كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers
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 كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers

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كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers   كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers Emptyالثلاثاء 14 ديسمبر 2021, 11:32 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Design Data for Reinforced Plastics
A Guide for Engineers and Designers
Neil L. Hancox
Project Manager
AEA Technology
Harwell, UK
and
Rayner M . Mayer
Consultant
Sciotech
Yateley, UK

كتاب Design Data for Reinforced Plastics - A Guide for Engineers and Designers D_d_f_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Preface Vlll
Layout of the book lX
How to use this book x
Acknowledgements Xl
Trademarks and registered trade names Xlll
Glossary xv
Units XXll
Fabric notation XXlV
1 Design considerations 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Layout of the book 3
1.3 Choice of data 4
1.4 Composites behaviour 5
1.5 Conclusion 13
1.6 Reference information 13
2 Material selection and data assessment 14
Summary 14
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Material constituents 14
2.3 Material selection 16
2.4 Data assessment 30
2.5 Test methods and standards 31
2.6 Data reduction and presentation 31
2.7 Use of data in design 32
2.8 Reference information 32
3 Properties 35
Summary 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 The role of fibre and matrix 36
3.3 Fibre properties 38
3.4 Physical form of the reinforcement 46
3.5 Matrix properties 48
3.6 Composite properties 50
3.7 Design and manufacture 53
3.8 Health and safety 54
3.9 Reference information 54 VContents
4 Mechanical properties of random and fabric-reinforced resins 55
Summary 55
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Polyester resins 57
4.3 Vinyl ester resins 71
4.4 Phenolic resins 75
4.5 Epoxy resins 84
4.6 Other resins 92
4.7 Design strategy 94
4.8 Reference information 95
5 Mechanical properties of aligned fibre composites 96
Summary 96
5.1 General information 96
5.2 Glass fibres 97
5.3 Aramid fibres 106
5.4 Carbon fibres 115
5.5 Material selection and design strategy 132
5.6 Reference information 132
6 Impact and fracture 133
Summary 133
6.1 Introduction 133
6.2 Impact 138
6.3 Fracture 148
6.4 Design strategy 152
6.5 Reference information 152
7 Thermal and electrical properties 153
Summary 153
7.1 Thermal properties 153
7.2 Electrical properties 163
7.3 Design strategy 169
7.4 Reference information 169
8 Fire performance 170
Summary 170
8.1 Introduction 170
8.2 Non-combustibility 172
8.3 Ignitability 173
8.4 Flame spread 174
8.5 Rate of heat release 181
8.6 Smoke and toxic gas emissions 182
8.7 Flash-over 189
8.8 Design strategy 191
Vl 8.9 Reference information 192Contents
9 Environmental effects 195
Summary 195
9.1 Introduction 195
9.2 Effect of moisture 197
9.3 Corrosion resistance 209
9.4 Hardness, abrasion and weathering 217
9.5 Design strategy 225
9.6 Reference information 225
10 Creep and fatigue 226
Summary 226
10.1 Introduction 226
10.2 Creep 229
10.3 Time-temperature superposition 236
10.4 Fatigue 238
10.5 Design strategy 266
10.6 Reference information 268
11 Influence of processing on properties 269
Summary 269
11.1 Introduction 269
11.2 Contact moulding 271
11.3 Resin transfer moulding 275
11.4 Press moulding 278
11.5 Prepreg moulding 284
11.6 Pultrusion 286
11.7 Filament winding 290
11.8 Recycling 293
11.9 Design strategy 294
11.10 Reference information 294
12 Quality assurance 296
Summary 296
12.1 Introduction 296
12.2 Incoming materials 297
12.3 Processing 300
12.4 Non-destructive evaluation 304
12.5 Destructive testing 308
12.6 Strategy for quality control 313
12.7 Reference information 313
Index 315
INDEX
Page numbers appearing in bold refer to figures and page numbers appearing in italic refer to tables.
Abrasion
carbon fibres 221
effect of carbon fibres on
wear rate of polymers
221
fibre fraction 219-20, 219
hardness 217, 217
scratch 218, 218
ABS, see Acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene resin
Accelerator xv
Acrylates
cast resins 93, 93
Acrylic resins (cast)
properties 92
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
resin xv, 28
Activation energies for diffusion
of water through resins and
laminates 199
Additive(s) xv, 15
AFNOR, see Association Fran~ais
de Normalisation
Airbus Industrie Specification
ATS 1000-001 182,183,192
Aligned fibre composites
aramid fibres
effect of resin type 109, 109
fibre modulus 110, 110
fibre volume 111-2, 111,
112
influence of temperature
114, 114
properties 106-8, 106, 107
shear properties 113, 113
carbon fibres
bismaleimide composites
123, 123
epoxy, bismaleimide resins
117-8, 118
influence of resin type
119-20, 119, 120
mechanical properties
115-6, 116
temperature effects 126-9,
126, 127, 128
test methods 125, 125
thermoplastic matrix
systems 130-1, 130
transverse properties 124,
124
very high modulus fibres
121-2,121,122,122
effect of fibre orientation
on compressive strength
12
effect of fibre orientation on
tensile modulus 12
glass fibres
effect of temperature
103-4, 103, 104
fibre orientation 100-2,
100, 100, 101,
properties 97-9, 97, 98,
99
thermoplastic matrix
systems 105, 105
materials selection and design
strategy 132
Altex xiii, 39
Alumina
mechanical properties 39
Alumina/boria/ silica fibre
mechanical properties 39
Aluminium trihydrate xv, 22, 22
American Society for Testing and
Materials xv
see also ASTM standards
APC2 xiii
Aramid fibre xv, 18
creep response of aramid 231
density 42
electrical properties 164
effect of temperature 114, 114
epoxy resin composites
effect of fibre modulus
110, 110
effect of fibre volume/fraction
111-2,111 112
effect of resin type 109,
109
mechanical properties
107-8, 107
flammability 175
mechanical properties 39,40,
106, 106
modulus 42
properties 106, 106
shear properties 113
effect of test method on
113, 113
strength 205-6
specific heat 162
strength 43, 45
suppliers 41
tensile modulus, strength and
strain-to-failure of
aramid fibres 45
thermal properties 156
AS2 xiii, 41
AS4 xiii, 41,116,116,117,118,
130, 150, 150, 151, 159
Aspect ratio xv
Association Fran~ais de
Normalisation xv
ASTM, see American Society for
Testing and Materials
ASTM standards 33
ASTM B 117222
ASTM D 2863 176, 179
ASTM D 3681 214
ASTM E 84 177, 182
ASTM E 662 182
ASTM E 1354-90 182
ATH, see Aluminium
trihydrate
ATS, see Airbus Industrie
Specification
Autoclave moulding xv
Balsa wood 28
Barcol hardness xv, 217, 217,
298, 299, 301
Barely visible impact damage
xvIndex
Binder xv
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
binders 76
Bismaleimide resins 20
carbon fibres in 117-8, 118
electrical properties 166
effect of temperature and
exposure 126
mechanical properties 49
stiffness and strength at
elevated temperature
103
thermal properties 155
Bismaleimide composites 123, 123
BMC, see Bulk moulding
compounds
BPF, see British Plastics
Federation
British Plastics Federation xv, 54
British Standards Institute xv
see also BSI standards
BSAU 148 222
BSI, see British Standards Institute
BSI standards 33
BS 476 172, 173, 177, 179,
180, 184
BS 2782 176
BS 3400 218, 222
BS 3900 222
BS 5480 31, 34, 103
BS 6401 182
BS 6853 182, 187
BS 7000 34
B-staging xv
Building Research Station (UK)
194
Bulk moulding compounds xv, 16
mechanical properties of
moulded BMC panels
282
BVID, see Barely visible impact
damage
CAA, see Civil Aviation Authority
Calcite
effect of calcite filler on
shrinkage of polyester
resin 24
Calcium carbonate 22, 22
Carbon black 22, 22
Carbon epoxy
fatigue 262-3
Carbon fibre(s) 18
316
Charpy impact data for
carbon fibre composites
140
density 42
effect of carbon fibres on
wear rate of polymers
221
electrical properties 164
flammability 175
flexural fatigue 264-5
mechanical properties 39, 40,
115-6, 116
modulus 40
properties of composites
117-25, 118, 119, 120,
121, 122 122, 123,
124, 125
specific heat 162
strength 43
suppliers 40-1
temperature effects 126-9,
126, 127, 128
tensile modulus strength and
strain-to-failure of
carbon fibres 44
thermal properties 156
thermoplastic matrix systems
130-1, 130
very high modulus fibres
121, 121
Carbon fibre-reinforced plastic
XVI
Cast resins 71, 75, 84-5, 93
properties of cast polyester
resins 57, 84, 93
Catalyst xv
CEC, see Commission of the
European Community
CEI 20, 22, 182
Celion 6000 123, 123
Cellobond ]2018L 232
CEN, see Comite Europeen de
Normalisation
Centrifugal moulding xv
Ceramic fibres
density 42
electrical properties 164
modulus 42
specific heat 162
strength 43
thermal properties 156
CFM, see Continuous filament mat
CFRP, see Carbon fibre-reinforced
plastic
C-glass fibres xv
Charpy impact test 138-42, 281
carbon fibre composites 141
various types of GRP
laminate 140
Chemical resistance (to weak
alkali)
resins 21
China clay (kaolin) 23
Chopped strand mat xvi, 47,
76-7, 76, 80, 85, 86, 86,
145 145, 184-6
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
resins 86
properties of CSM laminates
in various resins 85
property variation of polyester
resins with chopped
strand mats 64
tensile stress/ strain curve
for a chopped strand
mat glass polyester
laminate 10
Civil Aviation Authority xv
Clay (kaolin) 22
Coefficient of thermal
conductivity, see Thermal
properties
Coefficient of thermal expansion,
see Thermal properties
COM, see Contact moulding
fabrication process
Comite Europeen de
Normalisation xv
Commission of the European
Community xv
Compimide 795, 123
Compimide 800 xiii, 123
Composite(s) xvi
aligned fibre composites
aramid fibres 106-14
carbon fibres 115-31
glass fibres 97-105
anisotropy notation 50-2
Charpy impact data for
carbon fibre composites
140
design and manufacture 53
electrical properties 163
composites 167-8, 168
design strategy 168
fibres 164-5, 164
resins 166, 166environmental effects
195-6
abrasion 217-21
corrosion 209-16
design strategy 225
effect of moisture
197-208
reference information 225
weathering 222-4
fibre properties 38-45
fire performance 170-1
flame spread 174-80
flash-over 189-90
gas emission 183-88
heat release 181, 181
ignitability 173, 173
non-combustibility 172
phases of fire development
171
fracture 133-7
fracture energy 148-50,
148, 150, 151
health and safety 54
impact 133-7
Charpy impact 138-42,
138, 139, 140, 141
effect of loading rate 146
146
effect of reinforcement type
143-4, 143
effect of strain rate 145,
145
effect of support diameter
147, 147
matrix properties 48-9
physical form of reinforcement
46-7
properties 35-6, 50-51,
50-51
reference information 54
relation between initial tensile
strain and time to
failure for glass
polyester composite
234
role of fibre and matrix 36
thermal properties 153-4,
159
conductivity 160, 160
design strategy 168
expansion 158-9, 159
fibres 156-7, 156
polymer matrices 155, 155
specific heat 162, 162
Compound(s) xvi
forms
DMC 26
GMT 26
IMC 26
prepreg 26
SMC 26
TSC 26
XMC26
properties
DMC26
GMT 26
SMC 26
TSC 26
XMC 26
Consolidation xvi
Contact moulding fabrication
process xvi, 271-74
comparison of hand lay-up
and spray-up 271
considerations for using
contact moulding 274
effect of fabric 273
effect of processing 272,
272
influence of fabric strength of
composites 273
properties 274, 274
Continuous filament mat xv, 80
Continuous random mat xvi
Coremat 28
Corrosion
chemical resistance 209, 210
of polyester resins 211-2
211,212,212
effect of acid 213-5, 213,
214, 215
effect of alkali 216, 216
Cost
resins 21
Cotton 18
Crack extension modes 134
Creep, 207, 226-8, 227
creep response of aramid 231
creep-rupture of CSM
laminates in water 232
cyclic fatigue of pipes 291
environmental factors 229
fibre fraction 238
fibre type 230-31
glass composites 229
impulses 235, 235
in destructive testing 309
loading and 227
material selection 226
reference information 268
resin type 232, 232
strain 234, 234
temperature 233, 233
tensile creep properties of
Index
pultruded rods 230
time-temperature supposition
creep rates 236-7
shear creep compliance of
glass laminates 236
time-temperature shear
creep compliance
master curve 237
transient overloads 235
CRM, see Continuous random
mat
Crystic xiii, 272 147
CSM, see Chopped strand mat
CTC, see Coefficient of thermal
conductivity
CTE, see Coefficient of thermal
expansion
Curing agents xvi
D411-4586
Data assessment 30
strategy 30
Delamination xvi
Denier xvi
DER 332 113
Derakane xiii
Derakane 411 71, 74
Derakane 47071, 74, 82
Derakane 510 71, 74
Designing with composites 1-2
choice of data 4-5
composites behaviour relevant
to design
effect of fibre orientation
12
load/deflection curves
6,7,10
longitudinal and transverse
tensile load/ deflection
curves 9
tensile stress/ strain curve
10
torque / shear deflection
curves 8
design strategy
aligned fibre composites
132
creep and fatigue 266
317Index
Designing with composites (contd)
environmental effects 225
fire performance 191
impact and fracture 152
influence of processing 294
random and fabricreinforced resins 94
thermal and electrical
aspects 169
Destructive testing
creep and fatigue 309
destructive testing techniques
308
environmental influence 309
fatigue tests of blade
materials 311, 311
fatigue natural frequency 311
fire performance 308
frequency of tests and
distribution of costs 310
impact testing 309
mechanical loading to
failure 308
resin burn-off 308
small- versus large-scale tests
310
Deutsches Institut Fur Normung
XVI
DIN 4102, 179
D-glass fibres xvi
DIN, see Deutsches Institut Fur
Normung
DMC, see Dough moulding
compound
DOT/FAA/CT-89/15 182,192
DOT/FAA/CT-85/23188
Dough moulding compound xvi,
16,26
Drape xvi
Dyneema xiii, 39
E-CR glass fibre xiii, xvi, 97,
207,213,214,215,216
EFTA, see European Free Trade
Association
E-glass fibre xvi, 18, 19, 143,
143, 145, 146, 147, 148,
148, 150, 150, 159, 200,
205,207,213,214,215,
216, 219, 222, 256
electrical properties 164, 168
properties 39, 97, 98, 98,
99, 105
specific heat 162
318
thermal conductivity 160
thermal properties 156
Electrical properties 163
composites 167-8, 168
design strategy 168
fibres 164-5, 164
resins 166, 166
EN, see European Standard
Environmental considerations
195-5
abrasion
carbon fibres 221, 221
fibre fraction 219-20, 219
hardness 217, 217
scratch 218, 218
corrosIOn
acid 213-5, 213, 214, 215
alkali 216, 216
effect of chemicals 209
chemical resistance 210,
211,211,212,212
effect of chemicals 209
creep 229
design strategy 225
difference with metals 195-6
fatigue 238-9, 239
moisture
effect on properties 200-1,
200,201,208,208
effect of stress 207, 207
influence on shear strength
205-6,205
water absorption 198-200,
198, 199
water uptake 202-4, 202,
203, 204
reference information 225
weathering
glass/phenolic 222-3, 222
sheet mouldings 224, 224
Epon xiii
Epon 828 109, 110,205
Epoxy resin xvi, 20, 107-12
carbon fibre composites 117-8,
118, 124, 124
cast resins
properties 84-5, 84, 85
chopped strand mats
mechanical properties 86, 86
effect of temperature and
exposure 126
electrical properties 166
fatigue 256-61
mechanical properties 49
stiffness and strength at
elevated temperature
103
shear strength 205
thermal properties 155
water uptake 202-4
woven fabrics
mechanical properties 87,
87
Equerove xiii
Equerove EC17 81, 82
ERL 1962 121
European Free Trade Association
XVI
European Standard xvi
EUR 8750 178
F155NR 124
F185NR 124
FAA, see Federal Aviation
Authority
Fabric notation xxiv
FAR 25.853 182
Fatigue
compression 262-3, 262
design strategy
design 266
materials selection 266-7,
266,267
source 267
environmental factors 238,
239
fatigue natural frequency 311
fibre alignment 240-1, 241
fibre orientation 242-3, 243
fibre type 256-7, 256
flexural fatigue of
carbon/PPEK 264
flexural stress 264-5, 264, 265
holes and notches 254-5, 254
in destructive testing 309,
311-2
influence of fibre length on
strength 244-5, 245
loading rate 252-3, 253, 253
matrix types 248, 248
moisture 258-9, 259
NDE testing 306-7
reference information
creep 268
fatigue 268
general 268
search strategy 268
resin types 246-7reverse loading 251, 251
shear fatigue 260-1, 260
temperature 249-50, 249, 250
tensile fatigue of continuous
and short length glass
reinforced plastics 244
tensile strength of different
resins 246
Federal Aviation Authority xvi
Fiberite xiii, 934 109, 148
Fibre xvi
Fibre content xvi
Fibredux 914C-833-40 90
Fibre foams
rovings, mats and weaves
46-7
Fibre properties
strength as a function of
modulus for carbon,
aramid and glass fibre 40
maximum temperature 38
mechanical 38
alumina 39
alumina/boria!silica
fibre 39
aramid 39
carbon 39
glass 39
oriented polyethylene
fibre 39
silicon carbide 39
strength as a function of
modulus for carbon,
aramid and glass fibre 40
Fibre-reinforced plastic xvii
Fibre selection by property level 18
Fibre size and finish 14
Fibre volume fraction
effect of fibre volume fraction
on flexural modulus,
strength and strain-tofailure of polyester resins
69
Filament xvii
Filament winding xvii, 290
consideration for using filament
winding 292
creep and cyclic fatigue of
pipes 291
data for filament winding 291
typical lay-up construction for
a GRP pipe 290
Filler(s) xvii, 16
properties
aluminium trihydrate 22
calcium carbonate 22
carbon black 22
clay (kaolin) 22
glass spheres (hollow) 22
metallic oxides 22
mica flakes 22
rubber particles 22
silica 22
talc 22
wood flour 22
shrinkage 24, 24
typical fillers and reasons for
their use 22
flexural modulus 24, 24, 25
Fine fabric epoxy laminates
mechanical properties 88-9, 88
prepreg 90-1, 90,91
Finish xvii, 15
Finished items xvii
Fire performance of composites
170-1
design strategy 191, 191
flame spread
effect of resin and fibre
type 175-6, 175
fire resistance 178, 178
phenolic and methacrylate
179-80, 179, 180
surface spread 177, 177
UL 94 test 174
flash-over 189-90, 189
gas emission
industry limits 183
influence of fillers 185-6,
185, 186
influence of reinforcement
188, 188
influence of resin 184, 184
large scale tests 187, 187
test methods 182
heat release
test methods 181, 181
ignitability 173, 173
non-combustibility 172
phases of fire development 171
reference information
design strategy 193
flame spread 193
flash-over 193
general 192
ignitability 192
Index
information sources 193-4
non-combustibility 192
rate of heat release 193
smoke and toxic gas
emission 193
Flame spread
effect of resin and fibre type
175-6, 175, 179
fire resistance 178, 178
phenolic and methacrylate
179-80, 179, 180
surface spread 177, 177
UL 94 test 174
Flash-over 189, 189
Fluxural modulus/ strength 24-5
effect of fibre volume 69
effect of filler particle shape
on flexural modulus of
polypropylene 25
effect of glass content on
flexural modulus for glassreinforced laminates 65
effect of glass size on flexural
strength of laminates 60
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
binders 76
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
resins 86
flexural strength of glass
reinforced composites after
soaking 82
variation of flexural strength
and modulus with glass
content 62, 63
Flexural stress
carbon/PEEK 264-5
Foams and other core materials
XVll
properties
ABS 28
balsa wood 28
cormat 28
honeycomb 28
PC 28
PES 28
phenolic 28
polyurethane 28
PP 28
PS 28
PVC 28
urea-formaldehyde 28
319Index
Fracture 133-7
effects of strain rate 151, 151
design for impact and fracture
152
Fracture energy xvii, 133, 135,
148-50,148, 150, 151,
148
composites 150
influence of strain rate on
fracture energy 151
FRP, see Fibre-reinforced plastic
FTSOO xiii, 41
FT700 xiii, 41
Gl' G2, G3, see Fracture energies
Gas emission
chopped strand mat 184
fillers 185-6
industry limits 183
large scale testing 187
smoke and toxic gases 181
test methods 182
Gel coat xvii
Gel time xvii
Geometric efficiency xvii
Glass epoxy
fatigue 238-9, 249-50,
252-5
Glass fabric
fatigue 246-8
Glass fibre
density 42
flammability 175
electrical properties 164
effects of temperature 103,
103,104
fibre orientation
ply lay-up 100-2, 100, 100,
101
flammability 175
mechanical properties 39, 40,
97, 98, 98, 99
modulus 42
specific heat 162
strength 43
suppliers 41
thermal properties 97, 156
thermoplastic matrix systems
properties 105, 105
types 19, 97
Glass mat thermoplastic xvii, 16,
26,92
properties 92
320
Glass polyester
creep 234-5
fatigue 242-3, 251
pultrusion 288-9
Glass-reinforced plastic xvii
properties 105
stress-rupture behaviour of
GRP pipe 235
Glass size 60, 60
effect of glass size on flexural
strength of laminates 60
Glass spheres (fillers) 22, 23
Glass transition temperature xvii,
xx
Glass vinyl ester
creep 236-7
pultrusion 286-7
GMT, see Glass mat
thermoplastic
Grafil EXAS 81
GRP, see Glass-reinforced plastic
GY 40-700 41
GY70 xiii, 41
GY80 xiii, 41
Hardener xvii
Hardness 217, 217
HDT, see Heat distortion
temperature
Heat distortion temperature xvii
Heat release
apparatus for determining heat
release 181
test methods 181
High modulus fibre xvii, 40, 168
High strength fibre xvii
High temperature capability
resins 21
High temperature soaking 81
effect of soaking at elevated
temperature on laminate
strength 81
flexural strength of glass
reinforced composites
after soaking 82
HM fibre, see High modulus fibre
HM35 xiii, 40, 156
HM41, 156, 159, 160
HM45 xiii, 40, 164
HM400 xiii, 116, 116
Honeycomb 28
HS fibre, see High strength fibre
HTA xiii, 40, 156, 159, 160, 164
Hybrid xvii
IEC, see International Electrotechnical Commission
ILSS, see Interlaminar shear stress
Interlaminar shear stress xvii, 4,
78
IM6130
IM7 xiii, 41, 116, 116, 159
IM43 117, 118
IM400 xiii, 41
IM500 xiii, 41
IM600 xiii, 40, 116, 116
1M, see Injection moulding process
IMC, see Injection moulding
compound
IMO Res. A653 177
Impact 133-7, 136
Charpy impact 138-42, 139,
140, 141
crack extension modes 134
design for impact and fracture
152
effect of glass content on
Izod impact strength 139
effect of loading rate 146, 146
effect of reinforcement type
143-4, 143
effect of strain rate 145, 145
effect of support diameter 147,
147
effect on impact properties of
adding urethane acrylate
to cast iso-polyester
resins 136
impact energy as function of
material type 138
Impregnation xviii
Initiator xviii
Injection xviii
Injection moulding compound
xviii 26
Injection moulding process xvii,
XVlll
Interface xviii
International Electro-technical
Commission xvii
International Standards
Organisation xviii
ISO 834 178
ISO 1182172
ISO 3008 178
ISO 3009 178ISOITR 3814 192, 193
ISO 5657 173
ISO 5658 177
ISO/DiS 5658 193
ISO 5660 181
ISOITR 5824 182
ISO 9705 190
ISO, see International Standards
Organisation
Isophthalic 57
lzod impact data for glass fibre
chopped strand mat
phenolic specimens 139
J2018L 78, 81, 82
J2027L 80
Japanese industrial standard xviii
JAR 853 25, 182
JIS, see Japanese industrial standard
K137 xiii, 41
K139 xiii, 41
K, see Stress intensity factor
Kaolin 23
Kerimid 601 141
Kevlar xviii, xiii, 39
Kevlar Hp xiii, 39, 106
Kevlar Hm xiii, 39, 41,106, 107,
110, 159, 167
Kevlar 29 106, 167, 167, 168
Kevlar 49 xiii, 39, 41, 112, 106,
107, 109, 110, 111, 113,
114, 114, 139, 148, 148,
149, 151, 156, 159, 160,
162, 164, 167, 168, 202,
205, 230, 231, 256, 258
Kevlar 129 xiii, 39
Kevlar 149 107
Laminates
activation energies for diffusion
of water through resins
and laminates 199
Charpy test data for types of
GRP laminates 140
creep-rupture of CSM laminates
in water 232
CSM laminates in various
resins 85
effect of exposure and drying
on strength of reinforced
epoxy laminates 206
effect of fibre alignment on
tensile strength of glass
laminates 241
effect of glass content on
tensile strength and
flexural modulus 65
effect of preconditioning
treatments on reinforced
epoxy laminates 202
effect of soaking at elevated
temperature on laminate
strength 81
fine fabric epoxy laminates 88
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
binders 76
flexural strength of CSM
laminates with various
resins 86
glass polyester laminates 66
interlaminar shear strength of
phenolic laminates 78
laminates with various
reinforcements 80
mechanical properties of woven
fabric laminates 87, 87
reduction in strength of epoxy
laminates following
immersion 205
shear creep compliance of glass
laminates 236
tensile fatigue of glass laminate
as function of number of
cycles 239
weight changes in laminates
exposed to atmosphere 203
LEFM, see Linear elastic fracture
mechanics
Lexan xiii
Linear elastic fracture mechanics
XVlll
Loadl deflection characteristics 6,
7, 9, 10
L554/HY956 219
LY564/HY564 84, 88
LY556/HT972 84, 86, 88
M30162
M35] xiii, 41, 164
M40] 41, 159, 161, 162, 164
M46] 41,116,116,118,120,
120, 159, 160, 162, 162,
164
M50] 159, 160, 162
M55J 41, 160
Index
M60J 41, 116, 116, 118, 120, 120
Mandrel xviii
Mat xviii
examples of mat fabrics 47
Material selection and data
assessment
data assessment 30
strategy 30
data reduction and presentation
31
burst pressure extrapolation
permitted by BS 5480 31
material constituents 14-5
additives 15
fibre size and finish 14
finish 15
principal constituents 15
size 15
material selection 16
compounds 26-7
constituent choice 16
fibre selection by property
level 18
fillers 22-5
foam and other core
materials 28
glass fibres 19
rating values for resins 21
reinforcing fibres 18
resin matrices 20-1
resin selection by property
20
types of glass fibre 1 9
typical fillers and principal
reasons for their use 22
reference information
data assessment 33
databases 34
data in design 34
data reduction 34
general 32-3
information sources 34
material constituents 33
material selection and
ranking for a glassreinforced composite 32
materials selection 33
search strategies 34
test methods and standards
33
summary 14
test methods and standards 31
use of data in design 32
321Index
Matrix xviii
Mechanical properties
glass fibres and composites
97, 98, 99, 100, 101
Metallic oxide filler 22, 23
Methacrylate xviii, 20
mechanical properties 49
Mica flakes (filler) 22, 23
MM-941
MM-G xiii
Modar 143
Modar 826HT 93
Modar 835S 93
Moisture
and fatigue 258-9, 259
effect of stress 207, 207
effect on properties 200-1,
200,201,208,208
influence on shear strength
205-6,205
water absorption 198-200,
198, 199
water uptake 202-4, 202, 203,
204
Mould xviii
Moulding xviii
Moulding compounds xviii
Moulding process xviii
Mould shrinkage
resins 21
MY 750/HT 972 82, 111, 244,
260
N142386
NDE, see Non-destructive
evaluation
NDT, see Non-destructive
testing
Needled mat xviii
NEN 3883 177, 179, 190
Nextel 312, 39, 156, 164
Nextel 440 xiii, 39, 156, 164
Nextel 480 39
NFF 16, 101, 179
NFP 92501 177
Nicalon xiii, 39,156, 164, 167,
168
NPG-polyester xviii
Non-destructive evaluation xviii
dimensions 304
fatigue testing 306, 306
mechanical loading 304
other techniques 305
322
principal NDE techniques 304
visual check 304
Non-destructive testing xviii
Norpol 20 65, 72
Norpol 41-90 72, 246
Norpol 44M 60, 62, 63, 70
Norpol 72 63, 72
Norpol 92-20 72, 246
Norpol 92-40 72
Noryl xiii
NT fire test 182
Orthophthalic 57
Oxygen index xviii, 174,175,
176
P25 xiii, 41
P55S xiii, 44,116,116
P75S 41,121, 122, 156, 159,
160, 162, 164
PI00S xiii, 40, 116, 116 121,
122, 156, 159, 162, 164
P120S xiii, 40, 116, 116, 121,
122, 156, 162, 164
PA, see Polyamide resin
PAl, see Polyamide imide resin
PAS, see Polyaryl sulphone resin
PC, see Polycarbonate resin
PE, see Polyethylene fibre or resin
PEEK, see Polyether ether ketone
resm
PEl, see Polyether imide resin
PEK, see Polyether ketone resin
PERA 152
Permaglass 22 FE 146, 249, 252,
254
PES, see Polyether sulphone resin
Phenolic resins xix, 20, 28
case resins
properties 75, 75
chopped strand mats
effect of chopped strand
mat binder 76-7, 76
electrical properties 166
gas emission 187
high-temperature capability 82,
82
high-temperature soaking 81
flexural strength 81
mechanical properties 49
stiffness and strength at
elevated temperature
103
shear strength
reinforcement type 78-80,
78,80
thermal properties 155
weathering 222-3
durability of polyurethane
paint on phenolic
laminate 222
PIascams 32, 33
Plied lay-ups
notation xxiv
Ply xix
PMR15 127, 128
Poisson's ratio
variation in glass content 66
Polyamide 18, 20
Polyamide imide resin xix, 20
mechanical properties 49
Polyamide resin xix
mechanical properties 49
Polyaryl sulphone resin xix, 130
mechanical properties 49
properties 105
Polycarbonate resin xix, 28
Polyester xix, 18,20,24
comparison with vinyl ester
resins 72, 73
electrical properties 166
gas emission 186
mechanical properties 49,
200-1
water absorption 198-9
Polyester resins
cast resins
addition of urethane acrylate
57,58
properties 57-9, 57, 71
chemical resistance 212
alkali 216
chopped strand mats
mechanical properties by
resin type 64, 64
effect of calcite filler on
shrinkage of polyester
resin 24
effect of fibre volume fraction
on flexural modulus,
strength and strain-tofailure of polyester resins
69
effect on tensile properties of
adding urethane acrylate
58glass size and tex
effect of glass size on
flexural strength 60
effect of tex on tensile
strength of laminates 61
spray mouldings 60-1
high glass fraction
effect of fibre volume
fraction on mechanical
properties 69
mechanical properties 68
mats
flexural properties and glass
content 63, 63
mats and fabrics
glass content 65
mechanical properties 65,
65,66,66
shear properties
measurement of 67
reinforcement 67
spray mouldings
flexural properties and glass
content 62, 62
temperature
effect on mechanical
properties 70, 70
thermal properties 155
Polyether ether ketone resin xix,
20, 130
effect of temperature and
exposure 126
electrical properties 166
flexural fatigue of PEEK 264,
264, 265
fracture energies and stress
intensity factors 148
Gnc data 150
mechanical properties 49
stiffness and strength at
elevated temperature 103
thermal properties 155
Polyether imide resin xix, 20
mechanical properties 49
Polyether ketone resin xix
mechanical properties 49
Polyether sulphone resin xix, 20,
28
electrical properties 166
mechanical properties 49
thermal properties 155
Polyethylene fibre xix, 18
mechanical properties 39
density 42
modulus 42
strength 43
Polyethylene resin xix
Polyimide xix, 20
mechanical properties 49
effect of temperature and
exposure 126
Polymerization additives 15
Polyphenylene oxide resin xix
Polyphenylene sulphide resin xix,
20, 130
mechanical properties 49
properties 105
stiffness and strength at
elevated temperature 103
thermal properties 155
Polypropylene resin xix, 20, 25,
28
effect of filer particle shape on
flexural modulus of
polypropylene 25
mechanical properties 49
Polystyrene resin xix, 28
Polystyryl pyridine xix, 20
mechanical properties 49
Polysulphone resin xix, 20
mechanical properties 49
Polyurethane 20, 28
mechanical properties 49
Polyvinyl chloride resin xix, 28
PP, see Polypropylene resin
PPM, see Prepreg moulding
PPO, see Polyphenylene oxide
resin
PPS, see Polyphenylene sulfide
reSIn
Preconditioning 258
effect on coupons by drying
and water 259
Preforming xix
Prepreg xix, 16
Prepreg fine fabrics
properties 90, 90
strength retention as function
of temperature 91
Prepreg moulding xix, 284
considerations for using
prepreg moulding 285
data for prepreg moulding
284
Press moulding fabrication process
XIX
Index
component price in terms of
quality and moulding
techniques 280
compression-injection moulding
282
consideration for using press
moulding 283
data for press moulding 279
data for moulded BMC and
SMC components 279
flexural properties of polyester
SMC and RTM
moulding 281
mechanical properties of
moulded BMC 282
types 278
use of SMC and RTM in cars
280-1,280
PRM, see Press moulding
fabrication process
Processing
comparison of materials and
processes 270
contact moulding 271-74
comparison of hand lay-up
and spray-up 271
effect of fabric 273
effect of processing 272, 272
properties 274, 274
design strategy 294
filament winding 290
consideration for using
filament winding 292
creep and cyclic fatigue of
pipes 291
data for filament winding 291
typical lay-up construction
for a GRP pipe 290
major fabrication processes 269
prepreg moulding 284
considerations for using
prepreg moulding 285
data for prepreg moulding
284
press moulding 278-83
compression-injection
moulding 282
consideration for using press
moulding 283
data for press moulding
279
data for moulded BMC and
SMC components 279
323Index
flexural properties of
polyester SMC and
RTM moulding 281
mechanical properties of
moulded BMC 282
types 278
use of SMC and RTM in
cars 280-1, 280
process limitations 270
pultrusion
considerations for using
pultrusion 289
mechanical properties 286,
286, 287
reinforcement type 288-9,
288
resin transfer moulding
considerations for using
RTM 277
data for RTM 277
pre-forming 275-6, 275
recycling 293
BMC laminates containing
recycled materials 293
reference information
manufacture 294
recycling 295
PS, see Polystyrene resin
PSP, see Polystyryl pyridine
PSU, see Polysulphone resin
PUL, see Pultrusion fabrication
Pultrusion fabrication xix
considerations for using
pultrusion 289
mechanical properties 286,
286,287
reinforcement type 288-9,288 ,
288
PVC, see Polyvinyl chloride resin
Quality assurance
aspects of quality control 296
Barcol hardness 298-9, 298
incoming materials 297
compatibility of constituents
297
possible checks for individual
constituents 297
processing
324
Barcol hardness 301
degree of cure 301
destructive testing 308-12,
308, 310, 311
moulded component 300
non-destructive evaluation
304-7, 304, 306
process control 302, 303
process control of a RTM
moulded component
300
reference information
general 313
quality systems 313
strategy for quality assurance
313
traceability 298
Radel xiii
Random and fabric reinforced
resins
acrylates
cast resins 93, 93
epoxy resins
cast resins 84-5, 84, 85
chopped strand mats 84, 84,
86, 86
fine fabrics 88-9, 88
prepreg fine fabrics 90-1, 90
woven fabrics 87, 87
phenolic resins
cast resins 75, 75
chopped strand mats 76-7,
76
high temperature capability
82-3, 82
high temperature soaking
81,81
reinforcement type 80, 80
shear strength 78-9, 78
polyester resins
addition of urethane acrylate
58, 58
cast resins 57, 57
chopped strand mats 64
effect of temperature on
mechanical properties
70
glass size and tex 60-1
high glass fraction 68-9
mats and fabrics 65-6
shear properties 67
spray mouldings 62
polypropylene
glass mat thermoplastics
92,92
reference informaton 95
vinyl ester resins
cast resins 71, 71
comparison with polyester
72,73
effect of temperature on
mechanical properties
74,74
RAPRA 225
RB34BXI92
Reaction injection moulding
process xix, xx
Recycling 293
BMC laminates containing
recycled materials 293
Reinforced reaction injection
moulding xix
Reinforcement xx
selection of possible
reinforcement 94
Reinforcing fibres
properties
aramid (HM) 18
carbon (HS) 18
cotton 18
E-glass 18
polyethylene 18
polyamide 18
R-glass 18
Resin xx
selection of possible resin 94
Resin matrices
chemical resistance to weak
alkali 21
cost 21
high temperature capability
21
flame spread 21
mould shrinkage 21
properties 20-1, 48
mechanical properties 49
rating values 21
selection by property 20
tensile strength 21
see also Random and fabric
reinforced resins
Resin transfer moulding xx
data for RTM 277
considerations for using RTM
277
flexural properties of RTM
mouldings 281
pre-forming 275-6, 275
use of RTM in cars 280-1R-glass xiii, xix, 18,39, 97, 98,
143, 143, 244, 245
specific heat 162
thermal properties 156
RIM, see Reaction injection
moulding process
Rods
properties 231
Roving xx
RRIM, see Reinforced reaction
injection moulding
RTM, see Resin transfer
moulding process
Rubber particles (filler) 22, 23
S-2 glass xiii, xx, 39, 97, 98, 98
creep response 231
thermal properties 156
Safimax LD xiii, 39
Safimax SD xiii, 39
Saphikon xiii, 39
Service temperature xx
SGS Yarsley Laboratories (UK)
194
Shear creep compliance of glass
laminates 236
Shear fatigue 260, 260
Shear modulus/ strength
interlaminar shear strength of
phenolic laminates 78
measurement of shear
properties 67
variation in shear modulus
with glass content 66
variation with immersion time
201
Sheet moulding compound xx,
16, 26, 280-81
flexural properties of polyester
SMC and RTM
mouldings 281
use of SMC in cars 280
Shrinkage
and flexural modulus 24-5
effect of calcite filler on
shrinkage of polyester
resin 24
fillers 24
Sigma BP xiii, 39
Silica 22, 23
Silicon carbide
mechanical properties 39
Size xx, 15
SMC, see Sheet moulding
compound
SOLAS IMO A 472 172
Specific heat of reinforcing fibres
162
Specific property xx
Spectra 900 xiii, 39
Spectra 1000 xiii, 39
Spray moulding
flexural properties 62
flexural strength and
modulus 62
STA 156
Strain
relation between initial tensile
strain and time to failure
for glass polyester
composite 234
Strain rate
effect on fracture energy 151,
151
Strand xx
Stratyl 108 98
Stress intensity factor xviii
and fracture energies 133,
148
Stress-rupture behaviour of GRP
pipe 235
Swirl mat xx
T-A 41
T20041
T300 xiii, 8,41, 116, 116, 118,
119, 120, 120, 123, 123,
127, 148, 148, 150, 156,
159, 160, 162, 164
T400H xiii, 41, 159, 160, 162,
164
T650-42130
TSOOH xiii, 41, 116, 116, 118,
120, 120, 159, 160, 162,
164
nooo 41, 164
nOOOG xiii, 41
T
g, see Glass transition
temperature
Talc 22,23
Technora xiii, 39, 106, 114, 114,
162
Tensile modulus
effect of glass content on
tensile modulus for
laminates 65
Index
strength and strain-to-failure
of carbon fibres 44
variation in tensile modulus
with glass content 66
variation of tensile modulus
with temperature 70
Tensile strength
resins 21, 200
Tensile stress/ strain curve for
chopped strand mat glass
polyester laminate 10
Tex xx, 60
effect of tex on tensile strength
of laminates 61
Thermal properties of composites
153-4, 159
conductivity 160, 160
expansion 158-9, 159
fibres 156-7, 156
polymer matrices 155, 155
resins 155
specific heat 162, 162
Thermal properties of glass fibres
97
Thermoplastic polymers xx, 48
Thermoplastic resins
PA 20
PAS 20
PAl 20
PEEK 20
PES 20
PEl 20
PP 20
PPS 20
PSU 20
Thermoplastic sheet compound
xx, 16,26
Thermosetting polymers xx
Thermosetting resins
bismaleimide 20
epoxy 20
methacrylate 20
phenolic 20
polyester 20
polyimide 20
polystyrylpyridine 20
polyurethane 20
vinyl ester 20
Thorne! 300/934 151
Torlon xiii
Tow xx
Trademarks and names xiiiXIV
325Index
TSC, see Thermoplastic sheet
compound
Twaron xiii, 39, 106, 107, 109,
156, 162
Twist xx
Tyranno xiii, 39, 156, 162, 164,
167
UD, see Unidirectionally aligned
fibres
UL 94 test 172, 175, 179
Unidirectionally aligned fibres xx
Units xxii
relation of weight to volume
fraction xxii, xxiii
UP 333 102, 242
Urea-formaldehyde 28
Urethane acrylate, addition to
polyester resins 58, 58
V378A 123
Vacuum bag moulding xx
Victrex xiii
Vinyl ester xxi, 20
326
mechanical properties 49
Vinyl ester resins
cast resins
properties 71, 71
comparison with polyester 72,
73
creep 230-1
effect of temperature on
mechanical properties
74,74
Volume fraction xxi
Warrington Fire Research Centre
(London) 194
Water uptake
activation energies for diffusion
of water through resins
and laminates 199
effect on pre-conditioning and
fibre type 202-4, 202,
203
water absorption kinetics for
iso-polyester resin 198
Weathering
glass/phenolic 222-3, 222
phenolic 222-3
durability of polyurethane
paint on phenolic
laminate 222
sheet mouldings 224, 224
Weight fraction xxi
Wet-out xxi
Wood flour 22,23
Woven fabrics
examples of woven fabrics 47
mechanical properties 87, 87
Woven roving xxi
WR, see Woven roving
XA 41, 116, 116, 117,118, 156,
159,160, 164, 168
XAS 148
XMC xxi, 26
XN70 xiii, 41
XS4148
Yarn xxi


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