . 224
6.3.2.5 Automatic Chatter Elimination . 225
6.3.3 Drilling . 231
6.3.3.1 Process Monitoring When Drilling and Deep Drilling 231
6.3.3.2 Process Control for Deep Drilling 234
6.3.4 Grinding . 235
6.3.4.1 Process Control . 235
6.3.4.2 Dressing Monitoring 237
6.3.5 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) 238
6.3.6 Collision Monitoring 242
6.4 Statistical Process Control 245
6.5 Machine Condition Monitoring 247
6.5.1 Service and Maintenance Procedures 247
6.5.1.1 Reactive Maintenance . 247
6.5.1.2 Time-Dependent (Preventive) Maintenance 248
6.5.1.3 State-Oriented Maintenance . 250
6.5.2 Machine Condition Monitoring 250
6.5.2.1 Parameters . 250
6.5.2.2 Sensor-Based State Detection . 251
6.5.3 Measured Value Analysis 253
6.5.3.1 Conventional Diagnostic Functions 254
6.5.3.2 Model-Based . 257
6.5.3.3 Behavior-Based . 257
6.5.3.4 Areas of Application 258
References 262
7 Automation of Machines and Plants 265
7.1 Definitions 268
7.2 Historical Developments and Reasons for Automating Machine Tools 268
7.3 Control and Automation Technology as a Subtask of Machine Development . 270
7.4 Control of Operating Sequences . 271
7.4.1 Production Facility Functions that Can be Automated . 271
7.4.2 Functional Sequences . 271
7.4.3 Control, Programming and Storage Elements . 273
7.5 Examples of Automated Functions . 274
7.5.1 Path and Switching Information . 274
7.5.1.1 Linear Displacement Transducers 274
7.5.1.2 Cam Strips and Switch Panels 275
7.5.1.3 Absolute and Incremental Rotary Encoders for Measuring the Actual Position
of a Machine Assembly and for Controlling Rotational Speed 276
7.5.2 Workpiece Transportation and Handling . 276
7.5.3 Tool Handling and Storage 279
7.5.4 Process Monitoring, Process Control, Diagnostics and Safety 280
7.5.5 Control Technology . 282
7.5.6 Disposal 282
References 283XIII
Contents
8 Mechanical Control Systems . 285
8.1 Single-Spindle Automatic Lathe 288
8.2 Multi-Spindle Automatic Lathe . 295
8.3 Further Development of the Mechanically Controlled Multi-Spindle Machine 304
8.4 Electronic Line Shaft 305
8.4.1 Operating Principle . 306
8.4.2 Application . 308
References 309
9 Basics of Information Processing 311
9.1 Basics . 314
9.1.1 Number Systems 314
9.1.2 Data Codes . 316
9.1.3 Boolean Algebra 317
9.1.4 Karnaugh Map 321
9.2 Modules 323
9.2.1 Implementing the Basic Functions . 323
9.2.2 Extended Functions . 325
9.2.2.1 Flip-flop 325
9.2.2.2 Edge-triggered Flip-flops 326
9.2.2.3 1:2 Divider 326
9.2.2.4 Binary Counters . 327
9.2.2.5 Half Adder 327
9.2.2.6 Full Adders and Accumulators . 328
9.2.2.7 Comparator 329
9.2.2.8 Decoder 330
9.2.2.9 Parity Checker 330
9.2.2.10 A/D Converter 332
9.2.2.11 D/A Converter 333
9.2.3 Integrated Circuits 335
9.2.4 Controls and Displays . 336
9.2.5 Computers . 337
9.3 Communication in Automation Technology . 339
9.3.1 Communication Technology Requirements 339
9.3.2 OSI Reference Model 339
9.3.3 Bus Architectures and Access Methods . 341
9.3.4 Bus Systems 342
9.3.5 Industrial Ethernet 343
9.3.6 Wireless Communication 344
9.3.7 Near Field Communication 345
9.3.8 Middleware Protocols . 346
References 347
10 Electrical Controls . 349
10.1 Design and Categorization of Electrical Controls 351
10.1.1 Logic Controllers 353
10.1.2 Sequential Controls . 353
10.2 Hard-wired Controls 355
10.2.1 Application Areas and Tasks . 355
10.2.2 Application Examples . 355
10.3 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) 357
10.3.1 Application Areas and Functions . 357
10.3.2 Design and Function 359
10.3.2.1 Design . 359
10.3.2.2 Operating Principle . 361
10.3.3 PLC Programming 363XIV Contents
10.3.3.1 Ladder Diagram Programming 364
10.3.3.2 Continuous Function Chart Programming 365
10.3.3.3 Programming with Instruction List . 366
10.3.3.4 Examples of More Complex Program Instructions . 366
10.3.3.5 Structured Text (High-level Language Programming) . 370
10.3.3.6 Sequential Function Chart . 371
10.3.4 Procedure for Systematic Development of Complex PLC Programs 372
10.3.4.1 Specification of the Control Task . 373
10.3.4.2 Program Design and Programming 374
10.3.4.3 Program Testing 375
10.4 Safety Controllers 377
10.4.1 Machinery Directive . 378
10.4.2 Performance Levels . 378
10.4.3 Two-channel, Fault-Detecting Control Structure 379
10.4.4 Three-channel, Fault-tolerant Control Structure 379
10.4.5 Conventional Safety Circuits Using Relay Technology . 380
10.4.6 Fail-Safe Process Coupling . 380
10.4.6.1 Reliable Evaluation of Process Inputs . 380
10.4.6.2 Fail-safe and Fault-Tolerant Process Outputs . 382
10.5 Motion Control . 384
10.5.1 Basics and Application 384
10.5.2 Design and Operating Principle of MC Systems . 385
10.5.2.1 System Architecture of MC Systems 385
10.5.2.2 Fieldbus Systems for Motion Control . 385
10.5.3 Programming . 386
10.5.3.1 Project Planning of Motion Control Systems 387
References 388
11 Numerical Controllers . 391
11.1 Historical Development of Numerical Controllers 394
11.2 Design and Functional Description of Numerical Controllers 395
11.2.1 General Functional Description 395
11.2.2 Hardware and Interfaces of a Numerical Controller 397
11.2.2.1 Internal Structure . 398
11.2.2.2 External Interfaces 400
11.2.3 Numerical Controller Software . 401
11.2.4 How a Numerical Controller Works . 403
11.2.4.1 NC Interpreter 403
11.2.4.2 Geometrical Data Processing 404
11.2.4.3 Interpolation . 404
11.2.4.4 Axis Control 405
11.2.5 Functional Scope of Modern Numerical Controllers . 405
11.2.5.1 Standard Functions . 405
11.2.5.2 Functions for Controlling Automated Production Cells 409
11.2.6 Openness of Controller Systems . 412
11.2.6.1 Motivation and Objectives of Open Controller Systems . 412
11.2.6.2 Variants of Open Controller Systems . 413
11.2.6.3 Realization of Open Controllers 414
11.2.6.4 Cross-Manufacturer Standards for Open Controllers 416
11.3 Workpiece Programming in NC Production 418
11.3.1 Format of Line-Based NC Program . 418
11.3.2 Structure of an Object-Oriented NC Program . 420
11.3.3 Coordinate Systems and Reference Points 422
11.3.3.1 Machine Zero Point M . 422
11.3.3.2 Reference Point R . 422
11.3.3.3 Workpiece Zero Point . 423XV
Contents
11.3.3.4 Tool Reference Point E 423
11.3.3.5 Tool Holder N and Carriage Reference Point 425
11.3.3.6 Start Point 425
11.3.3.7 Tool Geometry 425
11.4 NC Programming Methods . 425
11.4.1 Manual NC Programming Methods 425
11.4.1.1 Fundamentals and Procedure . 425
11.4.1.2 Programming Example (DIN 66025) 428
11.4.1.3 Additional Commands for Program Entry . 429
11.4.1.4 Limits of Programming in Accordance with DIN 66025 433
11.4.2 Automatic NC Programming Methods . 433
11.4.2.1 CAD/CAP/CAM Coupling 437
11.4.2.2 Programming Example Using the EXAPT System 448
11.4.2.3 Programming Example for an Object-Oriented NC Program (STEP-NC) . 455
11.4.2.4 Workshop-Oriented NC Programming . 455
11.4.2.5 Workshop-Level Programming with Manual Process Control 458
11.4.2.6 Cost Comparison of Programming Methods 458
11.4.3 Digitization of Workpiece Geometries for NC Data Generation . 460
11.4.3.1 Measuring Devices for Digitizing Workpieces . 461
11.4.3.2 Sampling Strategies . 463
11.4.3.3 Sampling Systems 465
11.4.3.4 Preparation and Processing of Measurement Data 470
11.5 User Interfaces on Machine Tools 472
11.5.1 Control Panels on Machine Tools 472
11.5.2 Manual Process Control . 474
11.5.2.1 General Overview . 474
11.5.2.2 Controls Required for Process Control 474
11.5.2.3 Alternatives for Realizing a User-Oriented Process Control 476
11.5.2.4 Development Trends 479
11.5.3 User-Oriented Depiction of Process-Related and System-Related Parameters . 480
11.5.3.1 Initial Situation . 480
11.5.3.2 User-Oriented Communication of Parameters 480
11.5.3.3 Technical Realization and Application Examples 481
References 484
12 Command Variable Generation and Interpolation . 487
12.1 Interpolation . 491
12.1.1 Functions for the Velocity and Acceleration Control of Simple Paths Based
on NC Lines . 491
12.1.1.1 Acceleration and Deceleration Phase 493
12.1.1.2 Constant Velocity Phase . 496
12.1.1.3 Brake Application Point Recognition . 497
12.1.2 Functions for the Velocity and Acceleration Control of Simple Paths
Across NC Lines . 498
12.1.2.1 NC Line Transitions . 498
12.1.2.2 Proactive Velocity Control . 498
12.1.3 Interpolation of Simple Paths 499
12.1.3.1 Linear Interpolation . 501
12.1.3.2 Circular Interpolation . 502
12.1.4 Spline Interpolation . 503
12.1.4.1 Polynomial Splines 504
12.1.4.2 B-splines . 507
12.1.4.3 NURBS . 509
12.1.4.4 Evaluation of Splines 510
12.1.5 Other Methods . 512
12.2 Geometrical Transformations 512XVI Contents
12.2.1 Zero Offsets 513
12.2.2 Tool Corrections 514
12.2.3 Kinematic Transformation for 5-axis Milling 514
12.2.3.1 Serial Kinematics 517
12.2.3.2 Parallel Kinematics 517
12.3 External Position and Velocity Influencing 519
12.3.1 Compensation of Geometrical Errors . 519
12.3.1.1 Compensation of Geometrical Feed Drive Errors 519
12.3.1.2 Compensation of Thermal Displacements 520
12.3.1.3 Compensation of Static Process Loads . 524
12.3.1.4 Measurement Control for Grinding Processes . 529
12.3.2 Feed Override and External Velocity Influencing 529
12.3.2.1 Override 529
12.3.2.2 External Velocity Influencing 530
12.3.2.3 Look-ahead Function . 530
12.3.3 Reference Point Run 531
References 531
13 Robots and Robot Controllers . 533
13.1 General Functional Description 535
13.2 Robot kinematics and Placement Devices 537
13.2.1 Vertical Articulated Arm Robot 539
13.2.2 Horizontal Articulated Arm Robot 542
13.2.3 Cartesian Line Gantry Robots 543
13.2.4 Cartesian Area Gantry and Line Gantry with Girder 545
13.2.5 Parallel Kinematics 545
13.2.5.1 Combined Kinematics . 545
13.2.5.2 Fully Parallel Kinematics . 546
13.2.6 Custom Designs 546
13.2.6.1 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate Robots . 546
13.2.6.2 Hybrid Kinematics 547
13.2.6.3 Collaborative Robot Designs 547
13.3 Coordinate Systems and Reference Points . 548
13.4 Coordinate Transformation and Path Generation 550
13.5 Operating and Programming Robots 563
13.5.1 Online Programming Methods . 564
13.5.2 Offline Programming Systems . 569
13.5.3 Industrial Robot Language (IRL) as an Example of a Robot
Programming Language . 574
13.6 Communication Interfaces for Robot Controllers 582
13.7 Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing . 584
13.8 Gripper Technology in Robotics 587
13.8.1 Process Definitions 587
13.8.2 Gripping Principles 588
13.8.3 Gripper Types 588
13.8.3.1 Mechanical Grippers 588
13.8.3.2 Pneumatic Grippers . 591
13.8.3.3 Custom Designs 594
13.8.4 Gripper Systems 596
13.9 Development Trends . 598
References 602
14 Production Control Technology . 605
14.1 Corporate Structure in the CIM Environment 608
14.1.1 CIM Components . 608
14.1.1.1 ERP 609XVII
Contents
14.1.1.2 CAD 610
14.1.1.3 CAP and CAM . 611
14.1.1.4 CAQ 611
14.1.2 Automated Production 611
14.1.3 Level Model of an Industrial Manufacturing Business 611
14.2 Corporate Level 613
14.2.1 ERP Systems 613
14.2.1.1 Functionalities of an ERP System . 614
14.2.1.2 Modularity of ERP Systems 615
14.2.1.3 Introducing an ERP System 615
14.2.1.4 Current Developments in ERP Systems . 616
14.3 Operations Command Level 616
14.3.1 Manufacturing Execution Systems . 616
14.3.1.1 MES Tasks 617
14.3.1.2 Variants and Types of Systems . 617
14.3.2 Manufacturing Control Systems . 618
14.3.2.1 Technical System Concepts 618
14.3.2.2 DNC (Distributed Numerical Control) . 619
14.3.2.3 Material Flow Control . 620
14.3.2.4 Organization of Production Resources . 621
14.3.2.5 Production Data Acquisition and Processing . 623
14.3.3 Communication in Control Technology 628
14.3.3.1 Communication Segments in the Manufacturing Sector . 628
14.3.3.2 Software Interfaces . 630
14.4 Process Command Level . 630
14.4.1 Electronic Control Station . 630
14.4.1.1 Tasks of Shop Floor Control Systems . 630
14.4.2 Production Control Computers 631
14.4.2.1 Functional Scope of Production Control Computers 631
14.4.3 SCADA Systems . 633
14.4.3.1 Tasks . 633
14.4.3.2 Concepts . 633
14.5 Smart Automation Lab: Industry 4.0 Research Laboratory . 633
14.5.1 Product-Centric Control . 634
14.5.2 Plug & Produce . 635
14.5.3 Cognitive Assembly . 635
References 637
15 Engineering . 639
15.1 Software development . 641
15.1.1 Development models . 641
15.1.1.1 Waterfall model . 641
15.1.1.2 V-model 642
15.1.1.3 Agile software development . 642
15.1.2 Development phases . 644
15.1.2.1 Planning phase . 644
15.1.2.2 Definition phase 644
15.1.2.3 Design phase . 644
15.1.2.4 Implementation phase 644
15.1.2.5 Acceptance and introduction phase . 647
15.1.2.6 Maintenance and support phase . 648
15.1.3 Model-driven software development 648
15.2 Electrical design on machine tools . 648
15.2.1 Introduction 648
15.2.2 Functions of electrical design in machine tools . 650
15.2.2.1 Provision of power 650XVIII Contents
15.2.2.2 Realization of control functions 650
15.2.2.3 Protective functions for personnel and the system 650
15.2.3 Interaction between the electrical and mechanical designs 652
15.2.3.1 Interface between the electrical and mechanical designs 652
15.2.3.2 Communication tool for specifying the functions of a machine tool 653
15.2.4 Components and methods in electrical design . 655
15.2.4.1 Standards and regulations for the electrical design of machine tools . 655
15.2.4.2 Criteria for selecting components 656
15.2.4.3 Circuitry documents 657
15.2.4.4 Circuitry documents for a lathe as an example 659
15.2.4.5 Methods in electrical design . 661
15.2.5 Practicable integration of electrical components into machine tools . 663
15.2.5.1 Energy supply 663
15.2.5.2 Electrical components in machine tools 664
15.2.5.3 Operator interface 667
15.2.5.4 Safety devices 669
15.2.5.5 Electrical cabinet design . 670
References 676
Supplementary Information
Formelzeichenverzeichnis . 680
Index .
Index
1-ramp method 332
2-ramp method 333
4-Field Sampling 59, 60, 65
A
A/D converter 332
Absolute accuracy 537
Absolute dimension programming 426
Acceleration sensor 213, 214, 226
Accumulator 328
Accuracy 110, 120, 126, 129, 130, 137, 146,
147, 151
– positioning 171
Acoustic emission 219
Action planner 573
Active 150
Actual value 111, 116, 146
Actuator 116
Actuator/sensor level 400, 612, 628
Adaptive control 193, 240, 272
Adder 336
Adjustment table 528
Agile software development 641, 642
Aliasing 196, 197
Aligned Position 48
Ambiguity 550, 560
Amplitude reserve 118, 119
AND 317
Angular Position 38, 48, 56, 73
Application-specific integrated circuits 335
APT 433, 434, 436, 439, 446
Arithmetic logic unit 339
Artificial intelligence 257, 258
ASCII code 316
Assembler 645
Assembly 534, 535, 541, 543, 546, 550, 562,
564, 572, 573, 584, 586, 587, 595, 596
Assembly cell 635, 636
Audible 143
Augmented Reality 481, 482
Automated production 611, 612, 618, 633
Automatic lathe 287–289, 291, 292, 295,
296
Automatic machine 268
– fully 268
– partially 268
– semi- 268
Automatic turret lathe 288, 289
Automation 608, 611–613, 617, 618, 628–
630, 633–635
Automation pyramid 612, 613, 633, 634
Auxiliary control shaft 288–290, 292, 297
Auxiliary function 288, 290, 292, 297, 302,
305
Auxiliary Phase 76, 78
Availability 184, 190, 247, 250, 251
B
Backlash
– free 171
Backward transformation 549–552, 555,
556, 558, 560
Ball 49, 56, 71, 81, 83–89, 92, 94, 96, 100
Ball Screw Bearing Arrangement 87
Bar loading magazine 277
Bar-Wound Rotor 23
Base function 579
Base number 314
Basic programming languages 363
BCD code 316
Bearings 519, 521, 523
Bell-Type Armature Rotor 24
Binary counter 327
Binary system 314
Blank dimension 206, 208
Blending 562, 570, 579, 581
Block diagram 127, 135, 150, 151, 153
Block terminals 667
Bode plot 114, 115, 118, 177
Bolt 83, 99, 100
Boolean algebra 317
Boundary 118, 119, 121, 124, 129, 135, 149
Brake 16
Buckling 171
Bus architecture 341
Bus systems 377, 385
C
Cabinet 650, 656, 659, 660, 662, 664, 665,
667, 670–675
Cable chain 666, 667
Cable ducts 663, 666, 671, 674
Cable feed 666
CAD 420–422, 436–445, 448, 449, 451, 455,
457, 460–462, 470, 472, 509, 567–569,
571, 584, 610, 611, 620, 629, 635
Calculation sheet for a motion control
cam 293
Calibration 537, 564, 567, 571, 583, 585,
599, 601
Cam 10, 99, 100, 275
CAM 420–422, 436, 437, 439–441, 444,
445, 447, 448, 455, 457, 460, 462, 472,
504, 510, 610, 611, 619, 620
Cams 534
Cam disk 289–291, 293–296, 301, 306, 308
Cam disk contour 293
Cam follower 291, 295
Cam section 293, 294
Cam strip 275
CAN bus 583
CAP 422, 437, 439–441, 444, 445, 448, 455,
457, 461, 462, 610–612
CAQ 441, 455, 611
Carrier sense multiple access method 342
CAx system 663
CE marking 651, 657
Cell computer 581, 612, 629
Central shaft 297
Chain storage system 280
Charge amplifier 214
Chatter
– recognition 217, 221
Chatter vibration 221, 225, 227, 233
Chip disposal 282
Chip shape identification 233
Chip thickness modulation 225, 229, 230
CIM 608, 609
Circuit diagram 657, 659–664
Circuitry documents 655, 657, 659, 661–663
Circular interpolation 502, 561, 581
Clamping errors 528
Classification
– pattern recognition 189, 193–195, 202,
217
Clock-controlled 358
Closed-loop controllers 384, 385
CMOS 325
Code generator 648
Coexistence management 345
Cogging 50, 52, 90
Collector Fin 25
Collision 102, 103, 105, 187, 189, 199, 200,
208, 210, 212, 242–245, 255, 256
– avoidance 342
– cause 242
– detection 344
– point 244, 245
– protection system 242, 243, 245
– space 244, 245
Command level 612, 613, 616, 628, 630
Communication 608, 609, 611, 613, 619,
628–630, 633, 635
Communication interfaces 400, 413
Commutation 28–30, 34
Comparator 329
Compensation 16, 52, 79, 491, 519–525,
527–529
– control-related compensation 522
Compensation function 147
Compensation time 119, 121–123
Compile cycles 415, 416
Complex 112–114, 118, 137, 148, 150
Compliance 137, 138, 148, 149, 153
Component
– mechanical 171
Computer 394, 411, 418, 420, 428, 433,
435, 436, 439, 441, 450, 455, 460, 463,
483, 490, 611, 619, 627–629, 631
Contact width 528
Contactor 650, 652, 657, 659, 660, 672, 673
Continuous function chart (CFC) 363, 365,
653–655, 657
Contour deviations 528
Contour error 528
Contour sampling 464
Control 10–23, 28, 34, 38–41, 47–49, 52,
56, 58, 71, 73, 78–81, 103, 110–112, 114–
121, 123–126, 128–133, 135–137, 140–
153
– adaptive control device 240
– device 206, 221
Control chain 110692 Stichwortverzeichnis
Control commands 273
Control drum 292
Control functions 292, 296, 299, 302, 307
Control level 612, 620, 628, 629
Control limits (upper and lower) 246
Control logic 351
Control loop 110–112, 114–120, 123, 125,
126, 128–132, 135, 137, 140–144, 146,
147, 150–153
Control panel 396, 397, 400, 472, 475, 479,
650, 656, 659, 662, 667, 668
Control shaft 288–292, 297, 300–302, 304,
305
Control stations 610–612, 618, 630, 631
Control system 19, 287, 304, 305, 308, 490–
493, 498, 499, 504, 506, 512–514, 517,
519–521, 523, 524, 529–531, 618, 620,
623, 625, 635, 636
– NC controller 490, 491, 503, 504, 507,
510, 513, 514, 525, 528
Control task 351, 355, 357, 358, 372–374
Control variable 111, 116, 118, 123, 126,
128–130, 146
Control variable limitation 128, 129
Controller 111, 116, 118–121, 123, 125,
128–131, 133, 135, 137, 140–142, 144,
146–153, 351–358, 360–364, 366, 371,
375–379, 381, 382, 384, 385, 394–418,
420–422, 425–428, 431–433, 435, 447,
450, 456–458, 463, 465, 466, 472–475,
479, 480
– commissioning 176
– current 176
– position 176, 179
– sequential control 394
– speed 177
Controller matrix 128, 129
Controller program 354, 358, 360–363, 376
Controller setting 120, 140, 141, 144, 146
Controller systems 351, 377, 378
Converter 10–12, 14, 15, 22, 28, 30, 47, 52
Conveyor system 410
Coordinate system 33, 38, 537, 547, 548,
550, 551, 553–555, 557, 558, 564, 565,
567, 568, 574, 581, 585, 586, 598, 599,
601
Coordinate transformation 397
Corner smoothing 162
Correspondence table 112, 125
Counter 367, 369, 370
Coupling 47, 70, 80–82, 90, 93, 94, 100–
103, 105
Criteria 118, 123
Critical 118, 123, 136, 144
Cross-Flow Current Component 39, 40
Cross slide 287–291, 293–296, 301, 303
Cross slide drive 303
Current 11–17, 19, 21, 23–31, 33–38, 40–
50, 54–56, 60, 69–71, 79
Current controller 120, 130, 152
Current increase rate 136
Current path 657, 659, 660
Custom feed gear unit 96
Cut distribution
– automatic cut distribution 208–210, 227
Cutoff frequency 131, 133, 146, 151, 153
Cutting force
– control path 206
– measurement 204
– sensor 203
Cutting force components 524
Cutting test 144
Cutting work 219
Cycle 287, 296–298, 300, 307, 397, 403,
418, 419, 421, 422, 432, 433, 456, 458
Cycle time 17, 19, 46, 351, 360, 362, 366,
543, 567, 571, 593
Cyclo Drive 99, 100
D
D/A converter 333
Damping 111, 112, 114, 127, 128, 130, 133,
138, 141, 143, 149–153, 190, 196
Damping ratio 114, 130, 133, 151
Data codes 316
Data compression unit 461
Data processing 282
Data reduction 470–472
Data storage 360
D behavior 114
Deburring 224
Decimal system 314
Decoder 330
Definition phase 644
D flip-flop 326
Deformation 521
– thermoelastic deformation 520, 523, 529
Deformation Energy 102
Degree of utilization 184, 247
Delay element 131, 152
Denavit-Hartenberg method 555
Design phase 644, 648
Design workflow 271
Detailed planning 610, 617, 618, 630
Deviation 111, 116, 123, 125, 129, 132, 133,
138, 141, 146, 147, 149, 151–153
Diagnosis 633
– system 184, 254
– task 254
Diagnostics 400, 407, 408, 483
Difference equation 122–124
Differential equation 112, 114, 118, 122,
123, 126–129, 134, 138
Differential equation of motion 174
Diffraction 60, 66, 67
Digitization 193, 195, 197, 461–466, 468–
472
Dimensional deviations 521
DIN 66025 403, 405, 413, 418–420, 422,
425, 426, 428, 433–435, 439, 447, 460,
573
Direct contact 651, 652
Direction Detection 68, 75, 79
Disjunctions 320
Disjunctive normal form 320
Disk 420
Disk Rotor 23
Displacement 122, 137, 145, 146, 148, 149
Disturbance behavior 126, 144, 150
Disturbance frequency response 141, 152,
153
Disturbances 110, 124, 150
Disturbing force 111, 144, 147, 149, 151,
153
Divider 326
DNC 396, 397, 400, 420, 449, 455, 612,
619, 620, 626, 631, 632
Domain-specific language 648
Double Nut 85
Downtime 184–187, 208, 242, 247, 248,
250, 251
Dressing
– dressing monitoring 237, 238
Dressing frequency 238
Drilling
– deep drilling 231, 233–236
Drive 10, 12, 17, 18, 22–24, 47, 52, 55, 83,
86, 100, 110, 111, 120, 129–133, 135–
140, 142–144, 146–151
– drive signal 191, 213
– feed 174, 177
– linear motor 171, 176
Drive shaft 296, 306
DTL 325
Dual-Comb Arrangement 51
Dynamic 110–113, 116, 119–122, 125, 129–
131, 133, 134, 136–138, 141–144, 146–
153
Dynamic Spline 96
E
ECAD system 663
Eccentric Drive 99
Eddy currents 145, 146
Eddy current strip 145, 146
Effective power 210
Efficiency 174
Efficiency ratio 240
Eight-spindle machine 295
Electrical switch 292
Electrically erasable programmable readonly memory 335
Electronic control station 630
Electronic identification systems 278
Electronic switching cam group 304
Encoder 14, 24, 28, 59, 61–63, 73, 75, 77,
79–81
Energy
– dynamic component 218, 225
Enterprise Resource Planning 271, 609,
613, 623, 630, 631
Envelope signal 197, 210
Equidistant path 427
Equipment for EDM 238
Equivalent stiffness 152
ERP 441, 449, 609–618, 621, 622, 630, 631
Error 124–126, 132, 137, 138, 146, 152,
153, 158–166, 498, 507, 519, 520, 528,
609, 628, 630
– geometrical 158
Error correction 126
Ethernet 400, 413, 583, 619, 626, 628, 629
Event-driven 361, 363
Events 402, 415, 460
Excitation frequency 149
Expert system 258, 259693 F–L
Stichwortverzeichnis
F
Fail-safe output 383
Failure rate 251
Fault 401, 407, 409, 479, 483
Feature vector 194, 201, 202, 260
Feed 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 22–24, 30, 48–50,
52, 55–57, 79, 80, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90, 93–
96, 100, 101, 103, 104, 110, 111, 128–
140, 142–150, 288–290, 293, 296–302,
304, 394, 396, 397, 403–406, 408, 409,
415, 418–420, 426, 430, 435, 436, 456,
462, 473–475, 477, 479, 490–493, 498,
499, 503, 519, 520, 526, 527, 529–531,
537, 550, 580, 581, 584
– force 172, 174, 194, 202, 204, 210, 211,
233, 235, 248
– gearbox 175
– rate 172
Feedback 110, 111, 125, 130, 131, 134, 135,
142–144, 146
Feed controller 356
Feed direction angle 220
Feedforward controller 125, 126
Feedforward element 125
Feedforward velocity 165
Ferraris sensor 144–146
Fieldbus 342
Fieldbus system 401, 562, 583
Field programmable gate array 335
Field Weakening 26, 34, 40, 47
Field Weakening Range 40
Fixed point number 315
Flags 360, 365, 382
Flexible manufacturing cell 618
Flexible manufacturing systems 277
Flexspline 96
Flip-flop 325, 365, 366
Floating point number 315
Flux of forces 111, 147–149
Flux Regulator 40
Force 22, 24, 25, 29, 40, 45, 49, 50, 52, 55,
56, 83, 86, 88, 90, 93, 101–104, 136–138,
147–150, 152
– control (turning) 206
– measuring bearing 233, 235
Force feedback 541
Force sensor 214, 216, 235, 244
– quartz 204, 213
Four quadrant diode 525
Fourier analysis 177
FPGA 335
Frequency 11, 12, 14, 22, 29–31, 35, 36, 38,
40, 42, 45, 48, 49, 52, 67, 69–71, 76, 78,
79, 82, 83, 88, 100, 111–115, 117, 118,
122, 123, 126, 127, 129, 131, 133, 135,
137–139, 141, 143, 148, 149, 151–153
– natural 171
– natural angular 177, 178
– resonance 171
Frequency response 112–114, 117, 118,
122, 131, 138, 139, 149, 151, 152
Friction 171, 174
Full adder 328
Full-Step Mode 48
Functional description 395
Functional sequence 273
Functional test 249
G
Gain 111, 112, 120, 131–133, 141, 142,
150–153
Gap width control 242, 243
Gauge 14, 56–65, 67, 69, 73, 77, 79–81
Gear 35, 48, 49, 55, 63, 83, 90, 93–96, 98–
100
– toothed belt 170
– transmission 172
Gearbox
– monitoring 258
Gear Drive 35, 90, 94–96, 98
Geometry data 158
Gesamtsteigung
– Rollengewindetrieb 86
Grating Spacing 60, 67, 68
Gray code 63, 316
Grinding process
– process control 184, 186, 192–194, 199,
202, 208, 219, 221, 224, 235, 236, 239,
241, 245, 246
Grip planning 572, 573
Gripper hands 546, 590
H
Half adder 327
Hand-held control unit 535
Handling devices 534, 536, 537, 539, 542,
586, 590, 595, 596
Hardware components 360
Hardware-in-the-Loop 364, 375, 376
Hard-wired 352, 355–359, 384
Harmonic Drive 96, 97, 100
Harvard architecture 337
Hazardous shock currents 650
Hexadecimal code 316
Hexadecimal system 314
Hexapod 161
Hexapod robot 545, 546
Hierarchy levels of the control system 282
High frequency 138
High speed clutch 288, 290
High-Speed Rotor 23, 24
Hold element 121, 122, 125
Hollow Piston 90
Hollow Rotor 23, 24
Hollow taper shank 279
Human Machine Interface 357, 361, 416
I
I behavior 114
IC 335
Identity 336
IEC 61131-3 354, 363, 364, 370, 371, 386,
387
Implementation phase 644, 647, 648
Increment 146, 147
Index bolt 290, 292
Indexing device 300
Indirect 130, 142, 148, 150
Indirect contact 651, 652, 663
Induced 131, 136, 145
Inductosyn 70–72
Industrial Ethernet 344
Industrial PC 361
Industrial robot 534–538, 546–552, 555,
560, 561, 563, 564, 569, 580, 581, 583–
586, 588, 595, 598–601
Information flow 619
Input matrix 127
Inputs/outputs 583
Inspection 185, 186, 232, 248–250, 253
Installation plan 657
Instruction list 363, 364, 366–368, 370, 372
Integer division 314
Integer number 315
Integral component 149, 151, 152
Integrated circuits 335
Interference 17, 35, 62, 68, 69, 81, 94
Interference Source 81
Interlock 355, 356
Intermediate circuit 136
Intermediate circuit voltage 11, 13, 136
Intermediate variables 126, 127
Interpolation 16, 19, 62, 68, 73, 75–78, 158,
490–493, 497, 499, 500, 502–504, 506–
512, 515, 517, 519, 536, 549, 560, 561,
567, 571, 581, 584, 597, 598
– circular 158
– spline 158
Interpolation types 560, 561, 581
Interpolator 158
Interpreted language 646
Inverse stability 126
Inverter 136
J
Jerk 136, 147
Join planner 573
Joint coordinates 547, 550
Joystick 564
Jump instructions 361, 366, 368
K
Karnaugh map 321
Kinematic 137
K-map 321
K
V factor 132, 133, 141, 180
L
Ladder Diagram 363–367, 371, 372, 387
Lag distance 132
Lag time 119, 123
Laminated Core 50
Laminated Fabric Layer 52
Laplace domain 112, 122
Laplace transform 112, 122, 123, 125, 152
LCD 337
Learning rule 202
Least squares method 124
Length Measuring Device 79, 81
Level model 400, 401
Light barrier 669–671
Light curtain 669
Light grid 669
Lightweight robot 541, 542
Limit switch 664, 665, 670694 Stichwortverzeichnis
Limiting frequency 196
Limiting value
– fixed 199, 200, 211, 233
Line motion control 397
Linear 110–112, 118, 121, 122, 124, 130,
132, 134–136, 140–142, 144–151, 153
Linear Inductosyn 70–72
Linear interpolation 501, 512
Linear motor drive 111, 132, 140, 142, 144,
147, 149–151, 153
Liquid Cooling 52
Load torque 131
Logic analyzer 262
Logic block types 365
Logic controllers 353, 355, 357
Logic gate 320
Logic network 317
Logical functions 579
Longitudinal machining block 296, 302
Longitudinal slide 296, 297, 299, 301–303
Longitudinal slide drive 301, 303
Low-pass filtering 197
M
Machine capability 245, 246
Machine code 644–646
Machine data acquisition 611, 620, 623
Machine state variables 193
Machine vision system 583
Machine zero point M 422, 428
Machinery Directive 378
Machining processes 406, 407, 425, 435,
436, 460, 461, 480
Machining Quality 22
Main control shaft 288–290, 292
Main drive motor 297, 304, 305
Main switch 652, 664, 672
Maintenance 184–186, 247, 248, 250, 251
Maintenance strategy 247, 248, 250
Maltese drive 290, 292, 300, 301
Manipulators 534
Manufacturing control system 611, 616,
618
Manufacturing defects 524, 526
Manufacturing Execution System 616, 635
Manufacturing systems 277
Master-slave method 341
Material flow 400, 410
Material flow control 620, 631, 632
Material handling 586
Material management 271
Material transportation 276
Matrix 127–129, 134
Mean Time To Failure 379
Mean value
– moving average 199, 200, 211, 212
Measured Value 56–58, 62, 63, 72, 100
Measured-Value Acquisition 11, 14–21,
28, 30, 48–50, 52, 56–66, 68–73, 75, 78–
80, 94
Measurement 12, 14, 55–60, 62–64, 68, 69,
75, 77, 79–81
Measurement Accuracy 57, 58, 64, 68, 79,
80
Measurement control 529, 530
Measurement error 58, 63, 68, 69, 81, 467,
469
Measuring system 10, 15, 16, 48, 50, 52, 53,
56, 58–60, 62, 64–80, 82, 111, 130, 131,
136, 137, 141–146, 148, 150
Measuring System
– direct 175
Mechanical 110, 111, 130, 135–144, 147–
150
Mechanical control system 287, 288
Mechanical resonance point 138, 140
Mechanical transmission element 110, 111,
135–142, 147, 150
Memory modules 365, 366
Michelson Interferometer 69, 70
Micro-Step Mode 48
Milling
– process control 184, 186, 192–194, 199,
202, 208, 219, 221, 224, 235, 236, 239,
241, 245, 246
– process monitoring 184, 186–190, 197–
200, 202, 204, 213, 214, 216, 256
Milling cutter deflection 525, 528
Miniature circuit breakers 673, 674
Modal analysis 138, 141
Model 125, 126, 129, 131, 135, 152
Model-based software development 648
Model control value 125
Model of the control loops 131
Modes of action 587
Moiré method 470
Moment of inertia 171, 172
Monitoring 14–17, 21, 55
– dressing 199, 237, 238
– strategy 188, 190
– system 184, 187–190, 192, 202, 212, 213,
232, 233, 238, 248, 251, 252
MOSFET 325
Motion control 384–388
Motion control cam drum 289, 290, 298
Motor 10–16, 19, 22–55, 71, 73, 81, 83, 84,
88, 90, 92–96, 100–103, 105, 110, 111,
129–131, 136, 138–144, 146, 148–150
– drive 173
– feed 172, 174
– measuring system 175
– synchronous 173
– torque 172–174
Motor coil 131, 136
Motor drive 142
Motor torque 131, 136
Multi-machine system 618
Multiplier 336
Multi-speed gearbox 290, 292
Multi-spindle automatic lathe 287, 288,
295, 304–306
Multi-spindle machine 287, 288, 296, 299,
302, 304, 305
N
NAND 317
Nassi-Shneiderman 644
Natural frequency 111, 137, 138, 141, 142,
152
Natural vibration 143, 144, 150
NC-controlled cross slide 305
NC-controlled tool slide 304
NC line 394, 397, 399, 400, 403, 404, 406,
410, 415, 416, 418–420, 425, 428, 430–
432, 475, 491, 493, 497–499, 502, 503,
507, 509, 514, 530
NC program 394–401, 403–405, 409–411,
413, 416, 418, 420–423, 425–430, 432–
439, 441, 442, 444, 447, 448, 450, 451,
453–456, 459, 460, 472, 475, 479
– object-oriented NC program 420, 455
NC programming 395, 397, 404, 413, 418,
423, 425, 426, 432–434, 437–439, 441,
442, 444, 447, 448, 450, 455, 460, 479,
504, 509, 514, 517
NC programming methods 418, 425
NC programs 490, 491, 504, 610, 611, 618–
620, 623, 630, 632
Near field communication 345
Negation 317
Negative feedback 118
Negative multiplier 336
Network
– neural 202, 255, 257, 258, 260–262
Neurons 202, 261
Noise 136, 143–146
NOR 317
Number system 314
Nut 62, 79, 83–86, 88, 103, 105
Nyquist 114, 118, 119, 141, 148, 149
Nyquist plot 114, 118, 119, 148, 149
O
Object-oriented programming 646, 647
Observer structure 146, 150
Octal system 314
Of the linear motor drive 150, 151
Of the position control loop 126, 130–132,
138, 141, 151, 152
Offline method 562
Oil supply system 525
Online method 562, 568
OPC Unified Architecture 346
Open 110, 118, 119, 132
Open controller systems 398, 411–414
Openness 407, 412–417, 598, 601, 633
– external openness 413
– internal openness 413
Operating sequences 273
Operating system 398, 401, 403, 408, 414,
472, 598
Operation 46, 48, 86
Operator interface 414, 663, 667
Optical measuring devices 274695 P–R
Stichwortverzeichnis
OR 317
Order management 400, 409, 617
Organization of production resources 412
Oscillation test 120, 123, 124
OSI reference model 339
Output equation 127
Output matrix 127
Overload 192, 214, 244
Overload Area 29
Overshooting 111, 119, 130, 133, 179
P
PAL 336
Pallet change 278
Pallet transportation 278
Parallel converter 333
Parallel kinematics 517, 519, 535, 544, 545
Parameter identification methods 124
Pardware components 360
Parity checker 330
Passive force 204, 210, 218
Path 110, 116–121, 123–126, 128, 129, 133,
135, 138, 142–144, 146, 147
Path controller 397
Path correction 407, 418, 419, 427, 580,
583, 584
Path deviation 159–165
Path information 406, 419, 420, 460
Path Measurement 56, 58, 59, 69
Path planning 571–573
Pattern recognition system 193, 194
P behavior 114
PDA terminal 626, 631
Performance Level 378, 379
Peripheral milling
– sensor system 189–192, 213, 214, 224,
225, 230, 231, 233, 252
Peripherals 400, 412, 534, 536, 537, 581,
598
Petri nets 644, 655
Phase reserve 118, 119
Phase shift method 470
Photodiode array 190, 231
Photoelement 59, 60
Pinion
– diameter 175
Pipelining 339
PLA 336
Placement devices 534, 536
Planetary Gear 85, 93, 94, 96, 98, 100
Planning level 612, 613, 634, 635
Planning phase 644
Play 110–112, 135, 137
Playback programming 563
PLC 396–398, 403, 411, 415, 422, 618
Point-to-point controller 397
Pole placement 128
Position 110–112, 120, 125, 126, 128–136,
141–144, 146, 148–150
Position control 491, 526, 583
Position control loop 110–112, 125, 126,
131–136, 141–143, 150
Position counter 422
Position determination 274
Position feedback 111
Position information 275
Position measuring system 111, 142, 144,
146, 148–150
Position signal 130, 143
Positioning Accuracy 10, 22, 48, 49, 56, 79,
81, 85
Positioning uncertainty 519, 520
Postforming systems 461
Postprocessor 435, 436, 439, 447, 517, 571
Power regulation 205, 206, 208, 210
Power regulation (turning) 205, 206, 208,
210
Power regulation loop (turning) 206
Preload 87, 90, 92
Pressure Oil Pocket 90
Pressure sensor 665, 670
Primary Part 10, 49, 50, 52
Probe tip radius correction 470
Process 397, 399, 400, 405–407, 410–412,
414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 425–427, 429–
431, 433, 437, 440, 447–451, 456–461,
464, 466, 470, 474–483, 608, 610–613,
615, 616, 620, 622, 625, 628–630, 633–
636
Process control 273, 519
– deep drilling 231, 233–236
– fettling 224
– grinding 199, 213, 235–238
– limit regulation 210
– milling 192, 213–215, 217–222, 224, 225,
227–229, 232
– options 192, 194, 204, 238, 250
– principles 188, 190, 254
– statistical process control 246, 247
– torque 191, 221–223
– turning 204–213, 218–221, 223
Process control chart 246
Process control system 598
Process forces 137, 147
Process image 361
Process monitoring 184, 186–190, 197–200,
202, 204, 213, 214, 216, 256, 280, 415,
433, 478, 480–482, 583, 620
– deep drilling 231, 233–236
– delimitation between process monitoring
and machine diagnosis 190
– drilling 202, 211, 213, 231–235
– integrated into the control system 213
– milling 192, 213–215, 217–222, 224, 225,
227–229, 232
– turning 204–213, 218–221, 223
Processing tasks 569
Processor 435, 436, 439, 528, 601
Product Lifecycle Management 270
Product Owner 643
Production control computer 612, 618–620,
626, 631
Production data 399, 408
Production data acquisition 611, 620, 623,
626, 632
Production equipment 409, 456, 479
Production order 622, 631
Production process 406, 449, 450, 458, 460,
474–476, 480, 482, 608, 609, 611, 613,
615, 623, 624, 633
Production tasks 409
Profibus 342, 397, 583, 620, 629
Program cycle 361
Program memory 352, 360, 361
Program testing 363, 373, 375, 565
Programmable array logic 336
Programmable logic 335, 351, 352, 355,
357, 359–361, 378, 385, 534, 579
Programmable logic array 336
Programmable logic controllers 351, 352,
355, 357, 359, 378, 385
Programmable logic device 335
Programming 360, 362–367, 370–376, 386,
387, 394, 396, 399, 401, 403–405, 407,
413, 414, 418, 420–423, 425, 426, 428–
433, 435, 436, 438–441, 445, 447–453,
455–461, 474, 479, 490, 491, 503, 507,
513, 514
Programming control commands 273
Programming interface 418, 420, 433, 460,
491, 513
Programming language 364, 366, 371, 414,
418, 425, 426, 433, 456, 490, 562, 568,
570, 573, 574, 581, 597, 644, 646–648,
656
Programming methods 363, 366, 371, 372,
374, 375
Project planning 354, 386, 387
Project planning task 661
Protective functions 650
Protective insulation 651
Protocols 630, 632, 633, 635
Proximity switch 659, 660, 664, 665
Pseudo Random Code 65
PT1 behavior 114
PT2 behavior 114
PT
1 element 131, 152, 153
PT
2 element 131, 152, 153
Pushbutton 668
Q
Quadratic quality criterion 129
Quality
– input variable 194, 222
Quality assurance 184–186, 583, 611, 617,
628
Quasi 1-Field Sampling 62
Quick-clamping device 279
R
Ramp method 332
Random access memory 335
Random sample 201, 246, 247
Rapid motion 174
Real number 315
Real-time capability 377, 384
Reducing costs
– potential 231
Reduction in cutting depth 209, 227
Reference 10, 14–16, 18–20, 28, 41, 56, 60,
62, 63, 69, 73, 103, 110, 111, 116, 125,
130, 131, 133, 137, 138, 146, 147, 149
Reference model 611696 Stichwortverzeichnis
Reference point 422, 424, 425, 427–429,
441, 474, 531, 547, 548, 551, 567
– reference point run 422, 425, 474
Reference point run 531
Reflected Light Method 59, 60, 62
Relay 324, 648, 657, 659, 660, 664, 670,
672, 674
Relay technology 380, 381
Removal rate 238
Repair 185, 186, 242, 247, 251
Repeatability 537, 587, 594, 596
Requirement and development specifications 270
Resetting time 141, 150
Residual current circuit breaker 674
Resolver 71–73
Resonance frequency 137
Resonance point 138, 150
Response 112–114, 117–119, 123, 131, 135,
146, 148, 152
Reuse 490
Reverse torque 148
RFID 278, 345
Riccati equation 129
Ring architecture 341
Ripple carry adder 328
Robot types 535, 537, 541, 548, 550, 552,
553, 560
Roller lever 290
Roller Screw Drive 85, 86
Rotary encoder 130, 142, 143, 276, 292, 304
Rotational speed
– strategy for changing 228
Rotor Coordinate System 38
Rules for setting 119, 123, 124
S
Safety circuit 396
Safety controllers 377, 378
Sample 121, 122
Sampling 16, 17, 22, 58–65, 69, 81, 121–
125, 129, 147, 150, 197, 232, 461–466,
469–471
Sampling frequency 196
Sampling strategies 463, 465
Sampling system 121, 125, 129
Sampling systems 461, 462, 464–466, 469,
471
– measuring sampling systems 466
– optoelectronic sampling systems 466
– sampling systems measuring over surfaces 471
Sampling theorem 195, 196
Sampling unit 461
Scanning mode 464
SCARA 535, 541, 543, 550, 553
Scrum 642, 643
Secondary Part 10, 49, 50, 52
Segmentation 465
Self-holding 355, 357, 365
Sensitivity 203, 204, 210, 213, 214, 244
Sensor 19, 30, 55, 56, 59, 63, 65, 71, 73,
75, 81
– inductive ring 233
– mechanical 190, 231
– optical 190, 231, 244
– ring 236
Sensor guidance 224
Sensor system 469, 470, 541, 542, 547, 580,
583–585, 590, 597–599
– force-based 213
– process control, fettling 224
– process monitoring, milling 192, 213–
215, 217–222, 224, 225, 227–229, 232
– turning 204–213, 218–221, 223
Separating function 201, 202
Sequential control 352, 353, 355, 357, 363,
371, 372, 394
Sequential Function Chart 354, 355, 363,
364, 371, 372
SERCOS 12, 16, 19, 22
SERCOS bus 628
Serial adder 328
Serial kinematics 517
Servo 11, 12, 16–19, 23, 24, 29, 34, 46, 47,
83, 105
Set point value 158, 159, 166
Setting 408, 411, 412, 424–426, 475, 481
Shifting function 290
Shop floor control systems 618, 630
Short Stator Design 50
Sigma-delta A/D converter 333
Signal
– dynamic 196
– noise 196
Signal element 664
Signal flow diagram 117, 130, 132, 134, 151
Signal processing 352
– analog 194
Significance 314
Simulation 134, 135, 142
Simulation environments 377
Simulink 135
Sine Activation 30
Single-Comb Arrangement 50, 51
Single part production time 293, 406
Single-point probing 464, 466
Single-spindle automatic lathe 287, 288,
290, 293, 296
SISO system 126–128
Six-spindle machine 287, 296, 297
Slack compensation 520
Slanting of Groove 31
Sliding Contact 47
Slope (filter) 196, 198, 199, 206, 210, 211
Software 394, 395, 398, 399, 401, 403, 407,
408, 411–416, 418, 428, 433, 436, 439,
441, 456, 458, 460, 463, 472, 479, 480
Software bugs 373
Software costs 373
Software generation 374
Software-in-the-Loop 376
Software Limit Switch 15
Software modules 399, 403, 408, 414, 416
Spark voltage 240
Speed 10, 11, 13–31, 35–38, 40–45, 47–49,
52, 73, 76, 79, 83, 86, 93, 99
Speed control 276
Spindle
– ball screw 170
– pitch 175
– torque 174
Spindle Bearing Arrangement 86
Spindle drum 288, 296–298, 300, 301, 304
Spindle drum indexing 297
Spindle Pitch Error 16
Spindle pitch error 405, 407, 519, 520, 522
Spindle position 288, 295, 296, 298
Spindle speed 288, 293, 304, 396, 405, 406,
418–420, 433, 473, 490
Spline interpolation 404, 471, 503, 504,
507, 510
Split-beam method 583
Spring rigidity 101
Sprint 643
Spur gear teeth 290, 300, 302
Squirrel Cage Rotor 35, 36, 38
Srogramming language 386
Stability 118, 119, 121, 122, 124, 126, 141,
142, 144
– chart 227–231
– minimum value 227
Star architecture 341
Startup time constant 174
State 110, 113, 115, 118, 125–129, 132, 148,
150, 151
– comparison 185
– detection 185, 199, 251
– space 201, 255
Static 110, 118, 120, 137, 138, 147–149
Steep-angle taper 279
Step
– function 112, 122, 177
– speed 177
Step enable condition 653
Step Frequency 49
Step motor 110
STEP-NC 403, 420, 455
Step response 112, 115, 117, 119, 120, 123–
125, 133, 146, 152
Step response test 146
Steps 122, 129
Stick-slip effect 171
Stiffness 110, 111, 137, 144, 146–153
Stopband attenuation 196
Storage medium 420
Strain gauge 203, 204, 213, 233
– active 203
– passive 203
Strain transducer 214
Structural deformation 147, 148
Structure-borne sound 193, 197–200, 202,
210, 211, 218, 219, 224, 232–234, 236,
238, 258, 260–262
– histogram 198, 202, 233, 247
– sensor 219, 236
– spread 233, 246
Structure chart 644, 645
Structured-light 3D scanner method 469,
470
Structured Text (ST) 363, 371
Subsystems 416
Successive approximation 333
Supply 11, 28–32, 40, 46, 48, 82, 83, 86
Surface reconstruction 472, 473
Switch 297, 405, 407, 420, 422, 426, 429,
433, 458, 473–475, 483, 534, 580, 595
– electrical 273
– hydraulic 275697 T–Z
Stichwortverzeichnis
– pneumatic 275
Switch evaluation 381
Switching cam 287–292, 306
Switching cam disk 288, 290, 291
Switching contacts 323
Switching elements 337
Switching function 275
Switching functions 396, 400, 403, 411
Switching information 401
Switch-on delay 366, 369
Synchronous motor 111, 136
System 111–131, 133, 135–153
System fieldbus 628, 629
System memory 360
T
Tachogenerator 130
Task-oriented 562, 571, 572
Teach-in process (monitoring) 212
Teach pendant 564, 565, 568, 579
Teach programming 563, 564
Teleoperator 541
Tension Moment 90
Terminal diagram 657, 661–663
Terminal Strip 662, 674
Test method 375
Test signal 177
Tetrads 316
Three-channel 379, 380
Threshold
– moving 200, 201, 211, 212, 215, 217, 250
Time between failure
– mean time between failure 251
Time-driven 361
Time grid method 493, 495
Token passing method 341
Token ring 341
Tolerance 68, 69, 79
Tolerance band 238, 470, 471
Tolerance range 470
Tool change 280, 400, 403, 405, 410, 411,
418, 420, 428, 435, 479, 564, 586
Tool coordinate system 548, 565
Tool correction 548, 574, 579
Tool deflection 526, 528
Tool fracture monitoring
– crater wear 211, 218
– width of wear marks 218, 232
Tool holder block 296
Tool identification 279
Tool management 617, 618, 622, 623
Tool organization 621, 622
Tool planning 621, 622
Tool reference point 423–425, 435, 512
Tool scheduling 621, 622
Tool sequence plan 293, 295
Tool slide 296
Tool storage 280
Tool supply and removal 621
Tool turret 290, 292, 296
Tool wear 405, 407, 519
Tooth engagement frequency 220, 223, 224,
226, 228–230, 259
Toothed Belt 75, 83, 88, 92, 95
Torque 11, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25–31, 34,
36–38, 40–43, 45, 47–49, 55, 56, 80, 86,
90, 93, 95, 99–104
– acceleration 174
– dynamic 218
– load 174
– measuring equipment 245
– peak value 222, 223
– sensor 213, 222
Total machining 296
Tracking error 125, 135
Tracking Error 16, 49
Tracking error correction 125
Transfer
– function 112–114, 116, 118, 123–126,
128, 135, 177
Transfer element 130
Transfer line 397
Transformation 403, 404, 471, 479, 483,
490, 512, 513, 515, 517–519, 549–558,
560, 561, 570, 579, 585, 586, 588, 599,
600
– geometrical transformation 404, 512
– kinematic transformation 405, 418, 514,
515, 517, 518
Transistor 324
Transistor technology 394
Transition 355, 371, 372, 380, 386, 653
Transition condition 355, 372
Transmission 110–113, 121, 126, 132, 135–
140, 142, 143, 149, 152
Transmission behavior 110, 112, 121, 126,
132, 135, 137, 138, 140, 142, 143, 152
Transmission element 111, 113, 135–137,
143
Transmission lever 301
Transmitted Light Method 59
Transport control 620, 621
Transportation systems 276
Trapezoidal-thread Spindle 83
Travel
– distance 171
– speed 174
Travel grid method 493
Triangulation angle 466, 469
Triangulation sensors 466–468
TTL 325
Turning 204–213, 218–221, 223
– force control 206
– power regulation 205, 206, 208, 210
– process monitoring 184, 186–190, 197–
200, 202, 204, 213, 214, 216, 256
– sensor systems 189–191, 213, 231, 233,
252
– torque control 191, 221–223
Turret head 280, 290, 291, 293–295
Turret motion control cam 289
Turret slide 293, 294
Two-channel 379, 380
Two-hand control device 669
Two’s complement 315
U
Ultra-Precision Machine 53, 66, 75
Usage report 627
USB stick 396, 418, 420
Useful frequency range 196
User interface 158, 407, 413, 414, 418, 433,
472, 474, 475, 477, 479, 483, 565, 568,
598, 616, 630
V
Value table 317
Variable 110, 111, 113, 116, 117, 123, 127,
128, 130, 138, 147, 149
Velocity 110, 111, 130–134, 140–147, 150–
153
Velocity control 580
Vertical articulated arm robot 537, 538,
542, 544, 547
Vibration
– machine 197, 226, 235
– self-excited 221, 225, 228
VLSI 335
V-model 642, 644
Voice input 479, 483
Von Neumann architecture 338
V-Sampling 63
W
Warehouse 611, 618, 621
Waterfall model 641, 642
Wave Generator 96
Wear margin 247, 250
Whirling speed 136
Wireless communication 344
Word-oriented processing 368, 370
Word width 196
Work sequence 293, 295, 302
Working area 534, 535, 597
Working distance 293, 295
Workpiece 394–397, 399, 400, 403–410,
418–420, 422, 423, 425–428, 430, 431,
433–436, 438, 439, 441, 445, 447, 449,
458–461, 464–466, 469, 470, 474, 477,
481, 482
Workpiece change 279
Workpiece deflection 528
Workpiece zero point 397, 404, 423, 426,
427, 441, 447, 513
World coordinates 548, 550, 567, 586
X
XML 609, 630
XNOR 317
XOR 317
Z
Z domain 122
Zero Clearance 35, 49, 75, 83–86, 88, 90,
92, 94–96, 98, 101
Zero offset 490, 512–514, 521
Zero point correction 548, 551
Z transfer function 124, 125


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