كتاب Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design
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 كتاب Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design    كتاب Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design  Emptyالجمعة 14 يناير 2022, 2:12 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design
Second Edition
Yusuf Altintas
University of British Columbia  

كتاب Manufacturing Automation - Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design  M_a_m_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :

CONTENTS
Preface page ix
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 MECHANICS OF METAL CUTTING 4
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting 4
2.3 Mechanistic Modeling of Cutting Forces 15
2.4 Theoretical Prediction of Shear Angle 18
2.5 Mechanics of Oblique Cutting 19
2.5.1 Oblique Cutting Geometry 19
2.5.2 Solution of Oblique Cutting Parameters 21
2.5.3 Prediction of Cutting Forces 25
2.6 Mechanics of Turning Processes 27
2.7 Mechanics of Milling Processes 35
2.7.1 Mechanics of Helical End Mills 41
2.8 Analytical Modeling of End Milling Forces 43
2.8.1 Mechanistic Identification of Cutting Constants
in Milling 46
2.9 Mechanics of Drilling 47
2.10 Tool Wear and Tool Breakage 54
2.10.1 Tool Wear 56
2.10.2 Tool Breakage 61
2.11 Problems 62
3 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MACHINES 66
3.1 Introduction 66
3.2 Machine Tool Structures 66
3.3 Dimensional Form Errors in Machining 68
3.3.1 Form Errors in Cylindrical Turning 68
3.3.2 Boring Bar 70
3.3.3 Form Errors in End Milling 71
3.4 Structural Vibrations in Machining 74
3.4.1 Fundamentals of Free and Forced Vibrations 75
3.4.2 Oriented Frequency Response Function 82
vvi CONTENTS
3.4.3 Design and Measurement Coordinate Systems 83
3.4.4 Analytical Modal Analysis for Multi–Degree-of-Freedom
Systems 85
3.4.5 Relative Frequency Response Function between Tool and
Workpiece 90
3.5 Modal Testing of Machine Structures 92
3.5.1 Theory of Frequency Response Testing 92
3.5.2 Experimental Procedures in Modal Testing 97
3.6 Experimental Modal Analysis for Multi–Degree-of-Freedom
Systems 98
3.7 Identification of Modal Parameters 109
3.7.1 Global Nonlinear Optimization of Modal Parameter
Identification 113
3.8 Receptance Coupling of End Mills to Spindle-Tool Holder
Assembly 115
3.8.1 Experimental Procedure 118
3.9 Problems 120
4 MACHINE TOOL VIBRATIONS 125
4.1 Introduction 125
4.2 Stability of Regenerative Chatter Vibrations in Orthogonal
Cutting 126
4.2.1 Stability of Orthogonal Cutting 126
4.2.2 Dimensionless Analysis of Stability Lobes in Orthogonal
Cutting 132
4.2.3 Chatter Stability of Orthogonal Cutting with Process
Damping 135
4.3 Chatter Stability of Turning Operations 139
4.4 Chatter Stability of Turning Systems with Process Damping 142
4.4.1 Metal Cutting Forces 144
4.4.2 Process Damping Gains Contributed by Flank Wear 145
4.4.3 Stability Analysis 147
4.5 Experimental Validation 148
4.6 Analytical Prediction of Chatter Vibrations in Milling 149
4.6.1 Dynamic Milling Model 149
4.6.2 Zero-Order Solution of Chatter Stability in Milling 154
4.6.3 Multi-Frequency Solution of Chatter Stability in Milling 160
4.7 Chatter Stability of Drilling Operations 172
4.7.1 Dynamic Drilling Force Model 173
4.8 Frequency Domain Solution of Drilling Stability 176
4.9 Semidiscrete Time Domain Solution of Chatter Stability 178
4.9.1 Orthogonal Cutting 178
4.9.2 Discrete Time Domain Stability Solution in Milling 182
4.10 Problems 186CONTENTS vii
5 TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING AUTOMATION 191
5.1 Introduction 191
5.2 Computer Numerically Controlled Unit 191
5.2.1 Organization of a CNC Unit 191
5.2.2 CNC Executive 193
5.2.3 CNC Machine Tool Axis Conventions 193
5.2.4 NC Part Program Structure 193
5.2.5 Main Preparatory Functions 196
5.3 Computer-Assisted NC Part Programming 201
5.3.1 Basics of Analytical Geometry 201
5.3.2 APT Part Programming Language 206
5.4 Trajectory Generation for Computer-Controlled
Machines 211
5.4.1 Interpolation with Constant Displacement 212
5.4.2 Acceleration-Limited Velocity Profile Generation
with Constant Interpolation Period 216
5.4.3 Jerk-Limited Velocity Profile Generation 220
5.5 Real-Time Interpolation Methods 229
5.5.1 Linear Interpolation Algorithm 230
5.5.2 Circular Interpolation Algorithm 234
5.5.3 Quintic Spline Interpolation within CNC Systems 239
5.6 Problems 245
6 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CNC SYSTEMS 250
6.1 Introduction 250
6.2 Machine Tool Drives 250
6.2.1 Mechanical Components and Torque Requirements 251
6.2.2 Feedback Devices 256
6.2.3 Electrical Drives 257
6.2.4 Permanent Magnet Armature-Controlled dc Motors 258
6.2.5 Position Control Loop 263
6.3 Transfer Function of the Position Loop 264
6.4 State Space Model of Feed Drive Control Systems 268
6.5 Sliding Mode Controller 281
6.6 Active Damping of Feed Drives 285
6.7 Design of an Electrohydraulic CNC Press Brake 293
6.7.1 Hydraulic Press Brake System 293
6.7.2 Dynamic Model of Hydraulic Actuator Module 296
6.7.3 Identification of Electrohydraulic Drive Dynamics
for Computer Control 299
6.7.4 Digital Position Control System Design 301
6.8 Problems 307viii CONTENTS
7 SENSOR-ASSISTED MACHINING 313
7.1 Introduction 313
7.2 Intelligent Machining Module 313
7.2.1 Hardware Architecture 314
7.2.2 Software Architecture 315
7.2.3 Intelligent Machining Application 316
7.3 Adaptive Control of Peak Forces in Milling 317
7.3.1 Introduction 317
7.3.2 Discrete Transfer Function of the Milling Process
System 319
7.3.3 Pole-Placement Control Algorithm 321
7.3.4 Adaptive Generalized Predictive Control of Milling
Process 325
7.3.5 In-Process Detection of Tool Breakage 330
7.3.6 Chatter Detection and Suppression 333
7.4 Intelligent Pocketing with the IMM System 334
7.5 Problems 336
APPENDIX A: LAPLACE AND z TRANSFORMS 341
A.1 Introduction 341
A.2 Basic Definitions 343
A.3 Partial Fraction Expansion Method 347
A.4 Partial Fraction Expansion Method to Determine Inverse
Laplace and z Transforms 349
APPENDIX B: OFF-LINE AND ON-LINE PARAMETER
ESTIMATION WITH LEAST SQUARES 353
B.1 Off-Line Least-Squares Estimation 353
B.2 Recursive Parameter Estimation Algorithm 355
Bibliography 357
Index 36
INDEX
acceleration, 211
accelerometer, 97
active damping, 285
adaptive control, 3, 318
adaptive generalized predictive control, 325
added lobe, 171
alternating current (ac), 258
angle
approach, 33
clearance or relief angle, 13
chip flow, 21
friction, 7
helix, 41
immersion, 151
normal rake, 52
pitch, 39, 151
rake, 7
shear, 6, 9, 19
side rake, 28
taper, 52
inclination, 5
angular, 115
APT, 206
arc length, 243
armature, 258
automatically programmed tools (APT), 201,
206
autospectrum, 95
average friction coefficient, 11, 13
axial deflections, 172
back electromotor, 258
backlash, 257
ball lead screw, 251
bilinear approximation, 102
Bode diagram, 290
borderline stability, 128
boring bar, 70
CAD/CAM, 201, 206
cascaded control, 288
causality rules, 304
change of variable, 153
characteristic equation, 77, 100, 128, 141, 156
chatter, 2
detection, 333
drilling, 172, 176
frequency, 129
milling, 149
orthogonal, 126
process damping, 142
threshold, 334
turning, 139
chatter frequency, 158
chisel edge, 47
CL file, 211
closed-loop transfer function, 265
CNC, 211, 250, 313
CNC design, 2
CNC executive, 193
coherence function, 96
computer aided design/computer aided
manufacturing, 201, see CAD/CAM
Computer Aided Manufacturing-International,
206, see CAM-I
computer numerically controlled, 1, 191, see
CNC
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 1
computer-assisted NC, 201
contact time, 98
convolution integral, 152
coordinates, design, local, measurement,
modal, 83
cost function, 114, 328
Coulomb friction, 259
coupling, 116
critical depth of cut, 158
critically stable, 133
cross FRF, 83, 140
cross-power spectrum, 95
cross-talk, 176
cutter location (CL) files, 209
cutting constants, 16
cutting force
prediction, 25
cutting lip, 48
deceleration, 211
delay differential equation, 127
delayed differential equation, 178
363364 INDEX
differential elements, 52
digital filter, 264
digital to analog (D/A) Converter, 264, also see
D/A
dimensional errrors in milling, 73
dimensional form error, 68
Diophantine equation, 323
double-positive, 37
direct current (dc), 251
direct receptance, 117
directional factors, 141, 153, 176
directional matrix, 162
directionalcoefficient matrix, 154
discrete lumped masses, 98
discrete position control, 265
discrete time, 266
discrete time intervals, 353
discrete transfer function of milling, 319
drives, 66
dynamic chip thickness, 127
dynamic drilling, 172
dynamic loads, 254
dynamic milling force, 162
edge coefficients, 16
eigenvalue, 157, 181
eigenvalue matrix, 167
eigenvalue solution, 170
eigenvector, 90, 102
electrical drive, 257
electrohydraulic CNC, 293
encoder, 256
equation of motion, 91
equivalent chord, 144
experimental modal analysis, 98
fixed cycles, 199
Floquet, 185
following error, 267
force
feed, 15
resultant, 15
shear, 7, 15
tangential, 6, 15
thrust, 53
forces
analytical modeling, 43
differential, 44
feed, 39
ploughing, 13
turning, 31
forgetting factor, 321
Fourier
analyzer, 93
coefficients, 81
series, 81
spectrum, 82
FRF-frequency response function, 79
FRF-relative, 90
friction, 1
friction power, 11
friction torque, 254
frictional loss, 252
G function, 195
geometry
drill, 49
global nonlinear optimization, 113
guideway, 252
harmonics of tooth passing, 158
HSS, 62
hydraulic actuators, 293
hydraulic press, 295
hydraulic system, 295
identification, 353
immersion, 38
immersion
radial, 160
impact hammer, 97
indentation, 48
inner and outer waves, 129
integration limits, 45
intelligent machining, 313
intelligent pocketing, 334
interpolation, 212
circular, 234
linear, 230
interpolation steps, 223, 224
Constant Displacement, 212
time, 213
jerk, 211
knots, 205
Laplace transform, 341, 343
lateral, 158
lateral flexibility, 285
lead–lag compensator, 280
least squares, 112, 355
least-squares estimation, 353
linear systems, 101
local displacements, 92
Lyapunov function, 283
M functions, 196
machinability, 55
maximum shear stress principle, 18
minimum energy principle, 23
mechanics
drilling, 47
helical end mills, 41
milling, 35
turning, 27
mechanistic, 15
Merchant, 18INDEX 365
Merrit, 127
milling
cutting constants, 46
down, 37
dynamic, 149
face, 37
form errors, 71
power, 40
torque, 39
up, 37
milling dynamics, 182
minimum energy principle, 18
miscellaneous functions, 196
modal
coordinates, 89
damping matrix, 89
damping ratio, 102
displacement, 88
displacement vector, 92
frequency range, 111
mass, 88
matrix, 88
parameters identification, 109
stiffness, 88
testing, 92, 97
transfer function, 90
transformation, 89
modal analysis, 2, 85
mode shapes, 88, 102
multi–degree-of-freedom (MDOF), 85
multi-frequency, 169
natural frequency, 76
NC, 250
NC block, 193
NC part programming, 211
NC program, 193
NC words, 194
negative gradient, 114
negative-positive, 37
noise, 95
nonlinear cutting constant, 127
normalized eigenvector, 170
normalized mode shape, 103
nose radius, 142
numerically controlled, 191, see NC
Nyquist frequency, 93
oblique cutting, 1, 19, 23
open-loop transfer function, 267
orthogonal cutting, 4
oriented FRF, 83
orthogonal cutting, 178
overcut, 71
oxidation, 57
partial fraction example, 349
partial fraction expansion, 347
peak current, 251
peak torque, 251
periodic functions, 154
permanent magnet dc motor, 258
phase angle, 129
phase shift, 142, 157
plane strain, 4
primary shear zone, 5
plane
normal, 20
velocity, 20
PLC, 192
point-to-point (PTP), 207
pole-placement control algorithm, 321
pole-placement controller, 303
position loop, 263
power, 33
power amplifier, 260
prediction output horizons, 327
process damping, 2, 135
flank wear, 145
process damping coefficient, 139
proportional damping, 88
quadrature sensing, 257
rake face–chip interface, 12
real part, 80
receptance, 79
receptance coupling, 115
reconstruction of reference trajectory, 227
recursive computation, 328
recursive parameter estimation, 355
regenerative chip, 144
residue, 99
rotation of objects, 203
rotational, 117
single degree of freedom (SDOF), 75
secondary deformation zone, 5
sensor-assisted, 313
servoamplifiers, 2
shaker, 97
shear plane temperature, 8
shear power, 8
shear strain, 10
shear strain rate, 10
sliding friction, 5
sliding mode controlle, 281
sliding surface, 282
spindle dynamics, 118
spline
cubic, 204
quintic, 239
segment, 204
spool valve, 299
stability
analysis, 147
chart, 130
dimensionless, 132366 INDEX
stability (cont.)
discerte time domain, 182
driling, 172
lobes, 132
low immersion milling, 170
multi-frequency, 160
Nyquist, 138
orthogonal, 126
pockets, 149
semi discrete, 178
zero order solution, 154
Stabler, 31
state matrix, 270
state space model, 268
static deflection, 71
static deformations, 1
static flexibility, 80
static loads, 252
steady-state error, 268
step response, 272
sticking, 5
strain rate, 10
substructure, 115
surface
drive, 208
part, 208
sutrface
check, 208
tachometer, 256
tertiary deformation zone, 12
tertiary zone, 5
tool–chip interface temperature, 12
thrust bearing, 253
time constant, 260
time-varying cutting, 319
time-varying directional matrix, 175, 185
Tlusty, 127
Tobias, 127
tool breakage, 61
tool life, 60
tool nose radius, 29
tool wear, 54
tool-holder, 119
tooth passing frequency, 167
torque, 33, 53
disturbance, 259
torsional, 158
torsional flexibility, 285
trajectory generation, 211
transfer function
matrix, 100
MDOF, 100
structures, 76
transition matrix, 181
translation of objects, 203
translational, 115
transmission gain, 289
turning, form errors, 68
Tustin’s bilinear, 267
undamped, 87
undercut, 71
up–down counter, 263
vectors, 201
velocity profile
acceleration-limited, 216
trapezoidal, 213
velocity hodograph, 8
velocity profile
jerk limited, 220
velocity-dependent, 137
vibration
forced, 75, 76, 79
free, 75
transient, 76
waves, 129
wavelength, 137
wavy surface, 138
wear
abrasion, 56
adhesion, 56
crater, 57
diffusion, 56
flank, 55, 57
window
box, 98
exponentially decaying, 98
yield shear stress, 1
z transform, 341, 343
zero-order hold, 264, also see ZOH
ZOH, 342


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