كتاب Engineering Economics
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Engineering Economics

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عدد المساهمات : 17572
التقييم : 31536
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Engineering Economics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Engineering Economics    كتاب Engineering Economics  Emptyالثلاثاء 11 يناير 2022, 2:08 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Engineering Economics
R. Panneerselvam
Professor
School of Management
Pondicherry University

كتاب Engineering Economics  E_e_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Preface ix
1. INTRODUCTION 1–14
1.1 Economics 1
1.1.1 Flow in an Economy 1
1.1.2 Law of Supply and Demand 2
1.2 Concept of Engineering Economics 4
1.2.1 Types of Efficiency 4
1.2.2 Definition and Scope of Engineering Economics 6
1.3 Elements of Costs 7
1.4 Other Costs/Revenues 8
1.4.1 Marginal Cost 8
1.4.2 Marginal Revenue 8
1.4.3 Sunk Cost 8
1.4.4 Opportunity Cost 8
1.5 Break-Even Analysis 9
1.6 Profit/Volume Ratio (P/V Ratio) 12
Questions 13
2. ELEMENTARY ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 15 –25
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Examples for Simple Economic Analysis 16
2.2.1 Material Selection for a Product/Substitution
of Raw Material 16
2.2.2 Design Selection for a Product 18
2.2.3 Building Material Selection 21
2.2.4 Process Planning/Process Modification 22
Questions 24
3. INTEREST FORMULAS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 26 – 41
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Time Value of Money 26
3.3 Interest Formulas 28
3.3.1 Single-Payment Compound Amount 28
3.3.2 Single-Payment Present Worth Amount 29
3.3.3 Equal-Payment Series Compound Amount 30
3.3.4 Equal-Payment Series Sinking Fund 31vi Contents
3.3.5 Equal-Payment Series Present Worth Amount 32
3.3.6 Equal-Payment Series Capital Recovery Amount 34
3.3.7 Uniform Gradient Series Annual Equivalent Amount 35
3.3.8 Effective Interest Rate 37
3.4 Bases for Comparison of Alternatives 38
Questions 39
4. PRESENT WORTH METHOD OF COMPARISON 42–54
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Revenue-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 42
4.3 Cost-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 43
4.4 Examples 44
Questions 52
5. FUTURE WORTH METHOD 55– 67
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Revenue-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 55
5.3 Cost-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 56
5.4 Examples 56
Questions 66
6. ANNUAL EQUIVALENT METHOD 68 –87
6.1 Introduction 68
6.2 Revenue-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 68
6.3 Cost-dominated Cash Flow Diagram 69
6.4 Alternate Approach 70
6.5 Examples 70
Questions 85
7. RATE OF RETURN METHOD 88 –99
7.1 Introduction 88
7.2 Examples 89
Questions 97
8. REPLACEMENT AND MAINTENANCE ANALYSIS 100–125
8.1 Introduction 100
8.2 Types of Maintenance 101
8.3 Types of Replacement Problem 101
8.4 Determination of Economic Life of an Asset 102
8.5 Replacement of Existing Asset with a New Asset 108
8.5.1 Capital Recovery with Return 108
8.5.2 Concept of Challenger and Defender 109
8.6 Simple Probabilistic Model for Items Which Fail Completely 118
Questions 123Contents vii
9. DEPRECIATION 126–136
9.1 Introduction 126
9.2 Methods of Depreciation 126
9.2.1 Straight Line Method of Depreciation 126
9.2.2 Declining Balance Method of Depreciation 128
9.2.3 Sum-of-the-Years-Digits Method of Depreciation 130
9.2.4 Sinking Fund Method of Depreciation 131
9.2.5 Service Output Method of Depreciation 134
Questions 134
10. EVALUATION OF PUBLIC ALTERNATIVES 137–146
10.1 Introduction 137
10.2 Examples 138
Questions 144
11. INFLATION ADJUSTED DECISIONS 147–157
11.1 Introduction 147
11.2 Procedure to Adjust Inflation 147
11.3 Inflation Adjusted Economic Life of Machine 149
11.3.1 Limitation of Existing Model 150
11.3.2 Economic Life Determination without Inflationary Effect 151
11.3.3 Economic Life Determination with Inflationary Effect 151
Questions 157
12. INVENTORY CONTROL 158–167
12.1 Introduction 158
12.2 Purchase Model with Instantaneous Replenishment and without
Shortages 159
12.3 Manufacturing Model without Shortages 161
12.4 Purchase Model with Shortages (Instantaneous Supply) 163
12.5 Manufacturing Model with Shortages 164
Questions 167
13. MAKE OR BUY DECISION 168–175
13.1 Introduction 168
13.2 Criteria for Make or Buy 168
13.3 Approaches for Make or Buy Decision 169
13.3.1 Simple Cost Analysis 169
13.3.2 Economic Analysis 170
13.3.3 Break-even Analysis 172
Questions 174
14. PROJECT MANAGEMENT 176 –191
14.1 Introduction 176
14.2 Phases of Project Management 180viii Contents
14.3 Guidelines for Network Construction 180
14.4 Critical Path Method (CPM) 181
14.5 Gantt Chart/Time Chart 185
14.6 PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) 187
Questions 190
15. VALUE ANALYSIS /VALUE ENGINEERING 192–198
15.1 Introduction 192
15.2 When to Apply Value Analysis 192
15.2.1 Value Analysis vs. Value Engineering 192
15.3 Function 194
15.4 Aims 195
15.5 Value Engineering Procedure 196
15.7 Advantages and Application Areas 198
Questions 198
16. LINEAR PROGRAMMING 199–211
16.1 Introduction 199
16.2 Development of LP Models 199
16.3 Graphical Method 201
16.4 Simplex Method 204
Questions 210
REFERENCES 213
APPENDIX—INTEREST TABLES 215–285
INDEX 287–28
X
Depreciation, methods of, 126–33
declining balance method, 128–30
double-declining balance method, 128
service output method, 134
sinking fund method, 131–33
straight line method, 126–28
sums of the years digits method, 130–31
Design selection for a product, 18–21
Direct material cost, 7
Earliest start schedule, 186
Earliest start time, 182
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), 158
Economic efficiency, 4–5
Economic life, 103, 150
determination with inflationary effect,
151–54
of asset-determination, 102
Economics, definition of, 1
Economy, flow in, 1–2
Effective interest rate, 37–38
Efficiency, types of, 4, 5
Elements of costs (see costs), 7
Engineering economics, 4–7
definition, 6
scope, 6
Entering variable, 206
Equal-payment series capital recovery
amount, 34–35
Equal-payment series compound amount,
30–31
Equal-payment series present worth
amount, 32–34
Equal-payment series sinking fund, 31–32
Esteem value, 193
Evaluation of public alternatives, 137–38
examples of, 138–44
Exchange value, 193
287288 Index
Feasibility condition, 206
Free floats, 184
Future worth method, 55–65
examples of, 56–65
Gantt charts/time charts, 185
Graphical method, 201–204
Group replacement policy (see also
replacement policy), 118
Individual replacement policy, (see also
replacement policy), 118
Inflation, 147
adjusted economic life of machine, 149
procedure to adjust, 147
Interest
compound, 28
formulas, 28–38
tables, 215–85
Inventory, 158
functions of, 158
Key column, 206
Key element, 205
Key row, 206
Latest completion time, 182
Latest start schedule, 186
Law of supply and demand, 2–3
Linear programming, 199
canonical form of, 205
general form of, 204
Linear programming problem (LPP)
optimality condition in maximization
type of, 205
optimality condition in minimization
type of, 208
Maintenance costs, 101
Make or buy
break-even analysis, 172
economic analysis, 170
simple cost analysis, 169
Make or buy decision, 168
approaches for, 169
criteria for, 168, 169
Manufacturing model
with shortages, 164–66
without shortages, 161–62
Margin of safety, 10
Marginal cost, 8
Marginal revenue, 8
Material selection for a product, 16–18
Most likely time, 187
Network construction
guidelines for, 180
rules for, 180, 181
Non-critical activities, 186
Opportunity cost, 8–9
Optimistic time, 187
Overhead cost, 7
P/V ratio, 12–13
Pessimistic time, 187
Precedence relationship, 176
Present worth function graph, 89
Present worth method of comparison,
42–52
examples of, 44–52
Preventive maintenance, 101
Primary functions, 195
Process planning/Process modification,
22–24
Productivity, 5–6
Project, 176
Project Evaluation and Review Technique
(PERT), 187
Project management, 176
phases of, 180
Purchase model
with shortages, 163
without shortages, 159–61
Rate of return, 88
Rate of return method, 88–89
examples of, 89–97
Relative contribution, 205
Replacement
of existing asset, 108
reasons for, 100
Replacement analysis, 149
limitations of existing model of, 150–51
Replacement policy, individual, 118
Replacement problem, types of, 101
Secondary functions, 195
Selling price, 7
Simple economic analysis, 16–24
Simple interest, 28
Simplex method, 204Index 289
Single-payment
compound amount, 28–29
present worth amount, 29–30
Slack variable, 205
Straight line method of depreciation, 126–28
Substitution of raw materials, 16 –18
Sunk cost, 8
Supply, factors influencing, 3–4
Supply curve, 2,3
Surplus variable, 207
Technical efficiency, 4
Technological coefficients, 205
Tertiary functions, 195
Time value of money, 26–28
Total floats, 184
Uniform gradient series annual equivalent
amount, 35–37
Value, 193
use value, 193
Value analysis, 192, 193
Value engineering
advantages of, 198
aims of, 195
applications of, 198
function in, 194
performance, 193
procedure, 196–98
Variable cost, 7


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