كتاب Brydson’s Plastics Materials
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Brydson’s Plastics Materials

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Brydson’s Plastics Materials
Eighth Edition
Edited by
Marianne Gilbert

كتاب Brydson’s Plastics Materials  B_p_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Abbreviations for Plastics
Many abbreviations for plastics materials are in common use. Some of these have now been incorporated into national and
international standards relating to both plastics and additives.
Relevant standards published by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) and the International Standards
Organisation (ISO) are listed here. The ISO standards listed here are British Standard (BS) versions; equivalent versions
are published by many other ISO members, for example, the Deutsches Institut fur Normung E.V. (DIN) in Germany.
STANDARDS FOR PLASTICS MATERIALS
ASTM D1600-14 Standard Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics
BS EN ISO 1043-1:2011 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Basic polymers and their special characteristics
STANDARDS FOR THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
ASTM D5538-13 Standard Practice for Thermoplastic ElastomersdTerminology and abbreviations
BS EN ISO 18064:2014 Thermoplastic Elastomers. Nomenclature and abbreviated terms
ISO STANDARDS FOR VARIOUS PLASTICS ADDITIVES
BS EN ISO 1043-2:2011 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Fillers and reinforcing materials
BS EN ISO 1043-3. Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Part 3. Plasticizers
BS EN ISO 1043-4:1999 Plastics. Symbols and abbreviated terms. Flame retardants
Table 1 based on the list available from the British Plastics Federation, with some additions, provides plastics
abbreviations in common use (British Plastics Federation, 2008).
TABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plastics
ABS Acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene
ASA Acrylateestyreneeacrylonitrile
ATH Aluminum trihydrate
BDS Butadieneestyrene block copolymer
BMC Bulk molding compound
BOPP Biaxially oriented polypropylene
BR Butadiene rubber
CA Cellulose acetate
CAB Cellulose acetateebutyrate
CAP Cellulose acetate propionate
CE Cellulose
CMC Carboxymethyl cellulose
Continued
xxiiiTABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
CN Cellulose nitrate
CP Cellulose propionate
CSM Chopped strand mat (or) chlorosulfonated polyethylene (rubber)
DMC Dough molding compound
ECTFE Ethylene chlorotrifluoro ethylene copolymer
EPDM Ethyleneepropyleneediene monomer (elastomer)
EPM Ethyleneepropylene rubber ¼ EPR
EPR Ethyleneepropylene rubber ¼ EPM
EPS Expanded polystyrene
EVA Ethylene vinyl acetate
EVOH Ethylene vinyl alcohol
FEP Fluorinated ethyleneepropylene
FEPM Copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene
FRP Fiber-reinforced polyester/plastics
FPU Fluorinated polyurethane
FTPE Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomer
FVE Fluorovinyl ether
GMT Glass mat thermoplastic
GPPS General-purpose polystyrene
GRP Glass-reinforced plastic
HDPE High-density polyethylene
HEMA Hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer
HIPS High-impact polystyrene ¼ TPS
HFP Hexafluoropropylene
LCP Liquid crystal polymer ¼ SRP
LDPE Low-density polyethylene
LLDPE Linear low-density polyethylene
MBS Methacrylateebutadieneestyrene terpolymer
MDPE Medium-density polyethylene
MF Melamine formaldehyde
NBR Nitrile rubber ¼ acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
NR Natural rubber
OPP Oriented polypropylene
PA Polyamide
PA11 Polyamide 11
PA12 Polyamide 12
PA46 Polyamide 46
PA6 Polyamide 6
Continued
xxiv Abbreviations for PlasticsTABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
PA610 Polyamide 610
PA66 Polyamide 66
PA66/610 Polyamide 66/610 copolymer
PAA Polaryl amide
PAI Polyamide imide
PAN Polyacrylonitrile
PAVE Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
PB Polybutylene
PBT Polybutylene terephthalate ¼ PTMT
PC Polycarbonate
PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
PE Polyethylene
PEBA Polyether block amide
PEEK Polyetheretherketone
PEEL Polyester elastomer
PEI Polyester imide
PEK Polyetherketone
PES Polyethersulfone
PETG PET copolymer
PETP Polyethylene terephthalate
PF Phenol formaldehyde
PFA Perfluoro alkoxyl alkane
PFEVE Poly(fluoroethylene vinyl ether)
PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate
PI Polyimide
PIR Polyisocyanurate rigid (foam)
PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate
PMP Polymethyl pentene
PMVE Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
PPVE Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
POM Polyoxymethylene
PP Polypropylene
PPE Polyphenylene ether
PPO Polyphenylene oxide
PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
PPSS Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone
PS Polystyrene
PSU Polysulfone
Continued
Abbreviations for Plastics xxvMore systematic methods of naming polymers have been proposed; for example, the Commission on Macromolecular
Nomenclature of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published a nomenclature for singlestrand organic polymers (Jones et al., 2008). Two approaches have been used, namely structure-based names, and sourcebased names. The source-based names refer to monomers used to produce the polymer; the structure-based name describes
TABLE 1 Common Abbreviations for Plasticsdcont’d
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMT Polytetramethylene terephthalate ¼ PBT
PUR Polyurethane
PVA Polyvinyl acetate
PVB Polyvinyl butyral (butyrate)
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
PVCC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
PVCP Polyvinyl chloride plasticized
PVCU Polyvinyl chloride unplasticized
PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF Polyvinyl fluoride
PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
SAN Styrene acrylonitrile (copolymer)
SBR Styreneebutadiene rubber
SBS Styreneebutadieneestyrene (block copolymer)
SEBS Styreneeethyleneebutadieneestyrene
SIS Styreneeisopreneestyrene
SMA Styrene maleic anhydride
SMC Sheet molding compound
SRP Self-reinforcing polymer ¼ LCP
TPE Thermoplastic elastomer
TPO Thermoplastic olefin (rubber)
TPR Thermoplastic rubber
TPS Toughened polystyrene ¼ HIPS
TPU Thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) ¼ TPUR
TPUR Thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) ¼ TPU
TPX Polymethyl pentene copolymer
UF Urea formaldehyde
UHMWPE Ultra high molecular weight PE
VC Vinyl chloride ¼ VCM
VCM Vinyl chloride monomer ¼ VC
XLPE Cross-linked polyethylene
Reproduced with permission from the British Plastics Federation.
xxvi Abbreviations for Plasticsa polymer as “poly(constitutional repeating unit),” wherein the repeating unit is named as a divalent organic substituent
according to the usual nomenclature rules for organic chemistry. While more systematic, resulting names can be complex.
Some examples of this nomenclature compared with normal usage are given for common polymers in Table 2.
In this book the policy has been to use normal usage scientific terms.
REFERENCES
British Plastics Federation, 2008. Plastics Abbreviations. Available: https://www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/abbreviations/Default.aspx.
Jones, R.G., Kahovec, J., Stepto, R., Wilks, E.S., Hess, M., Kitayama, T., Metanomski, W., 2008. Compendium of Polymer Terminology and
Nomenclature IUPAC Recommendations 2008. RSC Publishing, Cambridge.
TABLE 2 Nomenclature for Some Common Polymers
Traditional Name Structure-Based Name Source-Based Name
Polyethylene (PE) Poly(methylene) Polyethene
Polypropylene (PP) Poly(1-methylethane-1,2-diyl) Polypropene
Polystyrene (PS) Poly(1-phenylethane-1,2-diyl) Poly(ethynylbenzene or poly(vinyl benzene)
Polymethyl methacrylate Poly[1-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-methyl ethane-1,2-diy
Standard Test Methods
ASTM D149-09 (2013) Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid
Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies.
ASTM D150-11 (2011) Standard Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid
Electrical Insulation.
ASTM D256-10e (2010) Standard Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics.
ASTM D257-14 (2014) Standard Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials.
ASTM D495-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance of Solid Electrical
Insulation.
ASTM D523-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss.
ASTM D542-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Index of Refraction of Transparent Organic Plastics.
ASTM D569-90 Method for Measuring the Flow Properties of Thermoplastic Molding Materials (Withdrawn, 1995).
ASTM D570-98e1 (2010) Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics.
ASTM D635e14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Plastics in a
Horizontal Position.
ASTM D638-14 (2014) Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics.
ASTM D648-16 (2016) Standard Test Method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position.
ASTM D696-16 (2016) Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between 30C
and 30C With a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer.
ASTM D785-08 (2015) Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness of Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D790-15e2 (2015) Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and
Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D792-13 (2013) Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by
Displacement.
ASTM D955-08 (2014) Standard Test Method of Measuring Shrinkage From Mold Dimensions of Thermoplastics.
ASTM D1003-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics.
ASTM D1238-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer.
ASTM D1525-09 (2009) Standard Test Method for Vicat Softening Temperature of Plastics.
ASTM D2863-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support CandleLike Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index).
ASTM D3418-15 (2015) Standard Test Method for Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization
of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
ASTM D3638-12 (2012) Standard Test Method for Comparative Tracking Index of Electrical Insulating Materials.
ASTM D4039-09 (2015) Standard Test Method for Reflection Haze of High-Gloss Surfaces.
ASTM D5205-10 (2010) Standard Classification System and Basis for Specification for Polyetherimide (PEI) Materials.
ASTM D5336-15a (2015) Standard Classification and Basis for Specification for Polyphthalamide (PPA) Injection
Molding Materials.
ASTM D6002-96e1 (2002) Standard Guide for Assessing the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable Plastics
(Withdrawn, 2011).
ASTM D6866-16 (2016) Standard Test Methods for Determining the Bio-Based Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous
Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis.
ASTM E313-15e1 (2015) Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally
Measured Color Coordinates.
xxixBS 1322:1992, ISO 2112:1990 Specification for aminoplastic molding materials.
BS 2782-1: Method 130A:1991, ISO 182e1:1990 Methods of testing plastics. Thermal properties. Determination of the
thermal stability of polyvinyl chloride by the Congo red method.
BS 2782-3 Method 350:1984 Methods of testing plastics. Mechanical properties. Determination of Izod impact strength of
rigid materials. (Withdrawn, see ASTM D256-10e, 2010.)
BS 3505:1986 Specification for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) pressure pipes for cold potable water.
BS EN ISO 877-1:2010dPlastics. Methods of exposure to solar radiation. General guidance.
DIN 53388-04 (1984) Testing of plastics and elastomers; exposure to daylight under glass. Supersededdsee DIN-ENISO-877.
DIN 53453 (1975) Testing of plastics: impact flexural test. Supersededdsee DIN-53435 DIN-EN-ISO-178 DIN-EN-ISO-
179-1.
DIN 53455 (1981) Testing of plastics: tensile test. Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-527-1 DIN-EN-ISO-527-2 DIN-ENISO-527-3.
DIN 53457 (1987) Testing of plastics; determination of the elastic modulus by tensile, compression and bend testing.
Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-178 DIN-EN-ISO-527-1 DIN-EN-ISO-527-2 DIN-EN-ISO-604.
DIN 53460 (1976) Testing of plastics: determination of the Vicat softening temperature of thermoplastics. Supersededd
see DIN-EN-ISO-306 DIN-ISO-306.
DIN 53479 (1976) Testing of plastics and elastomers; determination of density. Supersededdsee DIN-EN-ISO-1183-1
DIN-EN-ISO-1183-2.
FED-STD-191A (1989) Method 590.1 Federal Standard: textile test methods. Inactive.
IEC 60243-1 (2013) Electric strength of insulating materialsdTest methodsdPart 1: Tests at power frequencies.
IEC 60695-2-11 (2000) Fire hazard testingdPart 2e11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methodsdGlow-wire flammability
test method for end-products. Withdrawn.
ISO 62:2008 PlasticsdDetermination of water absorption.
ISO 75-1:2013 PlasticsdDetermination of temperature of deflection under loaddPart 1: General test method.
ISO 105-A02:1993 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart A02: Gray scale for assessing changes in color.
ISO 105-B01:2014 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart B01: Color fastness to light: Daylight.
ISO 105-B06:1998 TextilesdTests for color fastnessdPart B06: Color fastness and aging to artificial light at high temperatures: Xenon arc fading lamp test.
ISO 178:2010 PlasticsdDetermination of flexural properties.
ISO 179-1:2010 PlasticsdDetermination of Charpy impact propertiesdPart 1: Noninstrumented impact test.
ISO 294-4:2001 PlasticsdInjection molding of test specimens of thermoplastic materialsdPart 4: Determination of molding shrinkage.
ISO 305:1990 PlasticsdDetermination of thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride), related chlorine-containing homopolymers and copolymers and their compoundsdDiscoloration method.
ISO 307:2007 PlasticsdPolyamidesdDetermination of viscosity number.
ISO 527-2:2012 PlasticsdDetermination of tensile propertiesdPart 2: Test conditions for molding and extrusion plastics.
ISO 1043-1: 2011 PlasticsdSymbols and abbreviated termsdPart 1: Basic polymers and their special characteristics.
ISO 1110:1995 PlasticsdPolyamidesdAccelerated conditioning of test specimens.
ISO 1210:1992 PlasticsdDetermination of the burning behavior of horizontal and vertical specimens in contact with a
small-flame ignition source. Withdrawndsee IEC 60695-11-10:1999.
ISO 1218:1975 PlasticsdPolyamidesdDetermination of “melting point.” Withdrawn.
ISO 1628-2:1998 PlasticsdDetermination of the viscosity of polymers in dilute solution using capillary viscometersdPart
2: Poly(vinyl chloride) resins.
ISO 8295:2004 Plastics Film and sheetingdDetermination of the coefficients of friction.
ISO 10993-10:2010 Biological evaluation of medical devicesdPart 10: Tests for irritation and skin sensitization.
ISO 11357-2:2013 PlasticsdDifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC)dPart 2: Determination of glass transition temperature and glass transition step height.
ISO 11357-3:2011 PlasticsdDifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC)dPart 3: Determination of temperature and enthalpy
of melting and crystallization.
ISO 11359-2:1999 PlasticsdThermomechanical analysis (TMA)dPart 2: Determination of coefficient of linear thermal
expansion and glass transition temperature.
ISO 15874-2:2013 Plastics piping systems for hot and cold water installationsdPolypropylene (PP)dPart 2: Pipes.
xxx Standard Test MethodsISO 18373-1:2007 Rigid PVC pipesdDifferential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) methoddPart 1: Measurement of the
processing temperature.
ISO 18373-2:2008 Rigid PVC pipesdDifferential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) methoddPart 2: Measurement of the
enthalpy of fusion of crystallites.
ISO 19069-2:2016 PlasticsdPolypropylene (PP) molding and extrusion materialsdPart 2: Preparation of test specimens
and determination of properties.
SAE J1960 (2008) Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Exterior Materials Using a Controlled Irradiance Water-Cooled
Xenon Arc Apparatus (Canceled January 2008, to be superseded by J2527dPerformance Based Standard for Accelerated
Exposure of Automotive Exterior Materials Using a Controlled Irradiance Xenon-Arc Apparatus).
SAE J2412_201508 (2015) Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Components Using a Controlled Irradiance
Xenon-Arc Apparatus.
SAE J2572_201410 (2014) Recommended Practice for Measuring Fuel Consumption and Range of Fuel Cell and Hybrid
Fuel Cell Vehicles Fueled by Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen.
UL 746B (2013) Standard for Polymeric MaterialsdLong-Term Property Evaluations.
UL 94 (2013) Standard for Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances.
REFERENCES
ASTM International, 2016. West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org.
British Standards Institution, 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL. https://shop.bsigroup.com.
German Institute for Standardization (DIN). https://www.ihs.com/products/din-standards.html.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Webstore. https://webstore.iec.ch.
International Organization for Standardization. ISO Central Secretariat, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401 1214 Vernier,
Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.iso.org/iso/home.html.
SAE International. https://standards.sae.org/.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL). https://ulstandards.ul.com
Chapter 1
Plastics Materials: Introduction and Historical Development
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 2
The Chemical Nature of Plastics Polymerization
Dr. Steve Edmondson and Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 3
States of Aggregation in Polymers
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 4
Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 5
Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 6
Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties
Dr. Carole Raymond and Dr. Sara Ronca
Chapter 8
Fillers (Including Fiber Reinforcements)
Professor Roger Rothon and Dr. Christopher DeArmitt
Chapter 9
Processing, Design, and Performance of Plastics Products
Professor Anto´ nio S. Pouzada
Chapter 10
Polyethylene
Dr. Sara Ronca
Chapter 12
Plastics Based on Styrene
Ms. Kerry Satterthwaite
Chapter 15
Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 16
Acrylic Plastics
Mr. Adam P. Mosley
Chapter 17
Polycarbonates
Dr. Deny Kyriacos
Chapter 18
Aliphatic Polyamides
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 19
Polyacetals
Mr. Daniel L. Jarvis
Chapter 20
Thermoplastic Polyesters
Dr. Henry C.A. Lim
Chapter 22
Cellulose Plastics
Professor Marianne Gilbert
Chapter 25
Aldehyde Polymers: Phenolics and Aminoplastics
Dr. Richard Heath
Chapter 26
Unsaturated Polyester Resins
Professor Frank R. Jones
Chapter 27
Epoxy Resins
Professor Geoff Gibson
Chapter 28
Isocyanate-Based Polymers : Polyurethanes, Polyureas, Polyisocyanurates, and their Copolymers
Dr. Richard Heath
Index
‘Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.’
A
A-stage resins, 712
AA. See Acetaldehyde (AA)
AeBeA block copolymers, 403
Abrasion, 198
ABS. See Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS)
AC copolymer. See Acrylic copolymer (AC
copolymer)
Accelerator, 719
AcCL. See Acetylcaprolactam (AcCL)
Acetaldehyde (AA), 529
Acetal polymers, 522e523
Acetalepolyurethane alloys, 524
Acetal resins, 513, 516e521, 518t, 519f
additives, 522
applications of acetal polymers and
copolymers, 522e523
developments, 524
polymerization of formaldehyde, 514e516
processing, 521e522
Acetic acid, 620
Acetone, 707
cyanohydrins, 442, 442f
Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), 359
Acetylation, 620
Acetylcaprolactam (AcCL), 492
ACH route, 442
Acicular fillers, 190
Acid anhydride hardeners, 781e784, 785t.
See also Amine hardeners
Acid chloride route, 570
Acid functional saturated polymers, 186
Acrylic copolymer (AC copolymer),
540e541
Acrylic modifiers, 363
Acrylic plastics. See also Plastics
acrylic polymers, 455e456, 456f
adhesives, 454
hydrophilic polymers, 454e455
MMA, 453, 453t
PMMA, 442e452
poly(methacrylamide), 455
Acrylic polymers, 441, 441f, 448f, 450f,
455e456, 456f
Acrylic sheet, 452
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 100,
135e136, 151, 205, 293e294, 311,
318e319
applications, 319
copolymer, 639
polymers, 447
processing, 319
terpolymer, 6, 363
modifiers, 363
Active hydrogen-containing reactants, 799
Acyclic aliphatic resins, 787e788
ADC. See Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC)
ADCA. See Azodicarbonamide (ADCA)
Additive(s), 86, 145e150, 294e297, 363,
429, 449, 501e502, 789e791,
808e811
aliphatic polyamides, 501e502
flame retardants, 155
LCPs, 611
PAEKs, 586e589
PBI, 600e601
PE, 263e265
for plastics, 127, 160e165
antioxidants, 128e143
blooming in polymer compounds, 128t
blowing agents, 158e160
colorants, 143e150
fire retardant additives, 154e158
impact modifiers, 151e154
lubricants and flow promoters, 150e151
plasticizers and softeners, 150
polyetherimides, 579e581
PPS, 564
sulfones, 556e557
Adhesive(s), 306, 831e832
applications for PF, 732e733
epoxy resins in, 796
MF, 733
tape for PEEK, 593
Adipic acid, 489, 489f, 494f
Agglomerates, 172, 173f
Aggregates, 172, 173f
Aggregation states in polymers, 39
amorphous polymers, 39e44
cross-linked structures, 52e53
crystalline polymers, 44e52
impact modification of plastics, 54e56
Aging, 93e94
AIBN. See Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)
Air plasma treatment, 124e125
Aldehyde polymers. See also Fluorinecontaining polymers
aldehyde-based and-related polymers,
737e741
aldehyde-related polymers, 737e741
applications, 732e737
formaldehyde-based polymers, 705
laminates, 728e732
molding materials, 717e728
monomers, 706e710
oligomerization or resinification of aldehyde
systems, 710e717
Aldehydes, 705
Aliphatic
aliphatic links, flexible, 606
biodegradable polyesters, 640
esters, 357
polyamides, 547
polyester, 527e528
polyisocyanates, 804
saturated acids, 756
Aliphatic polyamides, 487, 493e495
applications, 506e509
fiber-filled polyamides, 502e505
intermediates, 489e491
polymerization, 491e493
processing, 505e506
properties, 495e500
solubility, 509e510, 510f
Alkali cellulose, 618
Alkoxy-silanes, 184, 281
Alkyds, 770e771
Alkyl 2-cyanoacrylates, 454
Alkyl substituted molecule poly-(2,6-
dimethyl-p-phenylene ether), 325
Alkyl sulfonic phenyl esters (ASE), 359
Alkylene oxides, polyethers from,
524e525
Alkylperoxyl radicals, 130
Allophonate formation, 805
Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC), 769, 769f
Allyl resins, 769e770
DAP resin, 769e770
Alpha process, 443, 443f
Altam, 490
Alternating copolymers, 23
Alumina trihydrate (ATH), 178, 793
Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), 33
Aluminum flakes, 149
Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), 178
fillers, 202
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH), 361, 451
Ambient lighting, 327
Amine hardeners, 778e781, 779te780t,
782t. See also Acid anhydride
hardeners
u-Amino acid, 488, 488f
Amino silanes, 162
u-Aminocaproic acid, 490
837Aminoplastics, 705, 723, 728e729
world production, 706
Aminoresin. See Aminoplastics
u-Aminoundecanoic acid, 490e492, 491f
Ammonium borate, 157
Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), 157e158,
793
Ammoximation reaction, 490
Amorphous
density, 89
materials, 226, 446
nonpolar
polymers, 79, 82
solvents, 79
perfluoropolymers, 404
applications, 420
processing, 413
plastics, 118
polar polymers, 82e83
solvents, 79e83
Amorphous polyethylene terephthalate
(APET), 417
Amorphous polymers, 39e44. See also
Crystalline polymers
glass transition temperature, 41e42
orientation, 43e44
physical aging, 42e43
physical states, 39e41
sub-T
g transitions, 42
Anaerobic acrylic adhesives, 454
Anatase grade, 146
“Andomness”, 290
Angiosarcoma of liver (ASL), 329e330
Anhydrides, 184
Anilineeformaldehyde polymers, 740, 740t
Anionic polymerization, 32e35,
493e494
Anisotropic behavior, 43
Anisotropy, 225e227
amorphous materials, 226
reinforced thermoplastics, 226e227
semicrystalline materials, 226
Annealing process, 407
Antagonism, 142
Antiaging additives, 127
Antiblocking agents, 163, 263, 296
Antidegradants, 294e297, 579
Antimony oxides, 156
Antioxidant(s), 128e143, 264, 294,
346e347, 467e468, 557, 564, 589,
600
antagonism, 142
biological, 141
classes and mechanisms of action, 132e135
high molar mass, 141e142
MDs, 140e141
oxidation of hydrocarbon polymers,
129e132
photoactivators, 137e140
photostabilizers, 137e140
reactive antioxidants, 141e142
stabilizers against dehydrochlorination, 143
synergism, 142
thermal stabilizers, 135e137
UV absorbers, 347
Antiplasticization, 348, 349f
Antireflection coatings, 122e123
Antistatic additives, 264e265
Antistatic agents, 163, 296, 363
APET. See Amorphous polyethylene
terephthalate (APET)
APP. See Ammonium polyphosphate (APP)
aPP. See atactic PP (aPP)
Aquanyl, 509
Aqueous PTFE dispersion applications, 414,
415f
Aqueous suspension polymerization, 401
p-Aramid, 604
Aramid-fiber-filled polyamides, 504
Aromatic
amide copolymer, 596
amines, 136e137
compounds, 8
diacids, 646f
dicarboxylic acids, 527e528, 527f
isocyanates, 801e802
polyamides, 547
polybenzimidazoles, 594
polyesters, 528, 645
Artificial weathering, 94
Aryl etherketones, 587t
Aryl phosphite esters, 137
ASE. See Alkyl sulfonic phenyl esters (ASE)
ASL. See Angiosarcoma of liver (ASL)
Aspect ratio, 174
Asymmetric aromatic molecules, 606e607
Atactic polypropylene, 65e66
Atactic PP (aPP), 282, 286e287
Atactic structure, 65
ATBC. See Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC)
ATH. See Alumina trihydrate (ATH);
Aluminum trihydrate (ATH)
ATL process. See Automated tape-laying
process (ATL process)
Atlac 580, 767
Atom, 103
Atom transfer radical polymerization
(ATRP), 32e33
Atomic force microscopies. See Scanning
force microscopies (SFM)
ATRP. See Atom transfer radical
polymerization (ATRP)
Aurum, 565
Auto-acceleration effect, 444
Automated tape-laying process (ATL
process), 774
Automatic molding, 407
Automotive industry PEEK, 593
Autoxidation reaction, 129
Average kinetic chain length, 29
Azelaic acid, 489
Azelates, 357
Azo pigments, 147
Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), 26
Azodi-isobutyronitrile, 444
Azodicarbonamide (ADCA), 160, 363
B
B-stage resins, 712
Ba/Cd systems, 345
Ba/Zn systems, 345
“Back-biting” mechanism, 253, 253f
Barely visible damage (BVD), 791
Barrier properties, 198e199
BASF, 264, 490
Bassalli solution, 235
BCF. See Bulked continuous filament (BCF)
BDO. See 1,4-Butanediol (BDO)
Beckmann rearrangement, 490
Benzene, 91, 311
Benzimidazole, 596
Benzoate esters, 359
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 26, 314,
750e751
Bi-material injection molding, 220
Biaxial
orientation, 298, 385
process, 117
stretching of amorphous polymers, 43e44
Bifunctional
coupling agents, 35
hindered phenol semiacrylate antioxidant,
137
reactions, 738
Bimodal polymers, 24
Bio-based eco-products, 631
Bio-based intermediates, 644e647
Bio-based materials, 8
Bio-based polymers, 642e643
Bio-based polyols, 646
Biocellat, 624
Bioceta, 624
Biocides, 164, 363
Biocomposites, 771
Biodegradable blends, 637
Biodegradable plastics, 10, 15, 631
PBS, 642e643
PHAs, 640e642
PLA, 634e640
Biodegradable polycarbonates, 462
Biodegradable polymers, 631
Biodegradation
principles and testing procedures, 647e648,
647t
standards, 648
Biological antioxidants, 141
Bioplastics, 631, 632f
bio-based intermediates, 644e647
biodegradable and compostable plastics,
634e643
biodegradation and compostability
principles, 647e648
blends and composites, 632e633
recycling and life-cycle analysis, 631e632
Biopol, 7
Bioresins, 771
838 IndexBiphenyls, 607e608
Birefringence, 116e118
implications in plastics, 117e118
measurement, 118
Bis(hydroxyphenyl)-methane (HPM), 711
Bisphenol (BP), 606
Bisphenol A (BPA), 346, 457, 457fe458f,
464t, 528
dianhydride, 572e573
preparation from propylene and allyl
chloride, 775f
resin preparation from, 774e776
unit cell structure, 465f
Bisphenol H, 785e786
2,2-Bistrifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-1,3-
dioxole (PDD), 404
Biuret formation, 805
Black pigments, 146
Bleeding, 128, 633
Blends, 22e23, 524, 581, 632e633
PCs, 480e483
PHAs, 642
PLA modification, 637
Block copolymers, 22e23, 53, 68, 280, 291,
672f
block copolymer polyurethane, polyester,
and polyamide TPE morphology, 671,
672f
Block process, 821
Blocked isocyanates, 806, 831
Blooming, 128, 128t
Blow molding, 266, 277, 300, 371, 381,
477e478
extrusion blow molding, 477, 478f
injection blow molding, 478
Blow-up ratio (BUR), 266e267
Blowing agents, 158e160, 264, 809e810
chemical blowing agents, 159e160
physical blowing agents, 159
Blue Wool scale, 144
BMC. See Bulk molding compounds (BMC)
Bonded interpenetrating network (Bonded
IPN), 760e762
Bonded IPN. See Bonded interpenetrating
network (Bonded IPN)
Borates, 157
Borax, 157
Boric acid (H3BO3), 157
Boron trifluoride (BF3), 33, 76f
Borstar PP technology, 285, 286f
Bottle tops, 385
BP. See Benzoyl peroxide (BPO); Bisphenol
(BP)
BPA. See Bisphenol A (BPA); 2,2-bis-(pHydroxy-phenyl)propane (BPA)
BPAephenol adduct, 459
BPF. See British Plastics Federation (BPF)
BPO. See Benzoyl peroxide (BPO)
BR. See Butadiene rubber (BR)
Branched phthalates, 353e356, 356t
Branching, 253, 461
British Plastics Federation (BPF), 2
Bromine, 156
Building, PVC use in, 380
Bulk molding compounds (BMC), 758, 765,
796e797
Bulk polymerization, 28, 284, 333, 444
Bulk polymers, crystalline structure in,
46e48
Bulked continuous filament (BCF), 302
BUR. See Blow-up ratio (BUR)
Butadiene rubber (BR), 151
1,4-Butanediol (BDO), 642, 645e646
Butyl glycidyl ether, 789, 789f
Butyl lithium, 656
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). See
4-Methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol
N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide, 501
Butylbenzyl phthalate, 356
4,40-Butylidenebis-(3-methyl-6-tbutylphenol), 516
BVD. See Barely visible damage (BVD)
C
C-blacks. See Carbon blacks (C-blacks)
13C-NMR spectroscopy, 287
C-stage resins, 712
CA. See Cellulose acetate (CA)
Ca/Zn systems, 345
CAB. See Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)
CAGR. See Compound annual growth rate
(CAGR)
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), 292e293,
360e361
minerals, 176e177
Calcium stearate, 345
Calcium-based stabilizers, 344
Calendering processes, 268
CAP. See Cellulose acetate propionate
(CAP)
Capacitance, 104
Caprolactam (CL), 490, 490f, 493f
Carbanion, 33f
Carbocation, 33f
Carbon, 75e76
Carbon blacks (C-blacks), 92, 138, 138f,
146, 176, 263e264
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites
(CFRP composites), 791
Carbon fibers (CF), 293e294, 579, 768
Carbon nanofiber (CNF), 469, 469f, 589
Carbon-fiber-filled polyamides, 504, 505f
Carbonate fillers, 202
Carboxyl groups (COOH groups), 531
Carboxylic acid, 535
anhydride route, 570e571
and related compounds, 185e186
Carother’s equation, 744
Casein, 4
Cast polyamides, 509
Cast resins, 756e757
Catalysts, 809
Catalytic peroxide decomposers (PD-C), 135,
139
Catalytic peroxidolytic agents, 133e135
Catalytic pyrolysis, 400
Cationic antioxidants, 163
Cationic polymerization, 33, 34f
“Cationic resins”, 736
CB antioxidants. See Chain-breaking
antioxidants (CB antioxidants)
CB-A antioxidants. See Chain breaking
acceptor antioxidants (CB-A
antioxidants)
CB-D antioxidants. See Chain-breaking
donor antioxidants (CB-D
antioxidants)
Cell-forming additives, 809e810
Cellophane, 629
Cellular PE, 264
Cellular thermoplastics, 324, 468
Celluloid, 619
Cellulose, 94, 178, 618f
acetate, 5
caprate, 625
esters, 619e626, 633
applications, 625e626
ethers, 626e628
EC, 626e628, 627t
miscellaneous ethers, 628
fully substituted, 626f
nature and occurrence, 617e619
nitrate
production, 619
properties and applications, 619e620
regenerated, 628e629
triacetate film, 625
tripropionate, 444
Cellulose acetate (CA), 619e621
biodegradable CA compounds, 624
compounding, 621e622
plasticizers, 621f, 624t
properties, 622e624, 622t
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 619, 625
Cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), 624
Cellulose propionate (CP), 619
Cenospheres, 202
Centrifugal casting, 763
CF. See Carbon fibers (CF); Continuous
filament (CF)
CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
CFRP composites. See Carbon fiberreinforced plastic composites (CFRP
composites)
Chain
branching, 335
extenders, 808
folding, 46, 47f
regularity, 64
transfer agents and regulators, 27
Chain breaking acceptor antioxidants (CB-A
antioxidants), 132
Chain reaction polymerization, 21, 26e36.
See also Step reaction polymerization
CRP, 32e33
decomposition of radical initiators, 26f
emulsion polymerization, 28f
free-radical polymerization, 26e29
ionic polymerization, 33e35
kinetics of free-radical addition
polymerization, 29e32
metallocene polymerization, 35e36
Index 839Chain reaction polymerization (Continued)
reaction of propagating radical with
hydroquinone, 27f
ZieglereNatta polymerization, 35e36
Chain-breaking antioxidants (CB
antioxidants), 131e132
Chain-breaking donor antioxidants (CB-D
antioxidants), 132
Chalk. See Calcium carbonate
“Chalking”, 130e131
Charpy test, 239
CHDM. See Cyclohexanedimethanol
(CHDM)
Chemical
blowing agents, 468
bonds, 75e77
defect structures, 335
imidization-precipitative process, 567
reactivity, 90e91
resistance, 496, 497t
Chemical-resistant E-glass (ECR), 758e759
Chemolysis. See Secondary recycling
Chill-roll process, 268
Chlorendic acid. See Het acid
Chlorendic anhydride, 750f, 784
Chlorinated paraffin plasticizers, 358
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), 363
impact modifiers, 363
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC), 382e383, 383t
Chlorinated solvents, 473
Chlorinated waxes, 150
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 159
Chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (CTFE
copolymer), 400
Chopped strand mat (CSM), 757
CIE system. See Commission Internationale
de l’Eclairage system (CIE system)
Cisetrans isomerization of maleate to
fumarate, 748
Citrate-based esters, 359
CL. See Caprolactam (CL)
Clarifying agents, 164e165
Classical azo pigments, 147
ClausiuseClapeyron equation, 86
Clear rigid extruded sheet formulation, 365t
“Clearing agents”, 4
Cling film, 381
CNF. See Carbon nanofiber (CNF)
Coagulated rubber, 2
Coal tar, 8
Coating(s), 374, 508, 759e760, 810,
831e832
antireflection, 122e123
coil, 374
dip, 374
electrostatic, 592
epoxy coating, 794
foams and extrusion, 301e302
in-mold, 810
in-mold surface, 828, 828f
powder, 592
PU-based, 831
screen, 374
spray, 374
stearate, 185
surface, 774, 794, 799, 810
urethane-based, 831
wire, 592
Coefficient of friction (COF), 198
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), 175,
197e198, 567
COF. See Coefficient of friction (COF)
Cohesive energy density, 78e79
Coil coating, 374
Coining method, 407
Cold molding process, 820
Cold-curing foams, 820
“Cold-drawing” process, 51
Color, 123e125, 176, 199e200
dyes, 124
pigments, 124
printability, 124e125
production, 143e144
Colorants, 143e150
additives for coloration, 145e150
color production, 143e144
Commercial polypropylenes, 65e66
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage
system (CIE system), 123e124
Commodity
plastics, 9
thermoplastics, 545
Comonomers, 255
Compatibilizers for polymer blends, 163
Compensator, 118
Composite materials, 632e633, 774
epoxy resins in, 795e796, 795t
Composite properties, filler effects on,
191e201
abrasion, 198
barrier properties, 198e199
creep, 196
electrical conductivity, 196e197
flame retardancy, 201
friction, 198
hardness, 198
HDT, 193e194
modulus, 191e193
optical properties, 199e200
permeability, 198e199
scratch resistance, 198
strength, 191
thermal properties, 197e198
thermal stability, 194
toughness, 195e196
wear, 198
Compostability principles and testing
procedures, 647e648, 647t
Compostable plastics
PBS, 642e643
PHAs, 640e642
PLA, 634e640
Compostable polymers, 631
Compound annual growth rate (CAGR), 698
Compounding, 466e469
ingredients, 342e363, 467e469
additives, 363
antioxidants, 467e468
antioxidants and UV stabilizers,
346e347
dyes and pigments, 468
fillers, 360e361
flame retardants, 468
foaming agents, 468
heat stabilizers, 343e346
lubricants, 359e360
nanocomposite, 468e469
pigments, 361e362
plasticizers, 347e359
polymeric processing aids and impact
modifiers, 362e363
reinforcing fillers, 469, 470t
UV stabilizers, 467, 467f
techniques, 467
Compression molding, 266, 371, 602
Condensation polymerization, 21
Condenser, 104
Conduction mechanism, 112e115
applications of ICPs, 113e115, 114t
Conductive fibers, 176
Cone calorimeter, 101
Constrained geometry catalysts, 281
homogeneous catalysts, 250
Construction
epoxy resins in, 796
PVC, 380
Consumption of plastics, 12, 14t
Contact
adhesives, 831e832
resins, 750
Continuous filament (CF), 302
Continuous melt mixing, 370
Continuous random fibers (CR fibers), 758
Continuous random mat (CRM), 758
Continuous use temperature (CUT), 545
Control unit, 218
Controlled orientation injection molding,
220
Controlled radical polymerization (CRP),
32e33
Controlled rheology process, 294
COOH groups. See Carboxyl groups (COOH
groups)
Coordinate bond, 76, 76f
Coordination polymerization, 35, 250
Copolyester-based TPE, 692, 693te694t
Copolyesteramides (PEA), 661, 661f
Copolyesters, 528, 537e538, 538t
applications, 540e541
color shift measured using CIELAB color,
542f
new-generation, 538e539
properties of Tritan, 539e540
Copolyetheresteramides (PEEA), 661, 661f
Copolymerization, 32, 254, 462f, 495
biodegradable polycarbonates, 462
with dicarboxylic acids, 462, 462f
effect, 62e63
of fluoroacrylates, 405
with hydroquinone, 462
PLA modification, 637
with siloxanes, 461, 461f
840 IndexCopolymers, 22e23, 54e55, 382, 493, 596,
832e833
alternating copolymers, 23
applications, 522e523
block copolymers, 22e23
of ethylene
ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers,
273
ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, 273
ethyleneecarbon monoxide copolymer,
274
ionomers, 273e274
graft copolymers, 23
methods of combining polymers, 23
PVC, 382
random copolymers, 22
rubber-modified SAN, 319e320
transition temperatures, 68e70
Copper, 140e141
Coreeshell
elastomer impact modifier particles,
55e56
modifiers, 153
polymers, 392
Corona plasma treatment, 124e125
Corotating twin-screw compounding
extruder, 370
Cotton
fabric laminates, 731
flock, 718
linters, 617
Covalent bond, 75, 76f
CP. See Cellulose propionate (CP)
CPE. See Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
CPVC. See Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CR fibers. See Continuous random fibers
(CR fibers)
CR-39 Plastic, 769, 769f
Crack pinning method, 195
Creep, 196
curves, 231
Cresols, 708
CRM. See Continuous random mat (CRM)
Cross-link(ing)
additives, 160e162
agents, 264, 808e809, 818e820
density, 52
effect, 63
molecules, 19e22, 20t
PE, 270e271
polybenzimidazole structure, 597
of prepolymer, 738
PVC, 385e386
structures, 52e53
swelling of cross-linking polymers, 87
CRP. See Controlled radical polymerization
(CRP)
Crude MDIs. See polymericdMDIs
Crystal nucleating agents, 296e297
Crystalline, 96
materials, 830e831
melting point, factors affecting, 68
nonpolar polymers, 79e82
polar polymers and solvents, 83e84
Crystalline polymers, 44. See also
Amorphous polymers
crystallinity in polymers, 45e48
liquid crystal polymers, 52
orientation in, 51e52
Crystallinity, 188, 287e288, 336e338,
495e496
higher crystallinity PVC, 337e338
polar attractions in PVC, 339f
in polymers, 45e48
X-ray diffraction peaks, 338f
Crystallites, 44
Crystallization, 44, 64e67
crystallizing solvents, 82
CSM. See Chopped strand mat (CSM)
CTE. See Coefficient of thermal expansion
(CTE)
CTFE copolymer. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (CTFE
copolymer)
Cumene process, 707
Curing, 750
chemistry, 752e755
of epoxy resins, 776e784
of polyester resins, 750e755
Cushioning materials, 800, 823e824
CUT. See Continuous use temperature
(CUT)
Cyanoacrylate adhesives, 454
Cyclic
aliphatic resins, 787, 787t
carbonate, 457
ether, 515, 515f
monomers, 21
trimer, 514
Cyclization, 586
Cyclo-aliphatic amines, 781
Cyclohexane, 707
Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), 536,
538e539
Cyclohexanone, 490
Cyclopentane, 159
D
D65, 124
DABCO. See 1,4-Diazabicyclo [2,2,2]octan
(DABCO)
DAP resin. See Diallyl phthalate resin (DAP
resin)
DBP. See Di-butyl phthalate (DBP)
DCPD. See Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)
Debye equation, 110
Degree of crystallization, 287e288
Degree of polymerization (DP), 21, 30,
403
Degree of substitution, 618
DEHA. See Di-2-Ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)
DEHP. See Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate
(DEHP)
DEHTP. See Di-(2Ethylhexyl) terephthalate
(DEHTP)
Dehydrogenation, 312, 313f
DEP. See Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
Designing process of plastics products,
208
DETDA. See 2,4-and 2,6-Diamine isomers
of 3,5-diethyl toluene (DETDA)
DGEBA. See Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol
A (DGEBA)
Di-(2Ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP),
358e359
Di-2-Ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), 357
Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), 353
Di-2-Propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), 353
Di-butyl phthalate (DBP), 353, 449
Di-isocyanate route, 571
Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), 352
Di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate
(Hexamoll DINCH), 359
Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), 352
Di-octyl phthalate (DOP), 353
Di-octyl terephthalate (DOTP), 358e359
Di-b-naphthyl-p-phenylenediamine, 515
Diacyl chlorides, 462, 462f
Dialkyl sulfides, 137
Diallyl phthalate resin (DAP resin),
769e770, 770f
Diamine bis-(4-amino-3-methylcyclohexyl)-
methane, 488
2,4-and 2,6-Diamine isomers of 3,5-diethyl
toluene (DETDA), 808e809
Diamines, 570
4,4-Diamino diphenyl methane, 571f
Diaminophenyl sulfone, 781
Dianin’s compound isomers, 458e459,
459f
1,4-Diazabicyclo [2,2,2]octan (DABCO), 809
Diazo pigments, 148
Dibasic-acid-modified PCTs (PCTA), 538
Dicarboxylic acids, 488, 488f
copolymerization with, 462, 462f
3,3-Dichloro 4,40-diamino diphenylmethane
(MOCA), 808e809
3,3 Dichlorobenzidine, 148
Dicyanodiamide (DICY), 784
Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), 671e672
DIDP. See Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP)
Die drawing processes, 51
Dielectric constant, 103e109, 261e262,
449, 449f
center of electron cloud, 104f
quantitative relationships, 109e111
DielseAlder reaction, 750
Diethanolamine, 807
Diethyl phthalate (DEP), 622
Diethylaminopropylamine, 778
Diethylene glycol, 750
Diethylenetriamine, 778, 789, 790f
Differential cooling, 227e228
Differential crystallinity, 227e228
Differential orientation, 227e228
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
252, 336, 529
thermograms, 605f, 665, 665f
Differential thermal strain, 227e228
Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 185
Index 841Diffusion, 94
effect of polymer and diffusant structure,
96e97
through film, 95e96
functional groups on oxygen permeability,
97t
permeability, 94e95, 95t
Difunctional isocyanate, 805
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA),
773, 774fe775f
1,4-Dihydroxybenzene. See Hydroquinone
(HQ)
Diketo pyrrolo pyrrole (DPP), 148
Dilatant flow, 674
Dilauryl-b, b0-thiodipropionate (DLTP), 264
Diluents, 789e791, 789f
Dimethacrylates, 454
Dimethyl formamide (DMF)), 556, 595
5,5-Dimethyl hydantoin derivatives, 788,
789f
Dimethyl phthalate, 621
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 550, 595
Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), 528, 538
Dimethylaminopropylamine, 778
Dimethylaniline (DMA), 751
Dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), 814
DINP. See Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP)
Dip coating, 374
Dip molding, 374
Diphenyl carbonate, 457, 459
Diphenyl ether, 583f
4,4,-Diphenylmethane’ diisocyanates
(4,4-MDI), 802e803
Dipole forces, 77, 77f
Dipole polarization, 105
Dipping technique, 269
Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate (DPGDB),
359
Direct impregnation, 763e764
Direct lithography process, 114e115
Discontinuous fibers, 757
Dishwasher durability, 540, 541f
Dispersion
forces, 77
spray techniques, 592
Dispersity, 24
Dissipation factor, 105
Distortion, 227e228
DLTP. See Dilauryl-b,b0-thiodipropionate
(DLTP)
DMA. See Dimethylaniline (DMA);
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)
DMC. See Dough molding compounds
(DMC)
DMF. See Dimethyl formamide (DMF)
DMPA. See Dimethylol propionic acid
(DMPA)
DMSO. See Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
DMT. See Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT)
Dodecanelactam, 491
Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride, 784
DOP. See Di-octyl phthalate (DOP)
Doping, 112e115, 113f, 114t
Dormagen process, 620
DOTP. See Di-octyl terephthalate (DOTP)
Doubly refracting crystals, 116
Dough molding compounds (DMC), 758,
765, 796e797
Dow process, 459, 707
Dow-Taga process, 299f
DP. See Degree of polymerization (DP)
DPGDB. See Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate
(DPGDB)
DPHP. See Di-2-Propylheptyl phthalate
(DPHP)
DPP. See Diketo pyrrolo pyrrole (DPP)
Draw-down ratio, 266e267
DRIFTS. See Diffuse Reflectance Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
(DRIFTS)
“Drooling”, 506
Dry
blending, 369e370
process, 4
winding, 763
Dryers, 770
DSC. See Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC)
Dual-component processing, 816e817
equipment, 816
LP and HP dispensing equipment, 819t
Ductileebrittle transition, 238
DV. See Dynamic vulcanizates (DV)
Dyes, 124, 468
Dyestuffs, 145
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 252,
464e466, 466f, 584
Dynamic vulcanizates (DV), 653
Dynamic vulcanization process, 664
E
E-glass, 180, 758e759
fiber, 767
E-MA-GMA. See Ethylene-methyl acrylateglycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA)
E-ray, 117
E/E industries. See Electrical/electronic
industries (E/E industries)
EA-TPV. See Elastomeric alloys-TPV
(EA-TPV)
Eastman Tritan, 538, 540f
properties, 539e540, 539t
transparent thermoplastics, 539f
Easy-open packaging, 305
EBM. See Extrusion blow molding (EBM)
EBS. See Ethylene-bis-stearamide (EBS)
EC. See Ethyl cellulose (EC)
ECHA. See European Chemicals Agency
(ECHA)
ECR. See Chemical-resistant E-glass (ECR)
ECTFE, 400, 417
copolymers, 412
industrial process for production, 400
ECVM. See European Council of Vinyl
Manufacturers (ECVM)
ED. See External donor (ED)
EEW values. See Epoxy equivalent weight
values (EEW values)
EG. See Ethylene glycol (EG); Expandable
graphite (EG)
Ekonol, 606
EL lamps. See Electroluminescent lamps
(EL lamps)
Elastic effects in polymer melts, 213e214
Elastomeric alloys, 663e665
Elastomeric alloys-TPV (EA-TPV), 653
Elastomeric modifiers, 151
Elastomers, 294, 833
Electrical applications
epoxy resins in, 794e795
polyetherimides, 582
Electrical conductivity, 196e197, 579
Electrical insulators, 103
Electrical/electronic industries (E/E
industries), 592
applications in LCPs, 611
Electrically conductive polymers, 111e115
Electroluminescent lamps (EL lamps), 417
Electromagnetic/radiofrequency shielding
(EMI/RFI shielding), 504
Electron
diffraction, 47
microscopy, 290
polarization, 104
Electronic applications, epoxy resins in,
794e795
Electrophilic aromatic substitution, 550
Electrostatic coating, 592
Electrostatic dissipation (ESD), 505
Electrostatic dissipative grades, 564
EMA. See Ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA)
EMI/RFI shielding. See Electromagnetic/
radiofrequency shielding (EMI/RFI
shielding)
Emulsifiers, 810
Emulsion
and microsuspension PVC, 341, 342f
polymerization, 28, 28f, 32, 333, 341, 401,
428e429
polymers, 332
ENB. See Ethylidene norbornene (ENB)
Endothermal blowing agents, 160
Endothermic decomposition, 155
Energy, 89
energy-intensive process, 451
Engineering plastics, 321
Engineering thermoplastics, 458, 469e476,
513
Entropy, 89
Environmental stress chemical corrosion
(ESCC), 767
Environmental-stress cracking (ESC), 255,
261, 539
EO. See Ethylene oxides (EO)
EO-tipped PPG polyetherols, 806
EP-RACOs. See Ethyleneepropylene
random copolymers (EP-RACOs)
EPDM. See Ethyleneepropyleneediene
elastomers (EPDM)
Epichlorohydrin, 775
Epoxide. See Ring-like epoxy groups
Epoxidized drying oil, 788, 788f
842 IndexEpoxidized polybutadiene resins, 788, 788f
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO), 345
Epoxy, 773
coating systems, 794
composite laminates, 795
compounds, 358
epoxyehydroxyl reaction, 777
equivalent, 776
esters, 358
nanocomposites, 793e794
stabilizers, 346
vinyl ester resins, 791
Epoxy equivalent weight values (EEW
values), 531
Epoxy resins, 773e774, 773f
applications, 794e797
curing, 776e784
diluents, flexibilizers, and additives,
789e791
epoxy nanocomposites, 793e794
epoxy vinyl ester resins, 791
fire resistance, 792e793
miscellaneous epoxy resins, 785e788
preparation from bisphenol A, 774e776
toughened epoxy resins, 791e792
EPR. See Ethyleneepropylene rubber (EPR)
EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Equibiaxial stretching, 44
Equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), 173
ESBO. See Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO)
ESC. See Environmental-stress cracking
(ESC)
ESCC. See Environmental stress chemical
corrosion (ESCC)
ESD. See Electrostatic dissipation (ESD);
Equivalent spherical diameter (ESD)
Esterification, 745
ETFE, 399, 417f
applications, 416e417
copolymers, 411e412
industrial process for production, 399
Ethenoid plastics, 5
Ethenylbenzene. See Styrene
Ethyl cellulose (EC), 626e628, 627t
Ethylene, 8, 644
copolymers
ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, 273
industrial process for production of
ECTFE, 400
structure and properties of ECTFE, 400
Ethylene glycol (EG), 528, 538e539, 750
dimethacrylate, 451
Ethylene oxides (EO), 806
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 22, 262
copolymers, 273, 432
Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers, 437e438
applications, 438
structure and properties, 437e438
Ethylene-bis-stearamide (EBS), 359
Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers, 273
Ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA), 535
Ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl
methacrylate (E-MA-GMA), 535
Ethyleneecarbon monoxide copolymer, 274
Ethyleneepropylene phase morphology, 292f
Ethyleneepropylene random copolymers
(EP-RACOs), 290
Ethyleneepropylene rubber (EPR), 280, 663
Ethyleneepropyleneediene elastomers
(EPDM), 290e291, 663, 664f,
673fe674f
2-Ethylhexyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, 501
Ethylidene norbornene (ENB), 663e664
EU responses, 330e331
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA),
14e15
European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers
(ECVM), 330
European PVC industry, 16
EVA. See Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
Exotherms, 754e755
Expandable graphite (EG), 155, 158
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 311, 322e324,
323t, 824e825
structural foams, 324
Extent of reaction, 36
External donor (ED), 281
External release agents, 811
Extrusion, 209, 266, 297, 372, 445, 477,
557e558
blow molding, 477, 478f
coating, 301e302
molding, 266
parameters, 694, 695te697t
resins, 431
Extrusion blow molding (EBM), 216,
300
F
Fatty acids, 185, 360
FBA. See Furnace bottom ash (FBA)
FBRs. See Fluidized-bed reactors (FBRs)
FDA. See US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA)
2,5-FDCA. See 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid
(2,5-FDCA)
FeAcAc. See Iron acetylacetonate (FeAcAc)
FeDRC. See Iron dithiocarbamates (FeDRC)
FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP)
FeSt. See Iron stearates (FeSt)
Fiber surface finish, 759e762
adhesion promoter, 760e762
by aqueous emulsion, 761t
choice of silane, 762
hydrolysis and polycondensation, 761f
interphase, 762f
Fiber-filled polyamides
aramid-fiber-filled polyamides, 504
carbon-fiber-filled polyamides, 504, 505f
glass-filled polyamides, 502e504, 503t
grades, 505
Fiber-resin perform
moldings, 734
sheet properties, 734t
Fiber(s), 602e603, 830e831
fiber-forming material, 799
fillers, 183
reinforcements, 810
spinning, 302
Fibrides, 277
Fibrillar structures, 464
Fick’s law of diffusion, 94
Fikentscher K-value, 334
Filaments, 431
winding, 763, 795
Filled resins, 393
Fillers, 96, 127, 169, 201e203, 263,
292e294, 293f, 360e361, 789, 810
annual global consumption, 170t
calcium carbonate, 360e361
fire retardants and smoke suppressants, 361
particulate fillers
to improving sustainability, 202e203
for plastics, 171e176
in plastics, 170t
recycling, 201e202
reducing cost, 169e170
surface modifiers, 183e188
sustainability and recycling issues,
201e203
types in thermoplastics and thermosets,
176e183
use in plastics, 188e201
filler effects on composite properties,
191e201
Films, 431, 431f
extrusion, 591
and sheet, 297e299, 380e381
Fine powder
processing, 408, 409f
resins, 392
Fire
fire resistance, epoxy resins in, 792e793
and plastics, 97
testing, 98e101
Fire retardant(s), 155, 263, 361, 468, 557,
810e811
additives, 154e158
fillers, 156
fire and flammability testing, 155
terminology, 154e155
Firefighter gear, 602
Flame retardancy, 201
Flame retardants. See Fire retardant(s)
Flammability tests, 98e100
Flexibilizers, 789e791
Flexible
for cable formulation, 365t
pipes, 763
PVC, 347, 367e369, 368f, 369t
sheet flooring formulation, 365te366t
tubing and profiles, 382
Flexible foams
one-shot polyester foams, 820
polyetherol
one-shot foams, 818e820
prepolymers, 820
process methods, 821e822
properties and applications, 823e824
quasiprepolymer polyetherol foams,
820e821
Index 843Flexural
stiffness, 235
strength, 191
Floating head method, 828
Flooring, 380
FloryeFox equation, 62
Flow path ratio, 218
Flow properties of polymer, 212e213
Flow temperature, 40
Fluidization, 269
Fluidized-bed reactors (FBRs), 284e285
Fluorescence, 148e149
Fluorinated acrylates, 405, 420
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), 398,
411
applications, 415
resins, 411
Fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFCs), 809
Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomers
(FTPEs), 403e404, 419
Fluorine atoms, 67
Fluorine-containing polymers, 389. See also
Aldehyde polymers
applications for fluoroplastics, 422
fluoropolymers
applications, 413e420
monomers in, 389t
preparation and properties, 391e405
processing, 405e413
recycling, 421
world fluoropolymer demand, 390te391t
recent trends, 422
safety and hygiene, 420e421
Fluoroadditives, 393
Fluoroelastomers, 390
Fluoroplastics
applications, 422
thermal behavior, 420e421, 421t
Fluoropolymers, 389e405, 420
applications, 413e420
categories, 390t
copolymer of CTFE and ethylene, 400
FTPEs, 403e404
miscellaneous, 404e405
monomers, 389t
PCTFE, 399e400
perfluoroalkoxy resins, 398e399
polyvinylidene fluoride, 400e401
processing, 405e413
PTFE, 391e398
PVF, 402
recycling, 421
terpolymers of TFE, HFP, and VDF,
402e403
world fluoropolymer demand, 390te391t
Fluorosilicones, 389e390
Foam formulation for plastisol formulation,
366t
Foamed isocyanate-based polymers,
817e824
flexible foams, 818e821
integral-skinned foams, 826e830
rigid, semirigid PU foams and production,
824e826
Foaming agents, 468
Foams, 432, 733e734
coating, 301e302
Foils, 730
Food grade sheet formulation, 365t
Food industry, 593
Food packaging applications, 318
Formaldehyde, 513e514, 710
health and safety issues, 710
polymerization, 514e516
resins, 4e5
Formaldehyde-based polymers, 705,
711e715, 717e719, 718t, 723e728,
727t, 733e735
PF
cure reactions, 712e713, 713f
novolaks, 711e712
resin manufacture, 713e715, 714f
resols, 712
Formalin, 514, 710
Fracture toughness, 767
Free energy, 90
equation, 90
Free radical, 33f, 249, 342, 751
kinetics of free-radical addition
polymerization, 29e32
polymerization, 26e29, 32e33
Freeze-line distance, 266e267
Fresnel’s equations, 121
Friction, 198
in injection molds, 240e242, 242fe243f
solid friction, 240, 241t
Friedel Crafts reaction, 550
agents, 33
catalyst, 312
and related polymers, 737e739
Fringed micelle model, 45, 46f
Fructose, 646
FTPEs. See Fluorinated thermoplastic
elastomers (FTPEs)
Fumarate, cisetrans isomerization of maleate
to, 748
Fumaric acid, 748
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), 646
Furnace bottom ash (FBA), 202
Fusible core injection molding, 220
Fusion of PVC, 375e379
G
Gas injection molding, 220, 690
Gas phase
flame inhibition, 155
processes, 284e285
reactor, 284e285
technologies, 284
GCC. See Ground calcium carbonates (GCC)
Gel
coat resins, 766
effect, 444
spinning, 51, 271
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
25e26
Gelation and fusion in paste PVC, 379
Gelation of PVC, 375
General-purpose high-impact polystyrene
(GPeHI PS), 311, 316e318
Geometric isomerism, 65e67
GF. See Glass fibers (GF)
Gharda’s process, 584
GLARE. See Glass Laminate Aluminum
Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE)
Glass
glass-filled polyamides, 502e504, 503t
short-and long-fiber glass-reinforced, 504t
glass-reinforced MF laminates, 732
mats, 180
transition, 516
Glass fiber polyester composites, 757e771
alkyds, 770e771
allyl resins, 769e770
fiber forms and molding compounds, 759f
fiber surface finish, 759e762
fiber type, 758e759, 760t
gel coat resins, 766
glass fiber composite manufacture, 763e765
low-profile additives, 766
related resins, 766e768
water-extended resins, 768
Glass fibers (GF), 179e180, 293e294, 469,
579, 743
glass-fiber-reinforced products, 555
Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced
Epoxy (GLARE), 774
Glass transition temperature, 41e42, 59,
188e189, 463, 473
CeC and CeO bonds, 59e60
effect of chemical structure on, 60t
copolymerization effect, 62e63
cross-linking effect, 63
effect of liquids, 64
molar mass effect, 62
transition temperatures and crystallization
rates, 61te62t
Glassy state, 40
Gloss, 121e123, 200
Gloss units (GU), 121
Glow wire test, 100
Glycerol esters, 360
Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO), 360
Glycerol monostearate (GMS), 360
Glyceryl
adducts, 778
esters, 150e151
ether resins, 785e786
Glycol-modified PCT (PCTG), 528
Glycols, 750
polyethers from, 524e525
Glyptal, 770
GMO. See Glycerol mono-oleate (GMO)
GMS. See Glycerol monostearate (GMS)
GPC. See Gel permeation chromatography
(GPC)
GPeHI PS. See General-purpose highimpact polystyrene (GPeHI PS)
Graft copolymers, 23
Granular PTFE resins, 392
Granular resin, 392, 405e408, 407f
Grilamid TR55, 488, 488f, 548
844 IndexGround calcium carbonates (GCC), 176
GU. See Gloss units (GU)
H
H-bonding, 495e496
H12MDI. See Hydrogenated 4,4 MDI
(H12MDI)
Halogens, 155
flame retardants, 155e156
halogenefree alternative systems, 156
HALS. See Hindered amine light stabilizers
(HALS)
Hand lay-up approach, 763
Hard fillers, pigments, and foams, 55
Hard segments, 815e816
Hardener, 719
Hardness, 198
Hardesoft segment theory, 815e816, 816f
Harris technique, 738
HAS. See Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS)
Haze, 118e121
p-HBA. See 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid
(HNA)
HCFCs. See Hydrogenated CFCs (HCFCs)
1,4-HD. See 1,4-Hexadiene (1,4-HD)
HDI. See Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)
HDPE. See High density polyethylene
(HDPE)
HDT. See Heat distortion temperature (HDT)
Head-to-head structures, 335
Head/tail and head/head structures in vinyl
polymers, 67f
Health sector, 380
Heat
aging, 194
energy, 89
heat-resistant polymers, 545
stabilizers, 343e346
evaluation of stabilizers, 343e344, 343f
organotin compounds, 345e346
secondary stabilizers, 346
stabilizers, 344e345, 344f
Heat deflection temperature. See Heat
distortion temperature (HDT)
Heat distortion temperature (HDT), 181,
193e194, 292e293, 457, 533, 539,
545, 677, 754, 776, 784
Heat release rate (HRR), 101
HECOs. See Heterophasic copolymers
(HECOs)
HEMA. See Hydroxyethyl methacrylate
(HEMA)
Hemicellulose, 178
Het acid, 750, 750f
Heterophasic copolymers (HECOs), 280, 291
HEXA. See Hexamethylenetetramine
(HEXA)
1,4-Hexadiene (1,4-HD), 671e672
Hexafluoroisobutylene (HFIB), 400
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
copolymerization, 397e398
terpolymers, 402e403
Hexafluoropropylene industrial
synthesis, 397
Hexahydrophthalic anhydride, 784, 784f
Hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), 490
Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI),
800e802
Hexamethylenediamine, 489
Hexamethylenetetramine (HEXA), 711e712,
717
Hexamethylolmelamine, 716
Hexamine, 717
Hexamoll DINCH. See Di-isononyl
cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate
(Hexamoll DINCH)
HFCs. See Fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFCs)
HFIB. See Hexafluoroisobutylene (HFIB)
HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
HI product. See High-impact product (HI
product)
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 68, 72,
115, 135e136, 205, 248, 275e276,
287e288, 419, 640e641
High molar mass antioxidants, 141e142
High molar mass HDPE (HMW-HDPE), 276
High molar mass linear PPS (HMW linear
PPS), 560e561
High molar mass polyethylene (HMWPE),
276e277
High polymers, 19
High-energy radiation effects, 91e93, 93f,
93t
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 135e136,
216
High-impact product (HI product), 311
High-pressure polymerization, 249e250
High-pressure pump systems (HP pump
systems), 816e817
High-temperature thermoplastics, 545, 547,
547te548t
chemical structure, 545e547
heat-resistant polymers, 545
imide polymers, 565e582
LCPs, 603e612
PAEKs, 583e593
polybenzimidazole, 593e603
PPAs, 547e549
PPS, 558e564
sulfones, 550e558
thermal characteristics of polyamides, 549t
Higher crystallinity PVC, 337e338
Higher melt strength (HMS), 301
HMS-PP, 301e302
Higher-density rigid cellular foams, 826
Hildebrand solubility parameter, 78e79
Hindered amine derivatives, 132
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
141e142, 347, 556
Hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), 138e139,
142
Hindered phenols, 136e137
Hindered piperidines. See Hindered amine
stabilizers (HAS)
HIPS. See High-impact polystyrene (HIPS)
HMDA. See Hexamethylene diamine
(HMDA)
HMF. See 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)
HMS. See Higher melt strength (HMS)
HMW branched PPS, 560e561
HMW linear PPS. See High molar mass
linear PPS (HMW linear PPS)
HMW-HDPE. See High molar mass HDPE
(HMW-HDPE)
HMWPE. See High molar mass polyethylene
(HMWPE)
HNA. See 6-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid
(HNA)
HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH. See
Diethanolamine
Homopolymers, 22, 513, 516e517, 517f,
517t, 523t
effect of absorbed water, 521f
effect of humidity, time, and temperature,
520f
Hoop winding, 763
Hot molding process, 820
Hot-dip process, 374
Household applications, 318
HP pump systems. See High-pressure pump
systems (HP pump systems)
HPM. See Bis(hydroxyphenyl)-methane
(HPM)
HQ. See Hydroquinone (HQ)
HRR. See Heat release rate (HRR)
Hue, 124
Hybrid molding, 220e222
Hybrid processes, 285
Hydrazine (NH2NH2), 807, 830e831
Hydrocarbon polymers, 135
oxidation, 129e132
effect of antioxidants, 129f
cyclical oxidation pathways, 131
effect on polymer properties, 130f
oxidative degradation processes, 129f
reaction steps in autoxidation, 131
Hydrocarbons, 359
Hydrogen
bonding, 53, 60, 77
cyanide


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