كتاب High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials
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 كتاب High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials   كتاب High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials Emptyالثلاثاء 07 ديسمبر 2021, 12:47 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials
BY
J . YAR WOOD
M.SC., F. INST.P.
Head of Department of Mathematics and Physics,
The Polytechnic, Regent Street, W.l
THIRD EDITION
REPRINTED

كتاب High Vacuum Technique - Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials H_v_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Chapter Page
1. The Production of High Vacua .
The Mean Free Path - Vacuum Pumps - The Water-jet Pump -
The Gaede Mechanical Rotary Pump - The Cenco-Hyvac Rotary
Pump -The Kinney Pump - The Gas Ballast Pump - The Molecular Pump The Mercury Diffusion Pump - Freezing Traps -
The Oil Diffusion Pump Pumping Systems Cut-offs- Leak
Finding The Characteristics of Vacuum Pumps - The Construction of Vacuum Systems.
2. The Measurement of High Vacua . . . .
The Discharge Tube The McLeod Gauge - The Vacustat - The
Optical Bellows Manometer- The Pirani Gauge Ionization
Gauges - Extension of the Low-pressure Range of the Ionization
Gauge - The Ionization Gauge as a Pump - The Philips Ionization Manometer - The Alphatron Gauge The Thermocouple
Gauge The Knudsen Gauge - The Viscosity Gauge - Leakfinding Methods using Vacuum Gauges.
3. The Measurement of Pumping Speed
The Flow of Gas through a Tube - Definition of Pumping Speed
- Constant Pressure Methods Constant Volume Method=
Pressure-time Characteristics.
4. De-gassing and “ Gettering ”
Low-temperature Baking De-gassing of Glass - De-gassing of
Metals-Eddy-current Heating - “ Gettering ” - Drying Agents
-Discharge Cleaning.
5. The Applications of High Vacua in Industry .
Exhausting and Activating Radio Valves - Cathode-ray Tubes -
Gas-filled Tubes The Photo-cell - The Deposition of Metal
Films in vacuo The Evaporation Process The Sputtering
Process.
6. The Properties of Materials Important in High
Vacuum Technique . . . . .
The Gases The Elements - The Vapour Pressures of Metals
and Carbon at Various Temperatures The Properties and Uses
of Substances Employed in High Vacuum Technique - Miscellaneous Tables.
Bibliography
Index .
viiINDEX
Beeswax and resin, 171
Bell, 42
Bellows manometer, 79
Beryllium, 172
-copper, 172
-nickel, 172
Blodgett, 156
Boiling points,
of elements, 162
of gases, 161
of pump fluids, 27
Bombardment, electron, 88, 140, 155
ion, 124, 136, 154
Booster pumps, 36, 52, 55, 57
Borelius, 165, 166
Bowie, 90
Brass, 172
British Thomson Houston Co., Ltd.,
ABSORBED GAS, 123
Absorptivity factor, 27
Adsorbed gas, 123
Aero Research Ltd., 176
Air admittance valves, 68
Alexander, 20, 23, 44
Alpert, 70, 92, 95, 184
Alphatron gauge, 99
Aluminium,
as a getter, 134
properties and uses of, 156, 168, 170
soldering of, 170
Aluminizing, 150
Annealing of glass, 181
Anode dissipation, 137
Apiezon greases, 41, 175
oils, 26, 55, 57, 117, 120
“ Q ” compound, 41, 59, 175
waxes, 41, 45, 59, 175
Aquadag, 174
Araldite, 176
Argon, properties of, 161
rate of sputtering in, 160
Asbestos, 124, 171
Aston, 74
Atomic weights, 162
Avery, 19
BACK-DIFFUSION, 24
Backhurst, 17
Backing pressure, 14, 17, 24, 39, 52,
55, 57
Backing pumps, 2 ; see Mechanical
rotary pumps
Back-streaming, 18, 20, 28, 67
Baffles for oil diffusion pumps, 26, 30
56, 67
Bakelite, 171
Bake-out clamp, 71
Ball and socket joints, 65
Barium,
as a getter, 132
properties of, 156, 168, 169, 171
Barium oxide-strontium oxide cathode
coating, 138, 171
Bayard, 92
Bearden, 31
107
Bronze, 173
Brown, 27
Buna rubbers, 192
Burch, 26
Buritz, 184
Byck, 32
CADMIUM, 156, 168, 173
Calcium, 173
as a getter, 134
chloride, 135
fluoride, 157
oxide, 135
Calibration of gauges, 78, 81, 89
Campbell, 83
Carbon, 168, 174
crucible for metal evaporation, 155
Carbon dioxide, 161
solid, 25, 120
Catalytic action of metals on oils, 29
Cathodes, activation of, 26
photoelectric, 148
thermionic, 139, 142
Cathode dark space, 74, 158, 164
Cathode potential drop, 164
Cathode-ray tubes, pumping of, 140
Cathode watts, 138
Caustic potash, 135
203INDEX
Diffusion pumps - con
Edwards, H. W., 29
Edwards, W. and Co., Etd., 36, 55
effect of fore-pressure on, 24, 47
fractionating type, 34, 52
Gaede, 16, 19
Henderson, 31
Hickman, 26, 34
Ho, 22
Kaye, 17
mercury, 12, 15, 52, 56
Metropolitan-Vickers, 35, 57
multi-nozzle patterns, 22, 30
National Research Corporation, 57
oil, 12, 26, 52, 55, 56, 57
performances of, 54, 55, 56, 57
steel jet in glass, 18
Thermal Syndicate Ltd., 24
“ umbrella ” type, 15
Vacuum Industrial Applications
Ltd., 55
Volmer, 16
Witty, theory, 19
Zabel, 30
Discharge as pressure indicator, 73
cleaning, 136, 154
Displacement, free air, 48, 49, 50, 54
Distillation Products Inc., 27, 37, 47,
52, 55
Donal, 63
Douglas, 183, 184, 195
Dow Corning Corpn., 27, 42
Downing, 99, 117
Drying agents, 135
Dumond, 83, 85, 100
Dunkel, 201
Dunoyer, 189, 201
Dushman, 16, 37, 88, 92, 107, 117,
121, 168, 201
Cements, 175
Central Scientific Co., 26, 50
Ceramics, 177
Charcoal, absorption of gas by, 120,
174
Chrome-iron alloys, 182, 185
Chromium, 154, 156, 168
Cleaning of mercury, 187
of glass, 152, 184
Cloud, 192
Cold traps, see Freezing traps
Colombium, 178
Compressed-air operated valves, 67
Condensable vapours, 8
Conductance, molecular, 109
chart for cylindrical tubes, 113
Conical joints, 41
Constantan, 178
Construction of vacuum systems, 57
Copley, 31
Copper, 29, 156, 162, 168, 178
alloys, 178
sulphate, 135
Crawford, 22
Creutz, 65
Critical pressures for gases, 161
temperatures for gases, 161
Crittenden, 158
Cut-offs, mercury, 42
Cut-off test, 43
DARK SPACE, 74, 158, 164
Davy, 201
Dayton, 121
De-gassing of glasses, 41, 123, 126
of metals, 123, 126
Delsasso, 65
Dennis, 28
Densities of elements, 162
of gases, 161
Deposition of metals, 26, 150
Diffusion of gases through metals, 165
Diffusion pumps,
action of, 15, 18
Alexander, 20, 23, 24
Bearden, 31
characteristics of, 47, 48
Copley, Simpson, Tenney and
Phipps, nozzle design, 31
Crawford, 22
Distillation Products Ltd., 52, 55
divergent nozzle pattern, 31
EAST, 79
Ebonite, 179
Eddy-current heating, 123, 128, 130, 139
Edwards, H. W„ 29
Edwards, W. and Co., Ltd., 3, 6, 9, 36,
42, 44, 48, 49, 50, 55, 61, 65, 67,
68, 69, 78, 81, 85, 105, 153, 176,
201
Ejector pumps, 36, 52, 54, 56
Electron tubes, manufacture of, 137
Elements, properties of, 162
Emission spectra of gases, 164
204I N D E X
Gauges, vacuum - cont.
Pirani, 81
thermocouple, 99
Vacustat, 78
viscosity, 102
Geiger counters, gas-filling of, 144
General Electric Co., Ltd., 102
General Engineering Co. (RadclifTe),
Ltd., 7, 51
Geratebau-Anstalt-Balzers, 9
Getters, 123, 132, 139
Glass, 57, 179
Glass to metal seals, 58, 73, 182
Glyptal, 176
Gold, 156, 160, 168, 184
Graded glass seals, 58
Greases, vacuum, 175
Greenland, 157
Ground glass joints, 41
Giintherschulze, 160
HALOGEN LEAK DETECTOR, 105
Hass, 156, 198
Henderson, 31
Heraeus Co., 155
Hickey, 106
Hickman, 26, 34
Hill, 201
Ho, 22
Ho coefficient, 33, 121
Holweck, 14
Housekeeper joint, 62, 182
Howard, 116
Hughes, 191
Hunten, 191
Hydrogen,
as a probe gas in leak-finding, 102
cleaning of metals, 128
diffusion through metals, 166
properties of, 161
rate of sputtering in, 160
Hydrogen-sensitive ionization gauge,
Engel, von, 94
Espe, 128, 164, 20
Essig, 145
Estermann, 32
Excitation potentials, 61
Expansion coefficients of elements, 162
of other materials, 185, 189, 193,
196, 199
FAST, 135
Fernico, 179
Fick's diffusion law, 165
Flosdorf, 78
Fluorescence of glass, 74, 184
Fluorite, evaporation of, 157
Fore pressure, see Backing pressure
Fore pumps, 12, 15 ; see also Backing
pumps
Found, 88
Fowler, 145
Fractionating pumps, see Diffusion
pumps
Freezing traps, 25, 120
GAEDE, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18, 27, 112
Gas-ballast pumps, 2, 8, 49
Gases,
boiling points, 161
critical pressures, 161
critical temperatures, 161
densities, 161
diffusion of, 165
emission spectra, 164
excitation potentials, 161
ionization potentials, 161
mean free paths for, 1, 161, 164
viscosities, 161
Gas-filling methods, 142
Gaskets, 59, 62
Gauges, vacuum,
Alphatron, 99
Bayard-AIpert, 92
bellows manometer, 79
discharge tube, 73
Dumond and Pickels, 83, 100
East and Kuhn, 79
ionization, 86
Knudsen, 100
leak-finding methods using, 102
McLeod, 77
Penning, 96
Philips, 96
103
INSERTING A SPECIMEN INTO VACUUM,
65
Interference filters, 156, 198
Ionic bombardment cleaning, 124, 136
Ionization gauge, 86
as a pump, 93
Bayard-AIpert, 92
calibration curve, 89
circuits for, 87
205INDEX
Ionization gauge, control unit, 91
extension of low-pressure range of,
92
hydrogen-sensitive, 103
in leak-finding, 43, 102
in measuring limiting pressures, 120,
121
in measuring pumping speed, 115,
121
Morse and Bowie, 90
Philips, 96
Ridenour circuit, 90
triode type, 87
Ionization potentials, 161
Iron, 127, 156, 162, 168, 185
Martin, S. T„ 62
McLeod gauge, 12, 39, 45, 48, 77
combination with Pirani gauge, 86
in measuring limiting pressures, 46.
48, 119
in measuring pumping speed, 121
Mean free path, 1, 2, 19, 74, 123, 161,
164
Mechanical rotary pumps, 2
action of, 3
Cenco-Hyvac pattern, 2, 5
characteristics of, 45, 46, 49
commercial models, 49, 50, 54
Gaede pattern, 2, 3
gas-ballast type, 2, 8, 49
Kinney type, 2, 7
precautions in using, 4
Mellen, 99
Melting points of elements, 162
Mercury, 186
amalgams, 42
cleaning of, 187
switches, 186
vapour pressures of, 25, 186
Mercury diffusion pump, 15 ; see also
Diffusion pumps
JAECKEL, 8, 201
Jossem, 144
KAYE, 17, 201
Khotinsky cement, 42, 177
Knoll, 128, 164, 201
Knudsen, 100, 108
Knudsen gauge, 100
Dumond and Pickels, 100
in measuring pumping speed, 122
Kovar, 185
Kuhn, 79
Kuper, 103
Metals,
atomic weights, 162
boiling points, 162
densities, 162
deposition in vacuo, 150
evaporation temperatures, 156
expansion coefficients, 162
melting points, 162
outgassing temperatures for, 127
resistivities, 162
specific heats, 162
thermal conductivities, 162
vapour pressures, 168
Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co.,
Ltd., 35, 45, 50, 57, 65, 91
Mica, 187
sealing to glass, 63
Mills, 119
Molecular diameters, I, 161
Molecular flow, 108
pressures, 108
Molecular pumps, 12, 14, 120
Molecular volumes of oils, 26
weights of oils, 26
Molybdenum, 127, 151, 156, 162, 168,
LANGMUIR, 16, 19, 102
Latham, 28
Lead, 62, 156, 162, 168, 185
gaskets, 62, 185
Leak detection,
methods using vacuum gauges, 43,
102
preliminary methods, 43
Leemans, 115
Leybold's Nachfolger, 8, 11, 12, 49
Lindblom, 165
Liquid air, 25
Lobb, 42
Lombard, 167
Longhurst, 191
Lusec, the, 105
MAGNESIUM, 134, 156, 163, 168, 186
chlorate, 135
Magnetic valves, 68
Manometer, mercury, 143
oil, 143 188
206INDEX
Pulsometer Engineering Co., Ltd., 54
Pumping speed,
calculation of required, 39
definition of, 2, 112
determination of, 108, 115
formulae, 113
precautions in measuring, 121
theoretical, 33
values for pumps, 3, 13, 17, 22, 32,
36, 45, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57
Pumping systems, 39
Pumps which require a fore-vacuum,
Morse, 90
Movement of mechanism in vacuo, 64
Multi-head pumps, 137
NATIONAL RESEARCH CORPORATION,
9, 49, 57
Needle valves, 44, 118
Nelson, 103
Neoprene, 60, 192
Nichrome, 188
Nickel, 127, 156, 162, 168, 188
Nottingham, 92
O BRYAN, 155
Oil for diffusion pumps, 26, 27, 29
disadvantages of, 28
Oil-sealed union, 63
Oil stripper units, 9
Olsen, 158
O-ring gaskets, 41, 60, 63, 65
Outgassing temperatures for metals,
127
Oven for baking vacuum tubes, 124
Oxygen,
diffusion through metals, 167
properties of, 161
PALLADIUM, 163, 167, 168, 189
Penning, 96
Pfund, 86
Philips gauge, 96
Philp, 192
Phipps, 31
Phosphorus, 189
, pentoxide, 8, 135, 190
• Photo-cells, 146
Picein wax, 42, 59, 63
Pickels, 83, 85, 100
Pirani gauge, 81
in measuring limiting pressure, 46,
48
in measuring pumping speed, 115
leak-finding with, 102
Plaster of Paris, 177
Platinum, 127, 156, 160, 163, 168, 182,
12
QUARTZ, see Silica
" Q ” compound, 41, 59, 175
RADIO CORPORATION OE AMERICA, 103
Radio valves, pumping and activation of, 137
Ransley, 165
Reche, 130
Resistivities of elements, 162
Rhodium, 155, 163, 191
Ridenour, 90
Roberts, 20
Rotating pump systems, 137
Rough vacuum, engineers’ scale, 54
Rubber, 191
gaskets, 59, 63
synthetic, 192
Rubidium, 156, 163, 168, 193
SAUNDERS VALVE, 65
Schwarz, 94
Scott, 84
Sealing wax, 177
Self-purifying pump, 56
Shellac, 177
Shell Chemicals Ltd., 175
Shepherd, 135
Sherwood, 126
Silica, 24, 63, 126, 157, 193
Silica-gel, 3, 135, 194
Silicone greases, 41, 176
oils, 26, 27, 48, 55, 118
Silicon monoxide, 156, 194
Silver, 156, 162, 168, 194
chloride, 177
Simpson, 31
Smith, 158
Smithells, 165, 201
190
Poindexter, 191
Porcelain-glass seals, 63, 177
Potassium, 156, 163, 168, 191
Power, 28
Pressure-time characteristics of pumps,
46
207I N D E X
Sodium, 150, 163, 168, 195
Soldering fluxes, 195
Soldering metal to glass, 62
Solders, 195
Solubilities of gases in water, 199
Spark oscillator for eddy-current heating, 128
Specific heats of elements, 162
of glass, 183
Speed, see Pumping speed
Speed factor, 32
Speedivac pumps, 46, 126
Sprengel, 17
Sputtering, 158
Steam ejector pump, 37
Stcckelmacher, 91
Steel, 195
jet in glass pump, 18
“ Sticking ” vacuum, 78
Stokes Machine Co., 51
Stop-cocks, 41
Strong, 150, 152, 201
Strontium, 163, 168, 196
Stull, 168
Suck-back of oil, 4
Sullivan, 51
Sulphur, 197
Sulphuric acid, 135
Synthetic rubbers, 192
TANTALUM, 127, 134, 157, 163, 168, 197
carbide, 197
Taps, see Stop-cocks
Technical Products Ltd., 41
Temperature coefficients of resistivities, 162
Tenney, 31
Tesla coil, 43, 58
Thermal conductivities of elements,
Tombac, 172
Transmitting valves, pumping of, U
Tungsten, 127, 134, 152, 163, 16
198
ULTIMATE VACUUM OR LIMITING PR.
SURE, 4, 11, 14, 17, 49, 50, 52, 5<*,
56, 57
Ultra-high vacua, 69
VACUSTAT GAUGE, 78
Vacuum Industrial Applications Ltd.,
27, 55, 65, 99
Vacuum locks, 65
Vacuum stoves, 126
Vacuum valves, 65
Vapour pressures,
of barium oxide, 196
of carbon, 168
of common liquids, 200
of greases, 175
of mercury, 186
of metals, 168
of phosphorus, 190
of phosphorus pentoxide, 190
of strontium oxide, 196
of water, 199
Viscosities of gases, 161
Viscosity gauge, 102
Volmer diffusion pump, 16
WATER, PROPERTIES OF, 199
solubility of gases in, 199
Watcr-jct pumps, 2, 3
Watson, 74
Welch Scientific Co., 51
Westinghouse Research Laboratories,
95
White, 106
Wilner, 173
Wilson seal, 62
Winkelmann, 183
Witty, 19
Wood's metal, 195
Woonton, 191
162
Thermal Syndicate Ltd., 24
Thermionic cathodes, activation of,
26, 139
Thermocouple gauge, 12, 68, 99, 102
Thoriated tungsten, 197
Thorium, 163, 168, 197
Throat width in diffusion pump design, 33
Throughput, 109
Tin, 163, 168, 197
Titanium, 198
dioxide, 198
ZABEL, 30
Zinc, 156, 163, 168, 200
chloride, 135
oxychloride, 200
Zirconium, 134, 163, 168, 200
208


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