كتاب Plastics Materials - Properties and Applications
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 كتاب Plastics Materials - Properties and Applications

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Plastics Materials - Properties and Applications
Second Edition
A.W. BIRLEY
R.J. HEATH
Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering
University of Technology
Loughborough, U K
M.J. SCOTI
Lowe & Fletcher Ltd
Telford, UK

كتاب Plastics Materials - Properties and Applications  P_m_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Structure and properties of plastics 1
1.2.1 Mechanical properties 2
1.2.2 Thermal properties 3
1.2.3 Electrical properties 5
1.2.4 Optical properties 5
1.2.5 Melt properties 5
1.2.6 Chemical properties 6
1.3 Additives 7
1.4 Processing of plastics 8
1.4.1 Thermoplastics processing 8
1.4.2 Foams 9
1.4.3 Shaping of cross-linking plastics 9
1.5 Practical methods of processing 10
1.5.1 Thermoplastics processing 10
1.5.2 Processing methods for cross-linking plastics 16
1.6 Interactions between shaping process and plastics materials 20
Further reading 21
2 Fundamentals of design 23
2.1 Engineering design 23
2.1.1 Fracture mechanics applied to plastics 30
2.2 Design limitations imposed by processing method 33
2.3 Product design 35
2.3.1 Thermoplastics 35
2.3.2 Thermosetting plastics 35
2.3.3 Foams and reinforced plastics 36
2.3.4 Tolerance and dimensional control of products 39
2.4 Importance of economics of processing in design 40
Further reading 46
3 Styrene plastics 47
3.1 Polystyrene 47
3.2 High impact polystyrene 49
3.3 Styrene copolymers 52
3.4 ABS plastics 54
3.5 Polystyrene-poly(phenylene oxide) blends 56
4 Other amorphous thermoplastics 60
4.1 Poly(methyl methacrylate) 60
4.2 Cellulose plastics 64
4.2.1 Regenerated cellulose 64
4.2.2 Cellulose esters 65
4.2.3 Cellulose ethers 66
4.3 Polycarbonates 66viii CONTENTS
5 Propylene plastics
5.1 Homopolymer and impact-modified grades
5.2 Filled polypropylene
5.3 Foamed polypropylene
5.4 Miscellaneous applications of propylene polymers
6 Other polyolefin plastics
6.1 Polyethylene
6.1.1 High-density polyethylene
6.1.2 Low-density polyethylene
6.1.3 Linear low-density polyethylene
6.1.4 Very low-density polyethylene
6.1.5 Blends of ethylene polymers
6.2 Ethylene copolymers
6.3 Polybut-l-ene
6.4 Poly-4-methylpent-l-ene
7 Other crystalline thermoplastics
7.1 Polyamides
7.1.1 General-purpose po1yamides
7.1.2 Modified polyamides
7.1.3 Aromatic polyamides and polyimides
7.2 Thermoplastic polyesters
7.2.1 Homo-polyesters
7.2.2 Blends of polyesters
7.3 Polyacetals
8 Vinyl chloride plastics
8.1 Unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride)
8.2 Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)
8.3 Vinyl chloride copolymers
8.4 Blends of poly(vinyl chloride)
8.5 Vinylidene chloride polymers and copolymers
9 Speciality thermoplastics
9.1 Fluoroplastics
9.1.1 Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)
9.1.2 Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
9.1.3 Other fluoropolymers
9.2 Polysulphones
9.3 Poly(phenylene sulphide)
10 Cross-linked plastics
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Phenol-formaldehyde plastics
10.2.1 Novolak PF resins
10.2.2 Resol PF resins
10.3 Urea-formaldehyde plastics
10.4 Melamine-formaldehyde plastics
10.5 Unsaturated polyester resins
10.5.1 Structure and properties
10.5.2 Glass fibre-reinforced polyesters
10.6 Epoxide resins
11 Polyurethane plastics
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Molecular structure-property relationships
175CONTENTS
11.2.1 Typical reactions
11.2.2 Monomeric components
11.3 Properties and applications of polyurethanes
11.3.1 Flexible polyurethane foams
11.3.2 Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams
11.3.3 Reaction injection moulded polyurethane products
11.3.4 Elastomeric and resinous thermosetting polyurethanes
11.3.5 Thermoplastic polyurethanes
11.3.6 Polyurethanes as surface coatings, adhesives and sealants
Further reading
Index
Index
abrasion 101, 139, 192
acetal plastics 117
copolymer 117
glass fibre-reinforced 123
.homopolymer 117
acrylonitrile - butadene - styrene (ABS)
plastics 54
blends with polycarbonate 69
blends with poly(vinyl chloride) 133
acrylonitrile - styrene copolymer 52
additives 7, 93
adhesives 160, 173, 191
hot melt 116
ageing 6
alkyd resins 148
allophanate 176
amide plastics
aromatic 111
copolymer 104
glass fibre-reinforced 106, 108
mineral-filled 107
PA 66 103
PA 6 103
PA6.1O 103
PA 11 103
PA 12 103
PA 4.6 103
PA MXD.6 103
rubber-modified 108
aminoplasts 148
amorphotls plastics, shrinkage of 40
anisotropy 107
anti-blocking additive 7
anti-oxidant 7, 73
UV-stable 73
anti-plasticization 129
automotive components
body panels 167, 169, 188
fascias (crash pads) 58, 133, 180
fenders (bumpers) 82, 116
fuel tanks 89, 90
head restraints 185
heater boxes 83
indicator switches 122, 153 - 5
193
lamp covers 63
radiator reservoir tanks 80, 81
seating 180 - 1
steering wheels 185
screen wiper gear 118 - 20
baths, PMMA 63
battery cases 77, 78
benzoyl peroxide 163
biaxial orientation 112
biuret 176
blends, polymer 49, 56, 74, 116, 117,
133
blowing agents 85, 129, 156, 179
blow moulding 13, 34, 41, 89, 94
injection IS, 34, 94
bottles, stretch blown 15
butene 87, 100
butylene terephthalate 111
glass fibre-reinforced 115
blends of with PC 69
t-butyl perbenzoate 163
cable avoidance tool 40
calendering 8, 12
car components see automotive
components
carbonates 60, 66, 140
blends of with ABS 69
blends of with PBTP 69
embrittlement of 67
transparency of 69
toughness of 67, 69
cellulose plastics: 60, 64
acetate 65
acetobutyrate 65
esters 64
ethers 64, 66
nitrate 65
propionate 65
regenerated 64
chain extenders 178
chemical properties 6
chlorinated dicarboxylic acid 164194 INDEX
chlorinated polyethylene blend with
PVC 133
chopped strand mat 165
coating see surface coating
cobalt naphthenate 163
cobalt octoate 163
colour 5
composites 7
long-fibre 39
short-fibre 38
compression moulding 16, 151
conductivity, thermal 4
containers large-capacity 89
cooling, internal (for blow moulding) 89
copolymerization 49, 74
costs of plastics
materials 24
production 41, 42, 43, 45
crack growth rate 33
crack propagation 91
crazing 62, 188
creep 23,25,54,57,62,75,88,89,112,
114, 126, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142,
188
critical oxygen index 65, 69
cross-linked plastics 1, 6
shaping of 9, 16
cross-linking agents 178
crystallinity 1, 6, 21
crystalline texture 21
crystalline thermoplastics, shrinkage
of 40
crystallization, effect of cooling rate
on 75
curing agent see cross-linking agent
degradation
thermal 73
ultraviolet 178
design 23, 35
limitations on imposed by processing
method 33
of gas pipe system 91
design stress vs. temperature 126
die extrusion 8, 11
die sizing 11
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of
PE blends 95, 96
dinghy, 'Topper' sailing 86
dough moulding compound 167 -70
dual component processing 17, 174
dual component dispensing equipment
high-pressure 19, 184
low-pressure 19
spray 182
dust explosions 72
economics, processing 40
elasticity, linear 23
electrical properties 5, 93, 106
electric drill casing 107
electric strength 5
electroplating 86
engineering design 23
enthalpy (heat content) 4
environmental stress cracking 6, 59, 93
epoxide resins 145, 170
cross-linking reactions in 172
esters
glass fibre-reinforced poly- 108, 164
in plasticizers 128
as prepolymers for PUs 177
thermoplastic 111, 116, 117
unsaturated poly- 148, 163
ethersulphone, poly- 141
glass fibre-reinforced 103
ethylene
copolymers of 87, 100
linear low density 87, 94
low density 87, 92
as monomer 87
in polymer blends 87, 95 - 9
very low density 87, 95
ethylene terephthalate, poly- 111
expansion, thermal 4
explosions, dust 72
extractor fans 113
extrusion 10, 34, 89, 94
blow moulding 13, 94
die 8
fabrication 42, 43, 44
failure
brittle 3
ductile 3
fans, extractor 113
fatigue 28,30,55,105, 117
fibres 7, 151
fillers 7, 131, 151
film 13
fire properties
of PF 157
of PP 86
of PPS 145
of PPVC 129
of PU 182INDEX 195
flooring, vinyl sheet 132
floor tiles 133
fluorocarbon blowing agents 156, 179
fluoroelastomers 135
as copolymers of VDF and TFE 140
polychlorotrifluoroethylene 135
poly(vinyl fluoride) 135, 140
poly(vinylidene fluoride) 135, 138, 139
foams 7,36,37,69,84, 156, 160, 179,
180, 182
structural 37
syntactic 86
formaldehyde sources
'hexa' 150
paraform 150
fractional recovered strain 28
fracture mechanics 3, 30, 91
fracture toughness 32, 33
friction of PTFE 136
fuel tanks see automotive components
fumaric acid 164
fusion, latent heat of 4
gas barrier 103
distribution of 89 - 91
gaskets 82
glass fibre-reinforcement
of thermoplastics 114
of thermosets 157, 165 - 8
of urethanes 179
gloss 5
grill plastics components 115
growth rate of cracks 33
hand lay-up 17,35,41-4, 167
hardness of PMMA 61
haze, haziness 5
heat content (enthalpy) 4
heat of fusion 4
hexamethylene tetramine 150
hexanone peroxide, cyc1o- 163
heater box (for cars and trucks) 83
high-pressure dispensing 19, 184- 8
high-pressure moulding 16
homogenization 8
'Hovermower' cover 56
hydrolysis 112, 177
imides, poly- 111
impact strength 28 - 30, 54, 57, 62, 67,
73, 105, 125
injection moulding 11, 34, 41, 44, 45,
113, 151
of thermosets 16
injection blow moulding 15,41,44,94
integral hinge 76, 79
intermittent loading (creep) 28, 29
ionomer resins 100
iron handle 146
isochronous stress vs. strain 25 - 7, 68,
105
isocyanate
health hazard from 178
reactions of 175, 177
isocyanate index 175
isocyanurate formation 176
isometric stress vs. log time 25 - 7
kettle 121- 2
laboratory ware 101
laboratory ware 101
laminates, PF 156
latent heat of fusion 4
lifeboat in GRP 167
light, scattering of 5
linear elastic stress intensity factor 32
linear ela~ticity 23
load; intermittent (creep) 28, 29
loss factor (electrical) 5
low-pressure dispensing 19
low-pressure moulding 17
lubricant 7, 125
maleic acid 164
masterbath techniques 95
materials cost 24
mechanical properties 2
(LDPE) effect of density on 93
(LDPE) effect of MFI on 93
medical use of PTFE 137
melamine formaldehyde plastics 158,
161
melt flow index (MFI) 8, 73, 92
melt properties 5
metallization 7
methylethylketone peroxide 163
methyl methacrylate, polyin blend with PVC 133
cast sheet 60
moulding powder and extrusion
grades 61
hardness of 61
light transfer in 62
transparency of 62
4-methyl pentene, poly- 87, 101196
mixing 8
modulus
flexural vs. temperature 69, 144
tensile vs. temperature 112
mould shrinkage 4, 48
mould tools 8, 17, 20, 173, 184
moulding faults 36, 184
moulding processes:
compression 16, 151
flexible mould 184
high-pressure 16
mJection 11,44,45,94, 113, 151
injection blow 15, 34, 41
low-pressure 17
reaction injection 35,41,46,184-7
rotational 13, 34,41,44,45, 92, 94
thermoset 16
transfer 17, 151
Natta see Ziegler - Natta catalyst 72
novolak resins 149, 151
nucleating agents 5, 179
nylons see amide plastics
oligomers see prepolymers
optical properties 5
orientation
biaxial 112
effect of on barrier properties 113
effect of on tensile strength 29
fibre reinforcement and 84, 106, 165,
179
toughness and 49
oxide catalyst for ethylene
polymerization 88
oxygen index see critical oxygen index
oxymethylene, poly- see acetals
packaging 48, 93
painting (see also surface coating) 7, 51
parison 13
permeation 6, 103, 134
permittivity 5
phenolformaldehyde (PF) plastics 70,
146, 148, 149
phenolformaldehyde foams 156
phenolformaldehyde sheet moulding
compound 157
phenylene oxide, polyblends of with PS 56
foams 58
phenylene sulphide, poly- 144
reinforced 144
INDEX
pthalic acids 164
pipes 89, 100, 106, 125 - 7
plasticizers for PVC 128
plastics, reinforced 36
plating 51
plumber's tape 138
polymer, polymerization (see also
individual monomers) 1
polyols 176
powder blending 8
powder processing of PTFE 136
power factor (electrical) 5
prepolymers 9,48, 149, 159, 161, 163,
178
processing, economics of 40
processing of thermoplastics 8, 10
product design 35
production costs 41- 43, 45
properties, molecular
long-chain 2
networks and 2
organic nature of polymers and 2
properties, in-service
chemical 6
electrical 5, 93
mechanical 2, 93
melt 5
optical 5
thermal 3
propylene plastics 51, 72
13-crystalline form of 76, 77
blends of with rubbers 74, 82
composites and 80, 82, 83
controlled rheology of 73
copolymers, random and block, of
74
electroplating of 86
foams 84
impact-modified 72, 73
MFI test and 73
thermal degradation of 73
quinone methides 150
radiation, gamma-, resistance to 139
reaction injection moulding 35, 46, 184
rear light assembly 63
records, high-fidelity 132
recovered strain 28
reduced time 28
refractive index 5
refrigerators
foam insulation for 182INDEX 197
liners for 51
reinforced plastics 36, 38, 164
resols 149, 156
rotational moulding 13, 34,41 - 5, 92, 94
saucepan handles 152
scattering of light 5
sealer bed pocket 109
seals 82, 191
seating
kitchen 186
stackable 81, 82
upholstery for 180
sequential polymerization 74
shape stabilization 6, 8, 9, 20
shaping
of cross-linking plastics 9
primary 8
secondary 8, 13
shear viscosity 8
sheet moulding compound 157,167-9
shoe components 82, 116, 133, 177, 186
shot weight II
shrinkage 4,20, 39, 48, 51
silicone resins 148
sizing die II
solid-phase pressure forming 80
solubility (of fluids in polymer) 6
spray foam 156, 182
spray lay-up 17,35,41-3,167
stabilization (against UV radiation) 7, 178
stabilizers (thermal) for PVC 125
strain-limited design 27
strength
electrical 5
impact 28,29, 54, 57, 62, 67, 73, 105
long-term 27, 61, 68, 91, 127
vs. temperature 142
vs. time in water 122
stretch-blown bottles 15, 86, 112
stress concentration 28, 30, 74
stress intensity factor 32
stress vs. strain 25, 105
styrene plastics (PS) 47
blends with poly(phenylene oxide) 56
crystal grades 47
high-impact 49
use of solvent adhesives with 51
styrene copolymers
ABS plastics 54
acrylonitrile 52
butadiene 52
block (butadiene) 53
styrene - PPO foams 58
sulphones, poly- 140
'Udel' 141
polyethersulphone 141
polydiphenylsulphone 141
supercooling 74, 88, 117
surface coatings 7, 164, 173, 186, 191
switches, direction-indicating 122, 155
texture, crystalline 21
thermal conductivity 4
thermal degradation 124, 139, 177
thermal expansion 4, 179
thermoforming 15, 34, 41, 51
thermoplastic elastomers 82
thermoplastics
processing of 8, 10
product design of 35
thermosetting plastics, product design
of 35
time dependence 2
time, reduced 28
tolerances and dimensional control 39,
56, 58, 115, 149
toughness 105
fracture 32, 33
tracking resistance 160
transfer moulding 17, 151
transparency 5, 68, 101
tubular film 13
ultraviolet stabilization 7
UV-stable antioxidants 73, 178
unsaturated polyester resin 148, 163
glass fibre-reinforced 164
urea formaldehyde plastics 158
cross-linking in 159
foams 160
urethanes, poly- 174
foams, flexible 180
rigid 182
self-skin semi-flexible 186, 187
self-skin rigid 186, 187
reaction injection moulded 188
thermoplastics 190
thermosetting 189
usage of plastics materials 24
vacuum cleaners 56
components of 70
vinyl acetate copolymer
with ethylene 100
with vinyl chloride 132198
vinyl chloride, poly- 124
blends (NBR, EVAC, PU) 133
copolymers of 132
as monomer 124
plasticized (pastes, plastisols)
128
vinylidene chloride, poly- 65, 133
copolymers of 133
with acrylonitrile 134
with vinyl chloride 134
INDEX
vinyltrichlorsilane 165
viscosity, shear 8
washing machine drum 84 - 5
water absorption
by MF 161
by polyamides 104
by polyesters III
Ziegler catalyst 88
Ziegler - Natta catalyst 72


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