كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide
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 كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide

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كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide    كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide  Emptyالأربعاء 03 نوفمبر 2021, 12:52 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide
Third Edition
David Mills
Conjoint Professor, School of Engineering
University of Newcastle in NSW
Australia

كتاب Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide  P_c_d_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


INTRODUCTION TO PNEUMATIC
CONVEYING AND THE GUIDE 1
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction .5
Pneumatic Conveying 6
System Flexibility . 6
Industries and Materials 6
Fly ash 7
Mode of Conveying 8
Dilute Phase 8
Dense Phase 9
Conveying Air Velocity . 9
Particle Velocity . 10
Solids Loading Ratio . 10
Conveying Capability 11
System Types . 11
System Capabilities 12
Pressure gradient influences 12
Material influences 13
High-Pressure Conveying . 13
Long-Distance Conveying 14
Vertical Conveying 15
Conveying vertically up 15
Conveying vertically down 15
Flow Rate Capability . 15
Information Provided 16
Availability of Design Data 16
Scope of the Work 16
Review of Chapters 17
Conveying in Pipelines 17
Airflows and Particle Flows 17
A Review of Pneumatic Conveying Systems . 18
Applications and Capabilities 18
Conveying System Components 18
Pipeline feeding devices
Pipelines and valves 19
Gas and Solid Flows . 19
Airflow rate evaluation .20
Air-only relationships .20
Conveying characteristics 20
Conveying capability 20
Material property influences .20
Conveying systems that modify material properties .20
System selection considerations .21
Conveying System Design 21
Pipeline scaling parameters .21
Design procedures 21
Stepped pipelines 21
Case studies .22
First approximation design methods .22
Multiple use systems .22
Conveying System Operation . 22
Troubleshooting and material flow problems .22
Optimizing and up-rating of existing systems 23
Operating problems .23
Erosive wear 23
Particle degradation 23
Moisture and condensation 23
Health and safety 23
Definitions .24
Conveying and Systems . 24
Solids loading ratio 24
Dilute phase conveying 24
Dense phase conveying .25
Low-pressure and negative-pressure (vacuum) conveying 25
High-pressure conveying .25
Acceleration length 25
Null point 26
Pulsating flow 26
Stepped pipeline .26
Transient .26
Velocity Related . 26
Superficial air velocity 26
Free air velocity .26
Slip velocity .26
Slip ratio .27
Minimum conveying air velocity .27
4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO PNEUMATIC CONVEYING AND THE GUIDEConveying line inlet air velocity 27
Conveying line exit air velocity 27
Saltation 27
Choking 27
Properties 28
Free air conditions .28
Specific humidity .28
Relative humidity .28
Stoichiometric value 28
Air retention 28
Permeability 28
Hardness 28
Nomenclature 29
Symbols 29
Greek 30
Nondimensional Parameters 30
Superscripts 30
Subscripts . 31
Reference Points 31
Prefixes . 32
Reference .
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” indicate figures, “t” indicate tables.
A
Abrasive materials, 113, 186, 709e710
Abrasive wear, 626
Acceleration
length, 10, 25, 38
pressure drop, 39, 447
tube device, 647
zone, 17e18, 38
Adiabatic compression, 675e676
Aerodynamic compressors, 151
Agriculture, 6e7, 82e83, 691
Air
addition systems, 72f, 333f, 368
assisted gravity conveyors. See Air slides
bypass systems, 331
compressibility, 434
compression effects, 161
density, 229
drying, 164
extraction, 219, 454
airflow rate control, 457e458
comparative performance, 454e457
filters, 601
filtration, 580, 598
ingress, 598e599
injection systems, 72e73, 333e334,
634e635
knife, 329
line filters, 163
locks, 108
mass flow rate, 35, 225, 252e253,
407, 411
off-take, 582
pressure, 166
receiver, 77e78, 570, 570f
requirements, 410, 414, 417, 471, 482e483
slides, 74
temperature, 52, 52f, 220, 220fe221f
venting, 114
viscosity, 229
Air leakage, 105e106, 111, 605
air venting, 114
allowance, 561
entrainment devices, 114e115
influence of conveyed material, 112e113
and ingress, 161
negative pressure systems, 111e112
positive pressure systems, 111
Air mover, 150
aerodynamic compressors, 151
capability, 413
change, 559
fans, 152e153
liquid ring compressors, 157e158, 158f
positive-displacement compressors, 153e156
reciprocating compressors, 159
regenerative blowers, 153
rotary screw compressors, 158
sliding-vane rotary compressors, 156e157, 157f
specification, 599e600
Air processes, 672
compressing, 675e677
cooling, 673e674
compression and cooling, 677e678
drying, 679e681
expanding, 678e679
heating, 673
Air retention, 28, 325
capabilities of bulk material, 297e298
properties
materials with good, 365
materials with poor, 365
Air supply
air compression effects, 161
delivery temperature, 161e163
oil-free air, 163
water removal, 163e165
classification of compressors, 151f
control, 508
lines, 133, 137, 142, 319e320
power requirements, 165
idling characteristics, 167
precooling systems, 168
typical idling characteristics for screw compressor, 167f
pressure, 141e142, 344, 352, 365, 384, 491, 493, 593
specification of air movers, 159
blowers and compressors, 160
exhausters and vacuum pumps, 160e161
staging, 159
systems, 19
types of air mover, 150e159
Air velocity
determination, 26
exit, 491, 585
fluidizing, 74
minimum, 69
pipeline exit, 7, 27, 233, 253
761Air velocity (Continued)
pipeline inlet, 27
pressure effect, 10
purging, 705
superficial, 26, 202
temperature effect, 10
Air-assisted gravity conveyors, 74
Air-drying systems, 568
Air-only pressure drop, 246e248, 447, 491e493, 499
basic equations, 487e488
datum, 239
derived relationships, 488
empirical relationships, 489e490
method, 487
for operating point, 467e468
values, 478e480
working relationships, 490
air supply pressure, 491
air-only pressure drop, 491e492
material flow rate, 490
procedure, 492e493
vertical conveying, 492
Air-only relationships
airflow rate control, 242e248
pipeline pressure drop, 228e239
venturi analysis, 239e242
Air-only relationships, 20
Air-to-fabric ratio, 178
Airborne dusts, 693
Airborne particulate materials, 692f
Airflow control, 228
Airflow rate, 233, 234f, 319e320, 471, 482e483,
575, 584
control, 242, 457
flow rate control, 246
nozzles, 242e245
nozzles, 457e458
off-take sections, 458
orifice plates, 246
stepped pipelines, 246e248
decreasing, 586e588
evaluation, 20, 201
altitude, 224e225
compressibility of air, 202
ideal gas law, 205e207
pipeline purging, 217e219
pressure, 207e212
stepped pipeline systems, 212e217
supply pressure, 200
temperature, 219e224
velocity, 201e202
volumetric flow rate, 200e201, 203e207
increasing, 585e586
reducing, 580
Altitude, 609
Alumina, 278e279, 307, 321, 514e515, 628e629
ceramics, 186
Aluminium
alloy, 619
hydrate, 278e279
oxide, 649e650
smelter, 75e76
Ambient conditions, 209
Angel hairs, 612, 644
Angle of repose, 659t
Approximate capabilities, 87e88
Approximate model, 408
Argon, 206t
Ash
coarse, 94, 516
fine, 94e96, 516e517
hoppers, 8, 326
particles, 7
removal, 8
vessels, 14
Atmospheric air, 666
Atmospheric pressure, 224e225, 241
Axial flow compressors, 151
B
Backfilling, 15, 89f, 90, 395, 459f
Backup filters, 598
Bag filters, 177e178
Ball valves, 190
Barite, 279e280, 322
Basalt, 629
Batch and continuously operating system, 61
Batch conveying systems, 65, 178
semicontinuous systems, 66
single plug systems, 67
Batch cycles, 608
Bed ash. See Fluidized bed ash
Bed material, 14
Bend wear, 632
air injection, 634e635
ease of maintenances, 638
hard materials, 635
influence of bend geometry, 632e633
inserts, 637e638
long-radius bends, 633
particle hardness, 624
particle size, 623e624
resilient materials, 635e636
short-radius bends, 633e634
762 INDEXsolids loading ratio, 629e630
surface coatings, 637
velocity, 621e622
wear back methods, 637
Bend(s), 186e187, 234e235
blind tees, 187
booth, 188, 634
geometry, 345, 390e391
air-only relationships, 391
comparison of performance, 393
conveying data, 391e393
location, 388e389
loss, 479
material, 657
pressure drop, 43, 188e189
elements and evaluation, 188f
special, 188
steps, 189e190
Bentonite, 7, 83, 343
Blast furnaces, 193, 527
Blind tees. See Bend(s)
Blockage. See Pipeline blockage
Blow tanks, 105, 107, 128, 601e602, 702
aeration, 146e147
bottom discharge, 129e132
change of distance, 603
control systems, 141e143, 602
discharge limits, 602
without discharge valve, 133e137
with discharge valve, 137e138
discharge valve, 603
fluidizing membranes, 132
granular materials, 604
influence, 139e141
moisture in air, 603
performance monitoring, 604
pressure drop, 132e133, 603
problems with moisture, 133
rail vehicles, 133
road vehicles, 133
single blow tank
systems, 133
without discharge valve, 134f
systems, 180
top discharge, 129e132
twin blow-tank systems, 143e146
types, 128e129
Blow-through valve, 110
Blowers, 160, 601
air filters, 601
compressors, 205, 700e702
exhausters, 155
pressure, 160
regenerative, 153
roots-type, 154e156
volumetric flow rate, 160
Boiler plant, 55, 94f
Booster systems, 73, 333e334
Boosters, 131
Booth bend, 188, 634
Bore. See Pipeline bore
Bottom discharge blow tank, 129e132, 130f
Boundary conditions, 536e537, 539, 539t
pressure, 537
velocity, 537
Boundary layer, 39e40, 41fe42f, 396
Brinell hardness, 29
Bubble columns, 524
Bulk carriers, 68
Bulk density
as-poured, 117, 606
vibrated, 606
Bulk material, 170
Bulk solid, 171
Butterfly valves, 191
Bypass pipe, 71e72, 331
fluted, 338, 338f
influence, 338e339
porous, 335, 335f, 339
Bypass systems, 71e72, 331e333
C
Capital cost, 16, 73, 334, 342
Carbon black, 80, 184
Carbon dioxide, 7, 559
Case study, 583e584
changing airflow rate, 584e588
changing pipeline diameter, 588e590
points on conveying characteristics, 584f
Cast iron, 186e187
Cement, 83e84, 90, 96, 259, 284, 322, 455e456
oil well, 55e56, 398
ordinary Portland, 284, 292, 294f, 373, 462
railcar for transport, 97f
Cement conveying limits, 377
Ceramics, 620, 628e629, 635
CFD. See Computational fluid dynamic (CFD)
CFD-DEM. See CFD-discrete element modeling (CFD-DEM)
CFD-discrete element modeling (CFD-DEM), 522
Channel flow system, 61
Checklist, 556
Chemical reactors, 91
Choked, 244
Choked flow nozzles, 258, 319e320, 457, 508, 600
INDEX 763Choking, 27, 41
Classical analysis, 390
Clinker, 7, 614
Closed conveying systems, 698e699
Closed systems, 60, 69
Closed-end type rotors, 115, 115f
Closed-loop system, 34
Coal, 276, 280, 312e313
degradation, 304
dust, 121, 193
granular, 297e298, 312f, 624
injection, 193
lump, 7, 78, 83, 636
pulverized, 307e308, 624
Coarse materials, 302, 506
Coating of pipelines, 612
Cocoa, 78, 610, 692
Coefficient of restitution, 194e195, 390
Coffee, 83, 691
Cohesive material, 78, 613
Coke, 562
Coke fines, 561e562
Cold air, 568e569
Collecting efficiency, 174
Combined systems, 600
Combustible materials. See Material properties
Combustion, 698
Commissioning, 557, 566
conveying air velocity, 558
conveying gas influence, 559e561
over feeding of pipeline, 561e566
incorrect air mover specification,
557e558
nonsteady feeding of pipeline, 566
pipeline bore influence, 558
Comparative analysis, 452e453
Component pressure drop relationships, 268
conveying vertically down, 268e270
conveying vertically up, 270e271
horizontal pipelines, 271
pipeline bends, 271e272
Component wear, 571e572
Compressibility
of air, 202
effects, 49
Compressing, 675e677
adiabatic compression, 675e676
isothermal compression, 676e677, 676f
Compressors, 160, 700e702
aerodynamic, 151
air temperature, 677
axial flow, 151
capability, 562e563
centrifugal, 151
characteristics, 155f
delivery temperature, 161e163
dust ingestion, 618
idling, 167
liquid ring, 157e158
oil lubrication, 154e155
positive displacement, 50, 153e156
power required, 165, 166f, 409e410
pre-cooling systems, 168
pressure, 160
rating with material flow rate, 201f
reciprocating, 159
rotary screw, 158
sliding-vane rotary, 156e157
specification, 159e161
staging, 159
system, 264
volumetric flow rate, 160
wear, 153
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD), 522,
538e544
Computer-aided design programs, 502e503
Condensation, 23, 161, 163, 609, 666
air processes, 672e681
energy considerations, 681e686
humidity, 666e672
Confectionery, 6e7, 83
Consolidation of materials, 613
Constant-speed characteristics, 152e153, 152f
Constitutive equations, 522, 525e526, 536e537
Contact damping, 528
Contact forces, 527e528
Containment, 707
Continuity equation, 213, 525
Continuous conveying, 8, 69
Control system, 602
Conventional pneumatic conveying systems, 318
Conventional system, 61, 706
Conveyed material, 191e192, 221e224, 343
Conveyed solids on pressure drop, 37, 253e254
Conveying air requirements, 347
Conveying air velocity, 9e10, 35, 201, 229, 264e266, 373,
433, 558
air compressibility, 434
dense phase, 437e438
dilute phase, 436e437
effects, 256
evaluation, 35, 48e49
minimum, 27, 90, 213e214, 275, 302, 346, 374e375, 396,
466, 496e502
764 INDEXpipeline
exit, 27
inlets, 27
steps, 21
profile, 39e40
single phase flow, 36e37
slip velocity, 37e38
step location, 435e436
step position, 439
stepped pipeline systems, 435
vacuum conveying, 438e439
Conveying and systems, 24e26
Conveying capability, 11, 20, 274e275, 347
correlations, 297
aeration property classifications, 300e306
property classifications, 298e300
flow rate capability, 15e16
high-pressure conveying, 13e14
long-distance conveying, 14
materials, 274e288
system
capabilities, 12e13
types, 11e12
vertical conveying, 15
Conveying characteristics, 20, 250, 260, 264, 293, 301
component pressure drop relationships, 268e272
conveying mode, 251
determination, 258
experimental plan, 259
instrumentation and control, 258
minimum conveying conditions, 261e264
presentation of results, 259e261
energy considerations, 264e268
gasesolid flows, 253e257
for material, 415e416
single phase flow, 251e253
Conveying cohesive materials, 195
Conveying conditions, 343, 469e470
Conveying cycle analysis, 134e137
Conveying data, 319, 462
conveying capability, 464e465
conveying duty, 463
research test facilities, 319e320
test data, 321e324
Conveying distance, 85, 349, 362e364, 373, 405
approximate capabilities, 87e88
conveying-line pressure drop, 351e352
influence, 418e421
material flow rate, 349e351
minimum conveying air velocity, 374e375
scaling, 375e379, 416
solids loading ratio, 349
specification, 411, 414
stepped pipeline parameters, 86f
Conveying gas influence, 559e561
Conveying limitations, 254e256, 292, 294f,
559e560
Conveying line
exit air velocity, 27
inlet air velocity, 27
Conveying mode, 8, 251, 290
conveying air velocity, 9e10
correlations, 302e305
dense phase
conveying, 9
plug flow, 295e297
sliding bed flow, 292e294
dilute phase conveying, 8e9
particle velocity, 10
solids loading ratio, 10e11
Conveying parameters, 383, 489, 492
air supply pressure, 384
combinations, 354e358
power requirements, 385e386
Conveying performance, 441
existing systems, 444
fine fly ash, 441e443
Conveying pipeline, 125
Conveying potential, 576
Conveying system, 264
components, 18e19
designs, 21e22
operation, 22e24
Conveying trials, 54e55, 135e136, 373f, 514, 578
Conveying vertically down, 15, 43, 89e90, 268e270, 395
Conveying vertically up, 15, 41e42, 88, 270e271, 394
Conveying-line exit-air velocity values, 233
Conveying-line inlet air velocity, 238, 264e265, 292,
406e407, 466e467, 489, 496e497
checking, 408, 414
selection, 411
Conveying-line pressure drop, 343, 347e348,
351e352, 406
checking, 408e409, 488
Cooling, 673e674
compression and, 677e678
condensation in reception hopper, 674
evaporative, 683e685
Copper concentrate, 285f, 573f
Coupled CFD discrete element modeling
dilute pneumatic conveying pipeline, 544
meshing and modeling parameters, 547e548
numerical approach, 544e547
results and discussion, 548
INDEX 765Coupling, 524
principles and models, 529e531
two-way CFD-DEM, 531f
Critical pressure, 244
Crushed ores, 7
Cryolite, 268
Cyclone, 173, 180
collecting efficiency, 174
separators, 173e175
D
Dalton’s law, 668
Damp material, 78
Damping, 528, 528f
Darcy equation, 37, 231, 251e252, 375
Data, 175
sources, 56e57, 618e619, 646e647
Deaeration, 303
Deflecting flows, 639e640
Degradation, 310e312, 646, 652, 704
of materials, 613
particle, 171, 194
Degraded material, 54, 303, 315
Delivery
high-pressure, 91
multiple delivery points, 508e509
multiple pickup and, 76e77
multiple-point, 76
pressure, 165
temperature, 161e163
Dense phase, 298
conveying, 8e9, 25, 437e438, 440e441,
500e502, 656
cement, 462
limit, 378e379
materials capability, 367
flow conveying, 46e47
plug flow, 295e297
plug-type flow, 327e328
sliding
bed flow, 292e294
bedetype flow, 326e327
system, 61
Denseveyor ash vessels, 14
Density
bulk, 277, 283, 301e302, 613
fluidized, 117
particle, 37e38, 271, 279, 301e302
Deposited layer, 25
Depth filtration, 176
Desiccant dehumidifiers, 164
Desiccants, 164e165, 681
Design curves, 354, 426e430
conveying parameter combinations, 354e358
pipeline conveying capacity, 358e361
Design data, 16
Design procedures, 21
Dew point, 165, 568
Di Felice drag model, 532
Dicalcium phosphate, 309e310
Dilute phase
conveying, 8e10, 24e25, 45, 325e326, 368, 436e437,
499e500, 656
magnesium sulphate, 474
particulate flow in, 45f
system, 202
flow, 45e46
region, 302
system, 61
Dilute pneumatic conveying pipeline
coupled CFD discrete element modeling, 544
meshing and modeling parameters,
547e548
numerical approach, 544e547
results and discussion, 548
Direct numerical simulation (DNS), 527
Dirt box, 98
Disc valves, 191
Discharge
limits, 602
period and pulsations, 110
valve, 603
blow tanks with, 137e138
blow tanks without, 133e137
Discrete element modeling, 527e528, 536, 544,
547e548, 548t, 549fe550f
principle, 527e529
Dispersed turbulence model, 536
Diverter valves, 192
Dixon diagrams, 300, 300f
Dixon’s slugging diagram, 300
DNS. See Direct numerical simulation (DNS)
Dolomite, 88
Dome valves, 191
Double-door discharge, 122
Double-dump valves, 122
Double-flap valves, 122
Drag force, 37, 40, 56
Drilling mud powders, 55e56, 96, 185e186
Drilling rigs, 96
Drop-out box, 114
Drop-through valve, 108
Dry air, 6, 81, 164, 603
Dry ash, 14
766 INDEXDrying, 679e681
desiccants, 681
filters, 679
refrigerants, 679e680
Dual vacuum and positive pressure systems, 64e65, 65f,
84f
Dunes, 41e43, 100
Dust
accumulations, 6, 63, 77, 124
clouds, 646
concentration limits, 693e694
control, 171
approximate size range of familiar types of airborne
particulate material, 172f
dust emission, 171
particle degradation, 171
emission, 171, 692e695
generation, 690
as health hazard, 693
relative dangers, 694t
risks, 691e698
suppression, 694e695
E
Earthing, 703e704
Economizer hoppers, 506, 515
Elastic contact properties, 528
Electrolysis pots, 75e76
Electrostatic material, 78e79
Electrostatic precipitators, 7e8, 170
Electrostatics, 609. See also Material properties
Empirical equations, 523
Empirical relationships, 489e490
Empty pipeline, 228
Emptying large sacks, 127
Energy conservation equations, 522
Energy considerations, 264, 681
conveying air velocity, 264e266
power requirements, 266
specific energy, 266e268
steady-flow energy equation,
681e686
Energy-minimization multiscale model, 533
Entrainment
devices, 114e115
velocity, 27
Entropy, 671, 671f
Environmental pollution, 170
Equations use in system design, 403
logic diagram
for system capability, 411e414
for system design, 403e410
Equivalent length, 235, 386, 468e469, 481
method of analysis, 387e389
pressure drop data, 389e390
Ergun equation, 532
Ergun and Wen and Yu drag model, 532e533
Erosion
erosive wear, 186, 194
impact angle, 185e186
Erosive material, 79
Erosive wear, 23, 185e186, 194, 609e610, 618, 704
data sources, 618e619
industrial solutions and practical issues, 631
bend wear, 632e638
deflecting flows, 639e640
pipeline considerations, 631e632
straight pipeline wear, 640e642
wear patterns, 639e640
influence of variables, 619e631
issues, 619
Eulerian based methods, 523
Eulerian model, 524e527
EulerianeEulerian approach, 523, 538
EulerianeEulerian turbulence modeling, 536
EulerianeLagrangian method, 523, 527
EulerianeLagrangian turbulence modeling, 536
Evaluation of velocity, 35
Evaporative cooling, 683e685
Exhausters, 160
air leakage and ingress, 161
vacuum, 160e161
volumetric flow rate, 161
Existing plant, 597
Existing pneumatic conveying system, 578
Existing system, 577
alternative methods of uprating, 590e593
case study, 583e590
optimization, 580e581
control and instrumentation, 581
feeder considerations, 581e582
off-take systems, 582e583
sight glass, 582
optimizing conveying conditions, 578
plant components
modification, 578e579
replacement, 579
system capability, 579e580
air filtration, 580
airflow rate reducing, 580
material feeding, 580
Expanding, 678e679
vacuum conveying, 678e679
Explosibility limits, 696e697
INDEX 767Explosion(s), 610
parameter determination, 710e712
explosion tests, 710f
material classification, 711e712
test apparatus, 711, 711t
protection, 706e712
containment, 707
detection and suppression, 708e709, 709f
determination of explosion parameters, 710e712
explosion relief venting, 708
minimizing sources, 706e707
prevention of ignition, 706e707
secondary explosions, 709e710
relief venting, 708
risks, 695e698
expansion effects, 698
explosibility limits, 696e697
explosion characteristics of materials, 697t
ignition sources, 696
oxygen concentration, 698
pressure generation, 697e698
Explosive materials, 6, 81
F
Fabric, 177
Fabric filter, 176
Fan systems, 600
Fans, 152e153
Feed-rate control, 117e118, 125e126, 138
Feeder(s). See also Screw feeders; Venturi feeders
air leakage, 105e106
considerations, 581e582
control, 563
maintenance, 106
material surges, 566
pressure drop, 106
valve wear, 109
venting, 114
Feeding devices. See Pipeline feeding devices
Feeding requirements, 107e108
Fertilizers, 6e7, 82e83, 691
Filter(s), 176, 606, 679
bag filters, 177e178
batch cycles, 608
cleaning, 178e179
collecting efficiency, 176
fabrics, 176
filtration mechanisms, 176
maintenance, 179e180, 607
material degradation, 607
media, 176e177
selection criteria, 177
shaken bag filter unit, 177f
sizing, 178, 607e608
Filtration
mechanisms, 176
problems, 646
Fine fly ash, 441e443
First approximation design methods, 22, 444, 486
air-only pressure drop method, 487e493
cases considering, 448
computer-aided design programs, 502e503
long distance conveying, 448e449
methods presentation, 486
pressure and velocity profiles, 447e448, 448f
pressure drop elements, 445e447
short distance conveying, 450e452
universal conveying characteristics method, 493e502
Fish, 614
Fixed system, 61
Flanges, 112, 184
Flash drying, 685
Flexible hose, 185
Flood feed, 133
Flour, 283, 510e513
Floury, 307
grades, 514
materials, 497
Flow
aids, 126
analysis, 242e244
control, 604e605, 608
diversion, 192
diverter valves, 192
flow splitting, 193
isolating valves, 193
non-return valves, 193
enhancer, 454
metering, 108
problems, 646
rate capability, 15e16, 83
conveying distance, 85e88
pressure gradient influence, 84e85
vertical conveying, 88e90
rate control, 246
splitting, 92, 193
Fluid mechanics, 19
Fluidization, 74e76
fluidized bed combustion, 61
fluidized bed combustor ash, 280
fluidized motion conveying systems, 73e74
fluidizing membranes, 132
fluidizing velocity, 301
Fluidized beds, 524, 532e533
768 INDEXFluorspar, 299
Fly ash, 7e8, 83, 85, 87, 90, 93e94, 285e287, 307e309, 515
Food products, 6e7, 70, 705
Forced-air cooling of machine, 155
Foundries, 7, 83
Fractal properties, 299e300
Free air
conditions, 28, 205
velocity, 26
Free airflow rate, 211
Friable materials, 79, 310e311
Friction, 526, 528
coefficient, 231f
factor, 229e230
Frictional viscosity, 526
Full channel conveyors, 75e76
Fuller-Kinyon pump, 119
G
Gas(es), 252
constants, 206e207, 206t
stream, 172
velocity, 7, 173
Gasesolid flows, 19e21, 253
conveyed solids on pressure drop, 253e254
conveying air velocity effects, 256
conveying limitations, 254e256
evaluation of velocity, 254
solids loading ratio, 257
Gasesolid separation devices, 19, 170. See also Filters
blow tank systems, 180
vacuum conveying systems, 180e181
dust control, 171
filters, 176e180
pressure drop considerations, 170e171
separation
devices, 172e175
mechanisms, 170
requirements, 170
system considerations, 180
Gate-lock valves, 122e124
Gattys system, 73
Geldart classification, 74e76, 75f, 298e300, 299f
Geldart diagrams, 300
Generating plant, 7
Glass manufacture, 7, 83
Grades, 55
Gradient. See Pressuredgradient
Grain, 6e7, 82e83
Granular materials, 79, 604, 613
Granulated sugar, 283e284, 290, 311e312. See also Sugar
Gravitational force, 9, 40
Gravity settling chambers, 172e173, 172f
Grounding. See Earthing
H
Hard materials, 628e629, 635
Hardness, 28e29
Harvested materials, 6e7, 82, 691
Hazardous materials, 6, 23e24, 82
Head loss for mitered bends, 235f
Health and safety, 23e24
conveying operations, 702e706
conveying systems, 698e700
dust risks, 691e698
explosion protection, 706e712
explosion risks, 695e698
industries and materials, 691
mode of conveying, 691
system
components, 700e702
flexibility, 690
integration, 691
Heat exchanger, 55, 156
Heat transfer, 523
Heat treatment, 627
Heating, 673
Heavy soda ash. See Sodium carbonate
Hertzian law, 528
Hertz-Mindlin contact model, 529
High conveying air velocities. See Tramp materials
High temperature conveying, 220
High vacuum conveying, 674
High velocity, 8, 284e285
High-pressure
applications, 242
blow tank, 319
conveying, 13e14, 25, 281, 287
comparison of materialseconveying limits, 285
comparison of materialseflow rate, 284e285
fly ash, 285e287
granulated sugar, 283e284
ordinary portland cement, 284
polyethylene pellets, 284
polyvinylchloride resin, 287e288
PTA, 288
wheat flour, 283
delivery capability, 91
rotary valves, 117
system, 61
HilleKocheLadd drag model, 533e535
Hoisting systems, 15, 88
Hopper off-loading, 126e127
Horizontal conveying, 40e41
INDEX 769Horizontal pipelines, 271
Horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline, 538
boundary conditions, 539
meshing, 538
numerical approach, 538
results and discussion, 540e544
solution procedures for multiphase modeling, 539e540
Hoses, 185e186
Hot material, 222, 606
Housekeeping, 695
Humidity, 28, 666e672
control, 704
influence of pressure, 669e670, 670f
influence of temperature, 668e669, 669fe670f
psychrometric chart, 671e672
relative, 671e672
specific, 666e670
universal model, 672
Hydraulic conveying, 12, 64
Hygiene, 185
Hygroscopic materials, 79, 614
I
Ice, 15, 90
Ideal gas law, 205, 245, 487
gas constants, 206e207
working relationships, 206
Ignition
prevention, 706e707
sources, 696
Immiscible fluids, 523e524
Impact angle, 619e620, 639e640
Inclined pipelines, 42e43, 395e396
Incorrect air mover specification, 557e558
Industries, 6e8
Inert gas, 6, 69, 707
Inerting, 707
Influence
of conveyed material, 112e113
of material type, 560e561
of particle size and density, 541e544
of variables, 619
impact angle, 619e620
particle hardness, 624e626
particle shape, 630e631
particle size, 622e624
solids loading ratio, 629e630
surface finish, 631
surface material, 619e620
surface material, 626e629
velocity, 620e622
Injection systems. See Air injection systems
Innovatory systems, 61, 69e72, 329, 706
air injection systems, 333e334
bypass systems, 331e333
performance comparisons, 334e339
plug forming systems, 329e331
Inserts, 637e638
Instrumentation, 258, 581
Insulation, 567, 606
Insurance and inspection, 128
International System of Units (SI), 29, 203
Interphase momentum transfer, 531
Di Felice drag model, 532
energy-minimization multiscale model, 533
Ergun and Wen and Yu drag model, 532e533
HilleKocheLadd drag model, 533e535
SyamlaleO’Brien drag model, 531e532
Interstices, 9, 47, 329, 346
Iron powder, 277e278, 321e322
Isolating valves, 191, 193
butterfly valves, 191
disc valves, 191
slide valves, 191
Isothermal compression, 676e677, 676f
Iterative process, 379
K k
-epsilon model (keε model), 535
k-omega model (keu model), 535
L
Lagrangian-based methods, 527e531
coupling principles and models, 529e531
discrete element modeling principle, 527e529
Large eddy simulation (LES), 527
Large particles, 614, 642
Larger bore pipelines, scaling to, 381e383
Lean phase, 24
LES. See Large eddy simulation (LES)
Lift force, 531, 551
Light soda ash. See Light sodium carbonate
Light sodium carbonate, 313
Limestone, 14
Liquid ring
compressors, 157e158
vacuum pump, 157
Load cells, 258
Lock hoppers, 107, 144e145
Logic diagram
for system capability, 411, 412f, 417e418
for system design, 403, 404f, 414e417, 415f
Long-distance conveying, 14, 87, 448e449. See also Shortdistance conveying
770 INDEXLong-radius bends, 633
Low melting point, 79
Low temperature conveying, 164
Low-pressure air, 274
Low-pressure conveying, 25, 274, 278
alumina, 278e279
barite, 279e280
coal, 276
coal, 280
fluidized bed combustor ash, 280
iron powder, 277e278
pearlite, 277
polyvinyl chloride powder, 279
pulverized fuel ash, 277, 280e281
sodium carbonate, 277
sodium chloride, 276e277
Low-pressure system, 61, 211e212
Low-velocity conveying, 318
Lysholm, 158
M
Magnesium sulphate, 474
capability, 477
conveying capability, 476
conveying data for material, 475e476
conveying duty, 476
design duty, 476
determination, 477
dilute phase conveying, 474
pipeline, 477
procedure, 477
air requirements, 482e483
air-only pressure drop values, 478e480
equivalent lengths, 481
operating point, 477e478
power required requirements, 483
scaling, 481e482
solids loading ratio, 483
specific cost, 483
Mass flow rate, 405, 414
Mass transfer, 523
Material degradation, 186, 607
effects, 310
coal, 312e313
granulated sugar, 311e312
soda ash, 313e315
influences, 53e54
problems, 318
Material flow
control, 508
problems, 22
rate, 201, 259, 335e336, 349e351, 416, 488, 490
correlations, 305e306
determination, 413
rate specification, 414
Material properties, 78, 80
influences, 289e290
conveying capability correlations, 297e306
conveying modes, 290e297
material grade influences, 307e315
modification systems
conveying data, 319e324
innovatory systems, 329e339
material classification, 324e328, 339
material degradation problems, 318
material testing, 328
power requirements, 319
product flavor problems, 318
research work, 319
wear problems, 318
Material-to-surface interface, 666
Material(s), 6e8, 200, 274
capability, 563
characteristics, 297
classification, 324
natural conveying modes, 325e328
compatibility, 353e354, 366
concentration, 566
considerations, 342e344
consolidation, 613
conveying characteristics, 260f
degradation, 613
deposition, 614e615, 705
entrainment, 601
feed rate, 117e118, 574e575
feeding, 580
device capability, 413
grade, 307, 615
alumina, 307
dicalcium phosphate, 309e310
fly ash, 307e309
material degradation effects, 310e315
high-pressure conveying, 281e288
influences, 13, 202, 344, 418
of conveying distance, 418e421
design curves, 426e430
of pipeline bore, 421e425
low-pressure conveying, 274e281
mass flow rate re-specification, 409
in pipeline, 569e570
related problems, 612e616
segregation, 75
specification, 403, 411
surges, 566, 592
INDEX 771Material(s) (Continued)
temperature, 569, 612
testing, 301e302, 328
type, 345e347, 652
Materialseconveying limits, 285
Materialseflow rate, 284e285
Mathematical models, 21, 203, 228, 345, 372, 402,
408, 412f, 486
Mean particle size, 54e55
Mechanical conveying, 73e74, 700
Mechanical feeders, 121, 122f
Meshing, 538
Metal powders, 23e24, 78, 610, 692
Metal refining, 6, 82e83, 691
Milk powder, 68, 691
Minimum conveying air velocity, 27, 346, 374e375,
396, 496
air-only pressure drop, 499
conveying-line inlet air velocity, 496e497
influence of distance and pressure,
498e499
operating point, 497e498
procedure, 499e502
solids loading ratios, 498
Minimum velocity, 153, 201, 275, 325,
448, 559
Mining, 7, 90, 691
applications, 15, 88
Mixture
model, 524
turbulence model, 536
Mobile system, 61, 67
rail vehicles, 68
road vehicles, 68
ships, 68
Mode(s)
conveying, 337
flow, 298
Modifying plant components, 578e579
Mohs hardness scale, 625, 625t
Mohs scale, 29
Moisture, 23, 666
in air, 603
air processes, 672e681
energy considerations, 681e686
humidity, 666e672
in line, 567e568
Momentum equations, 523e525, 541
Momentum transfer, 531e536
Mono sized particles, 47, 71
Moody diagram, 231f
Moving bed flow, 46, 298
Multiphase CFD application, 538
horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline of fine powders, 538
boundary conditions, 539
meshing, 538
numerical approach, 538
results and discussion, 540e544
solution procedures for multiphase modeling, 539e540
Multiphase flows, 522, 536
Multiphase modeling methodology, 523e531
Eulerian-based methods, 523
Lagrangian-based methods, 527e531
VOF model, 523e527
Multiple delivery points, 508e509
Multiple distance conveying, 77
Multiple grade fly ash-handling, 516e518
Multiple material conveying, 303f
Multiple material handling, 77, 92e93, 506
air supply, 507
control, 508
ash collection, 94f
comparison of potential performance, 507f, 509f
conveying multiple grades of material, 93e96
conveying system capability, 93f
material flow control, 508
pipeline conveying air velocity profiles, 95f
Multiple material influences, 510
Multiple pickup and delivery, 76e77
Multiple point delivery, 76
Multiple systems, 61, 64, 211
Multiple use systems, 22
in manufacturing process, 505
multiple delivery points, 508e510
multiple material handling, 506e508
stepped pipelines, 510e519
Multiple-distance conveying, 91e92
Multiple-flow splitting, 193
Multiple-stage
axial flow machines, 151
centrifugal compressors, 151
Multipoint/multiple-point
delivery, 76
discharge, 598
feeding, 597
pickup, 76
N
Natural conveying modes, 325e328
NaviereStokes equations, 527, 530, 536e537, 544e547
Needle-felt, 176
Negative pressure system, 61e64, 63f, 111e112, 201, 211,
239, 490e492, 597e598, 699e700. See also Positivepressure systems
772 INDEXair
filtration, 598
ingress, 598e599
mover specification, 599e600
multipoint discharge, 598
stepped pipelines, 599
Negative vacuum system. See Negative pressure system
Negative-pressure conveying system, 25, 93, 161
Newton’s equations, 527
Ni-hard, 628e629, 635, 637
Nitrogen, 206e207, 559
No-go area, 280
Non-return valves, 193
Non-suspension flow, 9
Noncombustible, 7, 277, 624
Nonsteady feeding of pipeline, 566
Nozzles, 242, 457e458
critical pressure, 244
flow analysis, 242e244
size and capability, 244e245
types, 245
Null point, 26
Numerical modeling, 522
application examples, 537e548
boundary conditions, 536e537
coupled CFD discrete element modeling, 544e548
interphase momentum transfer and turbulence modeling,
531e536
multiphase CFD application, 538e544
multiphase modeling methodology, 523e531
Nylon, 47, 68, 295e297, 327, 345, 612, 628, 661e662
O
Off-take
sections, 458
systems, 582e583
Offset valve, 110
Oil
cooler, 155
filter, 155
free air, 700e701
industry, 7
oil-free air, 154e155, 163
On start-up, 567
cold air, 568e569
material in pipeline, 569e570
moisture in line, 567e568
after unexpected shut down, 570e571
Open conveying systems, 699
negative-pressure systems, 699e700
positive-pressure systems, 699
Open storage, 6, 63, 63f, 124, 690
Open system(s), 60, 62
negative pressure system, 62e64, 63f
positive pressure system, 62, 62f
vacuum conveying from open storage, 63f
Open-end type rotors, 115, 115f
Operating
cost, 15, 165e166, 334, 342, 486
envelopes, 336e337
point, 466e468, 477e478, 497e498
Operating problems, 23, 596, 644e645
existing plant, 597
filtration problems, 646
flow problems, 646
material related problems, 612e616
potential explosion problems, 646
system
components, 601e608
related problems, 609e612
types, 597e601
Optimizing conveying conditions, 578
Optimum conditions, 16e17, 578
Ordinary Portland cement, 284, 292
Orifice plates, 246
Over feeding, 561e566
Oxygen, 78
concentration, 698
oxygen-rich environment, 163
P
Paint manufacture, 6, 82e83
Paper, 45e46, 152
Parallel pipeline, 71, 143e144, 706
Parameterisation, 522
Partial pressure, 28, 667e668, 671, 674
Particle
attrition, 704
breakage, 644
collisions, 43, 523
deposition issues, 40e43
feeding into pipelines, 38
acceleration pressure drop, 39
conveying air velocity profile,
39e40
particle deposition issues, 40e43
hardness, 624
bend wear, 624
hardness measurement, 625e626
impact angle, 653e657
melting, 661e662
influence of variables, 662
mechanics of process, 662
pipeline treatment, 663
INDEX 773Particle (Continued)
shape, 630e631
size, 170, 622e623, 650e652
bend wear, 623e624
velocity, 10, 651e652, 656
Particle degradation, 23, 171, 194, 644
influence of variables, 648
particle impact angle, 653e655
particle size, 650e652
particulate material, 653
surface material, 652e653
velocity, 648e650
operating problems, 644e646
particle breakage, 644
particle melting, 661e663
pneumatic conveying data, 657e661
recommendations and practical issues, 655
bend material, 657
particle impact angle, 656e657
particle velocity, 656
test rigs and data sources, 646e647
Particle stiffness, 528
Particulate material, 653
Pearlite, 277
Pearls, 276
Peas, 648
Pelletized materials, 28, 336
Per-phase turbulence model, 536
Performance monitoring, 564e565, 604
Permeability, 28
Perspex, 639
Peters pump, 119
Petroleum coke, 121
Pharmaceuticals, 6, 82e83, 163, 691, 700
Phase density. See Solids loading ratio
Pickup velocity, 27
Pinch valves, 190
Pipe
bore, 203e205
section joints, 641
Pipeline blockage, 40, 52e53, 556
with change of distance, 574
airflow rate, 575
conveying potential, 576
material feed rate, 574e575
checklist, 556
on commissioning, 557e566
with new material, 573
air requirements, 574
conveying capability, 573e574
after period of time, 571
component wear, 571e572
pipeline effects, 572e573
pipeline layout, 566e567
on start-up, 567e571
Pipeline bore, 233e234, 234f, 344, 352e353,
364e365, 379e380, 405e406, 410, 416,
488, 490, 495
empty-line pressure drop, 380
influence, 421e425, 558
reselection, 409
scaling
model, 380e381
procedure, 381e386
specification, 411
Pipeline feeding, 591e592, 701
blow tanks, 128e147
devices, 18e19, 104
devices availability, 106e107
feeding requirements, 107e108
gate-lock valves, 122e124
low-pressure conveying system, 108f
rotary valves, 108e118
screw feeders, 118e120
selection considerations, 105
air leakage, 105e106
maintenance, 106
material properties, 106
pressure drop, 106
suction nozzles, 124e127
trickle valves, 127
venturi feeders, 120e122
Pipeline(s), 6, 19, 34, 184, 205, 283. See also Rubber hose;
Stepped pipeline(s)
bends, 98e100, 186e190, 271e272, 344e345, 445e446,
495e496
equivalent length, 386e390
geometry, 390e393
compressibility effects, 49
considerations, 631e632
conveying
air velocity, 35e38
air velocity evaluation, 48e49
capacity, 358e361
distance influence, 418e421
design curves, 426e430
diameter, 588e590
effects, 572e573
flow system, 61
flow through pipeline bends,
43e44
geometry, 344e345
influences, 418
layout, 566e567
length, 344
material, 55e56, 185e186, 396e399
774 INDEXerosive wear, 186
hoses, 185e186
hygiene, 185
material degradation, 186
surface finish, 186
mode of flow though pipelines, 44e48
modifications, 592e593
need for conveying data, 53
material degradation influences, 53e54
mean particle size, 54e55
pipeline material, 55e56
sources of data, 56e57
orientation influences, 40
particle feeding into pipelines, 38e43
pipe diameters and wall thicknesses, 185t
pressure, 49e53
pressure drop, 228
flow parameters and properties, 228e230
pressure drop relationships, 231e239
pressure gradient, 396
purging, 217e219, 439e441, 610e611, 705
rotation, 185
scaling parameters, 21
conveying air velocity, 373
conveying distance, 373e379
mathematical models, 372
pipeline bends, 386e393
pipeline bore, 379e386
pipeline material, 396e399
scaling requirements, 372e373
solids loading ratio, 373
vertical pipelines, 393e396
staging, 439
treatment, 663
velocity profiles, 48e53
wall thickness, 184
Plant
air, 165
components
modification, 578e579
replacement, 579
elevation, 53, 224f
pipeline, 468e469, 479e481
wear, 611e612
Plexiglass, 653f
Plug flow, 298
Plug-forming systems, 70e71, 329e331
Plug-type flow, 47e48, 298
Pneumatic conveying system, 5e6, 18, 38, 250, 301, 402, 556,
698
applications, 91e96
availability of design data, 16
capability, 11e16
characteristics, 506
closed systems, 698e699
with conveyed material, 342
data, 657
conveying details, 659
experimental details, 657
materials testing, 657e658
test results, 659e661
dual vacuum and positive pressure system, 84f
elements, 105f
flow rate capability, 83e90
Greek, 30
industries and materials, 6e8, 82e83
material property influences, 78e80
method of filtration, 177
mode, 8e11
nomenclature, 29
nondimensional parameters, 30
open systems, 699e700
operations, 702e706
erosive wear, 704
material deposition, 705
particle attrition, 704
power failure, 705e706
static electricity, 703e704
tramp materials, 703
pneumatic conveyors, 82
positive-pressure conveying system, 83f
for powdered and granular materials transport, 81, 690
prefixes, 32
pressure drop considerations, 72e73
properties, 28e29
reference points, 31
scaling data, 462
scope of work, 16e17
subscripts, 31
superscripts, 30
symbols, 29e30
systems, 24e26
flexibility, 6, 82
requirements, 76e78
types, 60e76
transport, 96e100
velocity related conveying, 26e27
Pneumoconiosis, 693
Pocket types rotors, 116
Pocket-filling efficiency, 117
Poisson’s ratio, 528
Policeman filter, 598
Poly terephthalic acid (PTA), 288, 406e407
Polyester, 79, 176, 612, 661e662
INDEX 775Polyethylene pellets, 284, 295, 322e324, 456
Polypropylene, 7, 83, 112, 176
Polystyrene, 647, 653
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 159, 176
Polyurethane, 637
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 7, 68, 83, 279, 406e407
powder, 279
resin, 287e288
Porous
bypass pipe, 324, 335, 335f
membrane, 131
pipe, 335, 458
Portland cement, 462
capability, 466
cement dense phase conveying, 462
conveying characteristics, 463f
conveying data, 462e465
design duty, 465
determination, 466
procedure, 466
air requirements, 471
equivalent lengths, 468e469
operating point, 466e468
scaling for bore, 470e471
scaling for length, 469e470
Positive pressure system, 62, 62f, 105, 111, 237e238,
490e492, 597, 699. See also Negative-pressure
systems
Positive-displacement blowers. See Roots-type blowers
Positive-displacement compressors, 153e156
Positive-pressure conveying systems, 161
Pot hoppers, 76
Potassium chloride, 253e255, 257f, 259, 262
Potassium sulphate, 373e375
conveying limit, 378
Potential explosion problems, 646
Potential fluidization, 76f
Powdered materials, 43, 131e132, 274, 297e298, 346, 406,
606
Power
failure, 705e706
required requirements, 483
requirements, 165e168, 266, 319, 361e362, 385e386, 471,
588
calculation, 409e410
conveying distance, 362e364
material compatibility, 366
materials with good air retention properties, 365
materials with poor air retention properties, 365
pipeline bore, 364e365
Prandtl number, 536
Precooling systems, 168
Pressure, 49, 207
on air velocity, 50f
boundary conditions, 537
generation, 697e698
gradient, 12e13, 84e85
influence, 565e566
minimum point, 287e288, 327
profiles, 447e448, 448f
stepped pipelines, 50e51, 51f
system influences, 208
temperature, 52e53
and temperature on air density, 230f
velocity determination, 209e212
Pressure drop, 106, 188e189, 194e195, 603
considerations, 71e72, 170e171, 329e333
air injection systems, 72e73
booster systems, 73
bypass systems, 71e72
fluidized motion conveying systems, 73e74
Gattys system, 73
Geldart classification of fluidization behavior, 74e76, 75f
system selection considerations, 73
data, 389e390
elements, 445e447
relationships, 231
air-only pressure drop datum, 239
bends, 234e235
negative pressure systems, 239
pipeline features, 236
positive pressure systems, 237e238
straight pipeline, 231e234
total pipeline, 237
Product flavor, 318
Psychrometric chart, 671e672
PTA. See Poly terephthalic acid (PTA); Purified terephthalic
acid (PTA)
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Pulsating
air flow, 26
flow, 26
material flow, 26
solids flow, 26
Pulsations, 46e47, 110
Pulse phase system, 329, 330f
Pulverized coal, 7, 83, 277, 705
Pulverized fuel ash, 90, 277, 280e281, 515
multiple grade fly ash-handling, 516e518
Punjab State Electricity Board, 14
Purging pipelines, 326
Purified terephthalic acid (PTA), 288
Push-pull. See Multiple systems
PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
776 INDEXQ
Quarrying, 7, 83
Quartz particles, 648
R
Radial flow compressors, 153
Radioactive. See Material properties
Rail vehicles, 68, 97, 133
Re-acceleration, 43
Reactive flows, 522
Receiving hopper, 581, 607, 703
Reception vessel, 81, 236, 393, 707
Reciprocating compressors, 159
Reference conditions, 204e205, 488
Refrigerant dryers, 164, 679
Refrigerants, 164, 679e680
Regenerative blowers, 153
Relative humidity. See Humidity
Relief, 708
Replacing plant components, 579
Research work, 319
Resilient materials, 628, 635e636
Retardation, 25, 43e44
Reverse
air jet cleaning, 179
flow type, 173
Reynolds number, 37, 229e230, 533e534, 539
Reynolds-averaged-type model, 527
Rice, 6e7, 82e83, 691
Road vehicles, 68, 97, 133
Rockwell hardness, 626f
Roots, 13, 82, 154e156
compressors, 154e155
exhausters, 155
roots-type blowers, 154
staging, 156
Rotameters, 258
Rotary
air lock, 108
machines, 150e151
screw compressors, 158
Rotary valves, 108, 604e606, 701e702
air leakage, 111e115
alternative designs, 109e110
blade tip clearance, 113, 572, 701
discharge period and pulsations, 110
drop-through valve, 108
high-pressure, 117
material feed rate, 117e118
rotor types, 115e116
wear, 109
Rotor tip clearance, 113
Rubber bends, 635e636
Rubber hose, 194, 397e399. See also Pipelines
conveying cohesive materials, 195
erosive wear, 194
particle degradation, 194
pressure drop, 194e195
Rubber surfaces, 629f
Running repairs, 7
S
Sacrificial inserts, 637e638, 638f
Salt, 276e277
Saltation, 27, 40
Sand, 7
Sandy, 307
alumina, 321
grades, 514
materials, 497
Scaling, 375, 481e482
for bore, 470e471, 482
empty line pressure drop, 375
iterative process, 379
for length, 469e470, 482
to longer distances, 378e379
model, 376
parameters, 21, 416
distance, 416
pipe bore, 416
procedure, 376e378
requirements, 372e373
Screw compressors. See Compressors
Screw feeders, 118
commercial type, 119f
high-pressure design, 119e120
simple screw feeder, 118e119, 118f
Screw pump. See Fuller-Kinyon
Secondary explosions, 709e710
Sedimentation, 524, 532
Seeding, 254
Seeds, 9, 47, 324, 345
Selfloading, 68
Semicontinuous systems, 66
Separation
devices, 172
collecting efficiency, 173
cyclone separators, 173e175
gravity settling chambers, 172e173
efficiency, 174
mechanisms, 170
Settling chamber, gravity, 172e173
Shale, 88
Shared negative and positive pressure systems, 64
INDEX 777Ships, 68
Short distance conveying, 450e452. See also Long distance
conveying
Short-radius bends, 633e634
SI. See International System of Units (SI)
Sight glass, 582
Silica, 619, 627
Silo, 14, 88, 518, 646, 690
Single blow-tank systems, 133
Single phase flow, 36e37, 251
air mass flow rate, 252e253
Darcy equation, 251e252
Single phase modelling, 522, 525
Single plug conveying, 67, 67f
Single plug systems, 67
Single system, 61
Single-bore pipeline, 214, 449e452
Single-fluid approach, 524
Single-plug blow tank systems, 600e601
Size distribution. See Material properties
Sizing, 607e608
Slide
bed flow, 46e47
sliding-vane rotary compressors, 156e157
valves, 191
Slip
ratio, 27
velocity, 26, 37e38
Slug flow. See Plug flow
Slugging diagram, 300
Soda ash, 277, 313e315
Sodium carbonate. See Soda ash
Sodium chloride. See Salt
Solids axial flow velocity, 540e541
Solids loading ratio, 10e11, 24, 45, 257, 349, 373, 483, 487,
489e490, 498, 559, 587
bend wear, 629e630
calculation, 408, 413
on equilibrium temperature, 223f
mass flow rate, 446
in pneumatic conveying, 629
Solids volume fraction, 540, 541f
Specific cost, 483
Specific energy, 266e268
Specific erosion, 623, 624f, 630
Specific heat, 223e224
Specific humidity. See Humidity
Specific surface, 303
Specific volume, 410
Spillage(s), 6, 63, 77, 126, 691
Staged systems, 64e65
Stagings, 156, 159
Start-up, 77e78, 606
Static electricity, 703e704
earthing, 703e704
humidity control, 704
Steady-flow energy equation, 681
evaporative cooling, 683e685
flash drying, 685
vacuum drying, 685e686
variation of specific enthalpy of saturated vapor, 682f
Steam, 559, 671, 681, 682f
Steel(s), 185, 626e628
Step
location, 212e213, 435e436, 519
position, 216, 439
Stepped pipeline systems, 212, 435
dense phase conveying, 214e215
dilute phase conveying, 213e214
pipeline staging, 216e217
step location, 212e213
vacuum conveying, 215
step position, 216
Stepped pipeline(s), 21, 26, 50e51, 51f, 246, 432, 449,
451e452, 495, 510, 599. See also Pipelines
air extraction, 454e458
air-only pressure drop, 246e248
alternative, 433f
alumina, 514e515
conveying air velocity, 433e439
conveying performance, 441e444
first approximation design method, 444e453
flour, 510e513
for high-pressure dilute phase system, 437f
notation, 213f
pipeline purging, 439e441
pipeline staging, 439
position of steps, 248
pulverized fuel ash, 515e518
step location, 519
sugar, 510e513
transition sections, 248
vertically down pipelines, 459e460
Stockpiles, conveying from, 77
Stoichiometric value, 28
Storage vessel, 105, 695
Straight pipeline, 231e234, 493e494
sections, 445
wear, 640e642
Streamers, 662
Street cleaning, 34, 63
Suck-blow. See Multiple systems
Suction nozzles. See Vacuumdnozzle
Sugar, 510e513
778 INDEXSuperficial
air velocity, 26
velocity, 26, 178
Supplementary air, 128
supply, 138
Suppressant systems, 78, 708e709
Suppression, 708e709, 709f
Surface
coatings, 637
finish, 186, 631
material, 619e620, 626, 652e653
hard materials, 628e629
resilient materials, 628
steels, 626e628
roughness, 230, 231t
thickness, 653
Surges, 108, 406, 566, 591, 702
Suspension
flow, 8, 24, 298
temperature, 222
SyamlaleO’Brien drag model, 531e532
Synthetic rubber, 636f
System
capabilities, 12e13
checking, 402
considerations, 180, 363e364
economics, 342
flexibility, 6, 82
influences, 343e344
integration, 691
potential, 590
reassessment, 410
related problems, 609e612
use of equations in, 403e414
use of test data, 414e418
System components, 601
blow tanks, 601e604
blowers, 601
filters, 606e608
rotary valves, 604e606
vacuum nozzles, 608
System requirements, 76
conveying from stockpiles, 77
multiple distance conveying, 77
multiple materialetype handling, 77
multiple pickup and delivery, 76e77
multiple-point delivery, 76
multiple-point pickup, 76
start-up with full pipeline, 77e78
System selection
considerations, 21, 73, 334, 366
dense phase conveying materials capability, 367
design curves, 354e361
dilute phase conveying, 368
material compatibility, 353e354
material considerations, 342e344
pipeline geometry, 344e345
power requirements, 361e366
summary charts, 366e367
system economics, 342
variable investigation, 345
conveying distance, 349e352
conveying-line pressure drop, 347e348
material type, 345e347
pipeline bore, 352e353
System types, 11e12, 60e61
batch conveying systems, 65e67
closed systems, 69
closed-loop pneumatic conveying system, 69f
conveying systems for conventional systems, 61f
innovatory systems, 69e72
mobile systems, 67e68
open systems, 62e64
staged systems, 64e65
T
Tapered pipeline, 212f, 432f. See also Stepped pipelines
Tappings, 258
Tea, 6e7, 83, 691
Telescoped pipeline, 26
Temperature, 52e53, 615e616
delivery, 161e163
material, 569, 615
suspension, 222
variations, 612
on viscosity of air, 230f
wet and dry bulb, 672
Terminal velocity, 17e18, 25, 38, 98e99, 272,
531e532, 692
Test(s)
data, 321e324
logic diagram for system capability, 417e418
logic diagram for system design, 414e417,
415f
in system design, 414
facilities, 37, 319e320
with nylon pellets, 295e297
pipeline, 468, 479, 481
rigs, 646e647
Thermal power plant, 83, 87, 618
Thermodynamic efficiency, 154e155
Thermodynamic equations, 161e162
Threshold limit valueeceiling (TLV-C), 694
Threshold limit values (TLVs), 693
INDEX 779Threshold limit valueeshort-term exposure limit
(TLV-STEL), 693
Threshold limit valueetime-weighted average (TLV-TWA),
693
Tidal movement, 68, 185
Titanium dioxide, 80, 184
TLV-C. See Threshold limit valueeceiling (TLV-C)
TLV-STEL. See Threshold limit valueeshort-term exposure
limit (TLV-STEL)
TLV-TWA. See Threshold limit valueetime-weighted average
(TLV-TWA)
TLVs. See Threshold limit values (TLVs)
Top discharge blow tank, 129e132, 129fe130f
Toxic. See Material properties
Trace
air lines, 706
heating, 567, 606
Tramp materials, 703
Transducer, 189, 258, 390
Transient, 26
Transitional/transition
conveying limit, 292e294
relationship, 47
sections, 248
Transport, 96
drilling mud powders, 96
mobile ship off-loader, 97f
pipeline bends, 98e100
Triaxial tests, 528
Trickle valves, 127
Triple point, 683
Troubleshooting, 22
Turbulence modeling, 531e536
EulerianeEulerian turbulence
modeling, 536
EulerianeLagrangian turbulence
modeling, 536
Twin blow-tank systems, 143
in parallel, 143e144, 144f
with screw feeding, 146f
in series, 144e146
Twin rotors, 154
Two-phase flow system, 253
U
Underground stowing, 89
Universal conveying characteristics method, 493
minimum conveying air velocity,
496e502
pipeline bends, 495e496
pipeline bore, 495
stepped pipelines, 495
straight pipeline, 493e494
vertical pipelines, 494e495
Uprating alternative methods, 590e591
air supply pressure, 593
pipeline feeding, 591e592
pipeline modifications, 592e593
V
Vacuum, 160e161, 215. See also Negative-pressure
conveying
conveying system, 68, 84, 87e88, 94, 95f,
124, 180e181, 224, 438e439
drying, 685e686
nozzle, 84, 124e127, 608
feed rate control, 125e126
flow aids, 126
to hopper off-loading, 126f
hopper off-loading, 126e127
for vacuum pickup system, 124f
vacuum-aerated feed nozzle,
127, 127f
pumps, 160
air leakage and ingress, 161
volumetric flow rate, 161
systems, 105
Valves, 19, 190
discharge, 190e191
flow diversion, 192e193
isolating, 191
seizure, 606
vent line valves, 191e192
wear, 109
wear, 606
Velocity, 201e202, 620, 646, 648e650
bend wear, 621e622
boundary conditions, 537
conveying, 26e27
determination, 209
graphical representation, 209e212
working relationships, 209
head, 234
profiles, 447e448, 448f,
456e457
surface material, 620e621
Vent line valves, 191e192
Venting, 605
Venturi
analysis, 239
atmospheric pressure applications,
241
entrainment, 115
feeders, 120
780 INDEXcommercial venturi feeder, 121
flow control, 121e122
high-pressure applications, 242
Vertical conveying, 15, 88, 492
conveying vertically down, 89e90
conveying vertically up, 88
Vertical pipelines, 393, 494e495
conveying vertically down, 395,
459e460
conveying vertically up, 394
inclined pipelines, 395e396
Very fine material, 80
Vickers hardness, 29
Voidage, 301e302, 674
Volume of fluid model (VOF model),
523e524
Eulerian model, 524e527
mixture model, 524
Volumetric
airflow rate calculation, 413
flow rate, 160, 165, 203, 209,
487e488
pipe bore, 203e205
presentation of equations, 203
W
Wall thickness, 184
Water, 13, 155
removal, 163
air drying, 164
air line filters, 163
desiccants, 164e165
plant air, 165
refrigerants, 164
Wear
back methods, 637
patterns, 639e640
problems, 318
resistance, 190, 621, 626e627, 635
Wet materials, 78, 616
Wetted perimeter, 336
Wheat flour. See Flour
Winter operating, 52, 220
Wood, 78, 610, 696
shavings, 82
Y
Young’s modulus, 528, 548t


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