كتاب Improving Machinery Reliability - Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants
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 كتاب Improving Machinery Reliability - Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants

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Improving Machinery Reliability - Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants
Volume D Third Edition
Heinz P. Bloch

كتاب Improving Machinery Reliability - Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants  I_m_r_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Preface x
Introduction xx
1 RequirementsSpecification . 1
Industry Standards Available for Major Machinery in Process Plants, 1;
How to Deal with the Typical API Data Sheet, 2; Narrative
Specifications Lead to Better Machinery, 15;Considering Uprateability
and Low Failure Risk, 21; Auxiliary Systems for Turbomachinery: The
Systematic Approach, 24; Dealing with Deviations from the
Specification, 34; Specifying Machinery Documentation Requirements,
37; Conclusion, 51
2 Vendor Selection and Bid Conditioning 53
Selecting Major Machinery Vendors, 53; Applying and Reviewing
Machinery Reliability Improvements Derived from Modern
Electronics, 54; Selecting a Pump Vendor, 64; Bid Tabulation and Bid
Conditioning: An Overview, 76; Reference, 81
Audits Versus Reviews, 82;Where to Concentrate Audit and Review
Efforts, 82; Rotordynamic Design Audits, 83; Auditing and Reviewing
Centrifugal Compressors, 125; Auditing and Reviewing Steam Turbines,
135;Evaluating Major Reciprocating Compressors, 139; Reliability
Review for Centrifugal Pumps, 146;Significant Differences in Bearings
and Bearing Housings, 156;Marginal Lubrication: A Factor in Pump
Failures, 160;Applying Roller Bearings in Centrifugal Pumps, 168;How
Much Oil Is Enough?, 171; Bearing Selection Can Make a Difference,
172;Air Cooling Provisions for Bearing Housing-How Good? 173;
Stuffing Box Cooling Is Not Usually Effective, 174; Pumps for Handling
Entrained Gases, 176;Selection Criteria for Zero Emission Pumps, 178;
Design Appraisals for Special-Purpose Gearing, 181;Evaluating Cooling
Tower Fans and Their Drive Systems, 200; Reliability Reviews in Uprate
Situations, 203; Reliable Shaft-Hub Connections for Turbomachinery
Couplings, 213; How to Keep Track of Reliability Review Tasks, 224;
Machinery Reliability Audits for Existing Plants, 224; References, 238
3 MachineryReliabilityAudits and Reviews 82
V4 Maintenanceand Benchmarking Reliability 242
Maintenance Measurement, 242; Organize to Manage Reliability, 249;
Maintenance Cost vs. Replacement Asset Value: Another Maintenance
Spending Benchmark, 257
5 Life Cycle Cost Studies . . . . . . . , .259
Simplified Life Cycle Cost Estimating, 259; Life Cycle Cost
Assessment: The Rigorous Method, 272; Summary, 3 10;
References, 310
6 Extending Motor Life in the Process
Plant Environment ., . . . , . . . .,313
Squirrel-cage Motors Are Most Prevalent, 314; Motor Insulation
Systems, 314; Insulation Classification, 315; Ambient Plus, 315; A
Bank of Motor Life, 317; Running Cooler-A Relative Term, 318;
Thermal Cushion, 319; Enclosures, 319; Standard, but Different, 319;
Learning from Failures, 320; More about Thermal Loading, 320;
Economics of Oversizing, 321; Keep Bearings in Mind, 323; Motor
Mounting Basics, 325; Motor System Tuneup, 326; Pumping and
Piping, 326; Power Points, 326; Over-Current Insurance, 327; Motor
Life Insurance Terms, 328; Notes, 328
7 Equipment ReliabilityImprovement through
Reduced Pipestress . . ., .,. . ., m . . . . .,329
Allowable Load, 331;Excessive Flexibility, 333; Theoretical
Restraints, 334; Expansion Joints, 335; Other Practical Considerations,
337; References, 338
8 Startup Responsibilities . . .m . . . . . . .339
Summary of Startup Preparations for Process Plant Machinery, 339;
Machinery Startup Review Tasks, 342; Machinery Startup Reporting
Structure, 344; Documentation for Effective Tracking of Progress, 348;
Vendor Assistance and Outside Facilities, 359; Consultants and
Contract Assistance. 359
9 Spare Parts and Their Effect on Service Factors . .361
Spare Parts Philosophies, 361; Spare Parts Storage and Retrieval, 361;
Spare Parts Documentation, 363
10 Maintenancefor Continued Reliability .,. . . 365
Modern Maintenance Approaches and when to Apply Them, 365;
Maintenance Management Options, 374; Detailed Task Descriptions
viImprove Maintenance Effectiveness, 380; Machinery Turnaround
Planning, 394; Turnaround Scope Developmentthrough Reliability,
Availability, and Maintainability Analysis, 401;Effective Maintenance:
Preventive or Predictive?, 416; Preventive Versus Predictive
Maintenance for Typical Centrifugal Pumps, 421; How to Be a Better
Maintenance Engineer, 429; The Role of the Maintenance Engineer in
the Knowledge Age, 43I; References, 432
11 Maintenance Cost Reduction 434
Eliminating Cooling Water from General-Purpose Pumps and Drivers,
434; Economics of Dry-Sump Oil-Mist Lubrication for Anti-friction
Bearings, 440; Gear Couplings Versus Non-lubricated Couplings, 45 1;
Elastomeric Couplings, 457; Quantifying the Reliability Impact of
Laser Alignment Techniques, 461;Quantifying Impact, 470; Why and
How to Monitor Centrifugal Pump Condition, 477; References, 483
12 Lubrication and Reliability .485
Methods and Criteria for Lube-Oil Purification, 485; Cost Justification
and Latest Technology for the On-Stream Purification of
Turbomachinery Lube Oil, 49 1; Synthetic Lubricants and Reliability
Improvement, 503; Vibration Performance Improved with Synthetics,
515; Automatic Grease Lubrication as a Reliability Improvement
Strategy, 517; References, 525
13 ProvidingSafety and Reliabilitythrough Modern
Sealing Technology ,527
API Standard 682,528; Low-Emission Single Seal Design, 531; Dual
Seal Arrangements, 543; Compact Gas Seal Technology for Pumps,
550; The Reliability Impact of Special Seals for Non-Pump
Applications, 558; Specialty Seals for Non-Pump Applications, 565;
Dry Gas Compressor Seals, 581;Warding off Equipment Reliability
Setbacks: A Postscript, 593; References, 598
AppendixA 600
Useful and Interesting Statistics
AppendixH . .609
Common Sense Reliability Models
Index
A
Abnormal parameter detection,
478-483
Accumulator, 28-30
Acoustic housing, 3
Acquisition cost tree, 282
Acquisition costs, 279, 283,289,
Adjustable chocks, 461-463
Air cooled bearing housings,
Air cooling, 173-1 74
Air stripping, 501-506
Alignment, laser, 62-63,461-476
Allowable piping load, 331-333
Ambient temperature, 315-317
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA), 182
Analytical cost model, 289, 292
Anderson hub clamp, 223
ANSI pumps, 154-155,271,
API (American Petroleum
Institute)
data sheet, 2-14, 68, 69
flush plans, 69
specification sheet, 66
standards, I, 2
295
173- Z74
278-279,289-291,295,296
API Standard 682,528
Assembly procedures, 44,46
Assessing life cycle costs,
Audits
272-3 10
centrifugal compressor, 125-1 35
independent, 119
machinery reliability, 82-238
steam turbine, 135-139
Automatic grease lubrication,
Autonomous maintenance,
Auxiliary systems, 24-33
Axial preloading, 156
Axial thrust, 194-198
517-525
366-367
Babbitt, 9
Back electromotive force, 316
Backlash values, 192-193
Balance, 6, 8,9
Bank of motor life, 317-3 18
Barrier fluid leakage, 572
Barrierbuffer fluid selection,
Bearing
546-549
clearance,53,95-96
coefficients, 89-90, 104
contamination,324,447-450
668Index 669
cooling, 435-439
design, 53
housings, 156-160, 173-174
internal clearances, 436
life, 324
loads, 103
lubrication, 440-450
maintenance,422-425
re-lubrication, 324
selection, 172-173
size, 53
stiffnessand damping, 88,89,94
support flexibility, 94
wear, 323
angular contact, 159, 161, 163
anti-friction,435,440-450
Conrad, 157
flexure pivot, 9
fluid film, 11
flush ground, 158, 172
grease-lubricated electric motor,
262
life cycle, 262
loading, 53
magnetic, 9, 11
oil film I 1
open, 262
product-lubricated, 179
pump, 158-159
radial, 157, 159
roller, 168-171
rolling element, 11, 159-160,
l61,440-450,515
rotor shaft, 323
sealed, 262
span, 53
thrust, 23, 156, 172, 194-195
tilting pad, 89-90
Bearings
Bellows expansion joints, 335-337
Benchmarking, 247-249,257,286,
Bending moments, 208-210
Benefit-to-cost calculations, 267
Best practices, 658-659
Better practices, 660-661
Bid
comparison, 53,74-75
conditioning, 78
requests, 68-69
tabulation, 75-80
372-373
Blowers, 266
Boundary lubricated gas and liquid
Break-even charts, 299,301, 302
Broadband measurements, 480,
Buffer fluid contamination,576
Buffedbarrier fluid selection,
seals, 562-563
482
546-549
C
Capital costs, 297
Captive maintenance, 375-376
Cartridge construction, 69
Cash flow, 276-277
Casing, 53
Cavitation erosion, 75
Centrifugal pump, 26, 39,
122-1 25, 146-155, 168-17 1,
176,266,356-358,421-429,
477-483
Centrifuge seal reliability, 574-575
Centrifuges, 573-574
Chocks, 461-463
Coalescers, 497-498
Compact gas seal technology,
Behavioral training, 367 550-558670 Machineiy Failure Analysis & Troubleshooting
barrier gas consumption, 553
materials, 555
operating performance, 553
power consumption, 554
reversed pressure, 555
sealing concept, 551-553
Component strength analysis
hyper compressor, 143-146
reciprocating compressor,
Component upgrading, 263-267
Compression systems, cost
Compressor
140-1 43
analysis, 38
centrifugal, 2-14, 20, 21,23, 39,
component strength analysis, 141
control systems, 55-56
diaphragms, 9
discharge drum, 414-416
frame ratings, 140, 141
process gas, 21-23
reciprocating, 39, 139-146
surge protection, 54-55
uprateability,21-23
pump, 477-483
80, 119-120,125-135
Condition monitoring, centrifugal
Containment shell, 180
Contamination levels, 485-486
Cooling tower fans, 200-203
Cooling water
analysis, 410
elimination, 434-440
elimination program, 439-440
Cost benefit ratios, 272
Cost justification methods, 272
Cost profiles, 301
Coupling
Anderson-type, 223
design, 53
diaphragm, 452,453,454
disc-pack couplings, 453
elastomeric,457460
failure records, 456-457
gear, 208-210,451457
high-speed, 198-200
life expectancies, 266
lubricated-gear-type, 11
non-lubricated,451-457
non-lubricated metallic disc, 11,
reviewing, 454
spacers, 455
turbomachinery, 2 13
Crew concept, 256
Critical business issues (CBI),
Critical-dimension diagram, 44
Critical speed map, 86-88, 92-94
Cumulative fatigue theory, 114
Cupped oil flinger design, 164, 167
453-454
243-244
Depreciation calculation, 277,278
Depropanizer feed bottoms
Derating, 321
Derating factor, 185
Design appraisals
exchanger,4 11-412
shortcuts, 182-1 86
special purpose gearing,
181-200
Detecting abnormal parameters,
478-483
Diesel engines, 39
Digital control systems, 55-56, 57
Dimensional records, 3
Disassembly procedures,44,46
Discount factors, 276Index 671
Discounted cash flow (DCF),278
Disposal costs, 297,299
Distributed seal flush, 530
Dodd Bar technique, 463
Downtime, 367
Dry gas compressor seals, 581-599
Dry-sump oil-mist lubrication,
440450
Dual seal arrangements, 529,
543-558
Dynamic factor, 183
Dynamic rotational balance,
643-647
E
Effectivemaintenance, 416-421
Effectiveness,285,304
Elastohydrodynamic oil film, 441
Elastomeric couplings, 457-460
Elastomeric lip seals, 447
Electric motors, 39
See also motor
Electricalpower analysis, 410
Electronic governor, 259-26 1
Element of effectiveness
equation, 285
Energy usage, precision alignment
programs, 469-476
Engineering problem solving,
Enterprise assets, 242
Enterprise goals, 243-244
Entrained gases, 176-178
Environmental Protection Agency
Equipment
288-307
(EPA)v527
availability, 366
density, 253
effectiveness,366
Equipment assessment, 407-408
Equipmentreliability setbacks,
Equipment tabulation, 351, 352
Equivalent daily capacity, 250
Event log, 354
Excessive mist velocity, 444
Exhaust-temperature measurement
Expansionjoints, 335-337
External contamination, 447-450
593-595
errors, 61
F
Face-to-face bearing mounting,
Failure
163, 164
analysis,392-393
component, 417-418
data, 267-269,304
frequencies,261-263
of components,417-418
of valve, 418-420
risk, 21-23
statistics, 83
centrifugalcompressor,
centrifugalpump, 122-124
gas turbine, 121-122, 124
steam turbine, 120-121
Fan cooled bearing housings, 174
Fire system analysis,411
Flashing hydrocarbon
services, 528
Flexibility of pipe, 333-334
Flinger disks, 163, 164
Fluid flow circulation,545-546
Forced non-synchronous
instability, 106
Fretting, 213
119-120672 Machinery Failure Analysis h Troubleshooting
Friction, 334
Full contract maintenance, 376
Full-fluid film gas and liquid
Fully crowned coupling tooth, 451
lubrication, 562
G
Gas entrainment, 176-178
Gas seals
cost comparison,588-589
design, 582
leakage, 583-584
operating principle, 582-583
power loss, 584-585
safety, 587
seal arrangements,585-587
technology, 550-558
Gear mesh, 195-200
Gear tooth
backlash review, 191-193
compressive stress, 182
couplings, 194
design appraisals, 181-200
double-helical, 181, 196
single-helical, 181
service factor, I88
strength, 186-1 87
Good practices, 662-663
Governors, 24, 55,58
electronic,259-261
repair cost, 260
Grease lube, 446-447
Grooved rings, 164
Grouting, 653-657
H
Gears
Hot-alignmentmonitoring
systems, 62, 63
Hub mounting, 217-219,223
Hydraulic hub dilation, 220-223
Hydropad faces, 542
I
Impeller
overspeed test, 20-21
single suction, 148
Impeller and blade response
analyses, 114-1 16
In-house maintenance, 375-376
Income tax, 277-278
Increasing profits, 371-372
Independent maintenance,
Independent service contractor,
Indikon technique, 463
Interference diagram, 114
Inquiry document, 1
Instability vibrations, 106
Installation completeness
checklists,49-51
Instrumentation analysis, 409-410
Insulation classification,315
Insulation systems, 314
378-379
378-379
J
Jackso alignment technique, 463
Job procedures, 380
Just-in-time (JIT), 365
L
Laser alignment techniques,
Laser optics, 62,463
461 4 7 6Index 673
Lateral response analyses, 99-107
gear shaft, 100-104
liquid pump, 99
rotor stability analyses, 104-107
LJD suction straight run
Lean oil contact cooler, 413-414
Life cycle
effects, 632
calculation (governor
options), 262
total cost (LCC total), 261
Life cycle cost
analysis, 272
assessment,272-309
breakdown (per SAE model),284
components of, 279-284
estimating, 259, 272
limitations, 274
models, 283-284
studies, 259-3 12
trade off tools, 285-288
tree, 281
uncertainty, 307-309
process, 281
uses, 273,275-279
Life expectancies, 261, 263-264
Load distribution factor, 185
Locked rotor current by
Lomakin effect, 99
Loss of pump life
horsepower, 3 17
BEP practice, 622-624
intake L/D practice, 629-63 1
piping alignment practice,
rotational alignment practice,
639-640
634-6 35
Lost gross margin, 297
Low-emission single seal design,
531-543
Lube oil
coalescers,497-498
contamination levels, 485-486
dewatering centrifuges,495-497
filterddryers, 498
purification, 485-491 ~ 498-499
purification costs and
technologies, 491-503
water contamination,486-491
specifying, example, 24-34
Lube system,
Lubricant viscosity, 436
Lubrication
automatic, 517-525
data, 46-48
effect on service life, 424
gear tooth, 451
grease, 446447,517-525
marginal, 160-1 68
mesh, 193
motor, 445-446
oil-mist, 440-450
pump failures, 160-168
seal, 561-562
synthetic, 503-515. See also
Synthetic lubricants.
M
Machinery availabilityh-eliability,
Machinery data-file folders, 4 0 4 3
Machinery documentation
Machinery reliability audits, 82-238
601-602
requirements, 37-5 1
application, 238
definition, 82
functional checklist, 233-234
interview questions, 232-233
methods and scope, 228-230674 Machinery Failure Analysis & Troubleshooting
purpose, 82
rotordynamic design audits,
Machinery reliability reviews,
83-125
82-238
definition, 82
purpose, 82
tracking, 224
uprate situations, 203-213
Machinery review checklist,
Machinery turnaround planning,
Main fractionator tower, 414
Maintenance approaches, 365-374
Maintenance cost, 37, 39,251,
230-23 1
394-400
255,257-259,434-438,
600-604
Maintenance engineer,429-432
Maintenance index, 251,252
Maintenance management
function, 375
options, 374-380
Maintenance measurement,
operational level, 247
strategic level, 245-248
tactical level, 247
Maintenance organization
structure, 255
Maintenance spending, 251-252
Maintenance strategies, 604-605
Managing reliability, 254-255
Marginal lubrication, 160-168
Material index numbers, 189
Mean-time between failure
242-249
(MTBF), 172,260-263,
266-267,269-270,285,
292-294,304,310,366,
466-468
Mean time to repair or replace,
Measurement attributes, 245
Measurement program, 243
Measurements,242-247
Mechanical availability,251, 252
Mechanical pipe alignment,
Mechanical procedures manual,
Mechanical reliability, 254-255
Mechanical seal
clamping methods, 70-71
failure, 124
gas-lubricated, 75, 76
life expectancies, 266
selection, 67-68
260,261
638-642
344,394-399
Mechanical startup section, 344,
347,348
Mesh lubrication, 193
Metrics, 242-247
Mezzanine, 3
Minimum continuous stable flow
Mixer seal reliability problems,
Mixers, 568
Monte Carlo simulation
Motor
(MCSF), 151-153
568-573
techniques, 307-3 10
ambient temperature, 315-3 17
bearings, 323-324
enclosures, 319
failure, 3 13
insulation classification, 315
insulation systems, 314-3 15
life, 313-328
life insurance, 328
mounting, 325
oversizing, 321-323Index 675
part load efficiency,322
power points, 326-327
running cooler, 318
squirrel-cage,314,328
system tuneup, 326
thermal cushion, 319
N
Nameplates, 15,20
Narrative document. See Single
narrative document.
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association, 314, 316,319
Net positive suction head (NPSH)
influence on service life, 146,
insufficient, solution to, 66
Net present value (NPV), 276,
Non-coupled equipment, 572-573
148-154
278-280,299
0
O-ring, 69-70, 157-165,223, 576
011
coolers, 27
mist systems, 440-450,5 12
purification. See Lube oil
purifiers, 491-492
replacement intervals, 421422
reservoir, 25
flow, 171-172
purification.
On-stream lube oil purification,
Operational level maintenance
Organization
491-503
measures, 247
reliability focused, 252-253
repair focused, 252-253
style and structure, 255-256
Original equipment manufacturer
(OEM) maintenance,
3 79-3 7 9
Outage log sheet, 353
Overcurrent insurance, 327
Overhead tank, 30-32,34
Overload factor, 183, 184
Oversizing (motors), 321-323
Overtime,468-469
P
Parallel reliability models, 615
Pareto charts, 301-303
Pareto distributions of severity,
Peak shaving maintenance,377-380
Pedestal and foundation flexibility,
Pedestal cooling, 434
Performance deterioration, 59,
Performance optimization,61-62
Phase displacement technique, 57
Phosphate esters, 508
Pipe flexibility,333-334
Pipe restraints, 334-335
Pipe stress, 329-338
Piping alignment, 638-642
Piping loads, 330-333
Poseidon pump, 177
Predictive maintenance, 373,
4 16-429
Preload, 156, 172
Pressure thrust force, 336
Pressurized barrier fluid, 549
Pressurized dual seal, 549-550
664-665
97-99
60-6 1
Polyglycols, SO8676 Machinery Failicre Analysis & Troubleshooting
Preturnaround requirements,
401,404
Preventive maintenance, 365,373,
416-429
Prime movers, 60
Proactive maintenance
documenting, 383
implementing, 392
measuring, 392-394
program template, 390-391
programs, 38 1-382
task information, 383
technologies, 382-383
Procedures manual, 344,394-399
Process operators, 255-256
Process piping assessment, 408
Process plant machinery startup
preparations, 339-342
Procurement costs, 273
Proximity reference system, 463
Published failure data, 267-269
Pulsations, 117-1 18
Pump
ANSI, 154-155,271,278-279,
289-291,295,296
API, 154-155,297-299
back-pullout, 154-155
bearing set MTBF, 293
between bearing style, 154-155
body, 331
canned motor, 178, 179
centrifugal, 26, 39, 122-125,
146-155, 168-171, 176,
477-483
266,356-358,421-429,
condition monitoring, 477-483
coupling MTBF, 293
Goulds, 168
housing MTBF, 293
impeller MTBF, 293
inducer-equipped, 176
installation, 33 1
load, 331-333
lubrication, 441-445
magnetic drive, 178
motor MTBF, 293
multiphase, 177
multistage horizontal, 66
multistage vertical, 66
outages, 352
positive displacement, 26
reciprocating,66
repair costs, 477
seal MTBF, 292
shaft MTBF, 292
single-stage high-speed, 66
Sulzer “Poseidon,” 177
tabulation, 349
upgrading, 271
vendor selection, 64-76
vertical deep-well, 66
zero emission, 178-181
characteristics, 618, 620
effects on component
practices, 621
responsibilities, 625
Pump curve
characteristic life, 627
Pump foundations, 648-652
Purge mist (wet sump) lubrication,
441-443
Q
Quantifying water effects, 490491
R
RAM (reliability,availability, and
maintainability) principles,
401,416Index 611
Rated load capacity, 3 16
Reclassifier nozzle, 441
Reed frequency vibration, 326
Relationship matrices, 244
Reliability audits, 82-238. See
also Machinery reliability
,audits.
Reliability centered maintenance
definition, 368
prerequisites, 370-37 1
questions about, 369-370
Reliability curves, 304
Reliiabilityhierarchy, 616
Reliiability measures, 6 11
Reliability models, 609-667
Reliability-oriented repairs, 256
Reliability reviews. See a h
Machinery reliability reviews.
centrifugal pumps, 146-155
component analysis procedures,
reciprocating compressors,
140-143
139-146
Relubrication interval, 16 1
Replacement asset base
Replacement asset value (RAV),
Resourcefulness, 429-43 1
Rigid bearing critical speeds, 86
Rotation arrow, 15,20
Rcttational balance, 643-647
Rotational shaft alignment,
Rotor
(RAB), 393
257-258
effect of pump life, 633-637
balance, 6
response to unbalance, 94-95
sensitivity to bearing clearance,
sensitivity to pedestal and
95-96
foundation flexibility,
97-99
sensitivity to unbalance location,
96-97
stability analyses, 104- B07
Rotordynamic design audits,
83-125
impeller and blade analyses,
lateral critical speed analyses,
pulsation analyses, 117-1 19
torsional critical speed analyses,
transient torsional analyses,
114-1 17
85-107
107-112
112-SI4
“Running cooler,” 3 18
S
Safety and reliability, 527-599
Scoping studies, 1
Screw spindle, 418
Seal
balance ratio, 533-534
bearing housing, 266
bellows, 73,74
cartridge, 69
classification, 559, 560
design, 72, 99
dry gas, 581-599
elastomeric lip, 447
face deflections, 532-533
face materials, 535-536
face warpage, 569
face width, 534-535
flush arrangement, 537-540
gas lubricated, 551
geometry, 564-567
hermetic, 449678 Machiizery Failure Analysis & Troubleshooting
labyrinth, 487, 576,579
leakage, 575
lubrication modes, 561
magnetic, 447-449
manufacturer qualification
mechanical, 67-68,70,71,75,
mixer, 568
non-pusher,559,561
performance enhancement,
pusher, 559
recoverability,536-5 37
reliability, 558-559
rotating labyrinth, 447,487
rotor-stator,488-489
selection, 67-68
stationary,70, 72, 74
stiffness and damping
coefficients, 94
types, 559-561
vapor pressure margin, 540-542
Seal oil system, specifying, 24-34
Segmented carbon bushings,
Sensitivity analysis, 303-307
Serial reliability model, 614
Service conditions, 53
Shaft alignment tolerances, 465
Shaft-hub connections, 213
Shaft orbiting, 568-569
Shaft stress, 204-207, 211, 212
Shaker tests, 115
Shimming, 325
Silicon carbide hard face
Silicones, 508
Single flinger spool, 168
Single narrative document, 15,20
testing, 531
76,272,579-580
538-539
578-579
material, 69
Single seal design, 531-543
Size factor, 184
Skiddingof rolling elements, 172
Slip of electric motor rotors, 328
Sneak analysis, 63-64
Society of Automotive
Soderberg diagram, 204,205
Sommerfeld number, 88, 89
Spare parts
documentation, 363
Engineers, 273
effect on service factors,
identification sheets, 46,
47,364
philosophies, 361
recommended, 362
storage and retrieval, 36 1, 363
Special lateral response analysis.
See Lateral response analyse
Specialty seals, 565-581
Specification deviation, 34, 36
Spiral groove gas seal, 582-583
Standardization,65,68
Startup
361-364
documentation, 348-360
preparations, 339-342
reporting structure, 344-348
responsibilities, 339-360
review tasks, 342-344
Strategic level maintenance
measures, 245-248
Stress
alternating, 210-21 1
combined, 206,217
concentration factors, 206,
207,211
pipe, 329-338
torsional, 112, 113,207-208
uniaxial, 206Index 679
Stripping units, 501-503
Strouhal frequency, 117
Stuffingbox cooling,
Surface-condition factor, 185
Surge
174-175,434
control, 3,54
protection, 3, 54
Sustaining cost tree, 283
Sustaining costs, 279,283, 289,
Synthetic hydrocarbon fluids,
Synthetic lubricants, 503-5 15
295,296
507-508
additives, 509-5 10
case studies, 511-5 15
effective characteristics,
examining, 507-509
origin, 507
properties and advantages, 509
testing, 516-517
vibration performance, 515-5 17
510-5 11
System effectiveness, 285,
286-288
T
Tactical level maintenance
Tapered-bore coupling hubs,
Task descriptions, 380-394
Team activities, 367-368
Technical startup section, 344
Technical training, 367
Thermal cushion, 319
Thermal loadling, 320-321
Throat bushings, 531
Throttle bushings, 531
measures, 247
220-22 I
Top-down goals development,245
Torque sensors, 56-62
operating principles, 56-58
performance deterioration,
detecting, 59-61
Torque vs. speed curves, 314
Torsional
critical speed analyses, 107-1 12
excitation, 110
holding, 214-217
natural frequencies, 107-109
stress calculations, 111
stresses, 112, 113,207-208
vibrations, 107
Total productive maintenance
Total quality management (TQM),
Tracking sheets, 224-229
Trade-off studies, 287
Transducers,478-479
Transient torsional analysis,
Triplshutdown log, 355
Turbines
control systems, 55
efficiency calculation, 59
gas, 39,6041, 121-122, 124
governors, 55
performance deterioration, 59,
steam, 45, 120-121, 135-139,
(TPM), 365-366
365
112-114
60-6 1
204,490,576-578
Turbomachinery
auxiliary systems, 24-33
control systems, 56
on-stream cleaning methods, 59
performance, 59
rotordynamics, 83
Turnaround documentation, 44-46680 Machinery Failure Analysis & Troubleshooting
Turnaround management team,
404-405
Turnaround planning, 394-400
Turnaround scope
development, 401-416
form, 402-403
previous practices, 401
Two-phase pumping, 177
U
Unbalance, 94-97, 100-102
Undamped mode shapes, 92-93
Undamped natural frequencies,
Unit assessment, 407
Unpressurized buffer fluid, 544-545
Unscheduled outages, 468
Upgrading project, 269-272
Uprate speed, 22-23
Uprateability, 21-23
92-94
V
Vacuum oil purifiers, 49 1,
Vane passage frequency, 115
Vapor pressure margin, 529-530,
498-500
540-542
Variable speed drives, 110-112
Vendor
experience, assessing, 65-66
qualifications, 53
selection, 64-76
Vibration monitoring,478433
Vibrations, 106
Viscosity selection,440-441
Viscosit y-temperature
Volatile organic compounds
Voltage imbalance, 326-327
chart, 437
(VOCs), 527
W
Water contamination, 486-498
dissolved water, 493,494
emulsified water, 492,494
free water, 492-494
Water levels, quantification, 494
Water removal, 495-498
Watt loss equilibrium, 3 16
Weibull distributions for failures,
Wet sump oil-mist lubrication,
Work process documentation


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